Today, almost no garden plot can do without at least one gooseberry bush. There are so many varieties of this berry that they number in the hundreds. Gooseberry grows everywhere, from Vladivostok to St. Petersburg. Today we propose to recall the familiar, forgotten by many gooseberry date figs. In this article you can learn the rules of planting and care, read the description.
The variety is considered late, and the first harvest can be taken in mid-July, but the peak of ripening will be in mid-August. This can be considered as some inconvenience, but it is still possible to correct this minus by growing more early ripening varieties. What else do not like gardeners in gooseberries "date"? It:
- demanding saturation of the soil, we need a stable feed,
- weak resistance to some diseases, for example, to powdery mildew, spherekoteku, therefore it is necessary to carry out preventive spraying.
It is necessary to cut branches steadily, remove excess shoots. Fertilizers produced potassium phosphate, can be applied humus. If the shrub is planted in fertile soil, then before the start of fruiting, that is, within three years after planting, you do not need to add fertilizer.
Disease prevention is mandatory. If powdery mildew is noticed, spraying with whey (one part of the whey is mixed with ten parts of water) or a special preparation can be done.
Useful properties of berries
What is the benefit of this berry culture? Shrub berries contain:
- Minerals: iron, copper, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, molybdenum,
- Vitamins B1, B2, PP, A, E, folic acid.
- Biological active substances: anthocyanins, flavans,
- Ascorbic acid
- Gooseberry helps with constipation
- Useful for kidney and bladder disease,
- Breaks down fats
- Cleans the blood
- It has anti-edema properties
- Strengthens blood vessels
- Normalizes metabolism
- It prevents the appearance of cancerous tumors.
There are many varieties of gooseberry. But breeders still do not stand still and bring more and more new varieties. The most popular are those varietiesthat do not have thorns. But many gardeners make their choice, relying also on the height of the shrub, taste, color and size of the berries.
The most popular varieties are the following:
But consider in more detail only two types: Phenic and American.
Characteristic gooseberry Phenic
This variety of berry bush has become known since the times of the USSR. And he fell in love with a gardener for large fruits and high yields. The berries have an oval shape and a pleasant aroma. The color of the berries is dark red, and the taste is sweet and sour. As it was said above, the fruits of the Phenice variety are very large. One berry reaches a mass of twenty grams.
The skin of the berries is dense, so they tolerate transportation very well and hold onto the bushes for a very long time, that is, they do not crumble. After maturation, they can be on the bush for about two weeks.
The variety is late ripening, vigorous and high-yielding. Berries begin to ripen only at the end of July. Eight kilograms of gooseberries can be collected from one bush, and up to twenty-five kilograms from an adult bush. Fruiting shrub begins in the third year after planting, and the period of its fruiting is twenty-five years.
Berry shrub Phenic tolerates low temperatures. It can withstand frosts down to -32 degrees. It also does not tolerate high soil moisture, but in dry land it may die. This shrub variety is prone to powdery mildew, which scares many gardeners. But it's not a problem. If you follow the rules of cultivation dates, there will be no problems.
Rules for growing gooseberries Date
- You can not plant next to the currants.
- The distance between the gooseberry castes must be at least one and a half meters.
- The shrub does not tolerate acidic soil, therefore, before planting the seedling, it is necessary to add lime to the soil.
- The soil where the berry bushes will grow should be fertilized with organic and mineral fertilizers, and after planting the soil should be mulched with humus.
- To the yield of shrubs did not fall spend timely pruning and feeding.
- Feeding should be done twice a season. For this suitable infusion of rotted manure, phosphate and potash fertilizers.
- Pruning should be done in early spring. Remove dry, old, diseased and old shoots.
- To prevent pests and fungal diseases from attacking the shrub, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments. For this procedure, suitable drugs such as Fitoverm, Topaz.
Botanical description of gooseberry African
The African gooseberry, which is a medium-growth, high-yielding, winter-hardy, fast-growing and bushless shrubs.
