Increased humidity in your area is fraught with disastrous consequences: water suppresses the root system of plant crops, which provokes their disease and subsequent death. Moreover, the moisture undermines the foundation of the building and the outbuildings, so the buildings are flooded and begin to quickly collapse. Is it possible to avoid such problems? The best option for warning them is a drainage device in the villa territory. This procedure is not so complicated as to hire professional builders - you can do it yourself. And in order for you to succeed, we invite you to learn more about the advantages and features of drainage and get acquainted with the simplest ways of arranging it.
Why do I need drainage
Each summer resident invariably asks the same question: does his site really need drainage? You can find the answer yourself - just evaluate your dacha territory. Your garden often becomes overgrown with sedge, there are long puddles on the site after the rain, the earth dries out long after watering or melting snow drifts are the first signs that the drainage is not enough. In order to be even more convinced of this, conduct a simple experiment: dig a hole 50-70 cm deep - if in a day it is full of water, start building the system without hesitation.
But there are four more conditions, in the presence of which drainage is obligatory:
- groundwater is very high
- cottage stands on thick clay soil,
- the site is located on a pronounced slope or vice versa - in a valley,
- In your territorial zone, heavy precipitation regularly falls.
As you can see, drainage is indispensable in almost all areas. So, if you want the plants and trees to be pleased with their growth, the paths are not deformed, and the dacha is not flooded, proceed to construction work.
Types of systems: surface and deep drainage area
When the question of the importance of drainage is closed, decide which system you need. It can be of two types.
Surface - The simplest drainage option. Its functional purpose is to divert water that falls on a land plot in the form of various sediments, for example, rain or snow. Such a system works perfectly on flat terrain without pronounced slopes. This drainage is essentially a system of ditches located along the entire perimeter of the site. Water that collects in ditches, over time, or is discharged into a special catchment basin, or simply evaporates. Surface systems can be combined with traditional storm sewers.
Deep - closed type drainage. Such a system is needed if your site:
- located on uneven terrain
- is on clay soil,
- has high groundwater
- for any other reason is difficult to operate.
Depth drainage can effectively protect from increased moisture not only garden and garden crops, but also the cottage itself, and all economic premises.
Council Since the installation of the deep drainage system requires serious land works, they are recommended to do it even before you start planting most of the crops. Even more optimal option, if it is possible, is the arrangement of drainage in parallel with the laying of the foundation.
Drainage - engineering structure, which is an extensive system of trenches and pipes. All its elements are interconnected and scattered, as a rule, around the perimeter of the site. Based on the above features, installation work cannot be started without a clear design of the drainage system.
The project should specify the following points: the location of all drainage trenches, water flow, the scheme of vertical drainage cuts, the location of wells, the depth of drains. It is also important to determine the size of all components of the system and their slope regarding the upper ground. Such a detailed project plan will give you the opportunity to quickly navigate the location of all elements of the drainage system in the process of its arrangement, that is, it will simply facilitate your work.
An important component of pre-construction procedures is the preparation of a set of tools and consumables that are necessary for installation work:
- perforated pipes with a diameter of 75-100 mm,
- pipe connection parts - couplings and fittings,
- drainage wells
- tamping tool
- building level,
- geofabric for drainage,
- wheelbarrow for transportation of land and supply of building materials.
The device of the surface drainage system
Performing this type of drainage is technically a simple process.
- Dig a trench along the entire perimeter of the dacha territory: depth - 70 cm, width - 50 cm. Its slope should be no less than 25-30 degrees towards the diversion of water.
- Dig auxiliary ditches at the same angle.
- Lead the trench and ditches to a single drainage well.
Next, do the drainage itself. It can be filling and gutter. If you choose the first option, you need to perform the following actions:
- Lay the drainage geotextile in the finished trench.
- Pour trenches with multi-format rubble on the geofabric: two thirds are large grains, and one third are small grains.
- Put on a layer of fines crushed stone turf.
In the second case, the continuation of the construction of drainage after excavating the trench is as follows:
- Prepare plastic drain trays.
- Put a layer of sand no more than 10 cm at the bottom of the trench. Tamp it well with manual-type packing.
- Install plastic trays in the trench.
- Install sand traps.
- Mount the decorative grilles on the trays - they will protect the drainage from debris and leaves, and also give it a prettier appearance.
Deep drainage on clay soils and other difficult terrain
The algorithm for the construction of the deep system in difficult areas is as follows:
- Dig a trench: on clay soil 60 cm deep, on loam - 80-90 cm, on sandy soil - 100 cm. The slope is no more than 30 degrees.
- Put sand on the bottom of the trench, not more than 10 cm, and tamp it down.
- Cover the bottom with a geofabric: its edges should come onto the sides of a dug trench.
- Fill the geotextile with fine gravel in a layer of 20 cm.
- Lay the drainage pipes with perforations down over the rubble. Adjust their position.
- Cover the pipes with a new layer of rubble and wrap the edges of the geofabric. You should have a kind of "roll": sand-geofabric-gravel-pipe-gravel-geofabric. Such a construction will protect the drainage from silting: geofabric and crushed stone let water flows through, but it retains the soil, preventing it from entering the pipe.
As you can see, in the device of the drainage system at the dacha there is nothing unreal, so do not be afraid to take on such work yourself. The main thing - to determine the exact type of drainage and follow the rules of its installation. And do not forget that by making efforts only once, you will be able to protect yourself from the mass of problems in the future, namely, from the death of garden and garden crops and the flooding of your own summer cottage.
Drainage in the country with their own hands: photo
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Alexey Korovin information for reflection. It is necessary to know the principle of the drainage system and SNiP. If a perforated drain pipe is laid, then during the rains, water will flow into the drain both from the ground and from the roof. Otherwise, why was it laid at all? So how can rainwater flow into a wet drained soil? Moreover, the slope of the drain is as follows (by the way, 3cm per 10m length is enough! See the SNiP) that even if the ground is dry, the water will simply flow down the slope. A drainage capacity of 2.8 million ha has been built in Russia, so there is enough experience. But nowhere is the geotextile itself laid around the trench. Unreasonable decision. And the depth of drains should be assigned not from the “lantern”, but depending on how deep the groundwater should be lowered. For the foundation - 20 cm below the sole, for plants - depending on their requirements (see SNiP). By the way, under the winter, drainage after the first frost is dry, there is no water inflow. There is nothing to be afraid of. Besides the cases with the influx of pressure water. Good luck.
