Rudbeckia is loved by flower growers for its beautiful appearance, ease of planting, growing and caring, and the ability to create numerous landscape solutions with the help of these flowers.
It looks like a garden daisy with an unusual color of petals (from yellow to cherry) and, of course, is familiar to almost everyone.
On the care of this plant talk in this article.
Rudbéckia is a herbaceous plant (there is a one-year, biennial, and also perennial rudbeckia, in total more than forty species), belonging to the Aster family, native to North America.
Differs in yellow color of petals, the core is black. The height is very different - from thirty centimeters to three meters. It blooms in summer, from about the end of June to October (at a temperature above zero). The flower stems are completely covered with a hard nap (as they grow). The leaves, either whole or pinnate, as if dissected, are oval plates ranging in size from 15 to 30 centimeters. The lower leaves are located on short cuttings, and the top - right on the stem. The leaves are located opposite each other. By the middle of summer, the top of the plant becomes longer and gradually turns into a flower stalk, on which the flower itself appears.
Annual and perennial
One-year species include hairy rudbeckiawhich represents a large number of varieties. For example, Rustic variety is dwarf, the height of the trunk is about thirty centimeters, the flowers are large and bright. Flowers Moreno varieties have a dark red color and velvety petals. Unusually blooms Cherry brandy variety - deep cherry color of the petals immediately attracts attention. And rudbeckia Autumn forest varieties has a variety of colors of flowers, like the leaves of autumn forest - from yellow and orange to red and cherry.
Perennial rudbeckia is a herbaceous plant about 15 centimeters high, the leaves are narrow, the flowers are large. Combines many decorative varieties. As an example, you can bring the well-known and beloved grade Golden balls. On any garden plot, in the village front garden and in the flower garden near the town house you can find these wonderful bright yellow terry and large flowers on a high stem. Interesting variety western rudbeckia. Its flowers are completely devoid of petals, and look like a black cone in a frame of green bracts.
Differences with Echinacea
Quite often, seed sellers offer echinacea seeds, saying that this plant is nothing but purple rudbeckia. This is not true. Echinacea is a separate genus and has some differences in both appearance and cultivation.. For example, the middle of the echinacea flower is prickly, hence its name (from Greek echinos means prickly). In addition, Echinacea - a medicinal plant, and no grade of orebeckia is healing. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish these species.
The plant is well propagated by seed, with the exception of perennials terry variety.
You can grow ore beak seed from seedlings or by sowing seeds directly into the ground. The seeds of the plant can be bought at the gardening shop, and it can be harvested on its own after the adult plants have faded, i.e. in the fall. To collect the seeds you need to take the dishes or a paper bag, and cut them into boxes with seeds. Home seeds should be dried and stored no more than three years.
Rudbeckia, landing and care. In April, you can sow seeds for seedlings. For this you need a ready nutrient soil and capacity, for example, a small basin. Place the soil in a container and slightly moisten. Further seeds are sown, but not deepened, but only powdered with soil. Capacity should be covered with greenhouse film and put in heat. Periodically, the film is removed in order to wipe the condensate.
Shoots will appear in about ten days. When the first leaves appear, the seedlings can be smashed into separate containers, after which they can begin hardening, that is, they can be cool for a while, and watered with cold but settled water. With the establishment of heat plants are planted on the site (May - June). The seedling of the annual Rudbeckia will bloom quickly, by the beginning of July, and the perennial will grow and root well, and under favorable conditions it may bloom.
Before planting seeds in the ground should first determine the appropriate place. It should be enough light or in weak partial shade. Almost any land is suitable; you should only add compost and a small amount of sand (with loam). Seeds are sown at the end of May, when establishing heat. Rudbeckia hairy perennial, with proper care, next season will give good flowering.
Seeds when planting should not be deepened, you just need to press down to the ground and a little powder. Watering is carried out by sprinkling method. When plants are rooted, thinning can be done. The distance between the plants should be about forty centimeters.
Planting and care
To care for this plant is simple, the process will not cause trouble even for a novice gardener.
- Watering should be abundant, as the flowers of Rudbeckia do not like dry soil.
- Weeding should be done with care, so as not to damage the roots of rudbeckia, because they are located at shallow depths. In perennials, roots may appear on the surface of the earth, so they should be regularly sprinkled.
- During growth, orebeckia is fed with mineral fertilizers, and by the end of flowering, with nitrophosphate.
- In order to bloom was more abundant, it is necessary to remove dried flowers.
- If the plant grows without a transplant for more than five years, the bush may grow too much. In this case, the bush must be divided and spread out. This should not be done during the growth period, that is, either in the fall, before wintering, or in early spring.
