Saffron is a plant known to the ancient Egyptians and residents of the mysterious East. In our world, not every gardener knows that saffron has another name - crocus. This plant is very much loved for its beautiful flowering in early spring, but in order to achieve it, saffron needs proper care. Further detail about how to grow saffron in the open field: features of planting, care, etc. (attached photo and instruction).
Saffron (crocus): description, varieties, varieties
Saffron (Crocus) is a famous representative of the Iris family. This herb can be found in natural conditions mainly in the steppe and meadow zones of Europe, as well as in some parts of Asia and the Middle East.
The well-known saffron is made from the yellow stigmas of crocus flowers, which are ground and then carefully dried. Saffron can be used as a coloring pigment and, of course, in cooking.
In nature, there are two main varieties of saffron: spring (bloom only in spring) and autumn, delicate flowers which can be seen on the surface of the soil no earlier than September. In total in the world there are about 15 groups of plants, among which only one autumn.
The plant is represented by small flower buds, reaching a length of no more than 8 cm. The leaves of the plant are folded into a bun. But on the surface of the soil they can be seen either before the flowering of the plant, or after.
Consider the best representatives of the autumn and spring species. Among the spring variety of varieties, one can perhaps single out the following:
- Crocus dichromatic. Under natural conditions can be found in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, as well as a wide strip from Italy to Iran. From one (which is understandable by name) corms grows 2 medium-sized white flowers, lilac with blueness or white with thin purple stripes shade. Zev can be both yellow and white.
- Spring crocus. The variety has been known to the world for more than 400 years. It grows quite high: it can reach 17 cm. The leaves are very narrow, straight, saturated green with a pronounced white stripe. From one corm grows on average 1-2 beautiful flowers of soft purple and white. Pleases with its luxurious bloom in the spring for 2-3 weeks.
- Golden crocus. The plant loves rocky slopes. Because often it can be found in the mountains. The plant is quite tall - it can reach a height of 20 cm. Petals of flowers have a beautiful pale golden color. Some varieties have small brown markings on the outside of the petals. This spring species has been cultivated for about 150 years.
- Crocus banatsky. It occurs mainly in the Balkans and the Carpathians. This autumn species has been cultivated for almost 400 years. Differs unusual appearance. So, its leaves have a delicate gray color, and the flowers are light lilac with bright yellow stigmas. The height of the plant is small - the flowers rarely rise above the ground above 13-14 cm.
- Cute crocus. Very beautiful compact plant (up to 10 cm in height), quite large flowers which brightly motley on the surface of the earth with its light purple petals. Despite the seeming fragility, the autumn crocus is pretty - the plant is quite hardy and can safely withstand small frosts.
Features of growing plants in open ground
The timing of planting in the open ground varies depending on the timing of its flowering. So, spring varieties need to be planted in late summer - early autumn in order to enjoy their luxurious flowering in late spring. Autumn plants are planted approximately at the beginning of summer, so that with the arrival of autumn, the first flowers appear on the ground surface.
Council If you plan to plant an autumn crocus, keep in mind that the plant should be planted in the ground without flowers. But in many stores, unfortunately, they sell saffron with flowers. The fact is that, by planting a plant in this form, the probability of obtaining new beautiful flowers during the flowering period is very small.
Land for planting try to choose the most sunny. In the absence of one, partial shade will do, but the selection of the soil should be approached more carefully. Crocus blooms best in nutritious, light and dry soil.
While preparing the soil for planting, a drainage layer can be made from gravel or coarse sand. Do not forget also about feeding the soil. For this purpose, you can add organic matter to the soil: compost, peat with lime added (if the soil is acidic), etc.
Before planting, the plants must be carefully inspected and rejected damaged or ugly. To protect the planting material from fungal diseases, treat it with a fungicide solution. Planting of bulbs is carried out traditionally at a depth of 2 times the size of the bulb itself (if the soil is loose) or equal to the size of the bulb (if the soil is heavy enough). The distance between the individual bulbs should not be less than 7 cm. But more than 10 cm apart, it is better not to plant them, otherwise the rows will turn out to be quite rare. After planting the site must be carefully watered.
Subtleties of care
Plant care is quite simple and involves periodic watering, careful and regular loosening of the soil, as well as the active application of top dressing. As for moisture, saffron loves it in moderation, so you should not water the flowers as soon as possible. Generally, if the winter was snowy, and there was a lot of rain in the spring, water the plant better as little as possible.
Top dressing for crocus as a delicacy, but it’s best to use ready-made mineral fertilizers (especially phosphorus and potassium), and to abandon organic matter.
Council Do not get carried away with nitrogen fertilizers, since their excess in the area with saffron can lead to the development of fungal diseases.
The first time feeding is applied to the soil in early spring, the second time - during the period of active flowering. Periodically loosen the soil and remove all weeds, including extra crocuses, from the plot, because if you leave its flowers in the "wrong" place, the plant can turn into a weed.
Do not forget to transplant crocus bulbs every few years. This is done for the reason that every year the mother bulb grows more and more daughter bulbs, which is becoming less and less space. As a result, the flowers begin to shrink.
Here, in principle, are all the subtleties that a gardener should know for successfully planting saffron in open ground. Good luck!
Crocus, or Saffron - low-growing (usually about 10 cm in height) plant with small (about 2 cm) tuberous bulbs of a flat or spherical shape. Narrow leaves linear, often with whitish streaks in the center, continue to grow after the flowers wither. Peduncle Crocus leafless, short. The duration of crocuses bloom depends on the type and weather. The goblet flowers of crocuses of various colors: white, yellow, cream, orange, blue, purple, lilac, crocuses are two-colored and spotty, and with a contrasting mesh pattern. The flower of saffron on average reaches a diameter of 2-5 cm, it opens in clear weather. Crocuses look good in group plantings (7-10 plants each), along with the rest of the small-bulbous spring plants or independently, harmoniously fit into the rock garden. Crocuses are especially attractive among the grass, next to trees and shrubs.
Crocus prefers sunny places, but can grow on semi-shady and shady areas. The soil is preferred fertile and well drained. Crocus fertilizers use compost or humus (but not fresh manure). Corms of spring-flowering crocuses are planted in September, and autumn-flowering crocuses are planted in August. Crocus corns planting depth is 6-8 cm, the interval between them is 7-10 cm. In winter crocuses are mulched with peat. In winter, crocuses can be affected by rodents. Intensively growing nests of crocuses are seated after 4-5 years.
Corm - underground thickened underground part of the stem, in which there are nutrients. The difference between corms and a real bulb is that the nutrients in the bulb accumulate in the scales.
Saffron, or spring crocus (Crocus vernus). © Jerzy Opiola Saffron, or golden-flowered crocus (Crocus chrysanthus). © Shihmei Barger Saffron, or Geyfel's crocus (Crocus heuffelianus). © vaso77
Crocus (saffron) species
In ornamental gardening, both wild-growing crocus and varietal species are used:
Adams Saffron, or Adams Crocus (Crocus adami) - height of peduncle 4-6 cm, perianth 3-5 cm in diameter. The color of the flowers is from light lilac to dark purple, the mouth is whitish or yellow. Blossoms in the second half of April.
- According to the modern classification, it is singled out as a variety of Saffron, or two-flowered crocus (Crocus biflorus) — Crocus biflorus var. adamii
Saffron alatavsky, or Altavsky crocus (Crocus alatavicus) - height of peduncle 6-8 cm. Perianth inside is white, dark purple outside, with a yellowish throat. Blossoms in early April.
Banat saffron, or Banata crocus (Crocus banaticus) - peduncle height 12-14 cm. Voronkovidnye flowers light lilac with yellow anthers and lilac stigmas. Blossoms in September.