How to equip drainage on your site
The abundance of moisture on the land gives each gardener many problems, one of which is the deterioration of seed germination and the appearance of putrefactive processes as the crops mature. In order to prevent the fatal consequences, it is enough to take radical measures in time and give preference to one of the existing methods of water diversion.
- Help team of qualified guys. Very often, the solution to the problem of excessive moisture is solved by specialized specialists, who have at their disposal a number of tools that allow them to quickly and efficiently dry the area. However, this effect is not enough for long, and after some time the trouble will again be felt.
- The use of sand for soil substrate (sanding). A similar procedure is carried out in cases where other methods are ineffective. It implies a uniform mixing of soil with sand in equal proportions. The method does not just get rid of the problem, but also improves the condition of the substrate and has a positive effect on the yields. However, the process requires the use of a large amount of material, and the action itself is accompanied by some difficulties,
- Arrangement of drainage. To carry out the procedure in the country with their own hands can anyone. To do this, it is necessary to equip the appropriate ditches throughout the site, combining them for the final drainage of water. The technique has gained great popularity due to its high efficiency, availability and low costs. In addition, gardeners are constantly finding new ways to drain the soil composition to make the procedure as simple as possible. Due to different nuances and subtleties, experts recommend giving preference to this particular solution,
- Digging open ditches. It is possible to equip a highly efficient system for the removal of excess water from the territory by digging up open ditches placed at a small angle. Similarly, water that stagnates in the territory enters the diversion ditches, and then is drained into a common drain hole or outside the territory of the site. Among the disadvantages of such a solution is rapid shedding and pollution, so it is effective only in the first weeks,
Also, gardeners practice the way of planting trees and raising the level of beds by means of additional embankments.
Features of work
Drainage in the country with their own hands is one of the most necessary stages in the arrangement of utilities on the site. Such a solution provides active removal of thawed, groundwater or rainwater and avoids intensive waterlogging. Currently, there are many ways to clean the area of water, but the most popular are:
- open drainage (surface),
- closed (deep),
Both options are distinguished by their design and operational subtleties, so before choosing one of them, you need to carefully examine all the features. In this case, you can equip a truly effective solution that will solve the problem of excess moisture in the area in the best possible way.
If we talk about surface drainage, it looks like a network of independent open channels, placed at a slight angle to quickly drain off excess moisture and prevent the soil from falling. The method is particularly effective when removing water from the tracks, drains, sheds and roofs. For groundwater, such a solution will be useful only if their level is very high, because the liquid is collected directly on the surface of the ground.
As for the constructive side, this method of drainage will be most effective if the width of the channels is not less than 30-40 centimeters, and the angle of inclination is from 30 degrees. Such a solution ensures the normal collection of excess water from the site. Currently used point and linear drainage. The first solution will be effective in case of local collection of water in individual places of discharge. In turn, the point surface drainage looks like a separate drain hole into which water is collected. Later it is removed from the site.
It is not difficult to arrange such a pit, and the performance indicators will depend on the correctness of the creation. Linear surface drainage can be represented by ditches and canals, which are evenly placed in areas with a small accumulation of groundwater and other waters. Linear and point surface drainage will be especially effective if used together. In this case, the problem of excess moisture will permanently leave your dacha territory.
To conduct high-quality surface drainage on the site is much easier than it seems at first glance. For this, it is enough to perform a number of certain activities. It is known that surface drainage is the most effective and affordable solution for the rapid removal of excess water from the territory. It consists of a combination of linear and point disposal systems, resulting in a high-quality system with inlets, drainage and protective elements.
The best drainage option is a linear system that provides an adequate level of protection against excess moisture. The design is easy to create with your own hands, without special skills or equipment. It is enough to make the design of the suburban area, indicating in the plan all the elements of the territory, up to the structures and trees, as well as the places where the maximum accumulation of groundwater and rainwater is noticed. At this stage, you need to specify the path of diversion of water into the drain hole or outside the dacha.
When planning, care should be taken to ensure that the water outlet is located in the direction of the slope. In addition to minimizing the area used, it is necessary to drain the water along the smallest trajectory.
When you have a ready plan, it will remain to equip ditches with a depth and a width of 30 centimeters (the exact volume depends on the individual features of the site and the volume of ground and rainwater). In this case, you need to carefully perform the side walls to prevent them from shedding in the future. All the trenches that are mentioned on the plan, you need to combine into one and bring to the pit. However, if it is possible to simply bring the water out of the plot, then you can make them independent.
After that, the resulting canal system should be lined with a tarp or a film that will effectively drain the water and not hold it. When arranging a suitable ditch geometry, the film should be fixed with the help of nails that are driven into the soil and other improvised fixers. The film on the side walls is additionally fixed with wooden or metal struts, which are located in width every 30-50 centimeters.
Drainage of the dacha with the help of deep drainage
In some cases, the use of a highly efficient surface drainage system does not give the expected results, which is explained by the large volume and proximity of groundwater. In this case, it makes sense to equip the closed drainage (deep). The method allows you to completely solve the unpleasant situation and at the same time maintain the decorative attractiveness of the territory.
At the initial stage of the arrangement, it is necessary to prepare a plan and carry out a complete drawing of the lines where the pipes will be fixed soon.. It is important to maintain the direction of water discharge. toward the slope. Then it remains to choose the depth of their occurrence. As a result, in the densest soil, the maximum depth will not exceed 50 centimeters, and in sandy - up to 1 meter.
It is also important to pay special attention to climatic features. Do not forget that under the influence of sub-zero temperatures, pipes with residual water may simply burst. They can also crush the freezing ground.
To avoid this kind of problem, it is enough to give preference to perforated plastic pipes.. In addition to low cost, they are still very reliable and durable. In some cases, in order to provide additional protection, the pipe is covered with textiles, thus avoiding the ingress of sand elements inside, positively affecting the overall service performance of the entire system.
It is necessary to choose the paths of wastewater and the place of their reception very responsibly. If we are talking about closed deep systems, it is desirable to make them in such a way that the width does not exceed 50 centimeters. It is better not to touch the side surfaces.
As for draining the water, it can be turned on, as in the drain hole, and for the territory of the villa. Специалисты рекомендуют покрыть яму прочным бетоном, что сделает его дополнительным местом для хранения лишней воды, что очень важно для каждого дачника.
