How to care for lemon in a normal city apartment, when there is no heating, then windows to the north, then the air for citrus is too dry? You have to provide the tree with comfortable conditions for growth and development.
The first thing that matters to lemon is light.
Photo of homemade lemon
For the location of the pots, it is better to choose south-east windows with moderate lighting, if you are, of course, lucky and you have them. But what to do if your whole alternative is the northern or the southern side.
On the northern windows, the lemon will noticeably lack light, so you will have to use fluorescent lamps, extending the light day for the plant to 12 hours. This is especially true of the winter period.
On the south side of the house there is always plenty of light, and for the lemon it is even surplus. Therefore, in the afternoon it is necessary to shade your citrus, saving it from the destructive action of direct sunlight, they are able to leave these burns on the leaves.
Lemon - a native of the Pacific tropics, so it is not surprising that the tree is demanding to thermal conditions.
In the spring during the budding temperature in the room should be 14 - 16 degrees. A high degree contributes to drying and dropping the buds, and a low degree - slowing down or even stopping this process. During the rest period, room temperature up to 26 degrees is enough. If possible, for the summer transfer your pet to the glassed-in balcony. Fresh air will benefit the lemon and the question of how to care for a lemon will not be so acute. However, you should be wary of both sudden changes in temperature and drafts. Like a true southerner, room lemon requires scrupulous care.
Moisture. This parameter is very important for lemon. Therefore, it is necessary to control that the soil in the pot was constantly slightly moist. In the summer, it is reasonable to increase the number to 3 waterings per week, and in winter it can be reduced to 1 time, but to spray the air around the tree. This is provided that the heating devices are far from the plant. Water lemon necessarily non-cold water, which was settled for 5 hours. Water should not be poured directly under the root, but evenly over the entire surface of the soil. The air around the tree should also not be dry - not less than 60% humidity. Otherwise you risk to see rolled up, browning leaves on a lemon.
We fertilize, feed ...
Lemon, like the rest of the plants in your home, needs support, so it must be periodically fed.
Young lemon trees do not need additional stimulation, you need to fertilize lemons that have reached 3-4 years old.
Pictured lemon tree
You can purchase specialized blends of organic fertilizers, and you can use traditional methods:
- For abundant fruiting, sometimes ordinary watering is replaced with egg shell extract. But to get involved in this way is not worth it, so that excess calcium does not reduce the acidity of the soil.
- If the plant develops normally, has a healthy appearance and pleases with flowering, fertilization can be abandoned.
- During the growing season it is worth twice to feed the lemon with superphosphate (50 g of fertilizer per 1 liter).
- Ammonium nitrate is highly recommended for improving growth. It is taken in proportion to 30 grams per liter of water. It is possible to carry out watering by such fertilizer monthly.
- Periodically water your lemon 7-day infusion of horse manure, tenfold diluted.
- Lemon for normal development requires trace elements: magnesium, phosphorus, nitrogen and others. To compensate for their deficiency, you can use the fertilizer once a quarter. Citrus mixture. 2-3 grams of this fertilizer are diluted in a liter of water and used instead of basic irrigation.
Pruning and transplanting indoor lemon
Replant young lemon trees should be at least once a year.
Copies older than 3 years - at intervals of 2-3 years. However, the need for transplantation may occur "unplanned", for example, due to illness or deterioration of the lemon.
On the photo is a lemon transplant
It is recommended to carry out transplantation in early spring or in autumn before the onset of cooling.
- The soil around the trunk is watered abundantly, so that it becomes soft, then carefully remove the tree. At the same time, utmost care must be taken not to disturb the earthen room and not to touch the root system.
- If you find spoiled roots, cut them with a sharp knife or blade.
- For transplant, take the capacity of 30-50% more than the previous one. Too big, like too small a pot, helps to slow growth. Give preference to a cone-shaped container.
- At the bottom of the pot on the drain hole set shard so that its convex side was on top. Then a layer of drainage is laid (small pebbles, pebbles), a thin layer of dry manure and earth mixture.
- Closer to the center of the pot is set a tree with a clod of earth. Slowly begin to fill the container between the clod and the walls of the pot with soil. You can lightly press the laid ground, but it is not necessary to tamp tightly.
Pruning lemon commit to the formation of a beautiful crown and improve fruiting.
With a tree height of 20-25 cm from the ground, the stem is pinched, giving the opportunity to develop lateral branches. Consider that the first fruits appear on the branches of 4-5 order (rows from the bottom) and until they are formed, it is not necessary to wait for the fruits.
Vertically grown branches should be cut without pity.
For the formation of the correct shape of the pot with a flower you need to gently rotate every 10 days relative to the sun. Gardeners sometimes improve the crown using copper wire - they fix individual branches with it, giving them the right direction of growth.
Lemon Trim Picture
The formation of the crown is carried out in the moments of the gathering of fruits. Ripe lemon is cut off not only with the stalk, but also with a section of the branch itself with 1-2 internodes. Thus, the growth of the branch is stimulated.
Factors that affect lemon growth
A lemon that is grown on its window sill may differ slightly from those sold in the markets. This is due to the fact that for home breeding choose indoor varieties. Particularly appreciated are small lemons, which have a very thin skin. In addition, they are very bright and beautiful on the window. Larger fruits will have a dense and thick skin, and will look not less exotic.
The difficulty of caring for this fruiting tree is that it is accustomed to the climate of the subtropics, where I come from. This leads to the fact that its comfortable air temperature should not be more than 17-18 degrees. In the apartment in the winter due to heating, this figure is higher. The presence of batteries also affects humidity. It becomes below 70%. And the compliance of indicators characterizing the air standards is very necessary for the tree to grow.
Equally important for the growth of lemons and the degree of illumination of the room. The right place for the tree in the room is chosen taking into account the fact that it does not like direct sunlight. The most ideal location will have a good degree of lighting throughout the day, but this light will be diffused.
Crockery for trees also matters. To enter the phase of active growth and the formation of ovaries of future fruits, it should be placed in a closer pot. If the root system is too spacious, the flowering phase will be postponed indefinitely. Ideal for planting plants will be dishes from natural materials. These are earthenware or boxes made of wood.
