In many gardens and flower beds grow such a beautiful and sunny flower - gelenium. According to legend, this charming plant, pleasing with its flowering on the eve of early autumn, received such a unique name in honor of beautiful Helen, the wife of Menelaus, whose delight the admirer of Paris was so admired. Probably, the golden tone of this flower resembled the color of Elena's golden curls.
For the first time a flower gelenium was found in the region of Central and North America. Today, more than 30 species of this perennial herbaceous plant are known. Heleniums are not endowed with many years of developed rhizome. Strong flowering stems dry up after the onset of autumn frosts, along with the roots.
But during their withering away, the living buds that appeared on the ground part of the plant form a rosette of leaves with roots. It is this new rosette that forms the flowering stem for the next year. Geleniums do not have the shape of a bush, they are independent plants, closely spaced to each other.
They have straight stems, upward they branch, reach 160 cm in height. Lanceolate leaves are arranged in a regular order. They give inflorescences in the form of baskets, single or collected in corymbose plants. Extreme flowers are purple, yellow, orange or two colors, central - yellow or brown. As a result, they give seeds cylindrical shape, slightly pubescent.
Growing conditions and proper care
How to plant gelenium in open ground photo
Beautiful geleniums prefer well-lit areas, they do not tolerate shading. For their planting, you need to pick up fertile soils with a sufficient amount of moisture, a neutral level of acidity.
When planting lush geleniums in a garden, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of growing in the natural environment: plants prefer fertile meadow soils with a sufficient level of moisture, where the grasses grow.
- Densely planted flower gardens - a great habitat for geliumov.
- Low-growing varieties can be landed on the front of a mixborder or as curbs, tall ones look great in the background.
- Lush bushes look great in the role of tapeworms against a neat lawn.
- Heleniums like regular watering because they do not tolerate drought.
It is necessary to show special attention to the growing geleniums during the period of arid summer heat. They respond well to fertilizing with natural organic matter. Such procedures should be carried out three times during the entire season of active growing season.
After 4 years of cultivating gelenium in one place, you should seriously think about transplantingBecause plants quickly grow old and degenerate. This procedure is desirable to do in the autumn. If at the end of the summer season a blooming gelenium was purchased, then before its planting, the upper part of the stem is cut off so that a height of 12 cm remains, we make a landing carefully, without affecting the root system.
- Experienced gardeners know that gelenium bushes can not withstand the harsh winter of Moscow region. In order to provide the plant with a better chance of survival, it is better to cover the bush with fallen leaves, spruce leaves or artificial covering materials during the winter, and in winter it is necessary to ensure that there is snow from above, especially during severe frosts.
Outdoor flowering stems of helenium live the entire season, dying off for the winter, like all perennials. But, unlike everyone else, at the end of the warm season, even the root collar of the gelenium dies. It is renewed by the buds appearing at the base of the stem. With a snowy winter without severe frosts, the geleniums winter well, but in conditions of a harsh, snowless winter they can freeze.
- Susceptibility to colds is increased in hybrid varieties of gelenium, which are distinguished by their particular thermophilicity.
During the preparation of the plant for the winter, it is worth thoroughly mulching the plant with moss or sawdust; you can cover it with ready lutrasil. To make the plant winter comfortably, you need to trim the tops of adult plants before shelter.
Growing helenium seeds at home When planting
Gelenium seeds photo How to grow gelenium from seeds
Planting helenium seeds on seedlings at home is very simple. You can sow in the twenties of March.
- The soil is prepared loose, enriched with organic matter, peat and sand are added. But of course, it’s better not to suffer and buy ready-made mixture for flowers.
- Despite the fact that the seeds are very small, you can spend a little more time to arrange them away from each other.
- Often sown immediately in a common container, then to pick out. Leave 2-3 cm between seeds, do not save space excessively, so that the seedlings are not stretched.
- If you are patient, plant two or three seeds in separate pots, it will be easier to take care of plants, transplanting of seedlings is not required, and the flowers will come much earlier, as you will not lose time on the germination of sprouts when picking.
Gelenium seedlings photo How does gelenium seedlings look? Gelenium shoots Planting and care
- If you sow heavily, with the appearance of 2-3 true leaves will have to dive into the prepared cups.
- Watering is done regularly, but without fanaticism: water should not stagnate. Do not forget about the drainage holes in the bottom of the container, so as not to provoke root rot or black leg disease.
- The lighting is necessary bright, gellenium loves the light and develops well with a long light day. if the room is dark, make additional lighting.
- Planted seedlings begin in mid-May, if there is no night frost. That is why it is not superfluous to make hardening at the beginning of the month, taking the plants outside to get used to the sun and wind. Hardened seedlings are much stronger and easily tolerate planting in the ground.
Given that the gelenium gives a good, branched bush, it is better to leave a distance of 40-50 cm between the bushes. Nearby you can land not such large flowers or even ground covers.