Fruit shrub begins in the second year after planting. With one bush can collect up to twelve pounds of berries. The fruits are black in color., average size and oval shape. The taste of fruit is excellent, sweet and sour, a bit like the taste of currants. Harvesting is not difficult, since there are no thorns on the bush. Berries make excellent jam, compote, jam and jelly.
Gooseberry African is not afraid of powdery mildew and aphids, which pleases gardeners. So that the yield of berry bushes does not fall, it is necessary to conduct feeding, watering, pruning and spraying in time.
Rules for the care of gooseberry African
- With the onset of autumn you need to feed. For this, rotten manure, potassium chloride, superphosphate is introduced into the soil.
- After autumn feeding the soil should be loosened.
- The second feed held in the spring. It is better to feed was liquid. You can prepare it from ammonium nitrate and mullein.
- Pruning the bush to start from the second year after planting. Remove dry, diseased and weak shoots. Do not forget to thin out the bush, it should not be thick, so it can reduce yields.
- So that the shrub does not hit the anthracnose, spraying the Bor mixture twice per season.
Gooseberry breeding methods
Gooseberry can be propagated by cutting. This should be done in the autumn from September to October. Take a few sturdy old shoots cut off the tip of them. Dig a small hole and place an angle of cutting into it so that only two buds are left above the ground. A year later, the cuttings will give the roots and they can be dug out, and then transplanted to a new and permanent place.
There is another breeding method - horizontal tap. This is done in the spring before bud break. Around the bush make a small groove, young branches bend down to it and fix them in this position. After some time young shoots will appear from the lateral buds. When they reach fifteen centimeters they need to be covered with earth. In the fall, shoots can be dug and transplanted to a permanent place.
Thus, the gooseberry is a very healthy and tasty berry. Each variety differs from each other in the taste of berries, their size and ripening. The rules of planting and care for all varieties are almost the same and not very complicated. If you follow them, you will be satisfied with the harvest.
Description and characteristics
To date, it is not known by whom and when the cultivar “Phenicum” (aka “Goliath”) was bred. Some believe that it appeared as a result of popular selection in the territory of Western Europe. The variety belongs to late-ripening, large-fruited and high-yielding, frost-resistant.
Bushes are powerful, spreading, vigorous, require a lot of space, grow up to 200 cm. The shoots are thick and strong, can be straight or curved, along the entire length, except for the tops, covered with single spikes. The leaves are dark green, medium in size, may be smooth or wrinkled. The root system is well developed, reaching up to 2 m in depth, which is why the gooseberry easily tolerates small moisture deficiencies. During the flowering period, the bushes are covered with small green-white flowers.
One of the main advantages of this variety is berries. They are characterized large sizes: on one-year-old shoots - up to 25 g, on older shoots - reach 15 g. Unevenly painted in a beautiful wine color, regular round shape or pear-shaped.
The skin is dense and thick, covered with a light wax coating, due to which the berry lasts a long time both on the bushes (up to 3 weeks) and during transportation. No pubescence. The flesh is colored yellow-green, the acidity is mild, the sugar content is average. Berries are very tasty, have a strong aroma.
This variety perfectly tolerates long-term transportation, has a good quality, is suitable for fresh consumption and is considered the best grade for technical processing (berries retain their shape when canned) and making jam, marmalade, marshmallow at home. For this, the berries are harvested slightly immature. Widely used as a filling for baking, table use, homemade wine, the highlight of which is an unusual ruby color.
The main characteristics of the variety
The following typical features are typical for the variety:
- Disease and Pest Resistance. Since the variety is very old and non-hybrid, it is characterized by a typical disease of all berry crops - American powdery mildew, or field library. In order to prevent infection, it is necessary to plant bushes only in well-lit places. In general, the immunity of the “Phenic” variety is below average. However, the variety has good resistance to pest attacks.
- Drought tolerance. It is resistant to short dry periods, but long-term drought is destructive for the plant, especially during the formation of ovaries and the ripening of berries.
- Frost resistance. The variety is highly resistant to frost, tolerates temperature drops to +30. +35 ° C.
- Gestation period. The variety is late ripening; in the last decade of July, the berries are at the stage of technical ripeness, full ripening begins in the second half of August.