- It should be borne in mind that high-stem varieties should be tied to a support.
- Before hibernation, the upper part of the plant is cut, the remaining part in the ground is filled with sawdust, humus.
It should be noted that Rudbeckia rarely gets sick. However, it is necessary to know about possible dangers, because due to infections and pests it is possible to lose these beautiful flowers.
- Mealy dew. It affects the whole plant, excluding the roots. The symptom is a loose patina of whitish color. The mildew is treated with a solution of copper sulphate or specialized ready-made preparations.
- Nematode. Signs - brown leaves. Infected annual rudbeks are better to remove and sanitize the land at the landing site. Perennial can be treated with insecticides.
- From insects (caterpillars and others) standard pest preparations are used.
Rudbeckia is widely used in the design of landscapes of garden and suburban areas. Beautifully flowers of Rudbeckia look in composition with garden daisies and asters, phloxes and cornflowers. High-stem varieties, such as Golden balls, are often planted near the fence. Due to the lush flowers and lush green area will not be visible to strangers. Hairy rudbeksia are great as a backdrop for spray roses or peonies. Rudbeckia flowers are suitable for bouquets, but they do not last long in the water.
Undoubtedly, rudbeckia is a very good choice for summer residents, gardeners, and all lovers of beautiful flowers. Planting, growing and caring for perennial rudbeckia, and even more so for one year, is simple and easy for children, and the magnificent sunny flowers are extremely beautiful and will please any florist.
Rudbeckia, which is also called hirt, has both perennial varieties and annuals. Today it is perhaps the most common type of plant, besides one of the most unpretentious. Without labor, including, you can grow a flower even in the northern regions.
In height, the hairy rudbeckia reaches a meter, its stem can be both simple and branched. Because of the winds, it often rains the stalk, reaching a certain height, descends. The foliage is large, multiple, oval. The edges are strongly jagged, but are not dangerous due to the soft structure. The petals have both tubular and lingular structure, their color is usually yellowish, the core is dark brown.
The second name is radiant: this is the name of the flower due to its petals, which look like rays of light. With yellow petals, the central part of the bud is contrast-dark. In height, this species reaches 60 cm, more often grown as a perennial. Two varieties of brilliant rudbeckia are best known in gardening: Goldstar and Goldstrom.
Tall Rudbeckia, reaching a height of two meters under favorable circumstances. It has an unusual globular inflorescences with a greenish core. Due to the fact that the stem is unstable and too long, it often bends, bends - the plant needs a mandatory garter. The most popular variety in this category is the Golden Ball.
This is a tall variety, reaching two meters in height. A bud in diameter is large, about 12 cm, with bright yellow elongated petals (see photo). In the center are small tubular green petals. Such varieties of this species as Goldshire and Herbstone can boast special popularity.
From the name it is clear that this is a tall look. Giant rudbeckia has a uniquely unpretentious character, it is successfully grown in cold climates, and resistant to drought. Flowers are long cut, good for making dried flowers. The color is attractive: small but voluminous petals surround the maroon pith.
Differs from other species in the unusual pineal bud shape. Reed petals are completely missing. Widely used in floristics, loved and popular among gardeners.
This orebeckia does not grow in nature, but is an achievement of selection science. As a rule, hybrid varieties are derived from several main plant species at once, so they acquire various qualities, properties, and can be of a curious structure and color. More often others for receiving hybrid grades use widespread hairy orebeckia, dissected, and also glossy.
It is necessary to note such a variety as purple rudbeckia. It has petals not of the usual orange shade, but of lilac.
Tall varieties of Rudbeckia are good for creating decorative fences on the site. Thus, it is possible to separate a recreation area, hide impartial outbuildings, to form a hedge.
If it is a short-grown variety, it can be used as a border decoration of a flower bed, garden paths, and simply as part of a flower garden. Some varieties are suitable for growing in flowerpots on verandas, open terraces.
Rudbeckia looks beautiful with the following plants:
Remarkably fits the flower landscape, decorated in rustic picturesque style. In general, a big yellow-orange daisy in any mixborder looks appropriate. But it is better to set high grades in the background so that they do not block the view.
Location and lighting
Rudbeckia can be grown on almost any area in the garden - the plant is surprisingly noncapritic. It is better, of course, if the light falls abundant, but if the location of the site does not allow this, rudbeckia will grow well in partial shade.
It is undesirable to plant these flowers in the shade. Although rudbeckia will not die without the sun, however, the decorativeness of its buds will become noticeably lower.
Temperature and humidity
Rudbeckia has a tempered character, it can be grown in open ground and in cool regions. A temperate temperature is best suited for her, this plant does not like heat. Drafts and winds are only afraid of tall varieties, so either protect the plants from gusts, or better tie them up for reliability.