How to sow the seeds of gellenium in the ground When to plant
Planted gellenium can be directly into the ground. Like any perennial, it lands in autumn or early spring in order to get seedlings as soon as possible. Enough to wait for warm weather and ripening soil. Usually this is the end of April - May. Sometimes it turns out to sow even in March, it all depends on the region. In the fall they plant in late September-Octoberwhen it is already cold enough that the seeds do not sprout.
- The bed is prepared with loose well-drained soil, heavy clay soils are better to fill with humus and add sand.
- The distance between the furrows 30-35 cm.
- Sow less often, so as not to break through.
- The ascended bushes are watered and free from weeds, loosen the soil.
- When the seedlings grow to a height of 8-10 cm, they can be transplanted.
- The remaining plants should be at a distance of 30 cm from each other.
Gellenium is easy to clean, the main thing is to water and not allow soil compaction. It is desirable to loosen after each watering, shallow, you can even rake, if the soil is not heavy. But it is better to mulch the earth and forget about weeds and earth crust.
Gellenium transplantation and reproduction by dividing the bush
Transplantation and reproduction of gellenium by dividing the bush photo
As already mentioned, it is necessary to replant the gellenium 4-5 years after disembarkation. A developed hive will degenerate with time in order to rejuvenate the plant and give space for development, and periodic dividing of the hive with a transplant is required.
- Carefully undermine the root and get a bush with a clod of earth.
- Take a knife or shovel to cut the bush into several parts, trying not to upholster the ground.
- Planted in deep holes up to 30 cm, which are filled with humus at the bottom.
- The level of planting retain the same, without deepening the root neck. Consider that the earth will settle, strive so that the roots do not appear on the surface, which is also very bad.
- Water abundantly to moisten the earth to the full depth of the hole.
How to divide a helenium bush photo Gelenium hybrid planting and care
Sometimes they do it this way: they dig in a bush along the edges, separating its parts, and part of it is left untouched. Since the shrub was divided, there will be room for growth of new root buds and the plant will rejuvenate. And separated delenki planted in a new place.
Helenium in landscape design
Gelenium photo of flowers seedlings when planted Gelenium in the garden photo
Gelenium planted in large flower beds in the background, near ornamental shrubs, in groups or singly. They decorate the fence of buildings. High gelenium perfectly adjacent to autumn asters.
Gelenium hybrid rubinzwerg in landscape design photo
Their inflorescences in bouquets and compositions look great, they are cut off completely blossoming, because water does not affect their blooming of buds.
Hegenium autumn helenium autumnale
Gelenium autumn Fuego Helenium Fuego planting and care in the open field photo
Helenium autumn, cultivated since the XVII century, the most common. Distinctive advantages of this flower are abundant late flowering. Bushes of autumn varieties of gelenium have a columnar shape. Strong stems of this variety can rise up to 2 m in height.
The upper part is branched heavily. Each branched part ends with a beautiful golden-flowered flower, with a basket 6 cm in diameter. As a result, each stem can have up to several hundred flowers. Autumn variety blooms at the beginning of August, beautiful flowering continues for another month, the seeds fully ripen by October. Currently, there are many unpretentious varieties of this flower, perfectly used in gardening.
Helenium autumn Double Trouble Helenium Double Trouble fit and care photo
Very popular varieties with a yellow margin color of flowers. Among them is a short growing Magnificum, reaching only 80 cm in height. Its middle is classically yellow, it pleases with lush bloom in late July - early August.
Gelenium Sunrise Lemon Gelenium growing and care photos of flowers in the garden
Medium-tall Gartensonne is pulled out to 110 cm, gives lush baskets with a diameter of 6 cm, the middle of the flower goes in a brown tone. Flowering begins in late July.
Pretty Katarina has a height of 140 cm, and the middle of the flower is also brown. Lush flowering pleases from mid-August.
Gelenium autumn sunrise red How does gelenium look photo how to plant gelenium
Magnificent variety Moerheim Beauty reaches 180 cm in height, the middle of the flower has a yellow-brown shade. Abundant flowering also begins in mid-August.
Also brought varieties with red colors. Among them, it is worth noting the medium-tall variety Di Blondet, which has a developed dense shrub up to 170 cm in height. Its marginal flowers have a red-brown color, and the middle also has a brown tone. It begins flowering in this variety from mid-August.
The low-growing variety Glutauge is interesting, it gives baskets with a diameter of 6 cm, the core of the flowers is red-brown.
Gelenium Merheheim Beauty gelenium autumn varieties garden flower gelenium photo in the garden
The natural habitat of geleniums is wet, swampy areas. The roots of the plant are superficial, characterized by poor development. The cultivated varieties of autumn gelenium are cultivated in illuminated areas. Garden soil for them should be provided with proper watering. Sufficiently high varieties are tied to wooden stakes. Geleniums have a high growth rate; after 3 years of intensive development, they produce up to 30 new stems.
The plant itself is also aging rapidly, as it expands in breadth. For this reason, in the 4th year of development, it is necessary to divide the bush and transplant to a new place. The optimal time for the next transplant is early spring, when the dug out plants easily break up into separate sockets, they are planted 2 pieces each in the prepared places.