Spring Saffron, or spring crocus (Crocus vernus) - spikelet height 1-3 cm, perianth 3.5-5 cm in diameter. The color of the flowers is white, purple, violet. Blossoms in the second half of April. The most common varieties (in brackets indicate the length of the tepals):
- "Agnes" - light lilac with a silver edge (3.5 cm)
- "Vanguard" - light lilac, silver outside (4.5 cm)
- "Glory of Sassenheim" - grayish with light purple stripes and dark purple base (5 cm)
- "Jubili" - blue with silver shine, bright edge and purple base (5 cm)
- "Jeanne d'Arc" - white (9 cm)
- "Queen of de Blues" - light blue with a bright edge and a dark base (5.5 cm)
- "Kathleen Perlow" - white (4-4.5 cm)
- "Little Dorrit" - silver blue
- "Nigro Boy" - dark purple with a purple base (4.5 cm)
- "Pallas" - grayish with purple stripes and purple base (5 cm)
- "Pikvik" - grayish with purple stripes and purple base (5 cm)
- "Paulus Potter" - dark purple with a reddish tinge (5 cm)
- Purpureu Grandiflore - purple with a dark base (4.5 cm)
- "Remebrance" - purple, with a silver shine, very dark base (5.5 cm)
- "Snowstar" - white, with bright purple stripes at the base (5 cm)
- "Flower Record" - purple (11 cm)
Saffron Geifel, or Geyfel's crocus (Crocus heuffelianus) - peduncle height 10-12 cm. Perianth purple with dark spots at the top of the leaves. Blossoms in early April.
Golden saffron, or Golden crocus (Crocus chrysanthus) 8 cm high. Small yellow or blue flowers of various shades and colors appear in the second half of April. It has large-flowered varieties with a perianth diameter of 3-5 cm:
- "Blue Bonnet" - pearl blue, throat yellow
- "Violet Queen" - purple, throat golden yellow
- "Cream Beauty" - yellow
- "Snowbinding" - white
Saffron Korolkova, or Korolkov's crocus (Crocus korolkowii) - height of peduncle 5-6 cm. Perianth is orange-yellow with purple stripes on the outside. Blossoms in early April.
Saffron Pallas, or Pallas crocus (Crocus pallasii) - height of peduncle 5-6 cm. Perianth pink-purple with purple base and veins. Blossoms in the second half of September.
Saffron is beautifulor crocus is beautiful (Crocus speciosus) - height of peduncle 12-18 cm. Perianth with a diameter of 10-12 cm, lilac-purple with darker veins. The flowers are fragrant, appear in September. The most common varieties are:
- Albus - White
- "Artabir" - lilac
- "Kassiope" - blue
- "Oxonion" - dark blue
- "Pallux" - light purple
Saffron yellowor crocus yellow (Crocus flavus) - height of peduncle 5-8 cm. Perianth 8 cm long, 6-7 cm in diameter, golden-orange with barely noticeable purple stripes on the outside. Blossoms in mid-April.
Saffron net, or Crocus striped, or Crocus net, or Saffron striped (Crocus reticulatus) - height of peduncle 6-10 cm. Perianth 3-4 cm in diameter, light purple inside, with dark brown stripes on the outside. Blossoms in the first half of April.
Saffron Suzia, or Susi crocus (Crocus susianus) - height of peduncle 6-10 cm. Perianth with a diameter of up to 4 cm golden yellow color, with dark purple stripes on the outside. Blossoms in the first half of April.
- According to the modern classification, united under the common name - Saffron, or narrow-leaved crocus (Crocus angustifolius)
Saffron Tomasini, or Tomasini Crocus (Crocus tommasinianus) - perianth 5-6 cm in height and 3-5 cm in diameter. Color from light lilac to violet, whitish pharynx. Blossoms in early April. Two varieties are common:
- "Bar People" - lilac
- "Ruby Giant" - dark purple
Saffron narrow-leaved, or narrow-leaved crocus (Crocus angustifolius) - height of peduncle 6-10 cm. Perianth 4 cm in diameter, golden yellow, red-brown stripes on the outside. Blossoms in the first half of April.
Saffron Heuffelian, or Heuffelian's crocus (Crocus heuffelianusa height of 10-20 cm, the flowers are purple, purple or white. Flowering is very early - sometimes blooms, even when the snow has not melted.
Crocuses are good not only in the garden - they are suitable for forcing in rooms. Flowering crocuses in pots are perceived as an unusual gift for the New Year and surprisingly touching as a gift on March 8.
Even “experienced growers with growers” do not always manage to grow crocuses to a specific date with 100% accuracy. It so happens that they are either ahead of her or not waiting. And sometimes, from corms planted in a pot, one variety of several blooms before the target date, and a few later than the time you need. Agree, it's a shame! How can this frustration be avoided?
The basic rules for crocus cropping
In order for crocuses to bloom simultaneously on a specific date, first of all you need:
- Choose the right grade. It is very difficult at home to get late varieties of crocuses to bloom in early terms (for Catholic Christmas or for the New Year), and early varieties for late terms (for May 1). In addition, it is better to give preference to large-flowered varieties, small-flowered (botanical) varieties of crocuses at the time of flowering will look just as impressive as in a colorful picture, on a package, only if you look at them through a magnifying glass.
- Abandon the "mixture" of varieties and plant in one pot of corms of the same variety. Different varieties of crocuses have different heights (the flowers of the low ones will simply drown and be lost in the leaves of high ones) and different flowering periods.
- Early varieties of crocuses need to be put out for forcing, when later varieties are not yet ready for forcing because they have not yet had a rooting period. In addition, late varieties of crocuses may bloom when the early vegetation period has already ended and for the safety of their tubers it is necessary to reduce or completely stop watering.
- Plant in the same pot corms of the same size - when planting "variegated" bulbs, they are likely to bloom not at the same time. Large corms bloom a few days earlier than small ones.
Choose crocus varieties for forcing
Choosing crocuses for forcing, it is better to dwell on large-flowered Dutch hybrids, with their forcing almost never arise difficulties. But the golden-flowered crocuses are harder to expel, often the buds dry out in the leaves without even blossoming.
On sale of corms of large-flowered (Dutch) crocuses and golden-flowered crocus can be found from mid-August to January.
Crocus corms are better to buy at the very beginning of the season - from mid-August to the second decade of September, since the bulbs of the “first batch” are the most worthy: large, dense, without damaged protective scales. Their size in comparison with other spring-flowering onion bulbs is much smaller. The color of the outer scales is brown or gray, and varies from variety to lighter or darker.
Preparation of corms
For early forcing (for flowering in December-January), after buying corms, it is necessary to “dry” them for 3-4 days at room temperature. Then put cool in a dark dry place with a positive temperature of 4 to 9 degrees (until no landing). The optimum time for the beginning of the cooling of corms of crocuses for early forcing is from the third decade of August to the first decade of September.
If you buy crocuses in autumn, many of them may already be with sprouts. But this does not mean that the bulbs are already prepared for flowering. For guaranteed flowering, they must go through a period of cooling and take root well.Creating such conditions for forcing, we must come as close as possible to natural conditions, therefore cooling and rooting are one of the most important factors.
It is desirable that for early forcing, the period of cooling and rooting was not less than three months.
A good place with the required temperature (+ 4..9 ° C) in living conditions is a refrigerator, the temperature in it is the most stable and suitable for forcing. It can also be a cold storage room, attic or barn. Holders of a glazed loggia can place crocuses here in a darkened place. Although it should be noted that, depending on weather conditions, the temperature on the loggia may vary.
Saffron, or narrow-leaved crocus (Crocus angustifolius). © Drew Avery Saffron, or Heuffelian's crocus (Crocus heuffelianus). © botkert Saffron, or Tomasini crocus (Crocus tommasinianus). © Meneerke bloem
If you still decide to stay on the fridge, do not rush to immediately plant corm. They can easily lie for a month at the right temperature of cooling, being not planted in the ground, but simply wrapped in paper or newspaper. Thereby it is possible to save space for some time in the refrigerator and not to force it ahead of time in pots and bowls.
Planting crocuses for distillation
For planting, you can use any loose water and air-permeable substrate with a neutral reaction, as well as clean sand or expanded clay, or use a mixture of these components, the quality of flowering will not depend on it. But if you want to save after forcing the corm, it is better to plant them in the substrate, since the buds of the next year are laid in the current period. For distillation in the sand, with the aim of further use of crocuses, it is necessary to carry out dressing before the budding period.
When choosing a tank for planting, it is better to use a wide bowl. Planting crocuses in one container is usually not limited to five corms, but, in spite of the fact that they are small, a larger pot is not necessary for a larger quantity, not a narrow pot. You can also plant crocuses in a special pot for growing them. It has a rounded shape and there are holes for sprouts on its sides.