- Yield. Makes up to 8 kg from one bush for a season on condition of good agrotechnology. However, the yield of "Date" can be increased to 20-25 kg with proper care. Fruiting begins in 4-year-old bushes, the peak of productivity occurs at the age of 8-10 years, lasts up to 25 years.
- Transportability. The berries are well preserved during transportation due to the thick skin and natural wax coating. Well suited for technical processing.
You can plant gooseberries autumn and springThe choice of the season will depend on the climate in your area. Many gardeners prefer autumn planting, because over the winter the plant will be able to settle well, the soil near the roots will thicken, overgrown roots (weeds) will form at lower positive temperatures, and in spring the plant will quickly grow. In autumn, the gooseberries should be planted from mid-September to mid-October. Calculate the time needed in such a way that before the first frost was at least 2 weeks.
When spring planting is very important to plant seedlings before bud break - right after the snow melts. For different regions, this may occur throughout March; in April, planting of seedlings is no longer done. Remember that during spring planting the germination and survival rate of the crop is much lower.
Choosing a place
As we indicated earlier, the Date gooseberry is particularly susceptible to American powdery mildew, however, it is possible to reduce the risk of infection and reduce possible damage if properly planted. To plant a crop, you need to choose places that are well warmed by the sun and protected from strong winds. In no case can not plant a plant in the lowlands, near water, in shady places. Also thickening of landings is not allowed. Remember that the plant is very branched and has an extensive root system, this should be taken into account when calculating the place for planting.
It is best to grow crops loamy and sandy fertile soil, with a neutral or slightly acidic pH. Soils with high acidity must be treated with lime. The soil should be nutritious, loose, with high breathability.
Stepwise landing process
It is necessary to plant bushes on a cloudy, windless day. Preparation of holes should begin 2-3 weeks before planting, seedlings also need to be purchased at least 10 days in advance. In practice, the gooseberry planting consists of such stages:
- Previously, the soil at the site of planting should be dug to a depth of 20-25 cm. It must be cleaned of rhizomes and weeds, it is especially important to remove the wheat grass. Next, you need to make the following fertilizers (based on 1 sq. M.): 7-8 kg of manure, 2 kg of potash fertilizers, 4-5 kg of phosphate fertilizers.
- Dig holes up to 40-60 cm in depth, 40 * 40 cm in size. It is important to separate the upper and lower layers of soil into separate piles. Given the size of an adult bush, it is important to keep the distance between rows and bushes: bushes should be at least 1.5 m apart, between rows should be 2 m. In this form, the holes are left for 2-3 weeks.
- The seedlings are soaked in a solution of the drug to stimulate the root system.
- After a specified time, proceed to landing. The topsoil is mixed with the following substances: a humus bucket, 200 g of superphosphate, 2 g of potash fertilizers.
- 1/3 of the soil mix is poured into the pit so that a slide forms along the center of the pit.
- The seedlings need to find the root neck, a layer of soil should cover it when planting 6-10 cm.
- Seedlings are placed vertically in the center of the hill, the roots are straightened. Next, the plant is filled with the remaining soil mixture, and the top is covered with soil from the second heap (barren soil).
- Then the ground is slightly compacted, the plants are watered at the rate of 10 liters per bush. The soil must be mulched with sawdust, peat or humus with a layer of 10 cm.
- The shoots of the bush can be slightly trimmed, leaving 4-6 buds on each lash.
In this form, the gooseberry remains to winter, the subsequent care of the plant begins in the spring. If the winter was rather cold and little snowy, the plant can be additionally warmed with any covering material.
Video: Gooseberry planting
Since the bushes of this variety grow very large, powerful and branchy, they need supports. It is most convenient to construct supports from metal or plastic pipes, wooden beams and picket fence. Around the perimeter of the bush usually 3-4 racks are driven in to a height of 50-70 cm, wooden strips or metal pipes are mounted horizontally on them. The depth of hammering the supports should be sufficient for them to bear the weight of an adult plant.