Land for growth does not matter. But it must comply with the qualities of air and water permeability. The soil mix may contain peat and sand. Fertility will add humus. The soil should be loosened.
Moisture has a direct effect on growth. Therefore, abundant watering in spring and summer, when the ambient temperature tends upwards. In winter, the frequency of watering is reduced. Older trees require a greater abundance of moisture. It is desirable that watering is carried out with prepared water. Suitable pre-recruited in a container and standing. You can also use thawed water, although the most ideal option is rainwater.
To the lemon tree fruited, it is fed. Any organic or mineral fertilizer will be suitable. The frequency of this procedure should not be too intense. The optimal time interval is in 20 days.
Lemon care at different times of the year
In order to grow a lemon, home care for the plant must take into account some differences depending on the time of year. In the spring season, it begins a phase of active growth, and then forms buds, which will later become fragrant fruits. Temperature range should be in the range of 14-18 degrees. An excessively warm room will lead to dropping of buds and ovaries. And such an event can provoke the death of the whole tree.
Well contributes to the natural growth of lemon fresh air. Since the stabilization of the air temperature outside the window at 13-14 degrees, the plant can be positioned for the entire warm period on the balcony or terrace. However, they monitor possible temperature differences due to possible freezing and reducing it by night. To avoid the death of the plant, it is wrapped.
In the summer, open sunlight is a danger to the lemon tree. Therefore, this situation is carefully controlled to avoid burns.
Winter time for lemon is characterized by the stage of final ripening of fruits. Optimal conditions for this period include a moderate temperature regime (16-18 degrees). Be sure to maintain optimal humidity (about 70%). Another important condition for the good condition of the tree in winter is the elimination of air flows from the heating sources. Pot with lemon clean away from heaters and batteries. It also provides no time at least 12 hours of the light source.
Lemon tree in the care is quite capricious. For it, unnecessarily high temperatures are not suitable, as well as too low. Watering should be moderate, but at the same time strongly dry land should be avoided. The plant does not like direct sunlight, but requires prolonged exposure during the day scattered light. Without taking into account and the fulfillment of all these conditions, it is impossible to achieve the appearance of ovaries, which will subsequently be pleased with fragrant fruits. Timely watering and fertilizing, the right soil is also of great importance.
Choosing varieties for home cultivation
Choosing a lemon for home cultivation, you need to take into account its need for lighting. If the apartment windows face west or north, you can choose Pavlovsky lemonIt grows well on the north windows. This variety is unpretentious in cultivation, begins to bear fruit at 3-4 years of life, bringing from 20 to 40 tasty fruits of medium size.
For more experienced growers suitable variety Meyer or Chinese lemon. He is demanding irrigation, lighting and temperature. If in the winter in the room where it grows, more than +12 ° C, the fruit can not tangle.
Differs in beautiful flowering variety Anniversary. Flowers collected in inflorescences of 14 pieces, white with a purple tinge. Fruits are large, can reach 600 grams, they begin to start 3-4 years after planting. The variety is undemanding for irrigation and air humidity.
Sort Maikop attracts great yield. An adult tree can produce from 100 to 300 fruits weighing about 150 g per year. Lemon prefers to winter in a cool room.
Large fruits, weighing more than 500 g, grow on a grade Panderosa. This hybrid was obtained by crossing citron and lemon. It normally carries dry, hot air, loves bright diffused light, needs frequent dressing. Blooms large creamy white flowers.
Miniature tasty lemon, with a diameter of about 4 cm gives a grade Volcano. This bonsai does not exceed 1.2 m. It is very decorative, because it blooms all year round, it is often possible to see flowers and fruits at the same time.
Optimum conditions for cultivation of a room lemon
It is advisable to choose for a room lemon a well-lit place where it will be protected from direct sunlight. In order for the crown to develop evenly, the plant is turned to the window a few degrees 1 time in 10 days.
Growing conditions and care for lemon:
- soil with a weak acid reaction (pH 6)
- regular feeding all year round,
- lights in winter,
- abundant summer watering,
- air temperatures from 14 to 27 ° C,
- forming pruning.
You need to feed homemade lemon, alternating mineral and organic fertilizers. When a tree begins to bear fruit, fertilizing is especially necessary for it.
You can make a lemon nitrophoshka. Fermat's fertilizer plants or Citrus plants are well accepted by plants. In winter, the lemon is fertilized only with wood ash (1–2 tbsp per 1 l of water). From early spring to late autumn they are fed with biohumus, where there is more nitrogen promoting leaf growth. In the summer you need to make fertilizer 1 time in 2 weeks, in winter - 1 time per month.
How to water a tree
Water the plant is necessary as the drying of the soil in the pot. In summer, when moisture evaporation is stronger, this is done more often. If the plant is standing outdoors - in the garden or on the veranda, he needs daily watering.
You can check the soil moisture level with an indicator or by touch, if it has dried to a depth of 5 cm, produce watering. Water take key, room temperature. Loves lemon spraying in the morning, when the sun's rays will not leave burns on the wet leaves.
For the plants to have a compact form, they need forming pruning. To cut off the top point of the shoot is best in January, when the plant is still at rest.
In February, the indoor lemon will begin to “wake up”, and will give side shoots of 3-4 buds located closest to the top. Side shoots are also cut off, leaving 3-4 internodes, after which the third order branches start to awaken.
Forming is necessary for good fruiting. The more orders of branching in a plant, the more fruits.
In order for the plant to start fruiting faster, branches should be moved to a horizontal position. This can be done with thick copper wire.
Lemon cuttings remaining after pruning can be rooted in sand or perlite, they easily take root in about a month. Then they are transplanted into fertile soil.
Basic rules for transplantation
Pots for transplanting must match the size of the root system. In a spacious planting capacity to place the plant is undesirable.
While young citrus, it is transplanted 2 times a year. For an adult 8-year-old lemon, the ground can be updated 1 time in 5 years.
To prepare the soil take compost, humus, coarse sand. It is good to add pine bark of small fraction, then the root system develops better.
It is impossible to use sphagnum moss as a mulch for lemon, it retains moisture for a very long time, this leads to decay of the root collar and the death of the plant. Chopped pine bark is better for mulch.
How to care for lemon during flowering
It is better to cut off the blooming flowers on a young lemon so that it gains strength, grows roots and leaves, and only then bears fruit. The plant should grow at least 20 leaves so that it can give the first few fruits, and then bear fruit annually.