Strong gelenium Hupa Hupes Helenium hoopesii
Strong Gelenium Hupes Helenium hoopesii photos of flowers in the garden planting and care
This plant grows comfortably in rocky terrain. It has a developed rhizome, large basal leaves, strong stems. Gelenium gupesa gives fairly large baskets with a diameter of 10 cm, the flowers have an orange tone. This variety has a long flowering period - up to 40 days, it begins in July. Then he begins to bear fruit, has breeding methods similar to autumn henium.
Gelenium bright beauty Garden flower gelenium Flowers perennials gelenium
This category includes all garden geleniums, obtained by crossing the first two forms. They differ in height, shape, color of flower baskets, have different flowering periods.
Among them it is worth noting the high grade Gartenzonne, growing up to 130 cm in height, having inflorescences up to 3.5 cm in diameter. The color of flowers - from reddish-yellow to yellow-brown. Lush flowering has been observed since July.
Gelenium hybrid Rubinzwerg Rubinzwerg red gelenium perennial photo of flowers planting and care
The variety of medium height, Goldlakzverg, is stretched only up to 100 cm. It gives inflorescences of a compact form, with a diameter of 4.5 cm. The color of reed flowers is brown-orange with yellowish tips. Abundant flowering begins in July.
A variety of Rothgout geleniums is also common in culture, capable of developing up to 120 cm tall. He is able to bring inflorescences up to 4.5 cm in diameter. Coloring of reed flowers is intensely brown, tubular inflorescences have a yellow-brown tone, lush flowering has been observed since July.
Gelenium in the photo
Gelenium flower cultivation Gelenium when planted Gelenium in landscape design photo mixborder
Gelenium autumn photo Planting gelenium in the ground
Flower helenium perennial autumn Helenium autumnale description and photos Planting and care
Gelenium comes from North and Central America and belongs to the Astrov family. Perennial and annual herb can reach up to 160 cm. In the wild, it grows in wet meadows and in marshland.
Flowers solitary or collected in corymbose inflorescences. The diameter of the flower is 7 cm, the color of the corrugated bract is yellow, red, orange or brown. In the middle is reed and tubular flowers. Flowering occurs depending on the variety. Most of the plants dissolve their flowers in July - September, and spring varieties show all their beauty in the beginning of spring.
After flowering, the aerial part dies off, leaving only a growth bud on the old rhizome. The next season, she wakes up and forms a lush bright bush.
With the help of breeders, more and more varieties with a wide variety of colors began to appear, which would turn the garden into a bright, diverse flower garden.
Helenium autumn. Perennial flower, with a straight branching stem growing to 1.6 meters. Dark green stem covered with fine fibers. The leaves are not large, have a lanceolate surface. Flowering occurs in mid-summer and lasts up to 2 months. Reed flowers have a yellow or red color, and tubular - a dark golden color.
Autumn gelenium includes several varieties:
- Altgold - tall bush grows up to 90 cm and forms golden-brown flowers.
- Bruno is a medium-sized plant that dissolves red-brown flowers.
- Butterpath is a tall shrub with sunny inflorescences.
Hybrid variety. This group includes decorative hybrids that have a variety of colors and sizes. All hybrid varieties bloom in July. The most popular include:
- Rothaut - reddish-brown flowers with a yellow-brown core bloom on high stems. Blossoming plentiful and long.
- Cockade is a tall shrub that dissolves inflorescences of medium diameter. The color of the flower is red-brown with a dark yellow heart.
Spring gelenium. Erect plant grows up to a meter in height. Dissolving in May, showing large orange inflorescences with a diameter of up to 7 cm.
Gehlenium Gupesa. Perennial tall variety. It has upright green shoots that branch slightly above. Single inflorescences up to 9 cm in diameter. The flattened core, painted in golden color, is surrounded by narrow orange petals. Flowering occurs in mid-June and lasts more than a month.
Planting and plant care
Although the gelenium is a photophilous plant, it can grow in partial shade. The flower is planted in a nutrient light soil with neutral acidity. The best time for landing is the beginning of summer.
Before planting it is necessary to prepare the soil. To do this, it is better to dig up the ground in the fall on the spade bayonet, remove the rhizomes and add compost. In the spring one digging is enough. The landing hole needs to be made larger than the rhizome of the plant. Before planting the bush should stand in the water for several minutes.
Pits for planting should be located at a distance of 40 cm from each other, and for tall varieties, the interval is increased to 70 cm. After the planting of the bush, the soil is tamped and mulched. In the first year of life, the flower intensively increases the green mass. With proper care, bloom comes in the second year.
Plant care is simple. Он заключается в регулярном поливе, обрезке, подкормке, удалении сорной травы и рыхлении почвы.
- Watering. Гелениум — влаголюбивое растение и поэтому полив проводят дважды в 7 дней. В жаркое и сухое лето полив необходим каждодневный. После орошения, нужно аккуратно прорыхлить почву, стараясь не повредить корневую систему.
- Crop.This procedure is necessary for the bush to get a flowering hat. Trimming begin to hold in the spring, for this the top of the flower gently pinch. The second pruning is carried out in June - side shoots are selectively removed during this period.