Если все подготовительные работы проведены успешно, остаётся правильно проложить трубы. For a start, it is enough to equip a cushioning cushion, laying a layer of sand or gravel on the bottom (10 centimeters each). In the future, you can proceed to the laying of pipes, creating on their basis a comprehensive system using plastic fittings.
It is also better to fill the formed distance on the sides of the drainage with sand or rubble.
The above methods for creating drainage at the cottage are quite simple, highly effective and durable. Nevertheless, in order not to be disappointed in the final result, you need to weigh the pros and cons, evaluate your capabilities and the willingness to spend a little time and effort for such an action. In the end, your territory will be protected from such an annoying problem as an excess of moisture.
Reasons for installing a drainage system
If the territory of the land plot is flat, and the soil is fertile and absorbs water, then you are incredibly lucky. In this case, drainage is not necessary.
Drainage of the dacha is required in the following cases:
- The site is located on clay soil.
- Low location area.
- Cottage house is on a slope or at the foot of the hill.
- For the region where the cottage was built, frequent and heavy rains and snowfall are characteristic.
- Groundwater flows at a distance of less than 3 meters from the ground.
Excessive soil moisture is judged by standing puddles and vegetation. So, in the wetlands grows sedge, reeds.
On the need for drainage make sure once again, having an experience. Dig a hole 700 mm deep, and after 24 hours, see if there is any water there. If yes, then drainage at the dacha is required.
Varieties of drainage systems in the country
Increased humidity in the suburban area due to various reasons. Depending on this, choose one or another type of drainage:
- Superficial - the easiest way to drain the soil. This type of drainage system is designed to protect the site from water, the source of which is precipitation in the form of rain, snow. Install it in areas without sharp drops.
Surface drainage is a collection of trenches dug around the perimeter of the territory. Flowing into ditches, water enters a collector installed at the lowest point of the system.
The external drainage system is divided into two subspecies: point and linear.
- Deep drainage is a closed method of draining land. It is resorted to in the following cases:
- when the country house is built on an uneven surface,
- with a close location of groundwater to the surface of the earth,
- with clay soil.
The device of deep drainage with their hands passes around the perimeter of a residential building and around agricultural buildings.
Preparation for construction work
Drainage is a system of ditches, pipelines. To properly connect the elements together, it is required to make complex engineering calculations and draw up a drainage scheme. You cannot cope with this alone, so call on the help of Marisrub specialists.
Taking into account the peculiarities of the soil and the landscape, experts in their field will draw up a draft diagram and prompt you the proper drainage arrangement.
Diagram of the drainage system contains the following information:
- Place on the site where the drainage system starts. This is the highest point in the territory.
- The lowest point of the system relative to the collector
- The location of the main and additional ditches,
- Dimensions of trenches and pipes
- Name and quantity of consumables
- Scheme of pipelines and wells installation
- The angle of the trenches.
Starting the installation of drainage with your own hands, take into account the individual nuances:
- Drainage is subject to the entire land. Therefore, drains for buildings and plants are included in a single system.
- Inevitable material and time costs. On average, the device drainage system takes up to 3 months.
- Drainage is carried out in the summer.
- Installation of pipes is carried out at a depth below the freezing point of the ground, and drainage around the residential building is laid below the bottom of the foundation.
Surface drainage installation
Making your own outdoor drainage system is easy, even for novice builders.
Installation is simple in performance:
- Guided by the project, dig the ditches according to the marked lines. Observe the following dimensions: depth - 500 mm, width - 400 mm. So that the walls of the trench are not showered, they are made sloping at an angle of 30 degrees. Externally, the trench resembles an inverted trapezoid. The main ditches drip under the slope towards the place of collection of water - a well or a reservoir. Additional branches of the system run at an angle to the main trenches. The size of the slope is from 50 to 70 mm per 1 meter of length.
- Check the drainage system. To do this, pour 2-3 buckets of water into the ditches and watch the flow. If fluid accumulates in the area, adjust the angle of the slope.
- Fill the ditch with rubble. Coarse material is placed below, and the upper layer forms crushed stone smaller. This is recommended for filtering water.
To extend the life of the structure, they buy plastic trays and place decorative grates on them. To prevent clogging of trays, additional sand traps are installed.
Thus, with the help of simple manipulations, you have established with your own hands an external drainage of a linear type.
Spot drainage is necessary for local drainage. It is mounted in places of discharge of precipitation from the roof and in areas of watering plants.
Installation of deep drainage
The construction of a closed drainage system is considered to be difficult to do it yourself and cost-effective. For the installation of deep drainage will need:
- Plastic pipes with drainage holes and a diameter of 10 cm for the main trenches or 7.5 cm for additional.
- Connecting elements for the pipeline,
- Reservoir for drains. Reinforced concrete rings, a plastic can, automobile tires will be suitable as a collector.
Installation of deep drainage do-it-yourself consists of the following steps:
- Dig ditches with a slope to the collector 600 mm deep for clayey soil or 900 mm for sandy soil.
- Place a 10 cm layer of sand on the bottom of the trench and carefully tamp it.
- Cover the trench with a web of geotextile so that the edges reach the sides.
- Place rubble 20 cm high and lay the drain holes on top over it. At the turnings of the pipeline install inspection wells. They help control the work of the drainage system and clean it from blockages.
- Pour more rubble and wrap the geomaterial in a “roll”.
- Pour trenches with soil, cover with turf.
Depth drainage is a reliable thing, but the installation is “affordable”. Therefore, economical owners of summer cottages have found a way out: they replace the pipes with a bunch of branches and brushwood, and geotextiles - with moss or turf.
Drainage system at their summer cottage is not a luxury, but a necessity. Therefore, the issue of its installation approach with responsibility in order to avoid trouble in the future.
Do-it-yourself water removal methods: a few practical tips
The issue of withdrawal of rain or melt water from the site is very relevant for all owners of houses, villas, and garages with a cellar or a viewing pit. That is why the drainage device is very important. And for sure, it is not worth explaining once again that without certain knowledge, such work can hardly be done. But still it is not so complicated as to hire professionals for it, which means there is an opportunity to save money. Now we will figure out how to remove water from the site with our own hands and how there are ways to do it. In addition, it makes sense to deal with the prices of both the material for drainage and the prices of professional services.
According to the type of device, such drainage can be divided into internal, external and reservoir. It can be used as one of them, and the combined drainage, which uses two or three methods. To begin with, let's look at the general rules for arranging each of them:
- Internal drainage - used for cellars and basements and serves to divert water that has already been absorbed into the soil.
