Eucalyptus is a large-sized, fast-growing tree. They attribute it to the family of myrtle. Eucalyptus leaves are used for medicinal purposes. They are used as raw materials for the preparation of various medicinal preparations.
Eucalyptus, whose medicinal properties allow recommending it against malaria, is used in the form of an alcohol tincture. Essential oil is recommended to provide an antiseptic and expectorant effect on the body. Ointments, which include this tool, are used for irritating effect and eliminating pain in the nidus of pathology. The oil produced from eucalyptus leaves perfectly refreshes the air. For these purposes, it is used in an alcohol solution or by spraying with water.
Drugs, which are based on eucalyptus, therapeutic properties are very diverse. They disinfect, eliminate pain and inflammation, and also deactivate the vital activity of pathogenic microbes. For medical purposes, infusion and decoction, tincture and essential oil from the leaves of the healing tree are used. Eucalyptus has healing properties due to its composition. The leaves of this healing tree contain a large amount of essential oil, as well as resinous and tannins. That is why drugs, which are based on eucalyptus, are excellent bactericidal and disinfectants.
In the form of tinctures and decoctions of the plant is especially effective for pain in the throat and runny nose. When mixed with other essential oils, eucalyptus preparations are recommended for getting rid of colds and rheumatism. Use them for bruises, sprains and muscle inflammation.
Eucalyptus, whose medicinal properties make it possible to eliminate drowsiness, headache and increased fatigue, is effectively used as an essential oil for inhalation during an abscess of the lungs. It is recommended for bronchitis.
In the network of pharmacies realized eucalyptus tincture. Instructions for use of this drug indicates its expectorant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and strong antiseptic capabilities. The tincture is intended for internal use with coughs, flu, colds and malaria. It helps with intestinal and gastric diseases that are acute in nature. The dosage of its reception is twenty to thirty drops per quarter cup of cooled boiled water. During the day, use the tincture should be three times. This drug is used externally.
As a means for inhalation and gargling, eucalyptus tincture is used to treat sore throats and laryngitis, rhinitis and tracheitis, lung abscesses and bronchitis. Eucalyptus, the instructions for use of which tincture recommends it as a rubbing agent, helps with radiculitis and neuralgia, as well as rheumatic pains. As lotions, the medicinal preparation from the curative tree is used for washing abscesses, purulent wounds and ulcers. Eucalyptus tincture is used in gynecology. This tool produces douching in the treatment of ulcers and cervical erosion.
Eucalyptus: tree description, growth, useful properties
Eucalyptus belongs to the genus of evergreen trees of the Myrtle family. The tree grows to 100 meters in height. The trunk is covered with gum secretions. The crown is ovoid and pyramidal. Plate leaves located edge due to twisting stem.
Eucalyptus blooms depending on age. Flowering occurs from 2-10 years of life. Flowers begin to appear in late spring. It takes 3 months from the moment the buds appear before they bloom.
The fruits ripen during the year. Seeds make up 17% of the weight of the fruit. Approximately 80-85% of all seeds are immature. Store seed can be for 10 years. In special conditions, seeds are stored up to 40-50 years. One kilogram of fruit contains up to 500 thousand seeds.
Place of growth
Most of this species grows in Australia and New Zealand. In these countries, Eucalyptus forms extensive forests. Some species are found in New Guinea and Indonesia. One species of these trees grows in the Philippines.
Outside Australia, only 15 species grow. Australia is considered the main region of eucalyptus life. Rainbow eucalyptus is the only species that grows in the Northern Hemisphere. This tree is grown in many countries due to its useful property. Eucalyptus grows quickly and dries the marshland. It can be found in southern France, Spain, Greece, Portugal, South America, South Africa, Cuba and the Crimea.
This tree grows in the Sochi Arboretum. More than 700 trees were planted in Sochi. The arboretum included in its composition more than 70 species of eucalyptus. Landing took place in 1950, and in 1963 only 20 trees remained. More than 680 seedlings could not survive the harsh winters.
Eucalyptus is considered a plant of warm climate. Feels good in tropical and subtropical conditions. Some species germinate in a moderately cold climate. Such species are able to withstand from -1 to -14 degrees. In the highland areas there are representatives who stand from -20 to -24 degrees. At home, the plant lives in heavy rainfall. Crowns of trees form forests. On the crowns of trees are rigid leaves.
It grows on clay soil, as well as on podzolic yellow and chestnut peat soils. Some representatives do not tolerate wet land, others are able to live in it for almost the entire year.
Eucalyptus is a light-loving plant. Under prolonged shading, the tree stops growing.
Eucalyptus growth rate:
- Under the sun grows to 1.5-2 meters in the first year of life.
- By three years it reaches 6-8 meters.
- By ten years the tree reaches 20-25 meters in height, and the trunk is up to 30 centimeters in diameter.
In subsequent years, the growth rate decreases. Rapid growth is due to advanced root system. In the south of Europe, in 10 years, it reaches up to 20 meters in height and 1 meter in diameter of the trunk.
- Rainbow. It is the only wild-growing species that is found in the regions of the northern hemisphere. This tree grows in New Guinea, South and North Korea, China, Indonesia and the Philippines. It has a small crown bright green crown.
- ZINERIA. It withstands low temperatures. It grows in Europe due to resistance to frost. It is found in the Caucasus, Sochi and Batumi. Silvery leaves have a rounded shape. Used as an ornamental home plant.
- Populus. The plant is used for home cultivation. Grown in pots for decoration of bouquets. Rounded leaves have a bluish tint. The crown of this plant is similar to the pyramidal crown of poplar.