- Transfer. Transplanting a plant is necessary every three years, the plant is divided and moved to a new location. If you do not arrange seating, the bush quickly grows old, ceases to bloom and loses its decorative appearance.
- Top dressing. The first feeding is made in late spring. To do this, use complex mineral fertilizers rich in nitrogen. The second - during flowering, during this period foliar root is added to the root top-dressing, one of the growth stimulants. The third - in the middle of autumn, when the plant begins to prepare for the winter period. In order for the plant to safely endure the harsh winter, it is fertilized with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
In order for the plant to bloom magnificently and permanently, wilted flowers must be removed in a timely manner.
In the autumn after the bush has completely faded, it needs to be cut off, leaving 10-15 cm of peneces above the ground.
Gelenium can be propagated in one of the ways: by seeds, cuttings and dividing the bush. The easiest and most popular way is dividing a bush. Delenok is disconnected at the end of spring, during the transplant period. To do this, carefully dig up the bush, separate the healthy shoots and planted in prepared holes.
Cutting is carried out in the spring when pruning a bush. Saplings with a length of 12 cm are kept for several minutes in a root formation stimulator. Rooting can be carried out both in water and in wet sand-peat substrate. If the seedlings are planted in the ground, then for quick rooting, the cuttings are covered with a glass dome or plastic bag. Care for cuttings: airing and maintaining soil moisture. As soon as the first young leaves appear on the seedlings, this is the first sign of the beginning of rooting.
Reproduction by seeds. For propagation of a plant from seeds, it is possible to use personally collected sowing material. Seeds begin to gather only after the petals have darkened, and the core of the flower turns black. The collected seeds are dried and cleaned in a dark place before planting.
Before proceeding with seeding, planting material must undergo stratification. To do this, the seeds are buried in a moistened sand-peat substrate, covered with a covering material and removed for 1.5 months in a cool room where the temperature should not be above 3 degrees.
At the end of winter, the container is transferred to a warm, bright place. With consistently high air temperature, seedlings appear after 2 weeks. When young seedlings form 3-4 leaves, the flower swoops in separate pots. Gelenium will be ready for planting on a permanent place only after the soil warms up.
Diseases and pests
Helenium perennial has a strong immunity to many diseases. But there is a dangerous enemy for the plant - it is a chrysanthemum nematode. Insect pest infects leaves and flower buds. It is very difficult to get rid of the pest and in order for them not to move to healthy bushes, it is better to get rid of the affected plant. In order that insects do not settle on a flower, it is necessary to monitor the frequency of watering. And also to prevent the appearance of a nematode, you can by adding to the soil slaked lime.
Gelenium in landscape decoration
Gelenium can be grown around the pond, fences and to decorate unsightly buildings. As well as the plant looks great in flower beds and next to ornamental shrubs. In order to be able to admire this beautiful plant all season, it is necessary to plant several varieties with different flowering period. Low-growing varieties are used to create borders and mixborders.
Good neighbors for the flower will be: delphinium, marigold, aster, verbena and phlox. Gelenium is also used to make bouquets, since cut flowers in water are very long. But there is one drawback, the unopened buds after cutting are not dissolved.
Growing perennial gelenium and observing all the rules of care, you can turn your garden to a beautiful oasis.
Gelenium - what a flower
Gelenium - annuals and perennial flowers of Compositae. In the genus today there are 32 official species, each of which has its own characteristics and shades.
Gelenium in the wild grows in America - mainly in the western regions of the states. The flower received its beautiful and poetic name in honor of the legendary Helen - the wife of the Trojan king Menelaus, who became the cause of the bloody war between Troy and Greece.
Gelenium begins to bloom at the end of the summer and always very suddenly - just yesterday there were unremarkable green thickets at this place, and today there are hundreds of golden flowers.
Varieties and colors
Of course, in the wild, such a riot of colors of gelenium can not be found - most of the unique shade developed by the breeders. Nevertheless, today we have several dozen varieties of this plant, which differ not only externally: different length of flowering period, different size of flowers.
For the garden, it is always better to choose hybrid varieties - they bloom significantly longer and offer a greater variety of flowers.
The most popular variety is the fact that it became the base for breeding all other varieties. The height can reach two meters - it is the highest representative of a kind with large, yellow flowers.
The most intense bloom - in August, continues until the end of September or the beginning of October.
This is essentially not a variety, but a separate group — all plants, whose origin is not certain, belong specifically to it. Hybrid gelenium was born from the variety "autumn". It reaches one and a half meters in height, flowers can be yellow, red, brown. The most lush bloom is usually in mid-July.
Often found in the wild nature of Canada and North America - a low bush, about 80 centimeters in height. Flowers are unusual - the middle is brown, and around it are bright, yellow petals.
It blooms in early summer, blooms in July.
From the beginning of July until September, huge flowers (up to 10 centimeters in diameter) orange flowers are revealed on the plants of the Hupa variety. This variety is perfect for growing on slopes or in rocky places - it has a very powerful and resistant root system.