In order to grow a full-fledged crop at home, the flowers need to be pollinated. In citrus fruits are tied without pollination, but the seeds in them are formed only during cross-pollination. If there was no pollination, the fruits are smaller in size, the ovaries stick worse on the branches, sometimes they fall.
The more fruits on the tree, the smaller they will grow, so part of the ovaries are removed immediately after flowering. Leave, usually, from several closest to the largest. Citrus fruits have a very long fruit ripening period, from 7 to 9 months.
Fight against diseases and pests
If the root system has decayed, the leaves fall. This happens when the plant overflows. Dangerous intense watering in the cold season. To help the lemon, which begins to "go bald," it is transplanted into a pot with fresh soil.
The roots are well cleaned from the old substrate, washed under warm water, cut off all rotted. You can put the plant for several hours in a solution Kornevin (1 tsp. Per 1 liter of water). Then the roots are sprinkled with Fundazole and charcoal, and planted in the "Universal" substrate.
Noticing insect pests on the tree, they carry out the treatment with Fitoverm. Most often a spider mite and a shield mite settle on a lemon. Two insects are sprayed against insects with an interval of 5-7 days.
Causes of leaf fall and treatment:
- When the earthy coma dries, the lemon can shed its leaves. To help the plant, it is watered and put on the lightest window sill. When new leaves grow, all dry branches are cut.
- Лимон может сбрасывать листья через 1–2 месяца после покупки его в цветочном магазине. Это связано с тем, что условия комнатного содержания сильно отличаются от оранжерейных, к которым растение привыкло. Лимону не хватает прежде всего света. Заметив опадение листьев, необходимо организовать подсветку для растения.
- Низкая влажность воздуха также способствует «листопаду». Можно купить увлажнитель или просто опрыскивать 2–3 раза в неделю растение по листьям водой комнатной температуры.
- Yellowing and falling leaves may be caused by a lack of nutrition. The plant needs to be fed and transplanted into fertile soil.
- If the leaves are fallen, the lemon must be transplanted, fed, and covered with a package to create increased humidity, then young branches and roots will grow. Immediately remove the package can not be done gradually. You can handle a weak plant Appin.
"Aboriginal" plants are more resistant and unpretentious than those bought in the store, you can independently grow a tree from a bone of a lemon. To do this, fresh seed is placed in a pot of soil, deepening by 1 cm, it will rise after about 1 week. In order to grow from the seeds of lemons began to bear fruit, they are grafted when the thickness of the trunk reaches 4 mm. Inoculation can be done about a year after germination of the seedling.
What you need to know?
Further in the article we will deal with all the details of how a plant such as indoor lemon is used for home care. Flowering and fruiting of this citrus fruit are possible only under the condition:
- choosing the right place
- using suitable primer,
- regular watering and fertilizing,
- periodic pruning.
The main decorative value of a lemon is its dense leaves of a rich dark green color. White with yellow stamens stellate flowers of this citrus rather spectacular. However, they grow in the depths of the crown, in the axils of the leaves, and are practically invisible from the outside. Therefore, the group of flowering indoor plants lemon can not be attributed. But although the flowers of this citrus are not its main decoration, they smell very nice. And the fragrance spreads literally throughout the room.
Abundant appearance of buds is possible only if the proper care of a plant such as indoor lemon, home care is carried out. It does not bloom citrus most often because of the lack of nutrients in the soil and irregular irrigation. Also, the lack of buds and fruits can be affected by a lack of sunlight.
How to choose a grade?
In the wild, indoor lemon, home care for which is really complicated, grows in hot India. As a cultural this plant has been cultivated for a very long time, including in Russia. Lemons were brought to our country in the time of Peter the Great. During the years of cultivation, many varieties of this citrus fruit, fruitful and unpretentious, have been bred. But of course, not all varieties are suitable for growing in a limited space. The most popular among fans of indoor plants are varieties:
- Pavlovsky. Under favorable conditions, such lemons can even reach a height of 2 meters. The advantages of this variety include primarily the fact that it is very easy to reproduce. Pavlovsky lemon, cultivation and care at home for which - procedures, in comparison with other varieties, are relatively simple, well suited not too experienced florist. Its fruit is very fragrant and fragile. Variety is not too fond of bright sunlight.
- Meier This variety is good early fruiting and unpretentious. It differs from most other varieties in more acidic fruits. Also room lemon Meier, home care for which is about the same as for any other varieties, is compact. This species grows very low.
- Novogruzinsky. This lemon is easy to force to produce crops year round. Its fruits have no seeds and smell very good.
How to choose a place?
The peculiarities of lemon, among other things, include the fact that he does not like to change the situation. Therefore, the place for him to choose carefully. Most varieties prefer good lighting. But it does not tolerate direct sunlight.
They put lemon, cultivation and care at home, for which it will be successful only if the correct choice of place, most often on the east window. Bright, but rather diffuse morning lighting for good development of this plant is enough.
It is allowed to put lemons on the south window. However, in this case, be sure to take care of shading. Direct sunlight will surely cause burns on the plant. In addition, the lemon will react to an excess of light by the appearance of a large number of small whitish leaves. Thus, citrus just tries to reduce the area of contact with UV rays and lose in showiness.
Choose a place for a lemon should also taking into account the fact that the pot is not cooled by draft. This is especially true of the cold season. If the temperature of the earth in the pot is below the ambient temperature, the plant will drop the leaves.
How to propagate by cuttings?
This is the easiest way to get some new lemons at home. Cut cuttings from an adult plant in early spring. The branch should be mature, about 4-5 mm thick. Lower leaves are removed from the stalk. It is best to plant a sprig in a greenhouse made of a regular plastic bottle.
Perfect capacity for 2 liters. The top of the bottle is cut, and in its bottom make several holes for the flow of water. Next, pour a layer of steamed sand to the bottom. Top lay nutrient soil with an acidity of 6.5-7 pH. Substrate for lemon, you can buy in the store or cook with your own hands. In the latter case, take:
- leaf ground - 1 hour,
- humus - 1 hour,
- sod land - 2 hours,
- sand - 1 hour
All components should be thoroughly mixed and placed in a bottle.