Choosing a bowl and preparing the substrate, you can proceed to the landing. Crocuses are planted, in principle, can be arbitrary: immersing them completely in the ground, planting on the shoulders, or simply pressing the tubers slightly, but so that the bulbs do not touch each other and the walls of the pot.
You can make a landing using a combined substrate: fill the bottom of the bowl with earth, pour in a layer of sand and carefully plant the corms in it, then fill it with sand completely. Wet sand should never be compacted and compacted. Summer residents call this way to plant "in a sandy shirt". If you carry out such planting, you can be completely sure that the corms of crocuses do not rot, and the roots of crocuses will be in the moist nutrient layer of the substrate.
For decorativeness, the pot can be filled from above with small pebbles, creating an atmosphere of natural mountain primroses. After planting, crocuses are poured abundantly and sent back to the cold for rooting. For them, this is a kind of winter, a waiting period and a warning that spring is coming - the time for flowering.
Planting crocuses for distillation
Final stage of forcing
As already mentioned, the entire period of cooling for crocuses must be at least 3 months. There are several ways to find out if crocuses are ready for the final stage of forcing (to move from cold to heat), and whether the rooting period was successful:
- The height of all the planted sprouts (for large-flowered varieties) must be at least 5 cm, this does not mean that if out of 10 crocuses planted, the height of one reaches 5 cm, then the crocus bowl can be put out for distillation in color. Focus on the weakest and lowest sprout - its height must be at least 5 cm.
- If you feel the sprout, it should be dense, not empty, which means that the crocuses are ready to be distilled into color.
- If there are drainage holes in the bowl, the roots should be peeping from them.
If all these points are taken into account, the dish is taken out of the cold and put in a bright place, preferably with a temperature not higher than +15 ° C. Since crocuses are spring flowers, they do not withstand the heat, they quickly fade. Crocuses instantly respond to rising temperatures and begin to bloom. They react to bright light bulbs, including incandescent bulbs, which are almost like the sun for them - literally completely bloom before our eyes, and then lose their decorative effect, as the petals become sluggish.
The optimum temperature for them during the flowering period is +10 .. + 15 ° C. At temperatures of + 20 ° C and above, the crocuses will bloom in a few hours or a day. At home, this coolness can be near the window or balcony, so for crocuses this is the most suitable place. To prolong flowering at night, it is advisable to lower the temperature, minus temperature is allowed (-1 ..- 3 ° С). In such conditions, some varieties of crocus bloom up to 3 weeks.
Be careful with watering, both during rooting of corms, and when forcing crocuses at low temperatures. Watering is carried out when the top layer of the earth dries out. The remaining water from the pan must be drained. And if you want to preserve corms after forcing in good condition, it is better to crocuses, like all spring-flowering bulbs, water in a pan so that the water level in the pan is at the level of the roots and a few centimeters below the bulb ends.
Early, medium and late forcing differ in the time of corm planting, the varieties used, and can also be adjusted by the cooling time. For medium and late flowering varieties, the cooling and rooting period should be more than 3 months. If you expel crocuses, the variety of which is unknown to you, be guided by their condition in the forcing process.
If you are properly caring for crocus corms and after distillation they look decent, you can try to expel them again the next year they will bloom, but much worse. Re-forcing is better to plan for the later periods (not for the New Year!). The later, the greater the chance of success.
I wish you a pleasant crocus growing on the plot and a successful forcing on the windowsill!
Comparative description and photo
Among flower growers there are disputes over the fact that the marigolds are the safer which is the more accessible, but equivalent in appearance and properties, saffron. Both of these plants are widely used in cooking, medicine and cosmetology. But at the same time marigolds and saffron are not related, but different flowers, but they have similar qualities. See the difference will help their comparative description.
Plant of the Astrov family
Marigolds belong to the Astrov family, are an annual culture. Very rare are perennial varieties of these flowers. In the people, the marigolds are better known as the Chernobrids.
- Have a bush form, small size.
- The stem of the plant is erect, branched.
- Inflorescences in the form of baskets.
- The flowers are bright, often yellow and orange, terry at the edges.
- Fruits of marigolds are oblate black achenes.
Marigold - light-loving plant that loves heat and moisture. The flowering period begins in late spring and lasts until autumn.
In the suburban areas marigolds also benefit: they are used as natural insecticides. Flowers scare and protect plants from nematodes, weevil, onion flies, scoop, aphids, ants. That is why agronomists recommend planting marigolds between vegetable beds, along the perimeter of the beds or in the form of small islands.
Learn more about these colors from the video:
Flowers from the Iris family
Saffron is a perennial plant of the Iris family. Excerpts from the botanical description:
- Has tubers in the form of bulbs.
- It grows to a small height - up to 25-30 cm.
- Stem does not have.
- Leaves are basal linear, single buds.
- Fruits - small seed boxes.
- The flowering period of saffron 2 is autumn and spring (depending on the particular variety).
The flower stigmas look like tubules no longer than 4 mm in length, which have a sweet, pungent aroma. There are 3 such tubes in one flower. Of these, the world famous spice is made. For its preparation, the tubes are carefully separated from the flower, dried and ground. You can store this spice for no more than 2 years.
Saffron is a high-calorific, contains a large amount of vitamins and minerals (thiamine, fatty oil, nitrogenous substances, lycopene and others). The flower also has healing properties and is widely used in medicine..
The plant has anticonvulsant and anti-inflammatory effect, reduces cholesterol. Crocetin acid, contained in saffron, not only prevents the growth of cancerous tumors, but also destroys their stem cells. Outwardly, the flower is used to treat burns and skin diseases.
The origin and description of the culture
Crocuses - bulbous perennial, representative of the flower family Iris. Bloom in early spring or in September-October. Duration of flowering depends on the variety and external conditions. The leaves of the plant are basal, linear. The shape of the flowers - goblet, and the color is replete with diversity. It distinguishes yellow-flowered crocuses (with shades from yellow to orange), and blue-bright flowers (with tones from light lilac to dark purple). The latter are more characteristic of autumn-flowering varieties, but in each group there are albino forms of coloring.
In its wild form, the plant is common in the Crimea, in the south of Europe, in the forest part of the Caucasus Mountains, in the Middle East and in some parts of Asia. Some species, in particular, saffron narrow-leaved (Crocus angustifolius), because of their small number are listed in the Red Book.
Gentle, beautiful saffron blooms not for long - no more than 10-15 days, rarely - three weeks, and when cut, the flowers wilt quickly enough.
The plant has long been used in the East for medicinal purposes, as a spice and a strong dye. Many beneficial properties contributed to the rapid spread of culture - at the beginning of the second millennium, saffron was grown in the Mediterranean countries. Ornamental varieties were bred only in the XVI century.
Crocus, or Saffron
Both of these names denote the same culture. The Latin name Crocus is translated from Greek as “thread” or “fiber”. In the Arab countries, these same flowers are called saffron, since the stigmas of most varieties are colored yellow - this is how the word is translated.
Saffron is called and one of the most expensive seasonings in the world, the name of which was given by the Arabic version of the name of the culture - dried stigmas of saffron seed. Confusion sometimes causes a similarity with the name of another well-known Georgian seasoning, Imeretinsky saffron, based on the inflorescences of marigolds belonging to the Astrov family. These are small or medium sized bushes, and saffron (crocus) looks like a small flower and is, in fact, a perennial herb.
The number of varieties of garden crocuses is about 300 items. All of them are classified into 15 groups according to the timing of flowering and morphology of the structure of the bulbs. Autumn crocuses fit in just one group. A delightful look flashing against the background of yellow-red fallen leaves of touching flowers of purple, violet, lilac shades. The most popular varieties of autumn-flowering saffron in the conditions of our country are:
- Zonatus - flowers with bright, rich pink hues of petals and yellow middle. The diameter of the glasses is 5-6 cm, the height is 3-4 cm. When opening, the petals form an asterisk. Zonatus crocus autumn flower bloom lasts 8-10 days with preservation of sweet delicate aroma. Plant height does not exceed 15 cm
- Oksinan - the representative of the Crocus group is wonderful. The leaves grow in spring up to 30 cm in length, and large, with ultramarine tint, rich purple color and tender veins, flowers up to 7 cm in size appear in autumn,
- Conkveror is another variety from the same group, but the flowers surprise it not only with its size, but also with its pure azure-blue color.