Useful properties of eucalyptus leaf
More Australian Aborigines have found application to the eucalyptus leaf. A branch with leaves was used as a means to disinfect the air in the room. Aborigines brewed leaves in order to get antibacterial decoction.
Leaves gather during summer and autumn. Autumn leaves are valued more than summer ones. Phytoncides are present in the foliage. Phytoncides is a substance with antibacterial properties.
Essential oil is extracted from the leaves. In the essential oil contains up to 80% cineole. Cineole is an antiseptic substance. This substance promotes expectoration of sputum. The oil also contains healing tannins.
Leaflets are used in the fight against particularly resistant microorganisms. Useful properties of eucalyptus help in the fight against the following diseases:
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Genital tract infections.
- Pleurisy and bronchitis.
Eucalyptus participated in the fight against epidemics of cholera and typhoid. Preparations based on it have analgesic properties. Broths from the leaves are used to combat eye diseases. The smell of leaves scares off blood-sucking insects. Ointments based on this tree can reduce inflammation of the skin.
The eucalyptus tree is a natural home for koalas. These animals are born and live their lives on the crowns of these trees. Eucalyptus leaves are the main product that koalas feed on. The leaves are enriched with plenty of moisture. Therefore, koalas have almost no need to drink water.
The tree is grown not only for the purpose of obtaining leaves, but also for wood. Wood has a dense structure. Used for the manufacture of various tools, sleepers and shipbuildings.
In Australia, the tree has a high economic value. From one hectare of land is collected from 1350 to 8400 cubic meters of wood. The bark of many species contains tannins. In the bark contains from 25 to 75% tannins. The second purpose of the bark is paper production.
The wood of this tree is very difficult to set fire to. High-quality charcoal is made from it. Biologists have created a GMO species to make the tree burn better. The modified tree received a unique growth rate. In the year the tree grows 40% higher than its natural species. Genetically modified species has gained popularity in the southern countries of Europe, Israel and Australia.
Male and female flowers are located on different trees. Because of this, the pollen of one tree must cover the distance to another. Wind, insects and rain help in pollination of eucalyptus trees. Flower after pollination forms a box with seeds. This box opens after a while and throws seeds. Seeds fall to the ground, and then gather moisture.
Seeds root after moisture saturation. If nothing happens to the seeds, then after a while an eucalyptus shoot will appear in the ground.
Growing your own hands
Some types of these trees found their use in gardening. At home, these trees grow to 2 meters. Home eucalyptus is not growing very fast. The plant prefers well lit places. The plant will feel good on the south side.
In the summer, it is advisable to take the plant pot to the street or balcony. In autumn, winter and spring, the plant should be left under natural light. For home eucalyptus, the temperature is comfortable from 20 to 25 degrees. The room temperature in winter should not fall below 10 degrees.
Eucalyptus is grown from seed:
- Good drainage is established at the bottom of the vessel.
- On top of the drainage pours soil.
- Seed should be sown at a shallow depth.
- The hole is covered with earth.
- The pot with crops is covered with polyethylene.
Polyethylene is necessary to preserve heat in the pot.
In summer, the plant requires a lot of water.. In winter, watering is significantly reduced. Land should be wet when watered. The next watering should begin after the land dries.
It should be watered with water at room temperature. The house tree does not need spraying. The usual room humidity is suitable for growing indoor eucalyptus. It should pick up a large pot, as eucalyptus has a developed root system.
Trees are shameless
This funny nickname eucalyptus got thanks to a unique feature. There are not too many trees that can free themselves from the bark.
Naked trunks once struck a Russian writer V. Soloukhin when he rested in the Caucasus. Later he wrote that eucalyptus is a tree that can "forever rejuvenate." A similar feature, by the way, has a plane tree (Chinara).
Among the people, trees without bark are often jokingly called bare or “shameless”.
The outer layer of the bark begins to crumble in March. At that time, autumn is in full swing in the southern hemisphere. Trunks and branches become gray, yellow, greenish, bluish.
The tallest trees in Australia and one of the largest in the world have tall and powerful trunks. But if the traveler, who saw the magnificent crown, decides to hide in the shade of the scorching sun, he will not succeed - eucalyptus almost does not give a shadow. This is due to the special arrangement of the leaves, turned to the sun edge.
Leaf sizes depend on age. The form of the plate is whole, the extracellular glands contain essential oil. Adult leaves have a lanceolate form with a pointed tip. In a young tree, they are painted in a silvery shade and more rounded.
White flowers grow on the branches. They are bisexual, gathered in umbellate inflorescences, but can grow alone. The ovary and sepals grow together, the petals woody, forming a fruit. It is a box with a lid, including small seeds.
Trees of this genus belong to the myrtle family. They accounted for about 90% of all plantings in Australia in the last century. Modern scientists have about 700 species, united in the genus Eucalyptus. Many species are endemic to Australia.
The eucalyptus tree caught on and outside the historic homeland. For about a century, it has been successfully cultivated in temperate and tropical latitudes. Eucalyptus spread in Eurasia, Africa and America.
Prutovidny, almond, ash and ball eucalyptus feel great in the Mediterranean, USA, Brazil, China, the Middle East.
Flowers of the plant have a delicate aroma, but attract bees very much. All types of eucalyptus are greatly appreciated for essential oils. They have found wide application in folk and official medicine, perfumery, cosmetology, and pharmacology. Leaves of amazing trees also have healing properties.