The level of humidity in this case does not matter much. However, it is impossible to fill a flower bed with rudbeckia, especially systematically: this plant will survive drought more easily than an excess of moisture.
It is recommended to grow orebeckia in a soil that is fairly fertile and loose, light. If the soil consists mainly of clay, it must first be loosened with sand. Soil acidity is neutral or weak.
Need a bed before planting in digging. It is also necessary to free the area from weeds, loosen. If the soil is poor, fertilizer should be applied in the form of humus or peat.
When to plant
Rudbeckia can either be grown seedling, or immediately planted in open ground. The second method, however, is not suitable for all regions, but mainly for warm ones.
If the seedling method is chosen, the seeds are planted either at the end of March or in April: it is clear that this is a room. At an earlier time, planting seeds is undesirable, since by the time of planting on the bed the seedlings can already grow. In open ground, seedlings are placed in May and June: specific dates depend on the weather in the region.
If a seedless method is chosen, the seeds are sown in March: you understand that this requires a stable and warm climate. You can also plant in the fall in October or November - hardened seeds of Rudbeckia and are not afraid of frost. They spend the winter well under a layer of mulch and in the spring, having undergone a natural stratification, will safely ascend.
Planting seeds in open ground
In a seedless way, rudbeckia is usually grown in regions with a warm climate: in the north and in Siberia, the preliminary germination of seedlings is necessary. Note that when planting seeds on a bed, the plants obtained from them will not bloom in the first year. But in the next vegetation, orebeckia, grown immediately in the open field, will bloom even earlier than its “seedlings” counterparts.
Seeds are sown to a depth of 1-2 cm, not more. Beforehand, it is necessary to make small grooves in the ground, using chopper or flat-cutter. Landing is done, after which the grooves are covered with a thin layer of soil. Leave between rows a distance of 25-30 cm.
Important: between the seeds, keep a distance of 15 cm. Otherwise, then you have to spend power on thinning.
Water the beds after planting, but moderately, preventing the formation of puddles on its surface. In the future, watering is recommended frequent, but moderate in volume: it is much better than watering rarely, but with whole buckets. After about a couple of weeks, the seeds germinate. When the seedlings acquire a pair of true leaves, they are thinned. By the fall on the garden will grow a small size of the outlet, which next year will turn into a full-blooming shrub.
Important: Rudbeckia can breed very well and self-seeding. If you are satisfied with this fact, you can not do the planting work at all: the plant will do everything on its own.
Consider in detail the features of the cultivation of rudbeckia from seed seedling method.
Rudbeck seeds are planted on seedlings in March, sometimes at the end of February. It is recommended to place one or two seeds in one container. But if the container is large, let's say massive sowing. The substrate must be nutritious and hydrated. On top of the seeds a little sprinkled with soil.
How to care for seedlings
Watering seedlings are carried out from the sprayer, as the seedlings of Rudbeckia are very fragile. Use water only at room temperature and separated. Waterlogging is unacceptable, it can even lead to a dangerous fungal infection.
To seedlings develop safely, maintain the temperature in the room at +22 degrees. If it is cool, seedlings will slow down their development. With strong heat, weak, filiform sprouts are obtained.
If the sowing was massive, the shoots will have to swoop down. Make this procedure at the stage of formation of two or three leaves. Remove only the weakest sprouts, and healthy and healthy sit on individual cups.
How to land in open ground
Replace the cups from the cups to the garden when the night temperatures stop dropping below zero. The landing is done in separate holes, keep a distance of 50-60 cm between the bushes.
If the weather is already warm, seedlings will take root faster. If it is still cool, it is better to cover the bed for the night with a film or agrofiber before the fine days.
How to care
Find out what care is required for rudbeckia growing outdoors.
The plant requires moderate moisture without kinking in the other direction. Waterlogging affects the flower badly, it can even lead to putrid diseases. A prolonged drought is also unacceptable, because in this case the flower may lose its decorative effect, fade.
It is recommended to irrigate at the same time: either in the morning or in the evening. If the weather is hot outside, you can moisten the soil more often.
So that Rudbeckia feels well and pleases with long flowering, it is imperative to feed it. Fertilizer is applied immediately before flowering. Commonly used mineral complex supplements, including necessarily potassium.
You can also feed the perennial rudbeckia in the spring, when the plant wakes up. Эта подкормка направлена на активизацию жизненных сил и должна состоять из следующих компонентов:
- удобрение Агрикола-7,
- калия сульфат.