Basics of seasonal care
Seasonal plant care is not much different from the care of other berry crops. The main processes: watering, fertilization and soil care, pruning and spraying.
Variety "Phenicia" without damage to health suffers short dry periods, but in no case should not allow complete drying of the earthy coma. But waterlogging is even more damaging to the plant. To determine the level of humidity, take a handful of earth in your hands: if the soil feels wet to the touch, it easily crumbles under the touch of your fingers, but at the same time it does not stick to your hands from over-wetting, then everything is fine.
Regular, timely watering will contribute to the normal formation of ovaries and berries, good ripening of the crop. It is necessary to water the bushes on average 2-3 times a month depending on weather conditions. The soil should be moistened to 40 cm, for this around a bush at a distance of 30 cm from the roots dig a trench to a depth of 15 cm and pour 2-5 buckets of water depending on the size and age of the bush. Water must be separated from the summer temperature. Be sure to water the plant during the formation of young shoots and ovaries (late May - early June), as well as during the formation of berries and ripening of the crop (late June - early July).
After watering the soil is necessary loosen, weed and mulch. As a result of these procedures, the "breathing" of the soil and roots is improved, and the moisture evaporates more slowly.
The first loosening should be carried out after the snow has melted, since during the autumn-spring period, as a result of rains and melt waters, the soil becomes excessively compacted. In dense soil, moisture evaporates faster, and the roots lose their normal air circulation. After the first procedure, loosening can be done every time after watering, but at least once a month. You must wait until the moisture is absorbed into the soil, and begin to loosen. In the root zone, loosening is carried out with the help of chopper or hoe to a depth of maximum 4 cm in order not to damage the roots. Under the bush, you can dig up the ground a little with a shovel to a depth of 10-12 cm. This procedure is combined with the removal of weeds.
В завершение землю необходимо мульчировать слоем свежескошенной травы, торфа или компоста толщиной 8 см. Для молодых растений полезно мульчировать не только прикорневую зону, но и междурядья. На 100 кв. м потребуется около 50 кг торфа или 30 кг навоза. Такая мульча будет служить отличным удобрением при последующей перекопке почвы.
The basic rules of fertilizing culture:
- If during planting a sufficient amount of fertilizer was applied, then during the first three years it is not necessary to add additional potash and phosphorus substances. At this time, you can feed the bushes with nitrogenous fertilizers according to the instructions (in early May and after flowering).
- From the second year and during the whole period of bush life, in the autumn digging, the following supplements are added to the soil: 10 kg of mullein, 50 g of ammonium nitrate, 150 g of wood ash, 80 g of superphosphate.
- In the summer, before harvesting, you can make organic supplements. For this, a litter solution of 1: 4 is prepared, then this slurry is diluted with water to reduce the concentration by a factor of 10 and poured under a bush.
So that the shrub does not become impassable thickets, was healthy and brought a lot of harvest, be sure to hold spring and summer pruning. The most suitable moment for the formation of the bush are the spring months, before the onset of active vegetation. Also pruning should be carried out in summer or early autumn, after harvest.
In the first year, you need to remove all weak branches, on the remaining shoots leave up to 4 healthy buds, and cut the tops. By this time, up to 6 full-fledged healthy shoots should be formed on the bushes. Starting from the second year and then throughout life in the spring, weak, damaged branches at the roots should be removed, and last year's shoots should be shortened by 1/3. During the summer, it is necessary to immediately remove the shoots damaged by infections or pests so that the ailment does not spread.
We have already mentioned that at the peak of productivity are branches of the 6-8th year of life, however, it is important to ensure that there are shoots of different ages on the plant, otherwise the yield of the plant may change at times from year to year. After the bush has reached 10 years of age, it is necessary to regularly remove all old, not fruit-bearing shoots damaged by age.
Winter cold protection
"Date" perfectly tolerates severe frosty winters, so if the temperature in your area does not drop to -35 ° C, you can do without special protection. But for the shelter of young plants can be used hilling - the root of the plant should be tucked in with a layer of earth up to 10 cm. In very snowy, especially frosty winters, additional protection from any covering materials can be used.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The advantages of the variety:
- resistant to frost and drought,
- gives high yields
- high productivity for several decades
- berries have high taste characteristics, are well transported and stored, can be processed.