The butt of the cut stalk is sprinkled with wood ash, powdered with heteroauxin stimulant and immersed in the ground for 2-3 cm. Next, the plant needs to be watered carefully, and the bottle covered with plastic wrap. In the future, it is not recommended to moisten the soil in the tank before rooting the plant. The roots of the twigs are released in about a month.
When using cuttings as planting material in the future it will be easiest to carry out such homemade citrus fruits such as indoor lemon. Reproduction by this technology allows you to quickly get a lush, healthy, fruiting adult plant.
Planting material with this method of cultivation should be chosen as carefully as possible. From the fruit of an even form, you need to get the largest seed. It should be planted immediately. In this case, as a container, you can use an ordinary plastic cup with drainage holes made in it. At its bottom should pour some sand. Soil in this case is used the same as for cuttings.
It is best to plant several seeds at once in different cups, and then choose the strongest plant for growing. The seeds are sunk into the ground by 2-3 cm. Immediately after planting, watering is performed. In the larger container, the selected lemon must be transferred at the age of 3-5 months. Handling should be done as carefully as possible. If limb roots are damaged, it will lose foliage.
How to water?
Moisture - this is something that loves indoor lemon. Care at home for him, as for all citrus, is, including, and in frequent watering. In the summer, the soil under the plant is moistened once a day - two. In winter, lemon watered once a week. With a lack of moisture leaves of this plant change color to yellow-brown.
If this happens, in no case should you pour a lemon at once with plenty of water. Otherwise, the root system will die. It is possible to correct the situation in such a situation by slightly moistening the soil under the plant and spraying it abundantly. Wrapping the stem with a damp cloth will also be helpful.
How to fertilize?
Feed the lemon should also be quite often. In the summer, once a month, the plant is watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This is best done at night. Also once a month it is useful to water the lemon with a solution of iron sulphate. The best organic fertilizer for this citrus is ordinary cow manure.
You can also purchase in the store a complete feeding containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Such a means of feeding the lemon twice a month. Wood ash, containing a huge amount of trace elements, is very useful for this decorative culture.
Lemon care at home in terms of fertilizing can also be carried out using purchased formulations specifically designed for citrus fruits. Sometimes indoor plant lovers also replace topsoil in a pot with lemon with pond sludge, which contains many useful substances. In winter, if the plant bears fruit, it should be fed with complex fertilizer or organic matter once a month.
Periodic pruning is also something that a room lemon necessarily requires. Care in the home of this plant in terms of the formation of the crown should be periodic. Otherwise it may happen that the tree will not bear fruit. For the first time, pruning is done immediately after the lemon reaches a height of 20-30 cm. At this time, the tip is carefully removed from it in such a way that 3-4 buds are left on the trunk.
About a year later, first-level shoots are formed from them. After they reach a length of 20-30 cm, they are also pinched. Next on the branches will begin to form shoots of the second, third, etc. levels. Each new “wave” should be pinned in such a way that it is 5 cm shorter than the previous one. That is, the branches of the second level should have a length of 15-25 cm, the third - 10-20 cm, etc. Of course, you need to remove diseased shoots growing inside the bush, etc.
Thus, the lemon should be watered and fertilized in time. You also need to do the formation of his crown. What other difficulties await a grower, carrying out such a plant as indoor lemon, care at home? Diseases affect this type of citrus, unfortunately, often. Therefore, a lemon may have to be treated from time to time.
Trees of this variety can be affected by both fungi and microorganisms or insect pests. Most often, lovers of indoor flowers have to deal with the shields, flour worms and aphids, striking lemons. All these varieties of pests are engaged in sucking the juice from the leaves. You can fight them through soapy water or tobacco infusion (50-60 g per liter). Sometimes chyvovok, aphids and mites are expelled from plants and with the help of chlorophos solution (30 grams per 10 liters).
Gommoz - this is also one of the problems faced by many lovers of ornamental plants that grow indoor lemon. Care at home for this citrus suggests, including, and periodic inspection of the leaves and stem. A plant diseased with gommosis causes cracks in the lower part of the stem, from which gum starts to stand out. Cut the tree with the help of a garden pot or clay. Cracks are pre-disinfected with a solution of copper sulphate 3%. Then the wounds are simply carefully covered with pitch or clay.
This is how a plant such as a room lemon is taken care of at home. The photo on the page clearly displays the beauty of these citrus fruits. If you grow your lemon, following the rules described in the article, you will grow the same spectacular fragrant tree with bright green leaves and a lush crown.
The homeland of lemon is China, India and the tropical islands in the Pacific. The plant was introduced into culture in the 12th century by the inhabitants of South and Southeast Asia. From there, lemon spread to the Middle East, Europe and even Africa.
In Russia, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, lemon plantations in the 1970s occupied 8 hectares of land. Today, these areas have declined, but the interest in pot culture, on the contrary, is growing.
The center of distribution of indoor lemons in our country is the city of Pavlovo, Nizhny Novgorod region. Here, more than 150 years ago, Pavlovsky lemon was developed using the method of national selection.
At one plant, 10-30 fruits are obtained at home, there are cases when an adult tree in a tub brought up to 200 lemons. By the way, in Pavlovo there are several nurseries engaged in the cultivation and sale of citrus, parcels are sent to all regions of the Russian Federation.
Pavlovsky lemon is considered a classic for Russia, and other varieties that have grown fond of gardeners have been bred or introduced. There are lemons that carry only decorative value, but the fruits of most varieties can be eaten.
Description of room lemon: varieties
In size and taste, they are not inferior to wild tropical brethren, often surpassing them. Popular and unusual varieties of lemons If you do not have experience in growing lemon, you should start by getting to know the most popular varieties. It's no wonder they spread to many Russian window sills.
The most popular and available in Russia variety of lemons: Pavlovsky. He occupies a leading position among the room for the ability to adapt to different growing conditions. This is a long-lived tree, can grow and bear fruit up to 80 years.
In height grows to 1 m and above. Enters fructification for 3–4 year, shows repairability. Flowers bloom twice a year: in spring and autumn, they are white, fragrant. Fruits are thin-skinned, yellow, with a classic taste. The weight of each - 150-250 g.