Все ингредиенты берутся по 1 столовой ложке на ведро воды. На 1м2 грядки рекомендуется расходовать 3 литра такой подкормки. You need to repeat the procedure in a couple of weeks. And in order to extend the flowering period, it is recommended organic top dressing in the middle of summer, consisting of infused grass.
The procedure is carried out after rains and irrigations and is aimed at improving the permeability of the soil. Simultaneously with loosening it is convenient to weed immediately.
Garter and trimming
If rudbeckia is a tall variety, it must be tied up. Otherwise, the stalk can easily bend under gusts of wind, and even break.
As for pruning, in this case, you only need to remove dried inflorescences. In addition, perennial varieties of rudbeckia are pruned before the onset of cold weather.
It is clear that only the perennial species needs transplantation. At one place, Rudbeckia can feel great for 3-5 years, after which it needs to be transplanted. If you do not replant, the ornamental qualities of the plant are significantly reduced, the buds become smaller and less often, the plant as a whole becomes weaker.
Transplantation is carried out in the spring, as soon as the snow melts and the ground warms up. As a rule, simultaneously with the transplant, the bush is divided so that several ready-made plants can be obtained from one rudbeckia at once.
Gather seeds after flowering stops: this happens in the fall. Do not immediately collect the boxes, you must wait until they dry out. Seeds that are in the very center of the bud have good germination, and collect them. After collecting, dry the seeds, pour them on paper, then store them in a dry place.
In warm regions, Rudbeckia happily winters without shelter. If we are talking about areas of the north, it is recommended to cover the bed with a layer of mulch, which will help the roots not to freeze. Cover should be spruce or dry grass. As mentioned above, before wintering perennial plants are cut at the root.
Protection against diseases and pests
Most often, the plant affects the plant nematode leaf. This miniature pest is able to inflict considerable damage by devouring the foliage of the plant. The nematode lesion symptom is dark spots on the leaves, which then take on the character of necrotic. Due to the defeat of the nematode, the foliage of Rudbeckia dies, fades.
To get rid of the pest, all affected parts of the flower should be removed. It is important to ensure that the removed parts do not fall into the compost - it is better to burn them immediately. If foliage is shed intensively, treatment with insecticides is necessary. The following tools will do:
Less often than a nematode, but nevertheless it may be affected by rudbeckia caterpillars and their larvae. Fight this scourge by collecting insects by hand, as well as spraying the bushes with insecticides.
As for diseases, powdery mildew most often affects others. This fungus is very cunning and can lead to the death of the plant. The symptom is whitish, mildew-like, blurred spots that appear on the foliage. To cope with powdery mildew, the flowers are sprayed with copper sulfate or colloidal sulfur solution.
We learned how to grow orebeckia in the open field. This wonderful plant will become a real decoration of the site, will please with long flowering, brightness, unpretentiousness.
Varieties of perennial Rudbeckia
In total there are about 300 species of this plant, each is attractive in its own way, but there are several that are grown most often.
Rudbeckia dissected - the kind demanding the minimum leaving can grow up to 2 m, with a horizontal rhizome. To the grades of orebecky dissected perennial include the Golden ball, Goldkvelle.
- Golden ball blooms from July to October, resistant to frost. Inflorescence terry or semi-double bright and pale yellow. Requires support due to tall growth and thin stems.
- Goldquelle variety is very similar to it, but it is short (0.8 m), blooming from August to September.
- Variety Vanabilis has narrow leaves and orange-yellow inflorescences (9 cm in diameter).
- Sullivanta variety has long leaf leaves and flowers at different heights. Will require renewal in 3-4 years.
- Goldstrom - a variety with dark green foliage and tough hairs on the stems.
- Maine Freude has bright yellow inflorescences (
10 cm in diameter). Not higher than 70 cm in height.
- Grade Goldshire high (2.5 m), strongly branched shrub with bright yellow flowers.
- Herbstonn is a variety whose edge flowers are strongly bent to the ground.
Planting and soil selection
Rudbeckia does not need increased attention, but it is better to choose the sunny part of the site for planting (partially shaded places are allowed). Even clay soil will be suitable for the plant if you add sand for digging, but fertile, permeable soil would be ideal. In any case, you need to fertilize the soil before planting. Planting ore beckoo in the open ground with the help of seedlings carried out in late May, the seeds - a few weeks later. If low temperatures still persist at night, the plant should be covered until it is applied. Place the pits at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other, after planting, you can mulch the soil with compost.
The subtleties of growing perennial Rudbeckia
Growing a perennial rudbeckia will not cause much trouble. But there are some nuances.
Watering should be regular, especially if the bush grows in a sunny area. It will suffer a short-term drought, but watering is very important during the period of active growth.