- External or open drainage removes water from the site directly in the rain, not allowing to linger on the surface.
- Reservoir abstraction - applied almost always in the construction of the house. In simple terms, it is a kind of “pillow” under the building that absorbs accumulated water.
Drainage of the dacha is a rather laborious process, but sometimes you can't do without it. This issue is particularly relevant for areas located in the lowlands, as well as at high groundwater levels.
Drainage - what is it? Exact Definition and Photo Examples
To be precise, drainage is a system for diverting rainwater and groundwater from a certain area in order to prevent flooding. Those. its device is necessary in most cases still at the construction stage. But still, finished buildings, around which drainage is not provided, can be protected. The main thing is to think over the entire system in detail, draw up a project and make some efforts to put it into practice.
In order to understand in general how the drainage system of a courtyard or building is arranged, it makes sense to look at a few photo examples.
Of course, the entire algorithm of the work associated with the device drainage system does not understand, looking only at the photo. So, there is a need to consider all the nuances of drainage from both the local area, and from the cellar, garages and other buildings. Well, if we return to the question of why drainage is needed, then there are a lot of answers to it. But the main function of diversion of water, of course, will be to protect the foundation from destruction, and the cellars and courtyards from flooding.
Open drainage at the dacha: the easiest way to protect the cellar and the foundation
Of course, with a drainage device at the dacha plots you can get by with banal aryks. And yet, in our time there is a great variety of material that will help make drainage more aesthetically pleasing and beautiful. Yes, and completely hide the highway from the eyes is quite simple, if the need arises. And since the drainage scheme as a whole depends on the purpose of the territory being drained, it makes sense to understand the nuances, understand how the drainage system should be arranged on the site, and what features the drainage system has from buildings or cellars.
Example of surface drainage of the local area
So let's start with the most important, in terms of necessity, drainage - around residential structures.
How to make drainage around the house - practical tips and tricks
The main task before making drainage around the house is to choose the right place for the well to which the rainwater will flow. At the same time, it should be designed in such a way that it does not have to be periodically pumped out. Also do not forget about the sand traps in the gutters.
Installation of drainage system around the house
In general terms, the work is as follows. Along the perimeter of the building, a shallow trench is being dug, which is connected to a well. At the same time, it should have a slope that can be measured with the help of a building level. Next, the bottom of the excavated trench is covered with sand and rammed. Inside fit the gutters, which can be both open and closed with a special grid. It does not allow large debris and foliage to fall into the drain.
Nuances of drainage at the dacha
Such diversion of water is done to protect plantings from flooding. It is mainly used in places with marshy ground and where ground water is quite high. The essence of such a drainage device is as follows. It is necessary to dig along the section of the trench, about half a meter deep, after which you will need to put the pipes with perforation. For them, a sand pillow is made on a special fabric. Thus, the excess water, again, will fall into the well.
Thus perforated pipe is laid.
Another way to prevent groundwater in the area can be the same and the device gutters around the perimeter. But the most convenient will be the method of reservoir drainage device. In this case, gravel of various sizes is poured into the excavated trenches, after which they are closed by turf. Today it is the cheapest of all drainage methods, and therefore the most common. It should be noted that with all the availability in the performance of drainage systems, few people begin such work. And this is a big mistake. After all, inconvenience mounted water discharge does not deliver, while its positive qualities are quite a lot.
Components of rainwater runoff from the roof
Drainage of soil around garages and other buildings
How to make drainage in the garage and why it is needed - these are the most common questions that confront a home craftsman when designing such systems. It should be understood that the discharge of groundwater from the premises will not only preserve its foundation. After all, many of the cellar is in the garage, and therefore it is necessary to protect it from flooding. Of course, there is another way out, such as installing a sealed box (caisson), but over time it will rot. Yes, and in the installation of this design is quite complicated.
But what happens in the absence of a drainage system
But even in the absence of a cellar or a viewing pit, drainage in the garage does not hurt. After all, in winter a melting snow will drip from the car, which evaporating will strongly moisten the air. And with a drainage system, the humidity will remain normal.
Drainage device in the basement of the houses - an excess or a necessity?
Some argue that if there is drainage on the site and around the house, then it is completely useless in the basement of the building. This is a fairly common mistake. Water can penetrate it below street drainage. And do not say what consequences this may lead to - for sure everyone understands this well.
And maybe even so ...
It is most convenient to perform drainage at the construction stage, i.e. laying the foundation. But even if this was not foreseen, there is still a way out. Water can even be diverted in rooms with concrete floors. More detail on how to perform such work, we dwell a little later.
More details on how to make drainage - the need for a project
Responsible approach to such work should begin at the design stage, which is not surprising. After all, it is from the forethought and mapping of the future diversion of water depends on its functionality. That is why there is a need for careful drafting of the project with exact dimensions, as well as its subsequent clear compliance.
First you need to measure the area and in general to think about the location of highways. At the same time, it is worth considering the most flooded areas and the slope of the surfaces. The shower well must be located in the lowest place. Do not forget that on each connection of drainage pipes (at the corners) there must be technical wells or cleansing. This is dictated by the need for sludge sand and silt to prevent blockages of both the pipes themselves and perforations in them.
Something like this should look like the project drainage area
Then, before you properly make the drainage on the site, it must be clearly marked out according to a pattern.
The location of the drainage pipes can be any. It all depends on the landscape and the preferences of the wizard. That is why there are no drainage patterns of sections completely repeating each other. Special attention should be paid to the blind area around the buildings - after all, the security of the foundation depends on it. Also, the drainage scheme around the house should contain all the rain pipes, ladders (storm drains), wells and cleaning. If several types of it are used, for example, surface and layer, then it is better to mark them with different colors in the diagram. In this case, the project will be easier to understand in the future.
And this is a project to drain storm water from home.
Drainage at the dacha: the easiest way to protect against water erosion
The use of drainage systems for the discharge of storm water solves many problems. Such designs eliminate the problem of excess moisture at the base of the house, preventing the development of putrefactive processes and the appearance of mold. In addition, such systems save the territory from warming up with storm and melt waters, the level of which increases during the spring thawing of snow.
Note! If you do not install drainage pipes on the site or do not organize a system of surface ditches, you will have to constantly pump water out of the basement in rainy weather. This is especially true of buildings built on loam types of soil.