Ripening - 9 months after the formation of the ovary. There are thorns on the branches. Pavlovsky lemon appeared in Russia about 150 years ago Meyer - a natural hybrid of orange and lemon, nature itself conducted a selection. The tree does not grow above 1.5 meters, it blooms from the third year of life, and continuously.
On one plant you can see both fruits and flowers at the same time. Not a single blooming lemon will give you such an aroma as Meyer. Fruits grow medium-sized (150 g), thin-skinned, yellow, and orange flesh, like an orange.
Taste sour with bitterness. Ripening - no more than 9 months. On the petioles of the leaves there is a lionfish, the leaf plate exudes an essential oil with an orange flavor. Lemon Lemon Leaves exude an orange flavor.
Tashkent interesting for its ability to independently form a thick and beautiful crown, its diameter often exceeds the height of the bush. Decorative qualities increase during flowering. Lemon becomes not white, like the others, but pink-white, exudes a sharp lemon scent. The leaves, like an orange - with lionfish.
In winter, they almost all fall off, and in the spring the tree is restored. The fruits are even smaller than that of Meyer - 100 g each, orange, almost brown. The orange-colored flesh has a conifer-mandarin aroma, is devoid of strong acid, but not sweet, remains tart. Fruit ripening period is 6 months. Lemon has Tashkent fruit of medium size, orange color.
Panderosa It is considered the most unpretentious lemon in leaving. Variety perfectly adapted to room conditions: dry air and elevated temperatures, forgive, if you miss watering and does not require daily spraying. In this case, the bush forms large leaves and perfectly cleans the air in the room.
It blooms 2–3 times a year so abundantly that it turns into a white ball with a cream shade, fills the apartment with a citrus scent. Fruits sets just huge - 500 g, some grow up to 1 kg. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out rationing and leave 4–6 lemons on one tree.
The skin is thick, the flesh is greenish, the taste is not as sour as that of a regular lemon. Maturation period is 6-10 months. The fruits of Panderosis are large, hilly, with a thick skin.
Novogruzinsky created for those who want to collect a lot of lemons. This variety is so fruitful that it is grown on an industrial scale. But for high productivity will have to pay a long wait. In fruiting lemon enters 4 years.
In addition, it is the tallest of the varieties already listed. The usual height of indoor lemons is 1–1.5 meters, and this one can grow into a real tree and is more suitable for a winter garden than for a window sill. In a spacious bright room and a capacious tub, it can grow up to 2 m and produce up to 50 fruits.
Flowers appear 2-3 times a year, have a purple hue, exude a lemon scent. Fruits of classic size, appearance and taste: weigh 120–170 g, yellow skin 5 mm thick, the pulp is juicy and sour. The ripening period is 8–9 months. At the same time, fruits of different degrees of ripeness can hang on the same tree.
A common phenomenon for Novogruzinsky is the simultaneous flowering and fruiting, the buds have a purple hue. Even the average height of a room lemon seems too big for many. However, this culture tolerates pruning. You can give a tree of any kind the size and shape you need.
Rare varieties of lemons
Buddha hand so exotic and exclusive that its fruits are very expensive, even in regions of mass growth. The fruit has the shape of a half-open human palm. And the creator of such a masterpiece is nature.
Fruit weight - up to 500 g, the length of the "fingers" - up to 40 cm. The skin is knobby, yellow, sometimes with an orange tinge, exudes a lemon scent.
In food, the fruits are not used because of strong astringency, but they are added little by little in tinctures and seasonings. Ingredients: essential oils, valuable glycosides. Листья выделяют фитонциды, очищают воздух, в таких условиях снимается усталость и повышается работоспособность.
Плод лимона Рука Будды скорее напоминают осьминога, чем человеческую кисть.
Мелароза привлекает своей декоративностью и ароматом бергамота. Крона образуется пышная, цветы розовые, появляются весной. Срок созревания — 6–7 месяцев. Вес плодов в комнате — 100 г, в теплице — до 250 г.
Fruits have a flattened form, a yellow skin, a surface with protruding lobes, like pumpkin or peeled mandarin. The flesh is juicy and sour. Lemon Malarose smells like bergamot, the fruits are shaped like a peeled mandarin.
Doux de mediterranee Bred in Israel. The tree grows to 2 meters, blooms in spring, the fruits ripen in autumn. The uniqueness of the variety is that both sweet and sour fruits are spiced on the same plant. Even inside one fruit can come across sour and sweet slices. Lemons are classic in size and look.
Vanilla gives round yellow fruit, devoid of sour taste and endowed with the aroma of vanilla. The skin is thin, it makes unusual candied fruits: sour with a sweet aroma. The tree is tall, the room can grow to 1.7 m, forms a round crown.
In the State Register of breeding achievements there are only 4 varieties of lemon: Meyer, Leysan, Salavat, Urman. All of them were developed by Ufa forestry technical school. Zoned for all regions. On the Black Sea coast are grown in open ground, the rest of the Russian Federation - in greenhouses, winter gardens and home conditions.
Lemon Doakes de Mediterana
Planting and transplanting indoor lemon
No matter how attractive the lemons with flowers and fruits, when buying, give preference to young seedlings, up to two years. They quickly adapt to the conditions of your apartment and will not experience such stress as adult plants.
Bring the plant into the house, put it in the allotted place and only after a week proceed to transplant. Bring young plants into the house; they adapt more easily to new conditions. The new pot should be 2–3 cm wider than the container in which the seedling is already growing. Soil, you can buy a special for citrus or make yourself from equal parts of leaf or sod land, humus, coarse sand.
Lemons grow in normal soil with a neutral reaction, do not like a pronounced alkaline and acidic. Be sure to heat the soil mixture to 100 ° C to destroy the eggs of ticks, aphids and other pests, as well as the spores of pathogenic fungi. You do not want your newcomer from the first day sick and began to throw leaves.
At the bottom of the pot lay a drainage layer of 2-3 cm from clay shards, expanded clay, pebbles. Then pour a layer of soil and roll a lemon with a clod of earth into a new pot. Fill the gaps between the radical lump and the walls of the pot with soil mixture. In this way, transplant: a young plant (the first 2-3 years of life) - every spring that has entered fruiting - once every 2-3 years.