Spring saffron primroses are much more numerous and are divided into 14 subspecies. Some of their best representatives:
- Prince Claus is a variety that blooms in March-April. Against the background of pure white petals, dark purple strokes look both gentle and stylish at the same time. Peduncles do not exceed 10 cm in height. The leaves are green, with a white vein,
- Pikvik - large-flowered variety of Dutch selection. It blooms in March and April. The glasses are two-colored: thin white stripes are located on a purple background, contrasting with bright yellow stamens. The leaves of the plant are narrow, dark green,
- Little Dorrit - a variety of spring saffron. Perianth in diameter is 3.5-5 cm. Pure white shade flowers appear in the third decade of April.
The genus of Saffron (crocus) includes up to 100 species of it, including the most famous Crocus, Spring Crocus, Golden Crocus and many others. Culture is a flower about 10 cm tall. The underground part is a corm up to 3 cm in diameter, rounded, sometimes slightly flattened, covered with scales. Attached to it is a small bundle of fibrous roots.
The stem of saffron does not develop. Bringing the flower to the surface, its role is performed by a segmented perianth. Radical linear leaves with vaginal scales depending on the variety appear after, during or before flowering. Flowers usually grow one from each corm, but there are varieties with 2-3 inflorescences.
Conventionally, crocuses are divided into:
- botanical, or small-flowered,
- large-flowered hybrids of the Dutch selection.
The first, as indicated above, can be spring and autumn flowering. There are even early-spring varieties that bloom in February in regions with a warm climate.
Sometimes crocuses are confused with autumn crocuses. In order to make a mistake when buying bulbs, you should know the peculiarity of their shape: in the collar tree it is larger than that of the crocus, and the sprout is displaced from the top to the side.
Biological rhythms of the plant
The annual development cycle of an overwhelming number of spring-flowering crocuses is the very beginning of spring (in rare varieties even February). Usually after the appearance of greenery in April, buds bloom within 2-3 weeks. When the flowering period ends, a new replacement is already formed at the top of the corm. The leaves at this time continue to grow until the seeds ripen, after which they dry out at the end of June. By this time, the old crocus bulbs, giving away the nutrients in it, are dying off, and the new one goes into tranquility mode, becoming more active in September: it will grow roots and accumulate strength to complete the process of bud formation.
The life cycle of most autumnal crocuses starts in August. After a period of flowering foliage occurs simultaneously with the formation of a new corm. The dormancy of saffron-autumn flowers begins earlier in the month than that of their spring-flowering “relatives”, and the activity of corms is in August. Therefore, if not having time to bloom, autumn varieties go under the snow, the quality of planting material does not deteriorate.
Saffron can be propagated by daughters or children growing from seeds. The order of implementation of each of the options:
- the division of the bulbs - and more simple, and fast. After the death of the maternal onion, a colony of new subsidiaries requires an expansion of living space. Therefore, after 2-3 years, a dense nest formed at the landing site of saffron can be divided and seated,
- Saffron seeds are harvested from the boxes and dried. Flowering usually begins in the third year after sowing.
The combination of early timing of flowering and crocuses unpretentiousness in the care, ease of reproduction explains the widespread popularity of culture in garden design. It is easy to grow them as an experienced florist, and amateur. Agrotechnics of autumn and spring types of culture are the same, only the timing of events is different. Attention requires the selection of a suitable site and time of landing. Watering, feeding and combating diseases are usually minimal in terms of time and effort. After flowering, crocuses do not require care until the very end of the season.
At one place the cultivation of saffron can last for five years. This plant does not impose special requirements on the soil, although it will thank for more abundant flowering if it is offered loose, nutritious and necessarily dry soil. The only thing that is categorically contraindicated in this regard is water stagnation.
Filling the soil with fertilizers should correspond to a considerable period of saffron in one place: peat and lime, compost and rotted manure will be the way. If the area is clay, make ash.
Saffron can not be called a sissy: it is able to withstand frost reaching -10ºC in the presence of rich snow cover and mulch with spruce or dry grass and lower temperatures. Growing crocuses in places with more severe winter climatic conditions requires the digging of bulbs at this time of year. High temperatures, crocus, being a native of hot countries, carries excellent.
Where does saffron grow
Естественное место обитания культуры — покрытые многолетними травами луга. Поэтому для посадки растений наилучшим образом подойдет открытый, хорошо прогреваемый и не испытывающий недостатка в солнечном свете участок. In the shade of deciduous trees, they will also be comfortable: in the spring and autumn at the time of flowering, the branches will still be or will be sufficiently bare to have enough light for saffron.
Crocuses growing in places too shaded by the walls of buildings, in the shade of conifer trees, will form fewer buds, and their disclosure will be incomplete.
The development cycles of autumn and spring flowering saffron do not coincide. This factor should be considered when determining the landing period:
- if a variety is selected with autumn blooms, it is planted in summer,
- crocuses are planted in autumn for flowers that bloom in spring.
The most beneficial time of planting varieties of autumn flowers in open ground is from the beginning or middle of July to the first decade of August (depending on the variety).
For spring-flowering varieties to take root before the onset of cold weather, crocuses should be planted in the fall:
- from the end of August, begin landing work in areas with a cold climate,
- In the southern regions of the country, saffron can be planted in the soil until mid-October.
Planting crocuses in the open ground and caring for them are not difficult, except that sowing seeds takes a little more time to prepare. Before planting crocuses, check them for the presence of shooters - sprouts, which it is advisable not to break off. Places of minor damage are disinfected with ashes.
- on light soils - to a depth of 8 to 12 cm,
- on heavy soils - up to 8 cm.
Between the plants in a row maintain a distance of 7-10 cm. They try not to thicken the planting, this leads to a decrease in the duration of flowering. After planting, the flowerbed is watered abundantly and mulched with humus, crushed plant residues.
Crocus seeds are sown in case you need to multiply numerously a certain variety. They are dried for 2-3 weeks after harvest, calibrated and pickled if necessary, and then sown into the ground to a depth of 1 cm. Plants that have been bred from seeds bloom in the 3rd or 4th year.
How to care for crocuses in the garden
Despite the fact that these delicate plants take one of the first places among garden flowers for unpretentiousness, they need little care: fertilizers added in time, weed removal and weeding will add vitality, help enhance flowering and endure the frosty winter months without loss.
In the case of the right place for planting, the care of super early crocuses in the garden sometimes reduces to cutting the grass before hibernation, since they bloom during the beginning of snow melt, when no work on the plot or at the cottage is done.
Unlike many other crops, crocuses require only one watering plan — not to pour them. Since flowering occurs in a cool or even very cold season, moisture from the ground evaporates for a long time, which is fraught with rotting of the tubers. Flower practitioners practice watering once a month if crocuses are planted in the sand.
Fertilizers and feeding
For saffron, peat is good as a natural top dressing, it has decomposed completely manure. The complex of ready-made mineral fertilizers will also be a useful tool for plants during the period of active growth. If spring-flowering crocuses are grown, fertilizers are simply dispersed in the melting snow in early spring, and after the first shoots appear, you can additionally feed urea.
Half a month after planting the bulbs, to strengthen their health and enhance flowering, fertilizers saturated with potassium and phosphorus are introduced. They can be replaced with wood ash.
Fresh organic fertilizers (manure of any kind) can not be used because it provokes the development of many diseases.
Diseases and pests
In dry or drained soil, saffron hybrids and varieties are disease resistant. Stagnant moisture can actively provoke the development of diseases - fungal and viral. The fight against them is reduced only to the removal of affected bulbs and disinfection of the soil by watering a special solution. Crocuses are no longer grown at this place.
Rodents landed on rock arias or alpine slides are often annoying rodents, therefore, when constructing such structures, you must first install special protection against them. Slugs and butterfly-scoops are also lovers to eat saffron leaves. Regular treatment with insecticides helps to scare them away.