The device of the deep water drainage system
How to make a drainage on the site with their own hands: the choice of system
Drainage systems are conventionally divided into two broad categories: surface and deep. If for the installation of the deep system may require some knowledge and the help of experts, the installation of surface drainage in the summer cottage can be done independently. This type of sewage can be called the simplest way to solve the problem with excess moisture on the site.
Note! Существуют определенные ограничения в отношении установки поверхностных и глубинных систем. Некоторые условия не позволяют выполнить организацию того или иного вида канализации. Обязательно выполняйте предварительный анализ условий территории предполагаемого строительства.
To develop a preliminary plot drainage scheme, its territory should be examined and key points should be identified. We consider all the factors that may affect further work on the drafting of the site drainage.
Drainage system project on site
The following information is required for drawing up the chart:
- Plan of the territory, indicating all buildings, nature and density of landings, as well as the boundaries of the site.
- Topographic data reflecting the features of the relief (not needed if the area has a flat surface).
- Dendroplan (scheme is necessary if there is a large number of plantings in the territory or their planting is supposed, since plants are dependent on water).
- Road and trap mesh (layout of future paths and paved areas that need drainage).
- The scheme of communication system.
- Hydrological data (level of water balance of the territory).
On the one hand, hydrological data has an impact on how to do drainage on summer cottage sites, so they are very important. On the other hand, loamy soil types have the same structural structure, therefore such information may not be necessary.
Surface drainage system at site: device
Surface drainage systems collect spring thawed and rainwater, and then remove it outside the territory. The installation of such structures is especially needed by those summer cottages where moisture is stagnant or its large accumulations.
The process of device drainage system in the garden
Most often, such conditions are formed if:
- clay or loamy soil is located under a layer of fertile land (these types of soil are considered waterproof or water-resistant),
- the territory has a lowland character of location, for example, at the foot of hills,
- the slope of the surface on the territory is partially zero, in other words, the surface is ideally flat, which is why the water cannot move independently under the action of gravity,
- the site has zones where the soil is occasionally supersaturated with water, for example, places where watering is carried out.
Note! In addition, surface drainage can be installed on a site with a high level of groundwater. In this case, the upper layers of the soil may be subject to flooding during high rainfall.
Surface drainage schemes of land in general terms are as follows:
- water collection points
- trench ladders leading from catchment points,
- trench connecting together the ladder system
- a drainage well where a common trench leads (instead of the well, drainage pipes leading to a ditch or a natural reservoir, or a ditch specially dug outside the site can be used).
Scheme of the drainage system of the closed type
Types of surface drainage of the site with a high level of groundwater
In terms of design features, there are two types of surface water drainage systems:
- point, installed in areas where water accumulates,
- linear - the whole network of drainage pipes that collect water for its further transportation to storage wells.
How much it will cost to make the drainage area (the price of materials for the point system):
Helpful advice! Experts recommend combining both of these systems to achieve the most effective results.
The device drainage on the site (the cost of materials for the linear system):
Features of point drainage of the site with their own hands on clay soil
The drainage system of the point type perfectly copes with the protection of certain zones of the territory from excess moisture. Before making a drainage area on clay soil, as a rule, problem areas are identified, which can be:
- locations of drains leading from the roof of the house,
- door hinges,
- entry area
- the point where the analysis of water intended for irrigation of vegetation.
Laying perforated drainage pipes in a trench
The following elements are used for arranging the drainage of a plot on clay soil (the prices for them are placed in the tables above):
- water inlets
- septic tanks equipped with tanks for collecting large particles and debris,
- trench ladders transporting water to the storm sewer system,
- dampers that prevent the outflow of water and large particles of debris into the system.
Features of the storm drainage system on the site: how to make drainage
The linear drainage system consists of gutters that are buried in the soil. These canals move water from the site beyond its limits. When arranging such drainage at the dacha, you should remember with your own hands that the liquid goes to discharge by gravity.
On sale it is possible to meet the trenches made of various materials:
Detailed scheme of the water drainage system
Helpful advice! To reduce the cost of purchasing consumables, you can make the gutters yourself. At home, you can make concrete elements using the special forms for pouring.
On top of the grooves are placed gratings that perform a protective function. The material for their manufacture can be plastic or metal (cast iron, steel). These elements have a removable design.
How to make a site drainage based on key elements of the system:
- gutters are stacked in pre-equipped trenches,
- sand traps are mounted in the zones of drainage and other similar places,
- grids are fixed on the gutters.
Installation of the linear drainage system on the site is done by hand, if:
- the angle of inclination of the surface is more than 3 ° (in such conditions, water can be released by gravity, which, without drainage, can simply wash the fertile soil layer),
- it is necessary to divert water from the base of the house in the conditions of prolonged rainfall,
- it is necessary to divert water from the relief slopes of the territory,
The drainage system will help to cope with excess moisture in the garden area
- commercial buildings are located in the same plane with the surface of the suburban area or below this level,
- there is a need to protect the territory of the summer cottage, as well as entrances and paved paths.
How to dry the area with high groundwater level
If the groundwater at the site is quite high, then a good harvest is no longer a question. And for buildings and structures, this factor will be disastrous. A particular difficulty in diverting water from such areas is to determine the horizon, i.e. the depth at which it is located. Of course, it's better if the professionals do it. But if there is no such possibility, then the most optimal depth of the drainage pipes is 1-1.5 m. You also need to understand that the water from the site does not require any special cleaning, and therefore if there is a sewer ditch or reservoir nearby, water can also be diverted to it.
Deep drainage is sometimes necessary.
Together with such deep water disposal, you should not forget about the surface drainage of the site. It will unload the main highways and give additional protection to buildings.
Features self-assembly of drainage areas with clay soil
There are no particular differences in drainage on clay soils with the previous version. The only thing you need to pay attention to is the depth of the drainage wells. It should be sufficient to reach the groundwater (with their high occurrence). It also makes sense to pay attention to the deepening of the surface drainage of rainwater. The most optimal is 40-50 cm. Do not forget about the need for a small uniform slope towards the well.
Drainage device in clay soil
The drainage system in the area with clay soil is especially important because there is plenty of water in such areas (it is not absorbed into such soil). As for the deep drainage, it should be discussed in more detail.
Drainage wells, their size and the need for drilling
The fact is that the device with its own hands, the deep drainage of the site without wells is impossible. Another question is what size they should have. The main rule - their depth should be below the level of laying of highways. Also it is necessary to provide free access to them for the possibility of removing dirt and clay, which can accumulate at the bottom during operation.