2 times per season (growth stage and ovary) it is allowed to feed rudbeckia during watering. Take the standard fertilizer for flowering plants. Faded inflorescence should be removed for the longest possible stage of flowering and preservation of the decorative appearance. Before wintering rudbeckia pruned at the root.
Two ways of breeding rudbeckia
Perennial Rudbeckia is propagated by seed or by dividing a bush.
How to collect seeds, we have already described above, but you can buy them without any difficulties. You can plant the seeds directly into the ground or grow seedlings. In open ground, seeds are not sown deep in mid-late June. Distance - about 15 cm. Sprinkled with earth and watered. Already in the fall small sockets are formed, and the next year - young bushes.
In the seedling method, seeds are sown in the middle of spring in a container and covered with glass or film. It is necessary to grow at + 18 ° С - + 22 ° С, when shoots appear, the temperature is reduced to + 16 ° С. After 4 leaves have appeared, the seedlings swoop in hotel pots. Gradually carried out into the open air for several hours. Transplanted into the ground after passing frost.
Since it is more difficult to grow orebeckia from seeds, and at the same time there is no transfer of varietal characteristics of the mother plant, it is more often propagated by dividing the rhizomes. It is better to carry out the procedure in spring (as soon as shoots began to appear) or in autumn (after flowering). To do this, dig a bush and gently divide it into pieces. On each must remain a renewal kidney. In the fertilized, loosened earth, make a well and plant some of the rudbeckia bush.
Major pests of rudbeckia
Leaf nematodes, powdery mildew, rust and leaf-eating insects are the most common pests of orebeckia.
The appearance of brown, purple, yellow spots on the leaves indicates infection nematodes. Remove damaged and fallen leaves. Treat the plant with insecticides. Prevention is proper, not over-irrigation.
If you notice a white loose patina, and the foliage has become sluggish, then probably rudbeckia is struck powdery mildew. For struggle, spraying of copper sulphate (40 g per 5 l of water), as well as a solution of colloidal sulfur (1%) is suitable. Also replace the top layer of soil.
When rusty, yellow-orange color bubbles form on the leaves, it is necessary to start fighting rust (a fungal disease). It is necessary to process the fungicide bush. Weeding and proper care are prevention. Also use insecticides to combat insects.
This plant is very resistant to pests and, with proper agricultural technology, it rarely gets sick, so prevention from all pests is the proper care: watering, loosening the soil, removing dried inflorescences, fertilizer, and burning off the infected infected parts of the plant. It is better to dig up the affected orebeckia and cultivate the soil with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
Perennial rudbeckia is a great choice for your garden. As described in this article, it is easy to care for her, there are many varieties for every taste, and she rarely gets sick. This sunny bush will complement any floral arrangements and will delight you until the frost.
Characteristics of rudbeckia
For the duration of the growth of these flowers are:
Depending on this, the ways of their planting and growing differ. They also differ from each other in appearance depending on the species. For example, the height of the rudbeck can reach 0.5 - 3 meters. The leaves of the plant can grow up to 20 cm and have ovoid or oval. The flowers of the plant are large and bright, their diameter reaches 10-15 cm, and they are also collected in baskets-inflorescences, rising heads up on a highly placed peduncle.
Depending on the type of rudbeckia, lingual bracts may have different shades:
- golden yellow
- dark brown
Below we consider some types of goldfish both annual and perennial:
- obdakbivayuschaya rudbekiya - this one-year flower, blooms from June to September. It has lowered petals, which seem to clasp the stem,
- dissected (Golden balls) - a perennial plant, blooming from July to August,
- glossy - a perennial flower, blooms in July and August, has a bright center,
- brilliant rudbeckia - differs from the previous species in the dark brown middle,
- sun-eyed - such a flower grows in the wild,
- Hairy Rudbeckia is an annual flower, on the basis of which many other ornamental species are derived. It blooms from early summer to frost.
Planting annual seeds for seedlings
In this case, landing need to be carried out in early April. To do this, you need to prepare a large and shallow container, a greenhouse or small peat glasses. For the seed to germinate, the earth must be heated to at least 16 degrees. If necessary, land for planting is watered with hot water.
Next, the seed must be pressed shallowly into the ground by 3 mm, or simply scattered over its surface, lightly sprinkled on top. After the planting process is complete, no need to water the seed, just spray it. Rudbeck saplings are very sensitive to frost, so the seed planted must be brought into the room and covered with polyethylene or glass.
Within two weeks sprouts should appear. Before planting, they should be placed in a permanent place in the sun and watered regularly. Two weeks before this point, the flowers begin to harden, bringing them out onto the street every day, each time increasing their residence time.
With proper care, seedlings from the seeds of one-year old rudbeckia are planted in open ground closer to summer. To the flowers in the future do not interfere with each other, you need between low bushes leave a gap of 50 cm, and between high - 1 m, respectively.