Eucalyptus blooms in the fourth or fifth year of life. It is impossible to say that flowers have unearthly beauty, but they are very unusual.
First, on a single pedicel, a rigid round-shaped box with a bottom at the end grows. The box grows, increases in size, lumber. Then the bottom disappears, and a lush brush begins to peek out of the box. Soon the whole flower, consisting of filamentary stamens, comes to light.
Different species of eucalyptus trees have different color. They can be white, yellow, pink and bright red. Flowers have a light pleasant aroma.
These trees are fast growing. There are very large specimens, and some of the giants are only ten years old.
Some people think that eucalyptus trees are the tallest trees in the world, but this is not the case. The rivalry with sequoia is no match for this representative of the flora. However, some types of eucalyptus trees are among the top three major giants of the planet.
Some interesting facts will help you to get a better idea about these plants:
- the first years of life - a period of the most rapid growth,
- a year eucalyptus adds up to five meters in height,
- The highest eucalyptus tree grows in Tasmania - the tree height is 92 m,
- the average height of an adult tree is 40-50 m,
- There are genetically modified trees that grow even faster than normal.
A tree already by twenty years in height is comparable to a 15-storeyed house. For industrial use eucalyptus ready at the age of 25-30 years. From a young tree they get more wood than from a century-old spruce or fir.
Eucalyptus wood is comparable in quality with black walnut. It does not rot for a long time, does not soak in the water (and sinks quickly), and the active substances with an expressive smell frighten the borer insects.
Wood is used where durability, strength and quality are needed. Eucalyptus piles can stand for several decades even in water.
Important and decorative aspect. Eucalyptus wood has an interesting structure and unusual color. Such shades as yellow, olive, lemon, which makes this material attractive for the production of finishing materials and furniture, prevail.
Coal is also valuable, which has excellent characteristics, gives a large amount of heat and does not smoke.
Scientists have managed to make this amazing plant even more valuable by applying selection and genetic engineering.
Modified instances grow 40% faster than normal. They survive even in darkened landings. From such a tree you can get about one and a half times more wood, essential oil, and coal.
Experts believe that the spread of such plants can solve many industrial problems.
Use in landscape design
Eucalyptus - a tree with an expressive appearance. It does not shed foliage and pleases with juicy greens all year round. Landscaping specialists have long learned to restrain the exorbitant growth of the "wards" by trimming, getting beautiful compact trees with well-formed crowns.
Landscape architects still know many valuable features of eucalyptus that make this tree so attractive to them.
Eucalyptus is also suitable for soil stabilization on steep slopes and banks of water bodies. Planting these trees helps prevent erosion. Растение любит влажные супесчаные почвы с нейтральным или слабокислым рН.
Главный житель эвкалиптовых рощ
Одним из символов Австралии является симпатичный зверек коала. Он живет только там, где растет дерево эвкалипт. Koalas have a unique structure of the digestive tract, so they can eat eucalyptus leaves. And this, I must say, is not so simple. Indeed, in addition to the huge amount of nutrients, the leaves also contain a lot of prussic acid.
These animals spend almost all their life on trees.
The older the tree, the more nutrients the leaves collect in summer and autumn - at this time the percentage of oil is highest. And among all species, ball (ball) eucalyptus is considered the most valuable. Extraction can be not only fresh leaves, but also dry.
Eucalyptus oil is a yellow, colorless or greenish viscous liquid with a recognizable odor. There is a huge scope for its application.
Vapors of the oil refresh and purify the air, fill it with a pleasant aroma, scare away insects.
Eucalyptus essential oil is included in the composition of toothpastes and elixirs, cosmetic products, soaps, hair care products.
Use in alternative medicine
Since ancient times, Australian hospitals have hung eucalyptus branches on the walls and windows, which are a storehouse of phytoncids. The secreted substances act beneficially: they soothe, have an antiseptic effect.
In folk medicine, tincture of leaves is used as an expectorant, anti-inflammatory and disinfectant. Inflamed wounds are washed with 15% decoction of the leaves of this tree.
Eucalyptus in modern pharmacology
Modern science does not dispute the developments of traditional healers on the use of eucalyptus. Researchers have greatly expanded the range of applications. Today, drug manufacturers are widely using eucalyptus leaves.
Eucalyptol, which is part of the oil, is valued for its antiseptic and expectorant properties. It is used in the manufacture of drugs for the treatment of colds, flu, acute respiratory infections. A mixture of eucalyptus oils and tea tree - a powerful tool to combat the common cold. This component is also included in oral care products.
Great and powerful
The genus Eucalyptus (Eucalýptus) is a family of myrtle. It includes more than 800 species of evergreen trees or shrubs. Most eucalyptus trees are straight or curved trees.
Some species reach a hundred-meter height and tens of meters in the girth, but in the mountains often grow up dull, gnarled trees, and in the desert areas shrub species are common.
The bark in various species can be smooth, fibrous, scaly, folded. Periodically, the tree resets the bark. Interestingly, such a property of eucalyptus gave rise to its popular name "shameless." The leaves of the plant vary according to the type: are ovoid, lanceolate, pointed. They are notable for the fact that, due to their location (edge to the sun), there is practically no shadow.
In addition, the leaves of species growing in Australia are clearly oriented: the leaf plane is located along the meridian, the tips look to the north and south.
The eucalyptus tree can bloom in different periods, it depends on the species. Flowers come in a variety of colors, from white to fiery red. They are collected in inflorescences in the form of umbrellas or panicles.
Fruits may look like a box, bell or ball. Their maturation lasts from one to two years in various species. Seeds make up 17% of the mass of the fruit.