Why do not bloom crocuses
A decrease in the intensity of flowering or its complete disappearance can occur in any year of the plant's life, despite the fact that there were no such violations before and the agricultural technology for the care of flowers has not changed. Common Causes for Saffron Flowering:
- because of the thickening of the planting, the daughter bulbs become too crowded, and the mother tuber has enough strength to push the leaves out of the soil. The way out of the situation is to sit crocuses with respect to the distances between them,
- too deep planting of onions takes away a lot of energy from them in order to break through, and it is already not enough to bloom. Sometimes they spontaneously dive into too loose sandy substrate during its compaction. To solve the problem, you need a transplant to the correct depth,
- lack of mineral and organic dressing when planting in nutrient-depleted soil. Watering with fertilizer solutions or adding compost to the landing hole will completely correct the error.
Another reason for the lack of flowering culture - improperly chosen planting time. It is impossible to transplant flowering plants that are already in full bloom or already in full force, and any failure in terms of planting leads to disruption of the formation of buds and future organs. The saffron transplanted with flowers will quickly fade and, like those planted at the wrong time, a few years will grow some leaves.
Typical cultivation mistakes
Beginners who want to grow saffron on their site, most often in the absence of experience the following shortcomings are typical:
- excessive watering, resulting in rotting of corms and roots, the development of diseases,
- lack of disinfection of planting material, which also increases the risk of disease,
- violation of the temperature regime in the content of crocuses intended for forcing.
How to achieve long flowering
In the open ground, the duration of crocus blooming depends on the variety and external conditions, which are not directly affected. It is possible to maximize the flowering time by performing the above-mentioned agrotechnical measures for the care of this crop.
At home, you can take measures that will extend this wonderful period:
- protect culture not only from direct sunlight, but also from home lighting,
- to maintain the air temperature 14-16ºC during the day, at night trying to lower it down to -2-0ºC.
Such conditions allow individual ornamental varieties to bloom for about three weeks.
How to grow saffron at home
Thanks to the early flowering time and the variety of colors, crocuses are one of the most favorite crops for home cultivation. More preferred for the distillation of large-flowered varieties. Properly planted saffron can bloom throughout the winter months. At home, the main thing - maintaining the temperature.
In August, the tubers are placed in a friable, light and wet soil, having previously disinfected the container for it. Between the bulbs leave 3-5 cm, deepening by 7-10 cm. Sprinkle with soil, pour water at room temperature and for three or a little more than a month clean in a cool room. When the sprouted shoots reach a height of 4-5 cm, the container with them is transferred to a place warmer, but they try to raise the temperature gradually - to 14-15ºC. Under these conditions, buds can be expected in 2-3 weeks. Within two to three days they bloom.
The temperature must be maintained at the same cool temperature, trying, as stated above, to lower it even more at night. At 20ºC and more diligently grown plants bloom in one day.
Features of growing in a pot
The nuance of homemade crocus forcing is the right choice of material for planting. Despite the considerable range of varieties, not all of them can bloom in enclosed spaces. Varieties intended to be grown in open ground are often not very decorative and look beautiful only in large quantities. The best option for forcing the house - Dutch hybrids with large flowers. They look spectacular in pots and unpretentious.
In addition to the variety, the size of the bulb is important. For the forcing need copies of the first analysis, not less than 5 cm in diameter. Since the store sales indicate the circumference, not the diameter, for pottery forcing crocuses need corms size:
- no less than 7/8 - giving a single flower,
- 8/9 - giving 2-3 flowers,
- more than 10 - 5-6 inflorescences.
Another feature: the larger corms, the earlier they can be expected to bloom. The most high-quality material is easier to purchase from the beginning of August to mid-September.
Secrets of forcing the holidays
As noted, bulbs for breeding on certain dates need healthy, large, from the right hybrid varieties. In summer, their storage temperature is 25.5ºC (for distillation by the New Year - 32ºC). After the beginning of autumn, the temperature is lowered to 17ºC and is maintained until the landing:
- for crocuses to bloom for the New Year holidays and Christmas - at the end of September,
- If crocus is needed to bloom by March 8 - in early October.
The first hello of spring and aesthetic pleasure against the background of autumn wilting are gentle, but resistant crocuses, surprising with a variety of colors. On the alpine hill and in the pot, on the flowerbed and along the paths - everywhere cute flowers will be in place. It is enough to make very little effort for their cultivation.
Crocus (saffron). LANDING.
To get a beautiful flower, you need to know on what grounds to select planting bulb. The bulb should be: no rot, spots, have a smooth color, no mechanical damage, no germinated roots on the bottom.
For planting, it is better to choose well-lit places without water stagnation, which can contribute to the decay of the bulb. Crocuses do not like moisture: it is better for them to lose it than to experience a surplus.
Basic requirements for the soil: it must be breathable and not acidic. If you have a heavy clay soil in your garden, then it should be cultivated: add sand, peat, use fine gravel or a layer of sand as drainage. If the soil is light, apply humus, sod land, and plant basic fertilizer before planting.
If you have a spring-flowering variety, then plant a crocus in September-October; autumn-flowering plants should be planted in July-September. Planting depth is determined by the diameter of the bulb and should be equal to 2-3 of its diameter, and the distance between the bulbs should be at least 10 cm.
Crocus (saffron). CARE.
Crocus is able to withstand temperatures up to minus 18 degrees and is positive for drought. However, this does not mean that it can not be watered at all: the crocus needs only moderate moisture. And tolerance for sub-zero temperatures is not yet a reason to leave the bulbs planted in the winter, unattended. They must be covered with either a layer of peat or foliage.
And in order for the plant to develop normally, it must be fed: compost earth or decomposed humus, which is introduced into the earth before sowing flowers, will do for this.
From the moment of planting until the beginning of flowering, mineral fertilizer is applied to the site where the flowers were planted, where there is twice as much phosphorus as potassium at the rate of 80-100 g per 1 square meter. In the period of budding, a second feeding is done in the same amount, but the ratio of phosphorus and potassium is already 1: 1. And when the crocus is in bloom, it is fed at the rate of 30-35 g per 1 sq. Km. m in the ratio of 1: 1.
Many gardening enthusiasts, hoping to get larger flowers, dig up crocus bulbs, sort out, remove the sick and weak, and keep them in the basement until the next planting.
Like all bulbous, crocus breeds bulbs, kids, and besides this, and seeds.
A seed box formed under the ground is eventually pushed by the plant itself to the surface, where the seeds are already ripening. If you miss the time of collecting the seeds, they will fall into the ground themselves. Provided that you have collected seeds, you should dry them within a week, and then the seeds should be planted at a shallow depth - no more than 1 cm at a distance of 4-5 cm. The flowering at such a planting will occur in the 3rd year.
CROCUSES AT HOME + PHOTOS
If you want to get a flowering plant of crocus in winter, use spring-flowering varieties of Dutch selection for forcing.
At the same time, the bulbs must be of the same type and size: this will make it possible to get plants of equal height and flowering at the same time.
For distillation in the winter at home, the following types and hybrids of crocuses are used:
And also the following popular varieties:
If you want your crocuses to bloom in February-March of next year, then at the end of May of this year, the bulbs dug up after the wilting of the above-ground parts of the plants should be determined for the whole summer in a well ventilated room with an air temperature of + 20 ° C sufficient air intake. Since September, the storage temperature for the bulbs is reduced to + 15-17 degrees.
In October, the bulbs can be planted in pots with soil consisting of sod and leaf earth and coarse-grained river sand at the rate of 2: 2: 1. The main requirement for the substrate - lightness, breathability and moisture permeability.
A small amount of bone meal will not be superfluous for the substrate. Before planting the bulbs in the pot, for better rooting of the bulbs, the ground is watered with a special solution.
The bulbs planted at a distance of 2.5 cm are covered with substrate, but not more than 2.5 cm thick.
Until the first sprouts appear, a pot with bulbs is stored in the refrigerator section, avoiding watering.
With the advent of sprouts, the pots are placed in a bright room, where the air temperature is not lower than + 12-15 degrees and begin watering.
In order for plants to have a decorative appearance and react correctly to changing temperature conditions, they are covered with caps from, for example, plain paper.
After removing the caps, the required lighting can be provided with artificial light lamps, which can be mounted on the window frame.
To extend the flowering process, crocuses are placed in a cool place for 3 days.
The enhanced nutrition to crocuses is provided by fertilizers for the bulbs, which are produced during every second irrigation from the moment the shoots appear and until the buds appear. Top dressing is stopped during flowering and is resumed after its completion, until the stems wilt at the rate of once a week.