With this method of planting flowers Rudbeckia will bloom from mid-summer to mid-autumn.
Planting annual seeds in the ground
Seed annuals directly into the ground can be planted in the middle of summer. Thanks to this method of growing bloom you will wait for the next season. Planting is the same as for seedlings, only the distance should be greater.
Plant care for this cultivation includes such activities:
- sprouting sprouts
- weed control.
Rudbeckia need to be planted in a sunny area, so you will provide the best flowering. High varieties are best planted along fences, and low - along flower beds and paths.
Features landing perennial rudbeckia
The perennial rudbeckia seed is sown directly in open ground. Landing is carried out in May, if too northern region - then in June. The flower is not particularly demanding of the soil, even a clay surface will suit it, but the garden bed for planting and growing the plant must be fertilized so that the flower grows quickly and is lush.
After planting the seeds they need to top sprinkle some earth and spray a little water. The plant will rise in the autumn, then the seedlings will be able to dive to a permanent place of cultivation. And if you planted flowers immediately on a permanent place, they will bloom the next season.
Perennial seeds can be planted at home or in greenhouses for seedlings in the month of April. And transplant them in late May. At the same time, make sure that the depth of planting in the open field is the same as in the tank before.
Rudbeckia is a flower that is not very capricious in terms of caring for it and is very persistent. For its comfortable growing Care conditions are very simple:
- need time to water the flower. Rudbeckia loves moisture, but at the same time a short drought will not be scary for him either. Watering increases with flowering,
- feed the ore beck
- pruning plants. It is necessary to remove dead inflorescences in time in order to activate the long-term flowering of plants and preserve its attractive appearance. In winter, the bushes of Rudbeckia are cut off at the root and covered with spruce branches or dry grass so that the flowers do not freeze.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
Fertilizer Rudbeckia is good. Feed it twice a season. The first time is carried out at the beginning of growth, when the root system is already slightly developed. To do this, use mineral fertilizers.
The second feeding is carried out after 20 days, here it is better to take a solution based on nitrophosphate and Ross fertilizer.
Flowers reproduce not only by means of seeds, but also by division. Shrubs are divided approximately once every five years. With long-term cultivation in one place, a flower able to give good growth. Large bushes are dug up and neatly divided into parts. Delenki need to land on the garden with a distance.
It is best to engage in breeding orebeckia before the plant enters the active phase of development. For example, in early spring or autumn after the plant blooms.
Dangerous diseases and pests
Rudbeckia is practically not exposed to diseases, only sometimes the plant can suffer with powdery mildew, when a white coating in the form of flour appears on the leaves and stems. For treatment, the flower is sprayed with a one-percent solution of colloidal sulfur or treated with blue vitriol.
Another disease characteristic of rudbeckia in rare cases is leaf nematode. When it appears on the leaves brown heel, provoking their withering. To fight in this case, you need to use special preparations or remove the damaged part of the plant and burn it.
As part of the care of orebeck, you need to regularly check it for the presence of leaf-eating pests. Such species are dangerous for her:
- leaf-eating beetles,
- spider mite
But all diseases and pests do not pose any danger to the flower, if the care for it is carried out correctly and on time.
Combination with other plants and application in design
In landscape design This flower is used in different variants, for example:
- in the garden,
- at fences and fences,
- against the background of buildings
- along tracks and sidewalks.
Growing up in the garden gives their owners only pleasure, because rudbeckies are very unpretentious in caring for them. And they will delight your eye even in the fall, when other garden flowers have faded.
If you plant Rudbeckia with other plants, but you need to take into account its dimensions. Some of its varieties can grow up to 2 meters, so for nearby light-loving plants this will not be good.
High varieties that need to be tied up are best planted in the background of the compositions. Very impressive next to the rudbeckies will look chrysanthemums and astersOriginal compositions will be obtained in combination with Echinacea purpurea.
Rudbeckia looks great both in monocompositions and in group plantings. Good combinations of them are obtained with plants such as:
- Monarda and others.
Both long-term and one-year ore beckinia in terms of planting, cultivation and care will not cause you significant trouble. They will make a great decoration of any site. If you all look right behind them, these flowers will delight you even in the fall.
- The stem is simple or branched, up to 2 meters high. Although in nature can reach three-meter height.
- The leaves are diverse: they may be pinnately dissected, pinnately-divided or whole, egg-shaped. Length - 5-20 cm.
- At the bottom of the stem, the leaves are located on the elongated petioles, at the top they sit without a cutting on the stem.
- Inflorescence is a basket with a diameter of up to 15 cm.