Already an adult large tree growing in a bucket or tub, no longer roll over, but remove the top layer of soil about 5–7 cm and replace it with a new one.
You can not plant a small lemon immediately in a bucket or a large pot. At best, the plant will heal, will not be fruiting for a long time, at worst, the roots will rot. After all, a small root system can not absorb all the moisture from a huge pot, is in constant moisture, without enough oxygen. In experienced citrus growers, meter-long trees grow in 1.5–2 liter pots.
What conditions need to create a lemon
Optimum conditions for lemon: diffused sunlight, the longitude of the day - 12 hours. These descriptions correspond to the spring and autumn days. In the summer, the lemon should be protected from the scorching sun, but you should not move the pot from place to place, turn the other side to the glass. Therefore, keep the plant all year round in the east, southeast or southwest window and mark the side of the pot facing the light in case you need to wash the window or carry a lemon under the shower.
No matter how much you would like to turn the pot to the glass in another side, do not do this! With the onset of heat, citrus can be carried out all summer on the balcony or in the garden, under the canopy of a tree. At the same time, wrap the pot with a cloth or paper so that the roots are not affected by night and daytime temperature differences. Lemon does not like sudden changes.
Watch the weather and move the tree into the house before the cold days (below + 18 ... +20 ° C). Often, citrus growers bring blooming and fruiting lemons from the cold street into the house and get disastrous results: the tree drops both the leaves and the fruits that have not yet grown, and in some cases even die. Favorable summer temperature is +18 ... +26 ° C, in winter + 10 ... +14 ° C.
Lemons grow at a constant room temperature, but without additional light they shed their leaves, their lifespan is greatly reduced. It is better to arrange a period of rest for the winter. Find a cool place, for example, on an insulated balcony or protect the window on which the plant is standing, from the room with a thick curtain, isolate the radiator, etc.
For irrigation of lemon, only distilled water without chlorine of the same temperature in which it is located is suitable. For this it is enough to keep the watering can constantly near the pot. Watering is necessary as the surface of the soil dries up: during flowering and fruiting it is abundant to wet the whole lump, in the period of rest - only slightly moistening and not allowing the ground to dry out.
Some citrus drinkers add a few drops of lemon juice to the irrigation water, but this is not at all necessary. Every day, spray the tree with clean water on the leaves. Even if you have a drought-resistant variety, do not neglect this procedure. In dry air and heat, spider mites easily grow, multiplying exponentially. It will be difficult to etch them. It is especially important not to skip sprays in the winter when central heating works.
Once a month, arrange a warm shower for a lemon. Lemon likes water treatments Regularity and composition of supplements depend on the conditions of detention: With a period of rest. During the growing season, water every 2 weeks with a solution of a special fertilizer for citrus or biohumus. You can use the infusion of herbs or single nettle.
Late autumn and winter need micronutrients and phosphorus. Well suited ash: 1 tbsp. l at night, pour 1 l of water, in the morning pour this infusion under lemon. Feed it once a month before the start of the growing season. Without a rest period during year-round flowering and fruiting, water every 2 weeks with complex fertilizers containing all the macro-and microelements that plants need. Use mixes for citrus, room and balcony plants.
The most popular and reliable brand for today is Fertik. The lemon flowers are bisexual, they pollinate themselves, but you can also help, armed with a soft brush and having worked with a bee. Many varieties bloom very abundantly, however, the ovaries form much less. This is normal, the tree is tying as many fruits as he is strong enough.
It happens that not only unnecessary flowers are showered, but also the ovary. With a soft brush, collect the pollen and apply it on the stigma of the pistil. Harvest, taking into account the time of ripening for your variety. Not always the yellow color of the skin means complete ripeness, and green - immaturity. Some varieties themselves shed ripened fruit.
Formation of a bush or tree
It is believed that lemon fruits on the branches of the 3rd and 4th order. But not for all varieties this is true, some are covered with flowers completely, including on skeletal branches (1 order). In any case, it is logical to assume: the more branches, the more surfaces for budding, the yield is higher.
Cut the lemon, it is necessary to form it, and annually, in the spring. However, each variety is individual, tends to grow in its own way: a bush or forms a stem, so you have to act according to circumstances: If the seedling grows with one stick, does not branch, cut the crown at the height you need.
Keep in mind that side shoots will grow from the upper 3-4 leaf axes, which will also start to grow upwards. Therefore, shorten to the desired level minus 30–40 cm. For example: if you want to get a tree 1 m high, leave a trunk 60–70 cm long. The shorter you leave the trunk, the squat will be the crown.
When the branches of the second order will grow to 20-30 cm, shorten them, leaving 2-4 internodes. After that, the branches of the 3rd order will appear, which can also be pinched.
The scheme pruning lemon growing in a single stalk
Some varieties can produce basal shoots and grow a bush. In this case, it is necessary to shorten too long stems by almost half, as well as cut the side branches that grow inside the crown and thicken it. Some varieties grow with a bush, give a few shoots from the root. Trees growing in one trunk, lemons with a wilted crown need not only to be cut, as in the first method, but also to tie up.
Young skeletal branches hanging down, lift and attach to supports, for example, bamboo poles stuck in a pot. During the season they will lumber and will keep this position on their own. The optimum is the arrangement of branches at an angle of 45–90 degrees to the trunk. It is possible to give the correct position to the branches with the help of garters or struts. It happens that the skeletal branches grow up at an acute angle, almost vertically, forming a dense whisk.
In this case, you can use struts or, as in the previous case, to tie to supports, but not lifting up, but, on the contrary, giving them a horizontal position. Lemon is formed according to the same principles as ordinary fruit trees. Required: sanitary pruning with the removal of dry, diseased and broken branches, as well as thinning. In the crown should not be knots inward, downward, intersecting, growing vertically, if it is not a conductor.
Reproduction by cuttings, layering, seeds
The easiest way to propagate a lemon is cutting. Each spring as a result of pruning you will have a lot of planting material. And to get a new lemon, you can in the first year of cultivation of an existing one, cutting off when forming its top. The stalk should have 3-5 leaves, they can be shortened by half or left entirely.
If this is the tip, then pinch the growth point. Next, dip the cutting 2 cm into the wet substrate, sand or perlite. Cover with a plastic bag or an inverted can. About a month later, a new plant will begin to dissolve young leaves. When the roots grow to 10 cm in length, transplant a small lemon into the pot. For rooting, take cups with transparent walls, then you will be able to observe the development of the horse system.