Drainage well. In this case, the lookout
How to find out the required volumes of stormwater runoff: a calculated value calculator
Such calculations are very important for determining the diameter of the pipes to be used. And for correct calculations, it is necessary to take into account not only the surface from which water will be collected, but also the average coefficient of precipitation in a particular region. The most optimal would be to use a special online calculator above. But if you want to do everything yourself, then the volume is calculated by the following formula:
Q Sat = q20 × F × Ywhere
- Q Sat - the total volume that can be collected from the projected area,
- q20 - average precipitation in a particular region,
- F- the area from which moisture will be collected,
- Y - coefficient of reflection of water from the surface. In other words, the ability of a material or soil to absorb liquids.
It is through such calculations that it is possible to determine how much the pipe should pass per second or per hour (depending on the initial values).
Here is a view of the drainage well on the shelves of construction markets
Drainage pipes for groundwater discharge, their varieties, characteristics and prices
There are many types of such products. They can differ as a material of manufacture, and technology. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of those or other drainage pipes:
- Asbestos cement - such pipes are quite expensive. In addition, they have many drawbacks in terms of installation due to the large weight and the impossibility of bends.
- Ceramic - the same disadvantages as the previous version. It is better to entrust the installation of drainage with similar products to a specialist.
- Plastic - the best option. Pipes are convenient to install, bend at the right angle and have a lower cost. In addition, you can pick up perforated products with a winding of a special fabric that will protect against the penetration of small particles of soil, and hence blockages.
You can buy drainage pipes for groundwater in any store building materials. Well, at their cost, we will stop a little later.
Corrugated perforated pipe is very convenient to install drainage
Drainage pipes for groundwater discharge.We offer to get acquainted with the purpose, types and basic parameters of products, selection criteria, major manufacturers and the nuances of self-assembly.
Next, we analyze what may be the cost of the material, as well as work on its installation. After all, only in case of complete understanding it is possible to decide whether it is worthwhile to lay drainage pipes with your own hands or whether it is better to entrust this work to professional craftsmen.
Which indicates the need for drainage
The question of whether a drainage system is needed at a country site, as a rule, does not require a long study of the situation and analysis of natural factors. Most often, the inconvenience arising from the overmoistening of the soil appears after snowmelt or heavy rain. Garden beds are overgrown with sedge, paths and lawns occupy puddles for a long time, and cellars and cellars suffer from dampness - these are factors that indicate the need for drainage facilities. Nevertheless, before investing time and money in the arrangement of the drainage system, you should make sure that it is expedient. A few conditions will help to do this, indicating the need to drain the soil.
- If the level of occurrence of groundwater in a dry period is at a depth of less than 2.5 m, then in the rainy season the area may turn into a swamp. A small hole 50–80 cm deep will help you to verify your own assumptions. If it gets filled with water after a day in dry weather, you can stop further research and proceed to the construction of drainage without hesitation.
- The site is located in a valley and is subject to seasonal flooding, or the territory has significant differences in elevation.
- Water is not absorbed into the ground for a long time due to clay and loamy soils with waterproofing properties. The presence of chernozem at the site does not mean anything - clay deposits may well be under a thin fertile layer of soil.
- A region in which a large amount of precipitation falls is not at all ideal for growing cultivated plants. Excessive moisture prevents soil from being saturated with oxygen, which affects their health. To create the ideal conditions for gardening or gardening, excess moisture must be removed.
If at least one of these factors is confirmed at your dacha, then the need for drainage can not be discussed. A high-quality drainage system will give a second life to cultivated plants, make the territory cleaner, save paths from deformation, and the foundation from destruction.
Surface (open) drain to collect precipitation
Surface drainage is a system of rainwater inlets designed to collect and remove rain and melt water outside the site, not allowing it to be absorbed into the ground. Such a drainage system works perfectly on clay soils and can complement traditional storm sewers. Water is diverted to filtration wells or off-site. In addition, the lion's share of precipitation simply evaporates.
Depending on the design of the drainage, surface drainage is divided into two types:
When arranging point drainage, wastewater collection is carried out with the help of storm valves, drainage outlets, storm water inlets and ladders. The places of their installation are door pits, drain points for roofing inlets, areas under water taps and other areas that need local water collection. The point water collectors are connected to underground pipes, through which the drains enter the storm sewer.
Linear drainage can be near-wall or remote from structures. It is a system of barred collection trays that did not fall into point inlets. This method of drainage is rational to use in such cases:
- if there is a danger of washing away the top fertile soil layer. Most often, such a nuisance occurs in areas whose slope relative to the horizon is more than 3 degrees,
- at the location of the site in the valley. Because of this, the water flowing down during rain and snowmelt creates a threat to buildings and green spaces,
- to remove sediment from pavements and walkways. In this case, the pedestrian zones are settled on a small elevation, with a bias towards the drainage channel.
The linear drainage also includes road drainage, which is carried out in the form of a ditch parallel to the road for car traffic.
How to reduce moisture without drainage
Many factors affect bogging, so in some cases the dacha can be drained without drainage. If the soil contributes to increased soil moisture, then it is quite simple to make the water run off the site. To do this, in some places, the soil is removed, and in others they are sprinkled, creating a small slope. If the selected soil is insufficient, then it is imported from outside the garden area. It is better to pour the earth in the country with chernozem or peat, and in order to make the soil lighter, from 1/3 to 1/5 of the sand is added to it.
If the water in the area accumulates due to closely spaced layers of clay, and the territory itself has a slight slope, then a small body of water can be dug out at the lowest point. It can be used as a natural reservoir for irrigation of cultivated plants, turned into a pond for breeding fish or used as a decorative element of landscape design. As a rule, due to the high level of groundwater, the need for additional waterproofing is eliminated, but in some cases a special PVC film for swimming pools will help to make the reservoir airtight. So that the surface of the artificial lake does not bloom, water plants are planted on its banks.
Planting moisture-loving plants is a great way to normalize soil moisture. For example, ordinary birch is a real pomp that literally pumps water out of the ground. Not bad cope with the drainage of the territory of spirea, irga, hawthorn, dog rose, and, of course, willow and willow. Planted in problem areas, as well as along the tracks, they will not only remove excess moisture, but also make the landscape original and attractive.