Where is growing?
Australia is home to almost all eucalyptus trees, where three-quarters of the trees are eucalyptus, and beyond its borders only 15 out of more than 800 species grow wild. These species were found in New Zealand, Tasmania, New Guinea, Indonesia and the Philippines.
Currently, this plant has spread to many countries in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. The reason for this popularity is its ability to drain the marshland, as well as the rapid growth of the tree. In addition, they are also attributed to the ability to disinfect air.
Eucalyptus - a thermophilic plant, usually grows in the tropics or subtropics. Some species withstand freezing temperatures, and high-mountain trees are able to withstand twenty degrees of frost.
They grow on a variety of soils: clay, sand, chestnut, peat, etc. There are both in the lowlands and in the mountains.
Separately about height
Eucalyptus grows very quickly. In the first year, they can reach 1.5–2 m, by three years they can rise to 10 m, and a ten-year-old tree is capable of pulling the trunk up to 20 m in height. In the future, the growth up sharply decreases, the tree basically increases in diameter.
Regal eucalyptus (Eucalýptus régnans) is considered the highest species. It reaches a hundred meter height, but there are unconfirmed descriptions of specimens up to 155 m high.
Only one such giant is known for certain - in 2008, a tree called “Centurion” was discovered in Tasmania. Its height is 101 m - this is the highest flowering plant on the planet.
In addition to the above-mentioned royal eucalyptus, other species of this plant are famous. So, rainbow eucalyptus is the only wild species of the northern hemisphere. It grows in New Guinea, Indonesia, the Philippines.
It has an unusual bark - it is initially bright green, but later its parts are painted in other colors: blue, burgundy, purple, orange. Now this beautiful tree has spread to South and North America, China, and Malaysia.
This species is also interesting because it is cultivated as a houseplant. Its branches with silvery rounded leaves are loved by florists, who use them to create various compositions. As an ornamental home plant is also widely known. eucalyptus populus, otherwise called poplar. It is distinguished by its original crown, similar to the crown of pyramidal poplars, and beautiful oval bluish-green leaves. Florists love to use it in wedding bouquets.
Useful and healing properties
Australian aborigines also knew about the healing properties of eucalyptus leaves and actively used them as a natural antibiotic.
The leaves of this tree really are the most valuable medicinal raw materials. They are harvested throughout the summer, but the autumn harvest is especially valuable. Phytoncides are abundant in eucalyptus foliage - these substances help in the fight against pathogenic bacteria.
Essential oil extracted from foliage contains up to 80% of cineol - a substance with antiseptic and expectorant properties. In addition, the oil contains healing bitterness and tannins.
This healing blend is very effective in combating particularly resistant pathogens that cause dangerous infectious and gastrointestinal diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria fever, trichomonads (genital tract infection), gangrene, pleurisy, bronchitis and other dangerous diseases.
People have long noticed that the smell of eucalyptus scares mosquitoes, mosquitoes and other blood-sucking midges. Different ointments, infused on the leaves of this plant, not only drive off these insects, but also help with bites and other inflammations.
Eucalyptus essential oils are often used as a healing and soothing fragrance. To ensure a calm, good sleep, just drop a few drops of eucalyptus essential oil on the pillow. This fragrance also relieves people from fatigue, depression and migraines.
More about using
Eucalyptus twigs are also often used in interior decoration and floristics. Each cut twig long enough, up to three weeks, retains the natural freshness. The surface of these dark green leaves is dull and creates the illusion of something reliable.
No wonder eucalyptus is one of the symbols of protection and abundance. Perhaps that is why the designers of florists often use the branches of this plant in the preparation of wedding bouquets.
These evergreen branches look great with peonies, asters or hydrangeas. In addition, the pleasant smell of this plant gives bouquets a special showiness.
In addition, this plant is used in landscape design. This is only possible in those climatic zones where nature allows this native of the tropics to grow.
The design does not use the 100-meter giants, which are found in nature, but the ornamental varieties of the meter population, reaching only 2 m in height, fit perfectly into the cultivated areas of nature.
Is it possible to grow at home
There are types of eucalyptus that are cultivated at home. These home trees reach a height of two meters and require the same conditions and methods of care.
They grow, in contrast to their natural relatives, not very quickly, as in many Southerners they prefer the sun. It is best to place the plant on the south side of the room. In summer, it is advisable to transfer the eucalyptus to a balcony or garden.
In autumn and winter, the plant is arranged in the brightest place with natural light. Comfortable temperature for eucalyptus in the summer of 20-25 ° С, in winter not lower than 10 ° С.
The plant requires abundant watering in the summer. In winter, watering is reduced a little. In the summer, the land should remain constantly wet when watering; when it is watered, it should be allowed to wait for the potted soil to dry slightly.
For irrigation water is used at room temperature. It should be remembered that this tree does not need additional spraying. Comfortable for him is the usual room humidity. In conclusion, it can be noted that eucalyptus trees are unique plants, only with their presence, which heals the atmosphere. Their planting in wetlands helped to cope with malaria at one time, and the essential oil extracted from them is still actively used in medicine.
In order to enjoy the unique atmosphere created around the eucalyptus, it is not necessary to visit the tropics, because some species grow beautifully at home.
High fast-growing tree, exuding a characteristic aroma. Source of valuable essential oil. Medicinal raw materials are eucalyptus leaves. They are used both in the production of official pharmacological agents, and in traditional medicine. The main therapeutic actions are antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, sedative. With the right approach and compliance with the regulations can not harm the body.