If you have taken a stalk from an already adult fruit-bearing tree, then it may bloom in the year of planting. Be sure to remove all the buds so that they do not pull on the precious juices. Young plants need to develop roots and a rich crown. Video: lemon cuttings Mayer However, grafting does not always give a positive result, an average of 4–5 out of 10 branches take root.
There is a more correct, but less simple way - this is rooting by air layering:
- Choose a branch on which there is one- and even two-year-old wood.
- Using a sharp knife, remove the bark from the branch with a 1–2 cm wide ring.
- Wear a plastic bag or sleeve to the point of the cut. Pull out below the cut and wind up to the branch with scotch tape, fill the bag with a wet substrate (loose soil mixture, peat, moss), close the top edge tightly around the branch and roll it with tape too.
- Callus is formed in the place of the cut in the conditions of humidity, and then the roots, it will occur in about 1-2 months. The roots will begin to take away moisture from the soil, so you have to make a hole that can be closed with scotch and periodically watered through a syringe or a syringe.
- When the branched roots are already clearly visible through the transparent walls of the bag, the branch can be cut and planted in a pot.
Rooting by air slips was successful, well-developed roots are visible through the film. Another way of breeding lemon - seeds. But, according to numerous reviews, the seedlings have to wait for a very long time - 5–7 years, and sometimes 15. It is inexpedient, although such a seedling can be grown to be used as a stock.
Even a child can grow a lemon from a seed: bury it to a depth of 2-3 cm in any flower pot and water it. No stratification is needed. For loyalty, sow a few seeds. Shoots will appear in 3-4 weeks.
Lemon grafting methods
As a stock, any citrus older than 1 year will be suitable in the active stage, that is, in spring and summer, when sap flow occurs. It is possible to inoculate with the skeletal branches of one lemon buds or cuttings of different varieties and even mandarin, orange and other plants from this family.
Experts give a hint: often in hypermarkets sell tangerines and lemons with sprigs. If they are fresh, with green leaves, you can graft them on the wild grown from seed. The odds are slim, but they are. As a result, you will receive a free cultural plant. Before inoculation, cut the wilder to hemp or leave the stem and the base of the skeletal branches, if you want to make several vaccinations: one for each branch.
There are several ways to instill lemon: Kidney. On a wild razor blade, cut a shred of bark 2-3 cm long and 0.5–1 cm wide. Cut it off without touching the wood. On a cultivated plant, choose a 3-4 mm thick branch with already old, hardened leaves and bark, take a cutting from it with the number of buds you need for grafting.
Cut the leaves, leaving the stalks. Now cut the kidney with a blade with a piece of bark, the size and shape of which correspond to the shreds cut on the dick. Attach the kidney to the site of vaccination and tightly wrap it with a special vaccination tape, with a fum-tape or a strip cut from a latex medical glove.
Vaccination with a kidney: a graft, consisting of bark, leaf stalk and bud in the sinus, is applied to the cut of the bark on the rootstock B cleft. Using a sharp knife, dissect the stem of the wilder vertically from top to bottom strictly in the center to a depth of about 2 cm. Now cut the bottom of the stalk of a cultural plant in the form of a wedge - shoulder blade. Insert the cutting stalk into the split of the dick and roll. The bottom of the cultural lemon cutting is cut off by a wedge and inserted into the cleft on the dick.
Behind the bark. This is the most familiar way for us, we see such a graft on almost all fruit trees that we buy for our garden. Make a shallow vertical incision of the bark from the top edge of the hemp stock down. Separate the bark from the trunk, as if pushing the sash. In the lower part of the graft cutting, make an oblique cut, press it with this place to the cut on the wilderness, cover the bark with flaps and wrap.
The bark is removed on the rootstock, the cutting is pressed to this place with an oblique cut. The engraftment lasts 5–7 days. If the bud or stalk during this time is not blackened or dried, then the graft was successful. Cultural buds bloom in about a month. Emerging shoots should be removed.
Pest and disease control
Literally, all the pests that can live in room conditions live on lemon: flour worms, spider mites, aphids, scale insects, whiteflies, etc. In addition, indoor plants are affected by root rot, black carbonaceous fungus, anthracnose, homozy, scab.
It is easier to save the lemon from all these troubles than to cure it, so pay attention to the prevention: Create favorable conditions for the lemon without sudden changes in temperature, humidity and light. Feed, water. The plant sharply loses its immunity, cannot withstand diseases and pests if it lacks nutrition and moisture.
Despite the love of lemons to the humid air, do not fill the ground. Use pots with drainage holes. Once every 1-2 weeks, add Phytosoprine to the irrigation water, you can spray it with a solution and leaves, powder the earth with wood ash, tobacco, mustard oil cake, add charcoal to the soil mixture for transplanting.
Every month, wash the leaves and stalks of lemon with soapy water. In the responsible and difficult periods for lemon (after illness, transplantation, abrupt change of habitat conditions), spray on leaves with stimulants and vitamins: Appin, Energen, Novosil. If trouble happened, then use insecticides to control insect pests, acaricides with mites, and fungicides with diseases.
Follow the instructions, start processing as early as possible. In order not to start a situation, once a week carefully inspect the leaves of a lemon on both sides. Spray on detecting the first signs. Many varieties of lemon bloom and bear fruit year-round, they cannot be treated with chemicals.
You can only use folk remedies, but they are ineffective and time-consuming, for example, wipe each leaf with alcohol, herbal infusions, garlic, onion peel, etc. Repeat the procedure every week. Video: processing of lemon from the shield, an old recipe Aphids and spider mites attacked my green pets. I know how difficult it is to get rid of such parasites, because the full cycle from hatching from an egg to adulthood at room temperature they take just 5-7 days.
Only you will exterminate one generation and you will sigh calmly, as the next immediately spawns and pumps out the sap from the plants again. What I did was nothing: she hunted Karbofos and Aktar, washed each leaf, collected sick leaves, cut out whole branches, but even with my stubbornness, I just wanted to lower my hands and throw the poor plant in the trash. Поэтому лучше не допускать развития паразитов, уничтожать их в самом начале или принимать все возможные меры для укрепления здоровья своего лимона.