The plant is quite low - only up to 60 centimeters, but it tolerates even strong cold. Flowers can be of all shades of red - burgundy, ruby, bloody. It begins to bloom quite late, in July and ends up to the cold - in October.
As mentioned above, to care for gelenium is very simple, you just need to know about the preferences of the plant.
The most important point for flower life is watering. The land around should always be slightly wet, especially in extreme heat. Overdoing is also not worth it - the ideal would be frequent watering with a small amount of water.
Periodically, as needed, the soil around it is necessary to loosen and weed - just to get rid of weeds that prevent flowers from growing,
Three times in the summer the flower needs feeding. The first is carried out in May with a solution of urea, potassium and any organic fertilizer, the second during the period of active flowering with a solution of mullein and at the end of October with a solution of superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
Gelenium should be planted immediately in open ground as follows:
- It doesn’t matter what you plant - seeds, cuttings or cuttings. They should be located in the ground at a distance of less than 30 centimeters from each other. As a result, 3-4 plants are planted per square meter, these are optimal conditions for development,
- Immediately after planting, the gelenium should be protected - the ground should be covered with a specialized or homemade cap; it can be glass or cellophane. Immediately after the appearance of young shoots, the cap must be removed,
- If the plants suddenly rose too close to each other - it is better to plant them even small.
The reproduction of helenium is the same as with most other plants:
- A cutting is the fastest way to get an adult flowering plant in the garden. From the already grown bush it is necessary to cut the stalk and place it in the ground as soon as possible. After that, pour water with mineral fertilizer - the flower quickly takes root.
- Seeds are a traditional breeding method. Sow the seeds of this flower should be immediately in the ground - without any preparation. It is best to do this late in the fall or early in the spring. Of course, you can grow a flower through seedlings, but there is no special point in this - just a waste of time.
- Rosette - a way when an adult plant is literally divided into several parts - with a sharp, well-sharpened knife, a piece of a bush is cut along with the root. It is necessary to carry out such manipulations in the spring - so that the flower will have time to get stronger and take root until frost.
This plant is valuable because its flowering falls at the end of summer, when there are not so many colors in the garden. Gelenium has lanceolate leaves. Terry flowers rich warm color, from yellow to purple flowers.
In perennial gelenium, roots also die after flower stalks, but at this time new leaves appear from underground buds, of which next year there will be a new flower.
Varieties and types
Only five species of gelenium are cultivated, which gave rise to different varieties.
Gelenium Bigelow little is grown. It has tall stems, almost a meter long, lanceolate leaves and flowers with yellow petals with brown inside, inflorescence diameter up to 6 cm. Flowering occurs at the beginning or middle of summer.
Spring gelenium also grows to a meter tall, the flowers are slightly larger than that of the Bigelow species, are orange in color, the middle of the flower is brown. Flowering falls on May-June.
Gehlenium Gupesa or hoop has large yellow flowers with an orange middle. Flowering occurs in the first or second months of summer.
Helenium autumn the most common species in our gardens. The stems of this gelenium grow above one and a half meters and grow old. The flowers are large, yellow. Tubular inner flowers of a darker color. It blooms in late summer.
Gelenium hybrid created from different species, but the main one is considered autumn. The most popular variety of this species is Rubinzvert with ruby-colored flowers.
Other names you may have heard, such as Gelenium Bandera, red charm, phaeton, bidremeyer are varieties derived from the above species.
Gelenium planting and care in the open field
Gelenium is a garden flower and therefore, its care and planting are carried out in open ground. When growing gelenium, the most important thing to remember is that it does not withstand a dry substrate, so the flower must be watered well, especially on hot days.
But the gelenium also does not like too wet earth, therefore it is necessary that the soil be permeable. Also sometimes it is worth a little to loosen the ground and carry out weeding.
Fertilizing gelenium need at least three times. The first - nitrogen fertilizing in the spring, during the thawing of snow. The second is at the end of spring. At this time, it is better to conduct the feeding of gelenium with organic matter - humus or urea. Third time during flowering. Here they use a liquid mullein, as well as Agricola-7, a tablespoon per 10 liters of water.
In the fall, potassium sulfate and superphosphate are diluted for top dressing, also in a tablespoon per ten liters.
For good flowering and a beautiful bush, it is important to get rid of sluggish inflorescences and remove the tops of the shoots. A couple of years after landing, you need to transplant gelenium. At this time it is possible to carry out its reproduction by dividing the bush.
Gelenium seeds are collected in the fall, but before the rains begin. It is possible to understand ripe seeds by inflorescences - if the seeds are ripe, then the petals will begin to darken and the middle ones will turn black. But, unfortunately, the seeds you collected may not ascend, so it’s best to buy them in stores.
Before wintering the plant is cut to ten centimeters high. At the place of cultivation, mulching is performed with sawdust and covered with lutrasil.