How to make drainage around the country house or outbuildings
To protect the basement or basement from the melt and rainwater around the suburban buildings construct wall drainage. This drainage system is most effective in the offseason when the groundwater level reaches its maximum. Строительство «мелиоративной» системы лучше всего проводить на этапе возведения фундамента, однако, если решение о её постройке было принято из-за появления воды в подвале, ничего страшного — лучше поздно, чем никогда.
Сооружение дренажа ведут поэтапно.
- At the perimeter of the building they are digging a sloping trench, which should be 0.5 m deeper than the lowest point of the foundation. Measure elevation differences and place landmarks at control points. To organize an effective drainage system, make a slope of at least 2 cm per 1 running meter.
- Prepare the foundation. To do this, the concrete surface is cleaned from the ground, treated with a bitumen-kerosene primer and put waterproofing rubber-bitumen mastic. While the resin is not frozen, the reinforced mesh for plastering (cell 2x2 mm) is pressed into its surface. After the bitumen has dried, another layer of sealant is applied on top.
If it is not possible to purchase special perforated pipes, then they can be made from ordinary polymeric PVC sewer pipes. To do this, drill holes in their walls, the diameter of which should be slightly smaller than the size of individual grains of gravel or granotsev.
With the help of crosses and tees, the drains are interconnected and connected to the drainage pipe leading to the waste collector. To control the slope use a water level or building cord, stretched along the highway. Each turn of the drainage system is supplied with a manhole or a section of a vertically installed pipe, the upper part of which is covered with a lid. These elements of the system will be needed to clean the pipeline from blockages.
With the arrangement of the blind area around the house should not be in a hurry - it is necessary to withstand time for the soil to shrink in the trench. By pouring concrete and laying paving slabs start only after the soil is completely compacted.
Drainage of the dacha: the easiest method
To avoid unnecessary financial costs and build drainage facilities on a large summer cottage allows surface drainage system. Its main purpose is the removal of excess moisture during heavy rains or during the melting of snow.
When arranging open drainage, excavation work is carried out in accordance with the instructions below.
- Having carefully studied the terrain, determine the number and trajectory of channels for collecting and draining water. In parallel with this, they are looking for a spillway. You can build a sump well at the lowest point of the site, or else completely drain the drainage channel beyond its limits. The excavation sites are marked with a cord and pegs.
Experienced builders determine the point of laying of storm drains and the collector, observing the flow of rain or melt water, planning the location of the channels in such a way as to optimally combine the individual streams into a common stream.
In these places, trenches are dug 40-50 cm wide and no more than 0.5 m deep. To avoid shedding of the walls, they are not made steep, but inclined — the bevel should be 25-30 degrees.
Then they do, in fact, drainage. Depending on the degree of aesthetics, the requirements of landscape design or personal preferences, it can be a lot or filling. In the first case, the channel arrangement looks like this:
- the bottom of the ditch to a height of 10 cm is covered with sand and compresses it well with the help of a manual tamper,
- plastic trays are installed in the trench,
- mount sand traps
- decorative trays are attached to the trays. Their function is to protect the canals from leaves and debris, as well as to enhance the aesthetics of the structure.
In the second case, construction is carried out according to the following scheme:
- the bottom and walls of the trenches are covered with geotextiles,
- ditches are covered with a layer of crushed stone with a thickness of up to 20 cm. It is best if there is a small rubble or crushed stone of a large fraction below, and a smaller one above,
- crushed stone is covered with edges of a geotextile cloth, then it is covered with sand.
For the arrangement of drainage, you can use the old, "grandfather's" method - the construction of fashin. To do this, harvest the branches of alder, willow or birch, which are tied in armfuls 15 cm thick, so that the thin twigs are on the one hand, and thick - on the other. Bunches of branches are placed not on the ground, but on the pegs previously installed along the entire length of the trenches, connected like anti-tank “hedgehogs”. The brushwood is placed with thick branches up and compacted at the edges with moss. If everything is done correctly, then you can count on a 20-year work of the ameliorative system.
To protect the walls of the channels from collapse, use rubble stone or turf. Trenches are decorated by constructing ridges along their edges with perennial moisture-loving plants, such as irises.
Drainage of the dacha: the traditional way
No matter how simple and cheap the open drainage system is, it has one major drawback - low aesthetics. Agree that to engage in landscape design on a site with a whole network of channels is not an easy task. In this case, it is better not to save and build a durable and efficient system of drainage of the deep type.
The best scheme of laying drainage pipes is a “herringbone”. In it, the side highways converge to one central pipe, which is led out into the sewer well or off-site.
If the drainage system is needed not to protect the foundation, but in order to reduce soil moisture, then the trench depth should be selected based on the recommended values:
- for soils with a high percentage of minerals - up to 1.5 m,
- when installed under the flower beds - from 0.5 to 0.8 m,
- in the areas of planting fruit trees - up to 1.5 m,
- for peaty soil - from 1 to 1.6 m,
- under ornamental shrubs and trees - up to 0.9 m.
For drainage use special polymer pipes with holes with a diameter of 1.5 to 5 mm. In the ideal case, their type and quantity are determined by a calculation that takes into account the soil moisture, its type, amount of precipitation, etc. However, if you do drainage with your own hands, it is cheaper to buy plumbing PVC pipes with a diameter of 100 mm and make holes in them with step 40–60 mm independently.
After ditches have been dug out, they proceed to the main part of the work.
- Depending on the type of soil, it is decided to install geotextiles. On clay soils, it can be not used - it is enough to fill the bottom with gravel up to 20 cm in height. You can wrap the pipes with any filter cloth on loams, while sandy and sandy soils require laying the pipes in a layer of gravel with obligatory wrapping with geotextile materials.
- At the bottom of the trench equip sand cushion cushion thickness of 10 cm.
- The bottom and walls of the trench are covered with geotextile fabric, after which they are covered with a layer of small crushed stone 10–15 cm thick. It is possible to fix geotextiles on trench walls using fragments of bricks or pegs hammered into walls.
Observing the slopes, drainage pipes are laid and connected into a single network.
It is not recommended to use limestone crushed stone for drainage arrangement. Firstly, at the depth it will be compressed and will not pass moisture, and secondly, its interaction with the soil can provoke the appearance of a salt marsh.
Maintenance and cleaning of drainage in the country
Although a well-constructed deep or surface drainage system does not need frequent preventive measures, some work still cannot be avoided. The contents of the manholes should be periodically checked, cleaning the soil particles using a pump for dirty water and high-pressure pump. When pumping dirt from a drainage well, a long pole is used, which is used to agitate bottom sediments. Full flushing is required for heavy silting of the pipes, as well as every 10–15 years of operation of the drainage system.