Уход за домашним лимоном: тепло + свет + постоянство
Комнатный лимон отличается своенравным характером, что проявляется в его требовательности к условиям содержания.
В частности, он не выносит резких перепадов температуры, влажности и болезненно реагирует на сквозняк. Умеренно влажный и тёплый микроклимат и обильное освещение обязательны для хорошего самочувствия вашего зелёного питомца.
Just do not put the pot in direct natural light, as the lemon also does not like to roast in the sun. For example, you can put the plant on the south or south-west window-sill and priten it with a tulle curtain or gauze.
An interesting fact - a lemon does not like the neighborhood with strongly smelling home flowers, so do not put lilies or rhododendrons next to it.
In autumn, winter and early spring, homemade lemon needs additional lighting with LED or fluorescent lamps (at least 40 watts). On average, lamps are enough to turn on lamps for 3–4 hours a day (for 2 hours in the morning and 2 hours in the evening). However, keep in mind that a lemon plant needs at least 8 hours of solar or artificial lighting in winter and from 10 to 14 hours at a different time of the year.
Lamps are set at the rate of 2-3 pieces per square meter. However, they should not be located below 40-50 centimeters above the level of the highest branch.
Regular and sufficient watering
Homemade lemon loves to swim!
Waterlogging adversely affects the development of citrus plants, so that when watering, it is important to observe moderation. In hot weather, the soil in the pots is moistened 3 times a week, on ordinary days, the frequency of watering is reduced to one to two times.
How to determine that the lemon is time to water?
There is a simple test - take a pinch of soil from a pot with three fingers and squeeze. If it sticks together, then it is not necessary to water it, if it disintegrates - it's time to go for a watering can.
Watering water must be warm and separated (filtered). The ideal option is melt water, which is obtained from pure snow or after melting ice. No less good rain or spring water. Three or four times a month, you can add water to the water for sleeping tea.
Avoid stagnation of water in the container - the used containers must have drainage holes.
A couple of times a month, loosen the top layer of soil in the pot (just try not to damage the roots!). Oxygen will be easier to get to the roots and lemon will grow better.
Coming from the tropics, lemon loves to take a shower - Spray the plant regularly with a spray bottle and wipe the leaves with a soft, damp cloth. I generally advise you to turn such water procedures into a weekly ritual.
If your lemon stands next to the central heating battery, then to eliminate the dryness of the air, I recommend turning on an electric humidifier in the room (it can also be replaced with a regular basin of water).
We make a menu for homemade lemon
The phase of active growth in a room lemon falls on the period from February to September. At this time it is useful to regale a tropical guest with organic and mineral supplements (they should be alternated). Fertilizer irrigation is carried out every 10-14 days, no more.
When taking care of lemon at home, I advise you to pay special attention to special fertilizers for citrus plants, which, in addition to the main nutrients, also include zinc, boron and manganese. To reduce the risk of burning the roots to a minimum, fertilizer mixtures are served exclusively in liquid form and use lower concentrations (no more than 1-2 grams per liter of water).
In addition, do not forget the most important principle of feeding any home and garden plants - it is better not to feed than to overfeed.
Consider that after transplantation (which will be discussed later), the lemon can not be fed for 2-3 months - at this time the plant has enough nutrients contained in the soil mixture.
When and how to replant homemade lemon
With good care, lemon tree "rushing" literally before our eyes. Up to 10 years, the lemon is transplanted once a year, then the plant is transferred to a more spacious pot every 2-3 years.
To do this, choose a capacity of 5-7 centimeters wider and deeper than the previous one. Since the roots of citrus plants need a large amount of oxygen, for transplantation it is better to choose containers from breathing materials - for example, from clay or wood.
The optimal time for a lemon transplant is June, during the cold season this operation is carried out in February.
In preparing the mixture for transplanting lemon should take into account the age of the plant. For young lemon leaves a light soil mixture is better suited, and for older plants it is more dense, with a high content of clay.
Here are a few options for soil mixtures for indoor lemons of different ages:
- Plants up to 4 years old: leaf soil, mature manure, high peat, small river sand (1: 2: 1: 0.5).
- Plants from 4 to 10 years old: turf soil, leaf soil, riding peat, lake silt, river sand (2: 1: 1: 1: 0.5).
- Plants over 10 years old: sod land, leaf soil, riding peat, lake sludge, large river sand (3: 1: 1: 2: 0.5), ash from the combustion of straw at the rate of 200 grams per 10-liter bucket of soil.
It is good to enrich any of mixes with 100-200 grams of the granulated superphosphate on 10 liters.
With each transplant, up to 50% of the length of the taproot is removed from the plant. The remaining roots are also shortened by 1.5 -2 centimeters and immersed in a slightly pink solution of manganese-acid potassium for 5 minutes. For disinfection, it is also possible to powder the cutting sites with wood ash.
Rules for seasonal lemon care at home
For lemon, spring comes in early February. From this time, start slowly feeding your green friend. In addition, it is good to do vaccination work at the end of winter.
In February and March, lemon plants are actively flowering. Indoors need to maintain a temperature regime from +16 to +20 degrees.
Shade plants from the May sun, pushing the pots 50-60 centimeters from the window.
In the warm season, monitor the regularity of irrigation and timely fertilization. If desired, lemon can be set to fresh air (but not in direct sunlight!).
Caring for lemon in the summer also implies intensive feeding (but, again, no more than once every two weeks).
Gradually prepare the plant for moving to a closed room: first bring it into the house for one to two hours, then for half a day and so on.
From the middle of autumn start to light up the plants with fluorescent lamps.
In the winter months, make sure that lemon is not on the wind, as well as to avoid overcooling earthen coma in a pot. Reduce watering to once a week.
If the lemon blooms during the cold season, do not allow all the buds to open (leave no more than 1 flower for every 15 leaves). Let me remind you that in the first year all the buds from the plant are cut off, not even allowing them to open.
I also present to your attention an overview video about all the rules of lemon care at home.
This article is part of a series about growing lemons at home. The first part, containing detailed instructions for obtaining a lemon seedling from a stone, can be found here. And in order not to miss the release of new articles, I advise you to subscribe to blog updates!