Types and varieties
For cultivation provided a wide selection of different varieties of plants obtained by selection. Currently, you can observe a variety of colors of gelenium, with different duration of flowering. So, in hybrid varieties, in comparison with typical ones, the flowering time is 1-2 months longer. The color palette is quite diverse: you can see the helenium of hybrid varieties with yellow, red, burgundy, orange and gold colors.
Perennials bloom in groups, almost simultaneously, creating a large color “ball” on the flowerbed. Flowers retain their appearance throughout the entire flowering period, which makes them very attractive in terms of gardening.
Gelenium Autumn Jazz
Gelenium Autumn Jazz
It is a form of autumn helenium. The height of the stem reaches 1.5 m. Gelenium Autumn jazz can be found with different shades of colors: bright yellow, red-orange, golden. The flowers are shaped like a large chamomile. The diameter of the flower is 4.5-5 cm. It prefers a loose, well-fertilized, moist soil. Blooms in lots of flowers from mid-July to mid-September. The variety is very popular with gardeners.
Homeland of growth North America, Canada. The height of the stem reaches 80 cm, the leaves are whole, lanceolate. The central cone-shaped part of the flower is brown, the petals around it are yellow. Inflorescences up to 6 cm in diameter. The peak of flowering June-July.
A distinctive feature of the variety is that it can be planted on slopes, rocky places, alpine hills. Compared to other varieties, it has a more developed root system. The flowers are orange, the diameter of the inflorescence reaches 10 cm. Gelenium Hupa begins to bloom from early July to mid-September. Plant height 70-90 cm, the leaves are whole, lanceolate, gray-green.
Height is 45-60 cm, flowering time is July-September, flower diameter is 5 cm. It is a very young hybrid variety. Flower Gelenium Fuego is very bright: petals are red-orange, with yellow spots near the central part.
Gelenium Murheim Beauty
Gelenium Murheim Beauty
Plant height is 90-150 cm, the color of the inflorescence is bronze-red. Duration of flowering July - September. The stems of Gehlenium Murheim Beauty are very strong, do not require a garter, the variety is very wind resistant. One of the few hybrid varieties who are not picky about the composition of the soil.
When to plant helenium seeds?
You can grow seedlings from seeds, and you can immediately lower them into the open ground. To do this, after the seeds ripen in late autumn, immediately after harvest, they should be sown in the ground. The weather during this period should be cool so that the seeds do not germinate, otherwise they simply die. In the open ground planted in the spring, as soon as the snow melts, it will become more or less warm, without night frosts.
Watering plants like regular, it is desirable to loosen the soil after each watering, it will create an additional influx of oxygen to the roots.
Hybrid varieties are less susceptible to cold, but experienced gardeners are advised to cover the plants for the winter period.
Fertilizing is also necessary to produce, periodically adding mineral fertilizers to the soil around the roots.
Growing Helenium from Seeds
To get a good strong seedlings need to start preparing seedlings at the end of spring. Seeds are planted in loose fertilized wet soil. It is also necessary to take care of drainage, the plant does not like standing water, which provokes rotting roots.
Flower shops sell ready-made soil for seedlings of hybrid plants.
You can plant seeds in one big box or container, but in this case you should try to arrange them at some distance from each other. With this method of reproduction, time is spent on the survival of seedlings when diving. Since plant seeds are very small, accurate planting is a bit difficult. When 2-3 leaflets appear in sprouts, they are transplanted into separate peat cups.
All presented varieties are light-requiring. For seedlings, with a lack of natural lighting, put additional phyto lamps.
When to plant seedlings grown from Gelenium seeds?
Usually they plant at the end of spring, when there is no strong night frost. But before that, for a couple of weeks, the seedlings are exposed to the open air for better habituation, the so-called “hardening” of the plant before planting it in the ground. In this case, the flower is much better tolerated by changes in the weather: rain, wind, temperature changes.
Gelenium after flowering
If there is a need to collect the seeds, it is best to do this in late autumn, when the flower begins to fade and the petals dry. And you need to have time before the autumn rains, otherwise the seeds simply rot.
Seeds collected in the fall from flowers have low germination.
In order for sure to grow flowers gelenium, it is better to purchase seeds in a specialty store. With a certain perseverance, it is possible to obtain seedlings from seeds collected independently, but it is not a fact that the same plant from which they were collected will grow from them. Most likely, new shoots will be weak, will not give abundant, dense flowering.
Description and characteristics
Helenium flowers (lat. Helenium) are ubiquitous in the northern and southern continents of America, as well as in Canada.
Дикорастущие цветы часто встречаются на солнечных полянах вечнозеленых и лиственных лесов. Соцветия-корзинки головок всегда смотрят на солнце и название их от греческого слова «helios» — солнце.
According to legend, it is believed that Gelenium acquired its name in honor of the beautiful Helen-wife of Tsar Menelaus, with whom the start of the Trojan War is connected. This character is familiar to us from Homer's Iliad.
The helenium genus includes approximately 50 species and subspecies of annual and perennial flowering plants. The value of decorative perennials that bloom at the end of summer is that they are not demanding care.
The most common among them is autumn helenium with yellowish inflorescences. All other varieties originate from it.