Wealthy cultivar "Date":
- due to the strong spreading of bushes, caring for a plant can be problematic,
- matures late
- Bushes are highly susceptible to infection with US powdery mildew, especially when agrotechnics are disturbed or in adverse weather conditions.
In general, this variety continues to be worthy of competition to more modern, hybrid varieties of gooseberry. "Phenicia" does not lose its position due to simple farming techniques and high yields. The variety is great for growing in the middle lane, as it tolerates frosts easily. However, a significant disadvantage of the variety may be susceptibility to the sphere library.
Main genus: Gooseberry
Description of the plant:
Gooseberry 'African' - seedling from free pollination of hybrid seedling 21–57. The variety was developed at the Saratov Experimental Gardening Station. Admitted to state variety testing in 1971.
Included in the State Register in 1971. Zoned for the Lower Volga region (Saratov region). The variety is valued for its high drought and salt tolerance.
Size and shape of growth:
The bush is a vigorous, compact at a young age, half fruiting in fruiting. Shoots thin, straight. Slightly sloppy varieties. Thorns at the base of young shoots are rare, solitary, short. Fruitless branches are banded.
The leaves are large, dark green.
Flowers and fruits:
Representatives of the African variety are small, weighing 1.5–3.5 g, round or round-oval in shape, when fully ripe they are almost black with a strong waxy coating, and are not hairy. The skin is of medium thickness. Fruits have good transportability. The flesh has a satisfactory sweet-sour taste.
The fruits are recommended for technical purposes. The processed products are intensely red in color, the wine is of high quality. Juice is used as a food coloring.
Skoroplodnost, ripening, yield:
Refers to varieties of medium ripening. Early enters fruiting. The yield is 1.3–1.5 kg / m 2.
The variety has a high winter hardiness.
Gooseberry 'African' is not susceptible to powdery mildew. Affected by anthracnose.
Other varieties "Gooseberry"
"> Gooseberry ordinary 'Grushenka'
"> Gooseberry ordinary 'Kolobok'
"> Gooseberry Harlequin
"> Gooseberry ordinary 'Ballet'
"> Gooseberry 'Baltic'
"> Gooseberry 'Bakhmutsky'
"> Gooseberry ordinary 'Belarusian sugar'
"> Gooseberry ordinary 'White nights'
"> Gooseberry 'Beryl'
"> Gooseberry 'Grace'
"> Gooseberry ordinary 'Vladil'
"> Gooseberry ordinary 'Grossulyar'
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Dropping Phenicus took place a long time ago, during the time of the existence of a large country called the USSR.
Dutch scientists were engaged in breeding, but very soon the culture became popular throughout the Soviet Union. One of the main advantages of the plant is a rather long period of productivity. The berries on the branches can be kept in good condition for about twenty days.
The bush differs sprawling crown, strong branches strong, densely leafy, and the larch grows extremely quickly.
The bush has spreading, arched branches.
- Plant high , with enhanced agrotechnical techniques, some units grow to two meters.
- On the stems strong sharp thorns are located, with a large number of them being observed on more adult stems of the second year of development.
- On the annual branches are practically absent.
Leaves and peduncles
Larch bright green color with a glossy surface, rounded tips, deep veins.
- Medium sized leaves , smooth, but the old bushes grow quite large plates, which does not prevent them at the same time wrinkle or curl.
- Peduncles medium sized, color white with greenish tint, weak edge.
The fruits are quite large, with enhanced agricultural technology, the weight of one berry can be twenty grams.
On the sunny side, the color of the berries can be almost black.
- Fruits in most cases, pear-shaped, however, there are spherical units, the surface of the edge has not.
- The color of fruit units varies within light brown or saturated brownish-burgundy velvet.
- The flesh is characterized by a light green color, the seed bag is a volumetric, moderate amount of seeds.
- The taste of pulp has a sour taste, although in one fruit a sufficient amount of sugar - ten percent of the total mass.