As soon as the overhead parts of the crocus began to wilt, watering is reduced, the bulbs are removed from the pots and put in storage for the summer period. Store the bulbs in a well-ventilated area at a temperature of +20 degrees.
With the onset of September, the storage temperature is lowered to 15-17 ° C, and in October, crocus bulbs are planted in pots filled with a new substrate.
To get flowering crocuses by March 8, plant the plant in late November - early December. The appeared sprouts in February will allow you to admire the flowers in early March.
We select the largest and healthiest
Pour drainage into the prepared wide shallow pot, then the soil and make the soil impregnated with a fertilizer solution that stimulates the growth of the bulbs.
The bulbs themselves are also soaked for half an hour in a solution to stimulate the germination of bulbous plants.
Put the bulbs in the pot at a distance of 2 cm from each other, sprinkle with earth, but so that the tails stick out from above
We provide cool conditions to the bulbs, for example, we put the pot in the lower section of the refrigerator
As soon as green sprouts appear, we transfer the pot from the refrigerator to the bright room, where the air temperature is + 12-15 ° С and we start watering.
With the advent of green leaves and buds, crocuses can be put in any place in the apartment, but since they are cold-loving plants, at night they still have to be put on the coldest sill.
Crocuses: planting and care in the open field, terms, rules
During the flowering period, fertilizing is not done, but only watered.
After flowering, fertilizing is renewed for the bulbous fertilizers, and wilted flowers are carefully cut with a sharp knife or scissors.
After the leaves of the crocus wither, the onions are removed from the ground, dried and cleaned, the children are separated from the mother bulb and either stored for storage in order to plant them in the open ground at the cottage, or to use for the next distillation.
More material on the topic section:
Growing saffron at home
In history, spices were beaten more than gold. In search of spices, many trade and historical routes were created. How much has the situation changed today? Is it possible to consider the cultivation of spices as a business idea? They still have a fairly high price in the ratio of the costs of their cultivation, transportation and storage compared to other products. The most expensive spice today is saffron. Speaking by and large, then, of course, the cost of saffron is very high, and cultivation is not so expensive. Конечно выращивание шафрана, как и всех специй, охватывает множество нюансов. Однако в бизнес идеи о выращивании шафрана следует разобраться с плюсами и минусами. Это самая дорогая специя в мире. Так же о шафране известно, что из него изготавливают афродизиаки и некоторые лекарства. Второе название его – «красное золото». Чтобы выращивать эту специю используют крокус.It is from its flowers that red gold is mined during the flowering by grinding. Per kilogram of spices you need to process 70,000 crocus flowers. A wholesale price will range from 450 dollars. - up to 700 dollars for 1 kilogram. Greek saffron is considered the elite; Iranian saffron is considered to be cheap. Entrepreneurs not only grow crocus flowers to obtain saffron from them, but also to sell planting material for growing crocus (under saffron). They sow the same areas as for grain and other crops, but their harvest is expensive. Accordingly, the profit is higher. Moreover, saffron is a perennial plant! However, although this plant is exotic, our territorial and climatic conditions allow this business idea to be realized on our lands.
The yield of saffron when grown
To get 1g. Saffron in a clean, dry, marketable product you need to collect about 150 flowers. If you look at the scale, you can get from 8 to 20 kilograms of the finished product - “red gold” from the ground with an area of 1 ha. As mentioned above, the wholesale price varies depending on the grade from 450 dollars. - up to 700 dollars for 1kg. The retail price is correspondingly much higher. In the spice markets it is difficult to find a price below 10 dollars for 1 gram! That is, to grow 1 kilo of saffron and sell it for $ 10,000 you need to plant 7 acres of land (70 X 10 meters). The financial calculation was obtained as follows: (20 + 8) / 2 = 14 kilogram per hectare - the average yield. 1 ha (100m x 100m = 10,000m) / 14 = 714m. We plant 7 acres of perennial culture and get 10,000 dollars a year when sold at a retail price. Ways of selling goods are, of course, first of all restaurants, spice markets, food markets, you can arrange sales through the online store (saffron delivery in an envelope). You can make discounts when ordering 5 or 10 grams.
Spring Messengers - Crocuses
Everything looks both tempting and foggy. Just first you need to get at least a little experience in growing saffron to become a specialist. On a small piece of land, even in a flower bed, plant crocus bulbs. In any case, in this way, you do not lose anything. On the contrary, you get a little experience and the most expensive spices in the world, which have not only a divine scent, but also increase sexual desire, both in men and women. Just like other spices, it has healing properties, the distinctive of them is the removal of fatigue, increased mental clarity, and can be taken as a tonic.
Saffron has biological characteristics during growth.
The biological features inherent in saffron should be considered in more detail. Flower color: deep yellow, lilac, blue, white, white-blue, lilac. A flower with six petals directed upwards, grows from a drop-shaped bulb, and this can be several flowers from one bulb. The leaves have a dark green color with a white vein in the middle. Flowering occurs only in clear weather. Recall that the saffron - from the genus of perennial bulbous, herbaceous plants of the Iris family. Flowering occurs in early spring and late autumn. It is believed that it is possible to grow goji and stevia together with saffron. They get along perfectly well and do not affect each other, give excellent yields. The important point is the reproduction of this plant: it occurs "kids" and bulbs, separated from the parent bulb. More: spring varieties are planted in August, and autumn varieties are planted in the month of July. Reproduction is a separate process from landing. If the leaves have already turned yellow, the bulbs are dug and stored until planting, while drying them. It is clear that you should definitely check before buying and planting all the bulbs on the threat of infection by fungi or other parasites.
Favorable conditions peculiar to saffron for great harvests.
Temperature conditions should be consistent with the characteristics of the cultivation of saffron. It requires good lighting, warming the sun. The soil for the cultivation of saffron should be fertile and drained, in any case not swampy. You can add a little sand and old, specially prepared, manure. Do not forget about crop shift. Saffron can not be planted on the same area for more than 5 years in a row. The soil will be extremely depleted and the harvest will not bring income, in addition, the seedlings themselves may even die. Crocus can even withstand a slight cooling. It is also recommended to carry out several nutrient "procedures" using mineral fertilizers. But very carefully, without fanaticism. For maximum naturalness - the minimum chemistry. Harvesting takes place in October. Important point: the flowers should be collected exactly on the day of flowering. Flowering lasts no more than two weeks. A new flower should be picked exactly on the day when it bloomed. Then the stigmas (stamens) are extracted from the flowers - red-orange strings. Then these strings are dried in the sun. In this kind of business, it depends a lot on the amount of land, on the quality of the soil, on the fertility of the soil, on the climatic conditions in your territory. And most importantly, everything depends on you: if you are committed to success and high earnings, then everything will work out.
Saffron: Botanical Description
Saffron is a bulbous bulbous plant with a short, practically undeveloped stem. Its narrow linear emerald leaves, sometimes with curved edges, are collected in a rosette.
During the flowering period (spring or autumn), large, fragrant, funnel-shaped or tubular single flowers appear on saffron. Their color can be white, yellow or light purple. In this case, the pistil and stamens always have a rich yellow color.
After pollination on the plant, fruits are formed - three-capsule boxes with small seeds inside.
Scaly spherical light brown corms have fibrous underdeveloped roots.
Types and varieties of saffron
In the world there are about 80 types of saffron. They can all be divided into autumn and spring. Species that bloom in the fall:
- Pallas saffron is a beautiful plant with pink-purple flowers with a purple base,
- Sage saffron is a hybrid plant with red or orange-red stigmas.
Species blooming in spring:
- Saffron is light yellow - light lemon petals and bright yellow stigmas,
- net saffron - light purple petals with dark brown stripes inside,
- Saffron is beautiful - yellow or blue rather large flowers,
- narrow-leaved saffron - lanceolate leaves and yellow flowers,
- Tomazini saffron - the petals of the plant have a smooth color transition from light violet to dark violet.
Saffron: the benefits and value of the plant
The chemical composition of saffron contains a lot of biologically active substances that have a beneficial effect on the human body. It contains a large amount of vitamins and minerals. In addition, it contains a special essential oil - shafranal, which has stimulating, analgesic, antispasmodic, antiseptic properties.
Saffron also has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the liver, heart and urogenital system. Many traditional healers attribute to him quite strong aphrodisiac properties.