The originality of the plant is in non-wintering rhizome. The stalks of flowers die off along with the roots, at the base of which there are already numerous numerous small rosettes.
In the spring, having survived the harsh cold, they all give new shoots and clumps of plantings gelenium very quickly grow. The first cultivar of gelenium was bred in 1909 by American botanist Maurice Pritchard. He was named "Riverton Beauty".
The ornamental plant was 1.2 meters tall, with inflorescences of yellow-brown color. Other, new varieties of various colors from yellow to orange and red began to emerge very quickly.
Cultivars of flowers are cultivated now almost throughout the world. This contributes to their resistance to frost and drought, they are unpretentious to the growing conditions.
Flowering perennials reach a height of 70-160 centimeters. Multiple strong erect stems branched in the upper parts, covered with delicate hairs and leaves. Stem leaves oblong with fine teeth of dark green color.
The inflorescences of plants are large, can reach up to 8 centimeters in diameter. Baskets consist of small tubular flowers of yellow-brown shades, forming a convex knob in the center. On the circumference of the cones are the so-called petals of various colors. Their color range is quite diverse: from pale yellow to piercing red.
Heleniums are sun-loving than justify their name. Plants love fertile soils with organic and mineral fertilizers. Watering requires regular, but drought is tolerated by them calmly. Flowers are practically not exposed to infections.
Open field maintenance
When planting gelenium and caring for it will not be difficult if you know some of the features of its cultivation and have some agricultural skills.
Its main feature is that it should grow predominantly in a sunny place with fertile moist soil without water stagnation. The soil should be with good water and breathability. On hot days, watering is more frequent and more abundant.
Basic care is also loosening the soil and weeding from weeds. Important! Feeding Gelenium held 3 times during the summer season:
- May - one tablespoon of potassium sulfate, urea and the effect drug on a bucket of water. After the main irrigation feed at the rate of 1 liter per plant,
- Flowering - a liter of liquid manure, a tablespoon of drugs Agricola Fantasy and Agricola7 on a bucket of water. Make 1 liter per plant after watering,
- The end of October - dilute one tablespoon of potassium sulfate and superphosphate to a bucket of water. Make 1.5 liters under the plant.
Popular species and varieties
The most famous varieties of helenium are hybrid and simple types, selected by professionals as a result of selection from various variations of flowering specimens.
Their hybrid varieties are distinguished by the flowering period, longer than those of simple species by 1–1.5 months, and the decorativeness of large buds.
The most common varieties:
- "Moerheim Beauty" - blooms from July to frost, the height of the stem is 90 cm on sandy soil, 120 cm on fertile, inflorescences have a range of shades from red to copper and gold,
- "Waltraud" - launched in 1947, flowering time - August, inflorescences of golden brown color, height 80 cm.
- "Koenigstiger" - a decorative variety, blooms in August, the flowers are painted yellow with red reed petals, the height of the shoots is 120 cm.
- “Baudirektor Linne” - the period of flowering is August, the inflorescences are brown-purple shades, the height of the powerful stem is up to 130 cm.
- “Sonnenwunder” - flowering period - September, powerful, bright plant, blooms in September with golden yellow flowers, stem height 150 cm.
- "Septembergold" - translated as "Gold of September", the plant blooms in September with yellow blossoms.
Seed collection and wintering
Despite the fact that the seeds of gelenium is not difficult to find in modern shopping centers, they can also be collected with your own hands.
If you have decided to collect the seeds from your flowers for the purpose of reproduction, you need to do this immediately, because during the period of autumn rain they simply rot. The degree of readiness of the seed material for collection is signaled by dried and darkened inflorescences to blackness.
Seed storage must be dry. Store them in a canvas bag or carton.
Competent preparation of plants for winter is a guarantee that next season the bushes will delight you with the beauty and pomp of flowering. You need to put a minimum of effort - to mulch the beds with helenium plantings with peat, humus, sawdust about 5 cm thick or lutrasil. You must first cut the stalks, leaving hemp 10-15 cm in height.
At the end of summer, when most of the ornamental plants and flowers have already bloomed, the gelenium explodes with a firework of spectacular, colorful inflorescences, capable of pleasing even on the darkest day. The indisputable advantage is its long flowering and unpretentiousness.
How to grow gelenium, see tips in the following video:
Features of gelenium
This perennial plant has a very interesting feature. In autumn, its root system dies off, like flower stalks. However, the annual escape has underground buds, from which roots grow in the fall and a new rosette consisting of leaves. From this outlet for the next year there will be young flower stalks. The helenium shrub, familiar to everyone, is an independent plant growing close to each other. They have straight shoots that branch in the upper part, and they can reach 150 centimeters in height. The alternate leaf plates have a lanceolate form. Inflorescences-baskets can be single or form part of the corymbose inflorescences. The baskets include marginal reed flowers, which may be brown, red, purple, orange or yellow, and also from central tubular ones colored brown or yellow. The fruit is a pubescent seed of oblong-cylindrical shape.