- The fruit is a achene, sometimes has a miniature crown.
- Seeds are small, dark gray, can rise and 3 years after harvest.
This plant is represented by annuals and perennial species. На садовых участках можно встретить следующие однолетние цветы:
- Волосистая (мохнатая, хирта). This is a one-year-old guest from the North American continent, having a hard-stemmed stem about a meter high. The leaves are of two types: basal ovate, whole, placed on the petioles, and stem broadly lanceolate, hairy. The inflorescence is about 10 cm in diameter.
- Enveloping This rudbeckia is quite high, it can grow up to 80 cm, the leaves are sessile oval or slightly elongated, bare. Reed flowers are painted in sunny yellow, middle - in dark brown.
- Bicolor. It is an annual shrub, which is up to half a meter high, hairy stem, with lancets-leaves. Reed flowers are bright yellow or orange colored, tubular - almost black.
Perennials have a wide variety and include more than 40 varieties. To number The most popular perennial mines include:
- Dissected. This is a fairly tall plant, it can blow out even two meters. It has a rhizome - horizontal and branched, two types of leaves: pinnately-separated basal and tripartite stem. The color of flowers is attractive: reed colored rich yellow, tubular - light yellow. Among the varieties are terry and semi-double. Cultivation is possible in Russia.
- Brilliant (radiant). This bush reaches 60 cm in height, has narrow leaves-lancets. The inflorescences are 9 cm long, reed flowers are orange-colored, tubular ones have a dark red or purple tint.
- Western. By its appearance, this unusual plant with a height of up to 1.5 meters resembles a tongueless chamomile. Rudbeckia has no reed flowers, and tubular ones are painted black.
- Glossy. The size of the bush is about 2 meters, the leaves are lanceolate, oblong, reed flowers are yellow, tubular - green.
- Giant. This is a large plant with green leaves covered with a waxy coating. Reed flowers are colored yellow, tubular dark tones. Such rudbeckia is not capricious, it tolerates both frost and drought, and the bouquets of it will stand for a long time.
- Beautiful (beautiful). The height of such a bush is about half a meter, the leaves are round or oblong, reed flowers of a rich orange color, tubular - dark brown.
Especially good for growing hybrid varietiesobtained by artificial method. They have large buds and original colors, including purple. The most popular varieties of hybrids:
- Double daisy Height is about 1.2 meters, terry inflorescences, reed flowers monophonic or variegated, tubular - brown. Egg-like leaves heavily pubescent.
- Gloriosa Daisy. Can be grown as an annual, and perennial. Extreme flowers are bright yellow or yellow-brown in color, the middle is dark brown.
Rudbeckia perennial: planting and care
Rudbeckia seeds can be planted directly in the ground, the best time for this is the second half of June. I dig up the beds first, level the ground, remove weeds and their roots. Next, sow the seeds, leaving a distance of 15 cm between plantings. Then the crops are sprinkled with a thin layer of soil, plentifully but gently watered. In the autumn, it will be possible to observe the appearance of small outlets, which will grow into lush bushes and will be pleasing to the eye with friendly flowering next spring.
It is possible to do much simpler: this perennial reproduces itself by self-sowing, therefore, after discarding seedlings that appear in disorder in the spring, the gardener simply relies on nature itself, not engaging in reproduction. Shrubs grow and bloom on their own.
Rassadny method of growing also very popular. For seedlings, seeds of rudbeckia are sown in containers in early April. On top of the landing, they are sprinkled with a light layer of soil, sprayed with water from a spray bottle. Then the containers should be covered with a film and control the temperature, the thermometer should not fall below + 20 ° C. Then in a week there will be the first to enter the rudbeckia. Growing seedlings from seeds involves constant soil moistening and daily ventilation. When the first two true leaves appear, the seedlings are seated in separate pots and hardened - temporarily taken out in a cooler room.
Planting in open ground
Replant the plant in open ground It should be in the last week of May, after frosts. Rudbeckia belongs to the light-loving plants, so the area for these flowers should be picked up in the sun. The soil is preferred cultivated, fertile, enriched with compost. Sand should be added to the clay soil.
Bushes are transferred to the open ground at a distance of at least 30 cm from each other. If the spring has healed, it is better to cover the young plants with foil to protect them from frost. Planting is best mummed with a layer of compost.
Important! Perennial rudbeckia can grow in one place for about 5 years.
Diseases and pests
The plant is a little susceptible to disease, but still a grower should know how to behave in the event of infection. So, Diseases inherent in orebeckia include:
- Mealy dew. You can learn about the disease by the appearance of white bloom on the stem and leaves. To cure a plant, it is necessary to process it with a solution of copper sulphate or colloidal sulfur.