Saffron stigmas is a valuable spice, which in ancient times was valued more than gold. They are still harvested by hand and carefully dried in order not to spoil such a strong spicy aroma. Saffron is added to meat, fish, beans and pastry dishes, as well as added to certain types of liqueurs and expensive wines.
Saffron is a natural dye that gives dishes a beautiful yellow color. This property of saffron is often used to give beautiful color to soups and baked goods.
In addition, saffron stigmas have strong medicinal properties. They treat diseases of the kidneys, liver, eyes and reproductive system.
Crocuses in a pot and in the open field - complete instructions for growing and care
In addition, the addition of a small amount of spice in food helps to normalize the metabolism and speed up the lipid metabolism in the body. Saffron also relieves fatigue, lowers high blood pressure and rather successfully fights with stress.
And saffron is a flowering plant that is widely used in landscape design. It is successfully grown in rock gardens, as well as in mixborders with other spring and autumn bulbous plants, such as ornamental bows, tulips and daffodils.
The main types of crocuses
There are about 80 species of saffron and 300 varieties in the world. Among them are crops, which bloom in the early spring, as well as those that bloom in the fall. Culture has a rather large color spectrum - white, blue, purple, yellow, purple-red flowers are monophonic or motley colored.
Sowing species - one of the most cultivated in the world. It is grown on an industrial scale, since it is his flowers that are known to all as the spice “saffron” used in the preparation of various dishes. India is considered its homeland, and the one that is grown now is a hybrid variant, born as a result of crossing several varieties. This undersized plant has white or light purple flowers with a pleasant aroma of violet. Leaves appear along with the flowers, and all the beauty of flowering can be observed for two weeks. Moreover, each flower lives no more than three days.
This saffron can truly be called the progenitor of many species that exist today. It is the most popular material for creating numerous hybrid varieties that are grown throughout the world. Its natural growing conditions are high mountain Alpine meadows, where the plant is dotted with purple or purple flowers with a diameter of up to 5 cm.
One of the botanical species of plants. It can rightly be called the highest, since the height reaches 20 cm. Flowers of a yellow-golden hue appear along with narrow leaves. The period of rapid flowering is in April, and its duration is about three weeks. Today, in the process of crossing with other species, golden saffron has many other interpretations, in particular a two-color variety.
Quite undersized saffron has a height of not more than 50 mm. Its single flowers, seemingly outlandish stars, have delicate violet-pink shades with a purple base, and the diameter of the bud reaches 5 cm. The first narrow linear leaves appear in the middle of spring, and saffron blooms in September. This contrasting sight of miniature flowers against the background of a withering garden can be observed throughout the month.
This species is distinguished by its unpretentiousness, so it is quite popular, especially among lazy gardeners who want to have a beautiful garden without any hassle. The plant feels great on dark areas, quickly adapts to any conditions and does not require special care. In the wild, Tomazini's crocus can be found in the Balkans, Bulgaria and Hungary. The flowers have pink-lilac shades with a white heart.
During violent flowering, the culture forms an excellent solid carpet that looks superbly in the foreground of the lawn, as well as under the canopy of still unblown trees. This culture can be grown in apartment conditions in pots. Several flowerpots with different types of saffron will create an interesting decorative composition at home. Often they are planted for any holidays - March 8, Valentine's Day, etc. For this, they choose hybrid Dutch varieties that are distinguished by unpretentiousness and have a large number of buds with large flowers. These include the crocus "Jeanne d'Arc" with white flowers, "Stripe Beauty" of variegated colors, bright yellow "Ladjest Yellow".
Proper care of crocuses
Although saffron, for the most part, is not whimsical to the conditions, it still needs some care. To admire the lush flowering of bright large flowers, you need to “settle” it in optimal environmental conditions, and if the plant is grown in a flat flowerpot, the conditions should be as close as possible to the outside.
This culture likes a good light, therefore, saffron should be planted on the south side of the house, or pot should be placed in this place. But you need to consider that he does not like direct scorching sunlight - it is better to organize the partial shade, which will create shrubs. In room conditions, if it is not possible to place the pots with flowers on the open balcony, you can build an artificial light with electric bulbs. In this case, it is necessary to monitor the temperature regime.
The optimum temperature for luxurious flowering will range from +14 to + 18C. Plants can bloom even at a higher temperature, but they bloom quite quickly - the buds bloom early and wilt very quickly. In nature, as we said earlier, crocuses bloom in April or September, so there is no need to create special conditions for lawn flowers. With artificial lighting in the conditions of the apartment you need to monitor the temperature.
Saffron loves moist soil, but at the same time, does not tolerate stagnant water, like all bulbous plants. It is best to organize the drainage system in the soil before planting, adding sand and peat.
In open lawns, flowers are watered during hot pores — at high temperatures or when drought is established. It is enough to water once a week, spending at the same time about a bucket of water per 1 sq.m. Saffron watering stops when the leaves turn yellow and fall off.
At home, pour a pot in the case when the upper part of the soil dries out. If in the process of watering a part of the water in the glass pan - you need to get rid of it. It is recommended to water at the beginning of the growing season 1 time in two days, after flowering 1 time per week.
Crocus Pests and Diseases
In open grounds, rodents - field mice pose a considerable danger to this plant. They do not just eat tubers, but also contribute to the spread of various viruses and diseases. Signs of their sabotage can be identified by compressed buds, gray spots on the petals. Such a flower must be immediately removed from the plantation, since the juice they produce enters the neighboring plants and inevitably leads to their death.
Dangerous and fungal diseases that cause rot. If the flowers are planted close to each other, then the root system, which did not have time to get stronger, will lead to the death of the plant. As a result, the bulb will rot, and growing near crops may suffer. Especially contributes to the process of decay damp, warm climatic conditions. At home, it is not difficult to create the necessary microclimate for plants.
Another problem that gardeners may encounter is the larvae of bugs that live for about three years. They literally “drill” the bulbs, causing the plant to die. To get rid of them, you need to put bundles of grass into small grooves, moisten and cover with boards. When the bugs get into the new bait, they are burned.
How to transplant crocuses
Flowers can grow in one place for more than 5 years, but it is better to plant them in 3-4 years. When the saffron has faded, and the leaves have faded, the corm is removed, dried and stored in a cool place. It is desirable that the temperature was no more than + 10C.
Planting time depends on the variety - if it is spring flowers, the bulbs are planted in the ground in autumn (September-October), and autumn ones in the second half of summer.
In room conditions, you can plant the plants at any time, even to coincide with their flowering to the desired date, for this they need to be planted 4 months before the deadline. The tubers are seated in the ground and left in a dark cool place (you can use the cellar). If it is noticed that sprouts have appeared by the 10th week, the room temperature should be lowered. 15 days before the desired date of flowering pot put into the room. The temperature should rise gradually, so initially the pot is left in the corridor, where it is cooler, then transferred to the coolest room and, finally, set on the windowsill, closer to the light. Soon flowers appear.
Crocus propagation by seeds
When propagated by seeds, they are harvested and dried thoroughly for 7–10 days. Sowing is carried out at a depth not exceeding 1 cm, while respecting the distance between the seeds of about 5 cm. The crops will bloom only in the third year, so this method is not very welcomed by the grower.
Crocus reproduction with bulbs
The easiest, fastest, and most reliable way is to grow with bulbs. In the ground, on the scales of the main corm, small onions appear. They form a new colony after the death of the main bulb. To ensure the livelihoods of each of them, they need to be seated. After the saffron has faded, the bulbs are dug up, stored for storage until planting in a cool, ventilated place.
Before planting, it is necessary to carefully inspect the material so that there are no signs of mold and rot. Следует учесть, что глубокая посадка несколько притормозит вегетативное размножение, но клубнелуковицы будут более крупными. В вазоне луковицы можно расположить вплотную друг к другу – тогда получиться настоящий живой букет.
Шафран: интересные факты
Шафран – довольно уникальное растение, так как у него имеется сразу две родины. В Европе шафран был известен со времен Древней Греции, однако в какой-то момент о нем незаслуженно забыли. Therefore, when the Arabs began to bring an amazing golden spice from India, no one could suspect that it was obtained from this plant. That is why in many sources, saffron is called the eastern spice, although it is still found in the wild on the island of Crete.