Growing gelenium from seeds
The seeds of such a plant have a low germination rate and it does not matter if they are freshly harvested or not. Of course, with a great desire, you can try to grow such flowers from seeds, but it's still easier to propagate them with leaf rosettes and dividing the bush.
Sowing seeds in the autumn can be made directly in open ground. They can also be sown on seedlings in February or March, but it should be borne in mind that such crops will need stratification. Thus, the seeds are distributed over the surface of the substrate, after which the container is placed in a bag of polyethylene. After that, this container is cleaned on the shelf of the refrigerator for 4-6 weeks. After that, the container with the seeds is removed and placed in heat under artificial lighting. The optimum temperature for the emergence of seedlings from 18 to 22 degrees. After the plants appear 2 or 3 of these leaves, you should pick them.
What time to land
Planting seedlings in open ground is necessary only when the night frosts are left behind. As a rule, this time falls on May or the first days of June. For disembarking, it is best to choose a well-lit area, but you can grow gelenium in a shaded place. Soil is best suited light, but it must be saturated with nutrients, well drained and neutral. Before planting seedlings, it is recommended to dig up the soil with compost to the depth of the spade bayonet.
How to land
It should be noted that the size of the landing fossa should exceed the size of the root system a couple of times. Before placing the plant in the hole, its roots must be kept in a container with clean water for several minutes. Planting seedlings must be made at the same depth at which it was grown in tanks. It should be remembered that between copies it is necessary to leave at least 30 centimeters, and the distance between rows should be equal to 35 centimeters. When the flowers are planted, the surface of the soil should be sprinkled with a layer of mulch (humus or peat). The plant, which is grown from seed through seedlings, will begin to bloom only in the second year after planting. It should also be remembered that it is recommended to grow from seeds only species of plants. Varietal species need to be propagated using vegetative methods, the fact is that flowers grown from seeds are not capable of retaining the varietal characteristics of the parent plant.
Peculiarities of care
It is very easy to grow and care for such a plant, but you should learn all the basic rules. It should be remembered that watering is very important for such a plant, since it reacts extremely negatively to the lack of moisture. After a long, dry, hot period begins in the summer, watering of the helenium should be more frequent and more abundant. However, it must be remembered that stagnation of water in the ground should not be allowed, in connection with this, the earth must necessarily have good water permeability. The soil should be periodically shallowly loosened, and all weed grass should be removed in a timely manner. However, if you use mulching, then the care of such a plant is much easier. During the summer, this flower must be fed 3 times, while using organic and mineral fertilizers:
- In May. For top dressing, prepare a solution containing 10 l of water and 1 large spoonful of potassium sulfate, urea and organic fertilizer Effekton. Per 1 m 2 is used from 3 to 4 liters of this mixture.
- During flowering. One liter of liquid mullein is taken in a bucket of water, as well as one big spoonful of Agricola-fantasy and Agricola-7. In this case, from 1 to 3 liters of solution is taken per 1 m 2.
- In the last days of October. In a bucket of water you need to dissolve 1 large spoonful of potassium sulfate and superphosphate. In this case, half a bucket of mixture is taken for 1 m 2.
At the beginning of the budding period, you need to spray the plants with a solution that will help normalize the process of bud formation. To prepare the mixture, take 1 bucket of water and 10 g of Bud.
For a more abundant flowering need to cut off those inflorescences, which began to fade. At the same time, it is possible to make the bush more dense and branchy by nipping the tops of the stems. Also, overgrown perennials need to be seated 1 time in 2 or 3 years. During transplantation, helenium is multiplied by dividing the bush. Plant the plant best in spring.
Diseases and pests
Such flowers are distinguished by their resistance to diseases and harmful insects. Very rarely, chrysanthemum nematodes, which are harmful to flower buds and leaf plates, can settle on the gelenium. As a result of this, they become brown and begin to dry out. Those parts of the plant that are infected should be cut and destroyed. For the purposes of prophylaxis, ground sulfur or slaked lime must be added to the ground.
In that case, if you provide the plant with optimum soil moisture, it will not hurt.
Spring Helenium (Helenium vernalis)
The height of direct shoots is about 100 centimeters. Solid sheet plates are lanceolate. The diameter of the inflorescences about 7 centimeters. The tubular flowers are brown in color, and the reed flowers are orange. Flowering lasts about 4 weeks from the second half of May.
Helenium Hupes (Helenium hoopesii)
It reaches a height of 0.9 m. Solid greenish-gray leaf plates have a lanceolate shape. On long peduncles there are single baskets that can be in diameter from 8 to 9 centimeters, they are colored yellow. Flowering occurs in June or July.
Helenium autumn (Helenium autumnale)
This species is most popular. It is grown by many gardeners, and is also the basis for obtaining a large number of varieties. Powerful ligneous shoots can reach 1.6 m in height, small leafy plates have a jagged edge. The diameter of the baskets is from 3 to 5 centimeters, they are part of corymbose inflorescences in diameter, which reach 30 centimeters. Reed flowers may be yellow or reddish yellow, tubular - dark yellow. Blossoming lasts 8 weeks from July to September.