- Sheet nematode, manifested in the appearance of brown spots on the leaves and subsequent dying off. For treatment, you can use drugs like Nemagon or Basamid, but it is better to dig and destroy diseased plants.
Important! If there is an annual on your site infected with nematodes, it should be completely burned, and the soil should be dug up and filled with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
Caterpillars harm the leaves of plants, they must be collected manually and destroyed.
However, we note that with proper care, the plant is little prone to disease.
Rudbeckia in the garden and landscape design
When choosing a place to plant this plant, it should be noted that bushes rudbeckia quite high, therefore, can create a shadow.
This attractive plant will be a real boon for landscape design: it is perfect for creating original compositions in rural style, decorating paths and flowerbeds.
Popular plant species
Rudbeckia belongs to the Astro family, breeders number about 40 plant species. The birthplace of the flower is North America, but thanks to its beauty and unpretentiousness, Rudbeckia quickly spread to other continents. This is a grassy annual or perennial with a powerful rhizome, inflorescences are calyxes or baskets.
Coloring inflorescences - a combination of different shades of yellow, orange, brown.
The most common in the flower gardens are its following types:
- Rudbeckia dissected - another name for this flower is “golden balls”. It is a perennial, the height of its stems is up to two meters. Inflorescences are spherical, bright yellow. The plant grows heavily, forming dense thickets. To stems do not break from the wind, you need to tie them up regularly.
- Brilliant rudbeckia - the plant reaches a height of 120 cm, the inflorescences are bright yellow in color with a convex dark brown center.
- Hairy rudbeckia - perennial, got its name thanks to terry inflorescences. The color of hairy rudbeckia is very beautiful - the center is orange or dark brown, the petals are bright yellow, red-brown, the colors form smooth transitions. The diameter of the inflorescences is 10−15 cm, the height of the stems is 50−90 cm. The most prominent representatives of the species are the varieties Goldflame, Riesenfeude, Meine Freude.
- Rudbeckia hybrid - it looks like a hairy rudbeckia, but it has a large inflorescence diameter - up to 20 cm. The second difference is a more convex middle of the flower.
Planting perennials and annuals
Planting and growing methods vary for different plant species, depending on whether it is a perennial or annual. Most often in flowerbeds there is a perennial rudbeckia. Planting and care in this case have such features:
- Seeds are sown in May-June immediately in open ground.
- The bed before planting is fertilized.
- Sown seeds are sprinkled with water and lightly sprinkled with earth.
- Seedlings are shown in about 1-2 months, after the appearance of several leaves, the shoots are transplanted to a permanent place.
- You can speed up the growing process if you sow seeds in a greenhouse in early April. In this case, young plants can be transplanted to a permanent place at the end of May.
- At one place perennial can grow 5−6 years, then you need to change the plot.
- The second method of reproduction of perennials - the division of rhizomes. Large bushes are dug, trying not to damage the root, neatly divided into parts, seated.
Annuals are easy to grow from seeds: they are sown in an open sunny area to a depth of about 3 mm in open ground when the earth warms to +16 ° C. Two weeks later, shoots appear, and after they get stronger, they are transplanted to a permanent place. The distance between the plants is left in the range of 20−50 cm
Rudbeckia blooms from mid-summer to late October, until it freezes.
Features of growing
Despite the fact that the flower does not require special growing conditions, some rules for caring for him need to know and abide by.
This will help to get a brighter color, prolong flowering, avoid plant diseases.
When growing Rudbeckia pay attention to such moments:
- Moisture. The plant is moisture-loving, so you need to monitor the soil moisture. A small drought is not terrible, but with a constant lack of water, the inflorescences become small, the color intensity is lost.
- Fertilizers. For feeding, annuals and perennials react with a violent bloom, so it is recommended to feed them at least two times during the flowering season. Complex fertilizers are used as top dressing.
- Pests and diseases. The plant is rarely affected by pests and diseases.that is a big plus: often flower growers make a choice in favor of rudbeck thanks to this property. Powdery mildew can rarely appear: to fight this disease, you need to spray bushes with copper sulphate solution (8 g per 1 liter of water).
- Crop. The plant is prone to strong growth, so you need to constantly monitor the condition of the bushes, remove the dead inflorescences. This will help not only to maintain a beautiful view of the flowerbeds, but also stimulate the formation of new inflorescences.
- Shelter for the winter. Some varieties of rudbeckia are winter-hardy and easily tolerate low temperatures. But it is still better to cover the plants for the winter with dry grass or spruce leaves, after cutting the stems at the root.
Even if you give Rudbeckia minimal attention, she will thank for abundant flowering and will be pleasing to the eye with bright colors until late autumn.