The name, as well as the second birth, was given to the plant by the Arabs. Translated from the Arabic "saffron" means "golden." It seems to hint at the color of his stigma, and their value.
Posted by: Пухнач Валентина
Growing crocuses. Soil, soil, planting, care, reproduction, distillation
How to grow crocuses? How to plant, care, multiply? (10+)
How to grow crocuses on the site
Crocuses - a small ornamental plant, which belongs to the class of Iris. The root system is an onion. Ideal for growing in country houses or in country houses, as they do not require special attention and are resistant to various diseases. Crocuses - this is one of the very first flowers that bloom in early spring, sometimes begin to bloom, when the snow is still not completely gone. Few people know, but the saffron seasoning is made from the yellow stigmas of crocus, and saffron dyes are made from them.
Even despite the fact that these flowers do not require special attention, they do not care much, but they need it. It is very useful to add mineral fertilizers to the soil. The first time it is recommended to add, when the plant is just beginning to emerge, even despite the fact that there is still snow. The second time mineral fertilizer should be made during flowering. The calculation of mineral fertilizers is as follows: 40 - 50 grams per 1 square meter.
The best fertilizer for crocuses is decomposed humus, as well as compost earth (about 1 kg per 1 m2). On acidic soils, crocuses bloom poorly; therefore, peat should be introduced into the soil and it should be well decomposed.
Crocuses also have pests - birds, hares and nematodes. And the diseases they suffer are rot and leaf rust. And also very hot weather can bring great damage to crocuses.
Not many lovers of flower crops know that the saffron plant is called by many crocuses. The flower saffron belongs to a beautiful family called Iris. It grows everywhere, most often in the meadows and steppes.
Saffron is a spice made from this particular flower. They are collected, subjected to drying, and then crushed. Very often, this spice is used in culinary business.
This plant can be divided into two types:
They differ between the very beginning of the flowering period. The first species begins to bloom very early in the spring. They literally look out from under the snow like snowdrops. The second type of this beautiful plant blooms in deep autumn, while other flower cultures finish to delight us with bright colors. In September, you can fully enjoy the beauty of saffron in your bed.
Saffron during the growth of a short stem picks up a bud. Their length does not exceed 8 centimeters. Leaves elongated long green. They are collected in a tight bundle next to the bud. The plant has not only culinary value, but also widely used to treat various diseases. The plant is considered a perennial.
The stem can grow only by 25 centimeters. Whatever the color of the bud itself, the flower has inside the stigma is always orange. The snout itself grows and develops on a small stalk. The pedicle is protected from external influence by the petals of the bud. The root system of this plant is tuber. It is updated at the end of each year, by growing on top of the old rhizome. Each bulb produces just one flower, like many bulbous plants.
Most often you can see on the beds of purple hue. But other varieties have a different color. Prefers to grow on very fertile soils.
Growing saffron in the open field
Growing this plant is a very laborious process. It unnecessarily applies to both the soil and weather conditions. The flower bed for cultivation should be in a very open place where there is always sunlight. Here is A number of recommendations for novice florists:
- Priming, in which the plant is planted, must be well drained, in order that excessive moisture could go deep into the soil.
- The structure and density of the soil should be loose.
- A sufficient amount of mineral matter should be introduced into the soil before planting.such as lime.
- No additional nutrients, except lime, are required to be added to the soil, saffron does not need them.
- If you are not going to sell bulbs of plants growing on top of the rhizome, then deepen them well into the ground, then the flower will be beautiful and will not require constant digging and replanting. In the event that you resell the bulbs, leave them close to the ground surface. Recommended deepening bulbs 10 centimeters into the soil.
After the flower blooms, it goes into hibernation. Until the next flowering period in spring or autumn, it all depends on the type of crocus. Harvesting saffron is very difficult.
It may take several hours after opening the bud to full condition, and it will fade. It is for this reason that if you grow it to collect spices, then collect it several times a day. Flowers will bloom in just 10–14 days.
Wintering your handsome, maybe without any additional wraps. If you cover a flower, the bulbs can soprat in the soil, therefore, neither in spring nor in autumn they will please you in this flowering.
Growing plants at home
Such a flower can also be excellently grown on its windowsill. For this you will need to prepare correct soil mix. It should be saturated:
Capacity take for landing wide and rather shallow. The best way to create a beautiful composition is to plant at least 5-7 bulbs per container. The soil mix for planting crocuses at home should be well moistened.
Pay attention to the fact that each bulb must be at a distance from each other, and, of course, the walls of the container should not be in contact with them either. How you place the bulbs does not matter.
As soon as you plant the bulbs, try not hard to tamp the soil, it should be loose and loose. If you want, you can decorate the surface of the earth for this you can use:
After all, make sure that you spill the soil and put the container with saffron in a cool place, the plant will take root there. So you can artificially create the process of wintering and resting plants. It is during this period that the bulbs give roots. The flower will take root in the soil for about 3-4 months; the stage of flower growers is called forcing.
As soon as the plant sprouts, and they reach about 30−40 mm in length, it will be possible to stop the process of rooting. Capacity is immediately taken to a room with normal room temperature, as a rule, the plant is very comfortable at 14-17 degrees Celsius. You will immediately notice a noticeable growth of the stem, and the development of the bud on it. But note that such a rapid growth of the plant will start the process of wilting also very quickly.
Reproduction and transplanting a flower
Replanting and propagating saffron is very easy. The root system of this flower is bulbous. Such processes as replanting and reproduction are made only in summer, there is a slight difference by month for spring and autumn crocus species. For example:
- Spring varieties are transplanted or propagated from July to September.
- Autumn varieties are subjected to this procedure from June to August.
The place of flower growth must be changed every fourth year. If you do not carry out such actions, then soon you will see that the crops of saffron have become much poorer, and flower growth has deteriorated.
Plant Replantation or Breeding Algorithm:
- We carefully dig the flower bulb, as it should, clean it from the build-up of old skin and dirt.
- Cut off the roots coming out of the onion.
- Look carefully for any visible damage to it by diseases or pests. If you notice such manifestations, we advise you not to use such an onion for reproduction and transplantation.
- All good bulbs should be dried, for this purpose we simply lay them out on the newspaper in a well-ventilated and warm place.
- If the variety of saffron is spring, they should be planted at the end of September.
- In the case when the bulbs for transplanting autumn, then immerse them in the soil no later than August.
- When transplanting, you can find children that have grown up on the bulbs. We separate them and just dry them before rooting.
Pay attention to the fact that planted bulbs will gain strength before flowering for at least 3-4 years. In order to preserve a varietal variety of saffron, it should be divided only vegetatively. There are cases when flower growers try to grow the bulbs of this plant from seeds. Most often, such planting of seeds brings a good result when planting varieties belonging to the spring view of crocuses. Such varieties have enough time for growth and development of the bulb from the seeds.
To grow in one's bed or at home, varieties of this flower crop can be both wild and varietal. There are a number of the most common varieties that can most often be found in our strip.
- Adamas Saffron. The second name was given to him by Adamas crocus. The height of the buds does not exceed 60 millimeters. In diameter, the bud in the unopened state is not more than 50 millimeters. Has a color from gentle lilac shades, to saturated violet color. The mouth of the bud is usually white, but there are cases of yellow color. Blooms no later than the end of April. This variety is considered two-flowered.
- Saffron Alatavsky. The same as Crocus Alatavsky. Most often in the wild it can be found in Central Asia. The height of the whole plant does not exceed 30 centimeters. Leaves upright not wider than 2 cm. The color of this variety is usually dull purple. But there are instances with a brown-yellow shade of buds. This beautiful bloom begins its flowering in the spring.
- Banat saffron. It grows in the wild in the expanses of the Balkans and in the Carpathian Mountains. This type of crocus belongs to the group of autumn blooming. The color of the buds of this plant is gently lilac, with yellowish patches. These flowers are not very large in height, their height does not exceed 15 centimeters. This variety is distinguished from other unusual shade of the leaves themselves, they are gray in color.
- Cute saffron. This is an interesting sort of saffron, its flowers are large and painted in a soft purple color. The plant can be called dwarf, because the length of its stem does not exceed 12 centimeters. It belongs to the group of autumn flowering crocuses. They are very fragile and delicate, but it is worth noting that they endure bad climatic conditions and winter well without additional shelter.