Healing properties of eucalyptus globose used by mankind since ancient times. Its antiseptic properties are compared with quinine and are used even where all antibiotics are powerless. Plant preparations are produced on an industrial scale, and traditional healers include eucalyptus in most antimicrobial fees.
Places of growth
The eucalyptus tree belongs to the fast-growing. In tropical climates, it can reach a height of 30 m in just 15 years. Actively grown for industrial processing in Africa, America, in the southern part of Europe, as well as in the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. In the wild, eucalyptus grows almost throughout Australia, on the island of Tasmania. These places are considered his homeland.
How does it look
Eucalyptus globose refers to the number of evergreens. In nature, there are trees up to 80 m tall, their diameter reaches two meters. That is, the eucalyptus is quite a worthy competition to the American Sequoia both in height and in trunk massiveness. At the same time, the tree simply surprises with its volumetric crown of the correct spherical shape.
- Bark. The trunk and branches of a spherical eucalyptus are covered with bark of medium thickness of an unusual color — white-gray with blue tint. There are deep grooves on the surface, which are formed as a result of the gradual exfoliation of the upper layers of the cortex. Its parts often hang from a tree, occasionally falling off.
- Leaves. All the foliage on the tree is divided into young and old. The first is represented by leaves, "sitting" on young shoots, closely embracing them. The color is bright gray, the surface is leathery. Even the young sheets are quite large - from 7 to 16 cm long and up to 10 cm wide. It is in young foliage that the greatest amount of essential oil, rich in antiseptic cineoleum, accumulates. Large old leaves, thanks to the petiole, unfold edge to the sun's rays. They are shiny, dark green in color, have a sickle-lancer form. Dimensions reach from 10 to 30 cm long and 3-4 cm wide.
- Flowers Eucalyptus blooms with bright, axillary flowers for the first time in October, the third year of tree growth. Blossom short.
- Fetus. Represented by a tubular box. It is 15 cm long and 30 cm wide. There are several furrows on the surface of the box. Inside there is one or two seeds, finally ripening only after a year and a half.
Leaf harvesting process
Medicinal raw materials are eucalyptus leaves. In order to obtain them, wild-growing and specially grown trees are pruned in the fall. Cut branches gently fold to not damage the sheets. During the collection of raw materials there is an annual pruning in order to form a dense crown.
The branches together with the leaves are tied up in small brooms and hung in a shaded place outdoors or in a well-ventilated room. Drying leaves emit vapors containing phytoncides. They are able to disinfect and clean the air in any room.
Eucalyptus - General Description
Plant name eucalyptus it is known to almost everyone, however, not everyone has seen this tree itself. Spherical eucalyptus (lat. Eucalyptus globulus) is a huge tree about 50 m high (some specimens can reach 100 meters or more in height). Its unique property is the ability to absorb a huge amount of moisture from the soil, working as a natural sediment and draining swampy areas.
The eucalyptus tree belongs to the Myrta family, it has a smooth bark with a bluish tinge and a lush spherical crown. Depending on age, eucalyptus leaves look different: young ones have a heart-shaped shape, are arranged alternately and are almost devoid of a petiole, the older ones are petioled, spirally arranged, dark green. They emit a characteristic very strong smell. The flowers are formed in autumn in the 3rd and 5th years of the tree’s life; they are large in size with short pedicels. Fruits - tetrahedral boxes.
Eucalyptus - types and places of growth
The natural distribution area of eucalyptus is Australia and the islands nearest to it. In other places, eucalyptus trees were planted artificially. They grow in South America, Africa, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, on the shores of the Black and Mediterranean Seas, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus and in Moldova. In science, there are about 700 species of eucalyptus, including spherical, black, heart-shaped, multi-colored and hundreds of others.
Eucalyptus - healing properties
Eucalyptus leaf essential oil is a powerful remedy for a variety of diseases. In addition to the oil in the leaves there is a huge amount of phytoncides, tannins and resinous substances, which also have a positive effect on human health. This composition causes a wide range of applications of eucalyptus in medicine, both in folk and in official.
It is used to treat diseases of the respiratory system as an antimicrobial, expectorant and painkiller, using eucalyptus-based drugs to treat both commonplace acute respiratory viral infections and the most complex sore throats, tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia and tuberculosis. Eucalyptus is successfully used to combat persistent pathogenic microorganisms - staphylococci, streptococci, etc.
It is also able to assist with fevers and is used for their prevention. The bactericidal, antiseptic and disinfecting effect of eucalyptus-based drugs is used in the treatment of gynecological diseases (adnexitis, endometriosis), as well as phlegmon, ulcers, abscesses and inflammatory processes of the kidneys and urinary tract.
In addition to these properties, medicinal products based on eucalyptus leaves have an immunomodulatory effect, they strengthen the body's natural defenses and fight viruses (herpes, furunculosis, influenza, etc.). In folk medicine, eucalyptus is used to combat intestinal parasites and pediculosis.
And eucalyptus ointments are a good remedy for arthritis, arthrosis, osteochondrosis and other diseases of the joints and the musculoskeletal system. And, of course, eucalyptus is indispensable for the prevention of infections transmitted by airborne droplets. Inhalation of volatile substances of eucalyptus oil can prevent infection even at the height of the epidemic.
Eucalyptus - Dosage Forms
For the preparation of medicines used leaves of the plant. Young leaves collected in the fall are especially rich in essential oils. From them prepare infusion, decoction, tincture, and also receive essential oil. Decoctions, tinctures and infusions can be made independently, the oil is purchased at the pharmacy.