- There is a strong characteristic aroma even when the crop is harvested and is in containers.
- At the same time, the level of sugar significantly depends on the level of humidity in the environment.
- high overall yield,
- taste of 4.8 points,
- long shelf life
- frost resistance
- drought tolerance,
- long cycle of productivity
- easy to transport.
The date belongs to the varieties, giving the largest berries of gooseberry.
One bush is capable of producing twenty-five kilograms of berries for a productive period. In addition, plants under the age of five years are able to produce extremely large fruit units, while not reducing the total weight until the end of the season. Older cultures noticeably reduce productivity.
On a five-point scale, Phenicus is highly appreciated by experts - 4.8 points, which gives grounds to attribute the crop to one of the most popular varieties on the horticultural and industrial market.. Due to the extremely dense surface, the gooseberry is long kept in a torn form, it easily tolerates long-term transportation. This gives you the opportunity to receive a stable profit after its sale.
Phenicus has a rather high level of resistance to temperature extremes; it belongs to the “Siberian” varieties - which able to withstand frost about 35 degrees . Among other things, it has the ability to endure the dry season. This fact is a consequence of a strong root system.
Features of culture
The main feature, for which gooseberries are so loved by gardeners, is the minimum requirement for rejuvenation of the bushes.
The variety of gooseberry Phenic is surprisingly tenacious - there are bushes, bearing fruit for 20 years or more.
- Most varieties rejuvenate after seven years.
- Phenicia is characterized by the ability to maintain high rates of productivity for 17 years.
- However, this fact is possible only if the proper methods of agricultural technology.
Cultivation and care
Around the gooseberry bush should be at least 1.5 meters of free space.
If you decide to grow Phenicus, you should take it with full responsibility, find out all the risk factors, growing conditions. Gooseberry selective to the possible neighborhood - poorly developed, if currant grows nearby . But also fructification, the size and weight of berries, the general development decreases if not to observe the correct distance between the bushes - it takes a lot of space.
In addition, when the plant develops poorly when crowded, it can also trigger powdery mildew infection. Planted cuttings should be on neutral soil. Planting on acidic soils should not be allowed, in such conditions the culture will not take root - growth will stop, the growing season will be strongly delayed, the fruits may stop forming, remain in immature form.
Dolomite flour is introduced into the place of future plantings, liming is carried out.
The introduction of lime or dolomite flour into the soil reduces the development of pathogens and pests.
In the pre-prepared wells are made organic fertilizers in a complex with mineral dressings . After the end of the landing, the surface near the roots should be mulched. For this purpose, it is best to use humus. Phenic begins to bear fruit at about three years of age, in the northern regions later - when the plant is at least four years old.
To keep yields at the proper level, timely application of top dressings, sanitary pruning of the stems is a mandatory measure.
For normal fruiting in the bush must be submitted branches of different ages.
In addition to humus, phosphoric, potassium agents can be introduced as fertilizers. If the planting is located on fertile soil, and acidity is not noted, nutrients are not introduced before the onset of the fruiting period. You can feed young plants through water infusion of humus.
Trimming is carried out in two cases - sanitary cleaning, crown formation . Sanitary cleaning is to eliminate the sick, damaged, old branches. As well as sanitary cleaning is considered the elimination of the density of bushes. You can not allow a large thickness due to the sensitivity of the gooseberry to powdery mildew, reduce development. Pruning is done in spring or autumn. In the spring to shorten the stems to the beginning of the juice movements. In the fall pruned branches after the leaves fall.
The main pruning of the gooseberry is done in the fall with a sharp shears or delimber.
Prophylactic treatment is carried out to eliminate possible diseases or pests.
As soon as the first signs of the presence of pests are detected, the bushes should be treated with special means. Processing must be carried out three times, the interval is kept at fourteen days. Recommended drug Fitoverm.
It should be noted that the appearance of powdery mildew implies the uprooting of infected plants due to the fact that treatment in most cases will not have the desired effect, but time will be lost - the defeat will spread to neighboring cultures. Preventive treatment against powdery mildew is carried out regularly by spraying Topaz.