In order to free the main line from sand sediments, the pipeline must be accessible from both sides. Washing is carried out with a strong stream of water, which is alternately directed either from one or the other side of the pipe.
If you have to deal with stable deposits of dirt and clay, then you can use the traditional sanitary technique - cleaning pipes with a long cable and brush-ruff made of hard bristles. By combining the mechanical effect with flushing, you can completely remove the perennial deposits on the drainage pipes.
In the case of silting of the channels of the surface systems, you can resort to cleaning them with nitrate. To do this, the turf and top filling are removed from the trenches, after which saltpeter is scattered evenly on a layer of rubble. Then the “pie” is poured abundantly with water and the upper layers are returned to the place. This method allows you to extend the performance of the system is not for one year, only to use it only as a last resort - nitrate is a source of nitrates, and its excess negatively affects the quality of the soil.
Video: how to wash the drainage system of the deep type
High-quality drainage system will save the foundation and basement of the country house from flooding, add health and strength to green spaces. The cost of land reclamation activities is not so high as to give up on them, especially since you can do drainage on the site with your own hands. All that is needed for this can be easily found in the trading network, and earth-moving equipment will help speed up the work.
Installation of drainage plot turnkey: the price of work
Water can destroy the foundation part of the house, destroy some plant species, wash the fertile soil from the site and even provoke a landslide. Drainage of the site by drainage in combination with other protective measures allows you to avoid all these problems.
List of protective measures:
- Performance of a seamless waterproofing of the base of the house.
- Protection of the waterproofing layer from damage.
- Installation of a drainage system at the foundation.
- The organization of additional insulation waterproofing layer at the base.
- Construction of insulated otmostochnoy design.
- Installation of drainage plot turnkey.
Installation of a drainage system by a team of workers
All items from this list (except the last one) are performed at the stage of building a house. These works are best left to professionals. The device of the drainage storm system can be done independently, but first it is worth figuring out what the cost of drainage of the site, performed by turnkey professionals. This will allow you to make a final decision as to whether it is worthwhile to lay drainage pipes with geotextiles or restrict yourself to surface installation of the system, which can be done independently.
Organization of the site drainage (price of professional services):
Installation of drainage at the dacha: the price of elements for the system
Regardless of whether the installation work is done on its own or with the assistance of specialists, you must buy all the necessary consumables for this procedure before installing the drainage system.
Helpful advice! In order to save, it is recommended to buy drainage wells and other consumables in advance. The main thing with this - do not make mistakes with the calculations. If you are not sure, use the advice of a specialist to make a preliminary estimate. The average cost of developing the project of the drainage system of the site is 15,000 rubles.
Rates for drainage wells:
The average price of cast-iron gratings for storm sewers as part of storm water inlets is 3,500 rubles. The package can be included basket for garbage and walls.
How much does it cost to lay drainage pipes in the country (price of services):
The table shows that the cost of laying pipes for the drainage of the site depends not only on the level of penetration, but also on the type of material. Working with rigid pipes is much more difficult. This nuance is worth considering when choosing products.
Technology installation of drainage around the site: how to make the system
The simplest technology that describes how to properly drain the dacha-type plot implies the abandonment of the use of gutters.
Note! In this case, the surface system is performed in a nonstandard way with minimal costs, since there is no need to buy finished parts in stores. In the process, used materials are available.
Simple device for drainage of the summer cottage plot
The technology of creating surface drainage area with their own hands:
- Along the perimeter of the area that needs to be drained, trenches should be dug. They must be positioned according to the inclination of the surface. If the plot is horizontal, this bias needs to be formed independently. The optimal calculation parameters for storm sewers: trench width should be 40 cm, depth - 50 cm. The minimum angle of inclination of the surface (in the direction of moisture removal from the site) is 30 °.
- The trench system needs to be connected, and then brought into a ditch or into an accumulation well. In this area, you can organize an artificial reservoir of small size, for example, an ornamental pond, settle plants that love moisture.
- The system is checked for functionality. For this, water is poured into the trench and the direction in which it flows is checked.
- An embankment is formed at the bottom of the trenches. First you need to organize a layer of large rubble, followed by a layer of fine.
Pipes with a geotextile filter are often used for the drainage system.
Protection of the foundation of the house: the sequence of works of the storm sewer device
The technology of arrangement of the drainage system to protect the foundation involves the use of a linear design:
- In areas where the drainage of fluid from the drain pipes leading from the roofs, the installation of storm water inlets is carried out. For these elements, it is necessary to dig holes in advance, which are 10 cm higher than the depth and width of the water receiving funnel. The grid should be placed 3 mm below the soil level.
- The funnel is installed on a concrete base so that there is enough space left for removing the grate and cleaning the water intake if necessary. Too high to place this element is also not recommended, otherwise the liquid will splash on the sides and there will be no sense from the drainage.
- Water inlets are connected to the gutters for transporting water. To do this, you need to indent from the base of the house at 1 m and dig a trench. Its depth is selected so that the chute can be installed, and there is still 10 cm of height left above. The same supply of space should be in width. Do not forget about the slope of the drainage pipe in the direction of the well.
Example of storm sewer
Helpful advice! In the process of installing gutters, which are also placed on a concrete pad, it is recommended to use the building level. The side parts of these parts for reliability can be fixed with concrete.
Next, the gratings are installed, and on the last gutter of the system there should be an end cap. Place the sand traps and wells along the angular parts of the storm sewers, after which you can begin to put all the elements of the system together. At the joints, it is allowed to use bitumen mastic, which will prevent leakage.
The system is completely ready, it remains only to fill it with soil, but so that the gap of 3 mm remains between the surface and the grid.
Open storm sewers with concrete gutters
Additional tips on arranging drainage of the garden plot
Gutters made of plastic, have lightweight and low cost. However, they are subject to deformational changes under the influence of pressure exerted by concrete and soil. To prevent material damage, it is recommended to fix the drainage grates “ashore”.
The system of water drainage from the site with open drainage often freezes through in winter. In order for spring storm sewage to be able to do its work without delay, the pipe should be attached to the grit chamber. Due to this, the system will not be very freezing.
Using the technology described earlier, you can drain around the perimeter of the walkways. Paved grounds and paths on the site also require the removal of excess moisture, since water has a destructive effect on tiles and other elements (curbs, flower beds).