In addition, for a tonic and prophylactic procedures can be applied eucalyptus bath broom. It is steamed and inhaled with the hot steam air. For a bath massage, eucalyptus branches are added to an ordinary birch or oak broom.
Infusion of eucalyptus leaves prepared from 1 tbsp. ложки сырья, залитой 500 мл кипятка. Полученную смесь ставят в теплое место на 1-2 часа, затем процеживают и принимают по 50 мл 3-4 раза в день в горячем виде при бронхите и других легочных заболеваниях.
Отвар из листьев эвкалипта приготавливают из 2 ст. spoons of raw materials, placed in an enameled or glass dish and filled with 200 ml of boiling water. The broth is heated in a water bath for 15-20 minutes, filtered and adjusted to the original volume.
For inhalation and rinsing used 10-15 drops of oil, diluted in 200 ml of water.
Eucalyptus - contraindications
Contraindications to the use of drugs based on eucalyptus is the individual intolerance of its components and the age of 1 year. Children from 1 to 3 years old should use medicines with eucalyptus only as directed and under the supervision of a physician. Side effects are rare, but the first use of eucalyptus should be careful.
The Eucalyptus genus, belonging to the Myrta family, includes more than 800 species of shrubs and trees. Homeland of this plant - Australia, where the trees grow to 100 meters in height, forming a huge grove. The strong roots of trees in such forests grow along the surface of the earth, intertwining and tangling in order to obtain the maximum amount of moisture. Other plants in the neighborhood with eucalyptus trees simply cannot survive, but koalas, which are greasy to dense, fragrant leaves and tasty branches, grow with joy. eucalyptus forests grow very quickly and after 5–10 years of life annually produce about 20 cubic meters of wood per hectare.
One of the features of Eucalyptus - an unusual arrangement of leaves. Their plates are turned to the light not by a flat surface, but by a sharp edge. Due to this, there is almost no shadow under the eucalyptus tree. The leaves themselves, depending on age, differ in appearance. The newly grown leaves are almost round, soft, light green with a bluish tinge. With age, they stretch out, become harder and a little darker, taking, in the end, a pointed shape.
Unlike the trees of the middle band that are familiar to us, Eucalyptus trees shed not the old leaves, but the bark every year. The period of "molting" tree looks sloppy and peeling, but later the trunk returns its shine and beautiful color.
Unfortunately, only a few Eucalyptus species were “tamed”. In warm regions they are kept outside, in colder trees, they take root well in containers in winter gardens or apartments. Room Eucalyptus fights bacteria, cleans and moisturizes the air in the room, saturating it with a pleasant soothing aroma, which is also very disliked by mosquitoes and flies.
The most suitable types for domestic use are Lemon Eucalyptus (lat. Eucalyptus citriodora) and Gunn Eucalyptus (lat. Eucalyptus gunnii).
Eucalyptus Lemon Indoor from East Australia and in the woods reached a height of 30 meters. In culture, its height is regulated by cutting and pinching shoots, it usually does not exceed one meter. Bristly leaves of a yellowish shade on branches are arranged in a spiral and in length can reach 16 centimeters. Smooth bark of light brown color, in places it can be reddish, small growths are formed on the trunk with age.
Eucalyptus Gunn In the room floristry came from the forests of Tasmania. This species is the most unpretentious of all members of the genus, easily tolerates short-term cooling and too dry air. In Russia it is cultivated in the Crimea, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. This Eucalyptus bark has a light orange, falling off scales, the leaves also grow from oval to pointed in the process of growth.
Many flower growers, after a long search for this tree in stores and with friends, are wondering how to grow Eucalyptus?
The most affordable way, because the seeds are much easier to find than ready-made seedlings - they are well stored and sold almost everywhere. Growing Eucalyptus from seeds is a simple process, almost always a success. Eucalyptus seeds are small, they retain their germination well, so a sachet bought at any store will be enough to produce one or two healthy plants. Light soil, such as a mixture of earth and sand, is moistened and then future Eucalyptus are sown there. The first four days keep the temperature around 20 ° C, no watering is required. Sprouts appear after five to ten days, after that it is important to water them regularly, but not too plentifully, and to air the room so that excess moisture does not lead to the appearance of mold - for small Eucalyptus trees it can be deadly.
After the appearance of several true leaves, homemade Eucalyptus trees are transplanted into separate small containers, and then they are again interrupted for four days. Then daily moderate watering is resumed, allowing the sprouts to gain strength in their own territory.
Pot and drainage device
If eucalyptus is grown from seeds, then a month after the first shoots made their way from the ground, the strengthened seedlings are moved to pots for permanent residence. In order for the tree to develop the root system well, you will need a wide pot with holes, including a capacity that consists entirely of cells, in some stores it is called Air Pot. In an ordinary pot, it is necessary to fold a thick drainage layer, and add a little perlite to the soil.
Eucalyptus as a houseplant likes good lighting, but abruptly rearranging it from the penumbra to the scorching sun is not recommended - it is much better to take the flower pot to a new place for a few hours at first. If the branches of the tree suddenly began to stretch, and the leaves turned pale - the light of the plant is clearly not enough.
During the period of growth, care for Eucalyptus at home is to maintain the temperature within 22..25 ° C. From the end of autumn, the tree begins to prepare for a period of rest, so if possible, the temperature is reduced to 16 ° C.
It depends on the season: in the spring and summer it should be abundant, it should not be allowed to dry the roots, especially in young plants. In the autumn, watering is gradually reduced to moderate, just to prevent complete drying of the soil in the pot.
This plant is not demanding for moisture, since in the dry air it actively evaporates water through the leaves. Spraying the tree tolerates poorly, so it’s better not to moisten the leaves without need
Plant replantation is recommended once a year or two. The root system of these trees is very strong, so if during the time between transplants the plant manages to braid the whole lump of earth with its roots, they are partially cut to moderate growth and adapt to a relatively small flower pot.
Each spring, the formation of the crown is carried out, cutting and pinching the branches in accordance with the plan. So, when caring for Lemon Eucalyptus, regular strong pruning will create a bushy plant with round, young leaves. Without pruning, the plant will eventually take the form of a small tree with long, pointed leaves.
Eucalyptus growing at home, has the same healing properties as its brethren "in the wild." The main medicinal raw material of this tree is the leaves, from which the eucalyptus essential oil is obtained in large quantities. Even dry Eucalyptus has healing properties: infusions, tinctures and decoctions are prepared from it, inhalations are made with eucalyptus leaves at home, which helps to cure laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis and even pleurisy. As a disinfectant, oil is used to wash infectious wounds and ulcers. Treatment with Eucalyptus has proven itself for purulent mastitis, open fractures, chronic osteomyelitis and other similar diseases.
With tonsillitis, pharyngitis and sore throat, you can gargle with infusion of eucalyptus leaves. To prepare Eucalyptus infusion, crushed 10 g of dry leaves, brewed with a glass of boiled water, like tea, and then kept in a water bath on low heat for an hour, without boiling. It is necessary to use ready infusion within two days. It can also be applied orally - three times a day, one tablespoon.
To prepare the eucalyptus tincture use fresh leaves, vodka and sugar. In a bottle of dark glass folded washed, finely chopped leaves, filling it a third. Then half of them are covered with sugar, covered with gauze and kept in a dark place for three or four days. After aging, the resulting syrup is poured with vodka, thoroughly shaken and left for another week. After aging, the leaves are squeezed and discarded, the tincture is filtered and poured into a bottle of dark glass already in storage. Eucalyptus tincture is used in the amount of twenty to thirty drops, diluted in a glass of warm boiled water three times a day. Also, the resulting drug is used for rubbing, lotions, washes in the fight against various skin diseases. This tincture is used to treat angina, stomatitis, loose stools, enterocolitis, as well as in the fight against severe bleeding.
Eucalyptus essential oil has deodorizing properties, so it has been used for many years in the manufacture of dry perfumes, as part of aromatic pads - sachets.
At home, Eucalyptus oil can be used to repel insects: mosquitoes, mosquitoes and other species.
In addition to the undeniable healing properties, room Eucalyptus has a particularly strong energy. Its impact on others contributes to longevity, restoration of strength and preservation of youth. In the form of an essential oil in an aromatic medallion or a few leaves in a sachet, eucalyptus helps to quickly recover from stress, illness, and the negative effects of other people.
Around the world, Eucalyptus has found many uses. From strong, not rotting wood make expensive furniture and even at home. Substances contained in the bark, used in the leather business and many other industries. Essential oil is obtained from the leaves - a precious extract with many healing properties. It has been proven that inhalation with this oil helps well in the treatment of respiratory diseases, relieves stress, and when applied externally in the form of lotion, it helps to preserve healthy skin.
Composition and healing properties of eucalyptus
The beneficial properties of eucalyptus, namely its activity against most existing microbes and anti-inflammatory effect, are due to the multicomponent chemical composition of the leaves:
- essential oil (contains antiseptics and aromatic substances),
- tanning components
- flavonoids (antioxidants and anti-inflammatory),
- minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Zn),
- coumaric, cinnamic organic acids.
In official and traditional medicine, the use of eucalyptus leaves accompanies the therapy of a huge list of diseases, because the plant has a number of healing properties that are effective even in complex pathologies.
- Antimicrobial action. Manifested by the content of a large number of volatile substances having bacteriostatic, bactericidal, antifungal activity. It has been scientifically proven that eucalyptus drugs are effective for eliminating the following pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Dysenteric amoeba, Trichomonas, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli. Bacteriostatic effect is observed relatively pseudominoan and typhoid bacilli. This spectrum of action allows the use of eucalyptus for the treatment of carriers of bacteria, infections of the upper respiratory tract, trophic ulcers, infected wounds, furunculosis, fungal diseases.
- Anti-inflammatory effect. The effect is manifested by the elimination of pathogenic bacteria, as well as by the presence of flavonoids. At the same time, normal blood supply to the tissues is restored, and signs of inflammation (swelling, hyperthermia, and soreness) disappear. The anti-inflammatory effect of eucalyptus leaves is actively used to treat skin lesions, as well as internal diseases of an inflammatory nature: gastritis, enterocolitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis. Elimination of the inflammatory process is accompanied by a wound-healing and anesthetic effect of the plant.
- Expectorant effect. Occurs due to the expansion of blood vessels of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. This leads to the normalization of secretory processes in the mucous membrane of the bronchi and improve the excretion of viscous sputum. Bactericidal eucalyptus fumes help clean the lungs of bacteria that cause bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, tuberculosis.
- Cardiotonic effect. The use of drugs with eucalyptus has a beneficial effect on the work of the heart muscle - its endurance increases, the amplitude of contractions increases, the supply of myocardium with oxygen improves. Regular ingestion of eucalyptus products will serve as an excellent prevention of coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, and heart failure.
- Sedation. Under the influence of essential oils from eucalyptus leaves, a decrease in CNS excitability is observed. This effect allows you to eliminate insomnia, increase the body's resistance to stress, neutralize anxiety and depression.
- Effect on digestion. Eucalyptus stimulates the release of food juices due to the presence of bitterness. Increases appetite, exhibits mild choleretic and diuretic action.
Use in traditional medicine
Spherical eucalyptus is a tropical tree, therefore it is quite difficult to prepare its leaves at home for residents of the middle lane. Fortunately, already dried sheets are sold in every pharmacy. And not as a dietary supplement, but as the most genuine standardized raw materials collected from the pharmacopoeial plant. But for successful treatment it is important to properly use this drug.
Features Used internally for the treatment of wet and dry cough with bronchitis, pneumonia, tracheitis. The use of eucalyptus in the form of infusion is advisable for gargling with laryngitis, sore throat, tonsillitis, regular rinsing of the mouth will help with stomatitis and periodontal disease.
Preparation and use
- Pour half a liter of boiling water 10 g of dried eucalyptus leaves.
- Insist for a quarter of an hour, then strain.
- To accept inside on 40-50 ml four times a day.
- Before rinsing the infusion is slightly heated, apply three times a day.
Features Suitable for compresses and washes. Indications for use include phlegmon, abscess, furunculosis, purulent wounds, trophic ulcers, purulent mastitis.
Preparation and use
- Put 20 g of eucalyptus leaves in a saucepan, pour 200 ml of boiling water over it.
- Cover the mixture and keep in a water bath for a quarter of an hour.
- Insist 10 minutes, strain, squeeze the cake.
- Bring boiled water to a volume of 200 ml.
- Treat the affected surface twice a day or apply a compress for two hours, wetting a cotton cloth flap in the broth.
Features It can be used as a general tonic before the cold season for complex treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections. The tool is recommended in the absence of appetite, with poor digestion, dysbiosis.
Preparation and use
- Pour a cup of boiling water (250 ml) 30 g of dried eucalyptus leaves.
- Let it brew for a quarter of an hour.
- Drink in small sips throughout the day.
Features It is used internally for ARVI, bronchitis, laryngitis, pneumonia, malaria, gastric diseases, inflammation of the gallbladder, intestinal infections. Outwardly used for rubbing the back with radiculitis, injuries, dislocations, sprains. In folk medicine, douching is popular for healing erosion of the cervical canal (cervix) with eucalyptus tincture. There is a ready-made pharmacy option.
Preparation and use
- A bottle of dark glass with a capacity of 0.5-0.7 liters filled with crushed fresh eucalyptus leaves by one third.
- Add granulated sugar to half the bottle.
- Put the vessel for four days in a dark place, tying the neck with gauze.
- To the resulting syrup add half a liter of vodka, mix well.
- Insist week in a dark place.
- Strain into a clean container by squeezing the cake thoroughly.
- When ingestion, add 20-30 drops of tincture to 50 ml of water. Take three times a day.
- For outdoor use, including douching, mix together 200 ml of warm water and a teaspoon of the drug. Cotton swab or gauze swab to treat damaged areas twice a day.
Features Effectively eliminate bacterial diseases of the upper respiratory tract, tracheitis. Apply with a cold, sinusitis, nasal congestion, headache.
Preparation and use
- For inhalation, cool the glass of boiled water to a temperature of 60-70 ° C.
- Add to the prepared water 15 ml of broth, 20 drops of alcohol tincture, or 10-15 drops of eucalyptus oil.
- Breathe in pairs, covering your head with a towel, twice a day.
Features Eucalyptus essential oil is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic aroma of cyneol. It has strong bactericidal properties. Used after dilution with water or indifferent oil. Pure oil is used only for rashes of herpes.
Preparation and use
- Sold in pharmacies in the banks of dark glass. It is mined industrially from fresh leaves.
- For rinsing, lotions, compresses, inhalations, 15-20 drops of oil are diluted with a glass of water.
- Evaporation of the oil with an aroma lamp helps to disinfect the air in the room.
It is advisable to add the eucalyptus essential oil to hair shampoos and facial cleansers.Short-term exposure to natural antiseptics helps get rid of seborrhea, excessive oily scalp, acne, dermatitis.
Eucalyptus is part of the already finished medicines. These are throat sprays “Kameton”, “Ingalipt”, eucalyptus extract - “Chlorophyllipt”, Eucalyptus-M lozenges. All drugs are distinguished by antimicrobial activity, they have been successfully used in official medicine for a long time.
Contraindications and side effects
The healing properties of eucalyptus make the plant an indispensable aid in the home treatment of bacterial diseases. However, like any other medicine, eucalyptus spherical leaves should be used only as directed. Recipes for making an infusion, decoction, tincture of leaves, must be strictly followed to prevent undesirable effects of self-prepared drug.
Side effects from the use of dried leaves of eucalyptus can be manifested by allergic reactions: reddening of the skin, rash, itching. As a rule, such phenomena disappear immediately after stopping the use of the plant. According to reviews, the external use of eucalyptus drugs causes allergies very rarely.
Also, before using medicinal raw materials, you must ensure that there are no contraindications to eucalyptus:
- use during pregnancy and lactation is undesirable
- individual sensitivity reactions,
- heart failure,
- renal failure.
Spherical eucalyptus tree is a source of valuable plant raw materials and essential oils, whose properties go far beyond the antimicrobial effects. The most popular treatment for cough is eucalyptus, but even with beginning heart disorders or disorders of the nervous system, this plant will help restore the proper functioning of the body.