Vineyard for me is both a hobby and a reliable source of income. Therefore, I give him a lot of time and attention. The vineyard has been around for many years, and it has to be constantly rejuvenated - to uproot the bushes that have become obsolete and plant new ones. I grow seedlings on my own, from cuttings.
I practice planting grapes cuttings in the spring. In the autumn, after trimming the bushes, there remains a mass of material suitable for further cultivation of grapes. Having a great experience in caring for a vineyard, I will tell you how to plant cuttings competently in the spring.
Procurement of cuttings
The method of breeding vine cuttings has been known for a long time, tested by many years of practice, and rightly considered reliable and effective. If you prepare a cutting correctly or as the winegrowers say, then all the qualities of the mother bush will be preserved at 100%.
Grapes are usually pruned from mid-November to mid-December. At the same time, in parallel with the pruned chubuk prepare for spring planting. Grape bushes are ready for winter, and the nutrients are well preserved in the cut chibukh. For their preparation only fruit branches are used.
The handle must meet the following requirements:
- To be straight or slightly twisted,
- Have a length of at least 50 cm, but "cool" growers claim that cutting material up to 1.5 m in length is more effective,
- Chubuk must have at least 4 kidneys and 8 internodes,
- The optimum diameter of the workpiece is 0.8-1 cm,
- Crucial is the condition of the plant, from which cuttings are cut - the bush should not be affected by pests or grape "sores."
The correct device cuttings wintering
Before laying the planting material for storage, cuttings should be soaked for 30-40 minutes in a 5% aqueous solution of vitriol for the purpose of disinfection. You can use and solution of potassium permanganate. If the amount of harvested material is significant, the cuttings are tied into bundles of 5-10 pieces.
When blanks are made from different grape varieties, the bunches must be supplied with appropriate tags indicating the grade. The bundles are wrapped first with a wet burlap or a thick cloth, then with a film, and placed on the prepared place.
For this purpose, use the basement, which every serious winegrower and winemaker must have. In the basement chubukov covered with wet sand.
Many experts believe that it is better to store the harvest directly in the vineyard, burying them in the soil. It is necessary to monitor the state of the cuttings in the cellar, to maintain the necessary parameters of air and temperature.
If this is not done, then there is a risk that the blanks will dry up or vice versa, the kidneys will start to develop prematurely. Accordingly, all the troubles in the harvesting of planting material go down the drain.
Rooting chubukov spring
In early March, the harvested material begins to be prepared for planting. First of all, the cuttings are checked for safety, making cuts 1-2 cm at both ends.
Chubuk is considered to be well preserved, in which the cut is light green in color and a drop of juice protrudes. Such material can be safely rooted.
If the cut wood is dry and has a brown color, it means the stalk is not preserved. In the case when even with an untouched pruner chubuk with a light press on the tip, water protrudes - this is evidence that it is rotten.
Cuttings that have undergone "testing" are soaked in warm water for 48 hours. Water for this operation needs to be taken rain or thawed, and periodically change it. You should not take water from the aqueduct for soaking; it contains chlorine.
After the soaking procedure, the cuttings are placed for 12-15 hours in corns-stimulating preparations, for example, roots. In these preparations, the cuttings are lowered with one end, the bottom, and for greater effectiveness of the action of the drug, at this end make several incisions with a length of 2-3 cm.
This process is performed using plastic bottles or glasses. Buckets, pots, wooden crates, etc. are also suitable for this purpose. The germination technology is the same for any tableware.
Several holes are made in the bottom of the vessel, and drainage is made of expanded clay or crushed stone, then a layer of sheet humus and earth is laid out from under the trees 3 cm thick. The lower end of the pipe is placed in this layer.
The operation must be done carefully, even jeweler - the upper peephole must be above the cut-edge of the dishes into which the pipe is planted. Then the space of dishes is filled with a landing mixture.
These can be steamed sawdust, sand with peat, or a special mixture purchased at the store. Prepared for germination Chubuk cover with a plastic bottle or film.
The soil with the cuttings planted in it must be kept moist. For effective watering, during the germination of roots, a pallet with water is used, where a container with a barrel is placed for 30 minutes. Thus, the part of the cutting intended for rooting gets more comfortable conditions.
Landing on a permanent place
Planting chubuk roots in a vineyard soil is the final stage of spring planting of grapes.
This operation is performed when the danger of night frost has passed, approximately after May 15. The process looks like this:
- A landing hole is being prepared, at the bottom of which another 10-12 cm depth is made,
- The deepened part of the chubuk is inserted into the recess, filled with planting soil, compacted, irrigated generously,
- The stalk should be placed in a hole so that the developed upper eye is several centimeters below ground level. It is recommended simultaneously with the landing of the pipe, into a hole to drive a stake of wood or metal to support a growing young bush.
Note! Young plants should be regularly irrigated with warm rainwater and fertilized. The ground under the sapling must be closed with mulch, it inhibits the growth of weeds and does not allow moisture to evaporate quickly.
Reproduction in spring green cuttings
There is another way of spring grape cutting. Before flowering, 2 weeks before it, when young shoots, young shoots are immediately placed in water. Then they are divided into dvuhpochkovye Chubuk and again immersed in water.
At the bottom of the cutting is cut under the lower knot oblique cut, and the upper cut is done horizontally above the upper knot.
Blanks are planted in plastic cups or boxes, and then placed in a shaded place. When the plant goes into growth, it can be gradually moved to the lighted place.
Further operations are carried out in the summer or autumn, using the same technology as with the autumn tree.
Care for planted cuttings
A guarantee of good harvests from future bushes is competent care for the young, planted in place pipe.
If the summer is dry, it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture. If necessary, water, then loosen the soil, spud, do top dressing.
Note! It happens that two or even several shoots grow from a bud at the same time. In this case, leave one, the strongest, the rest is best removed.
From the above it should be clear that planting grapes by cuttings is easy if you follow the proposed techniques. However, each step must be carried out carefully and carefully.
Such a method as cutting, the most reliable, to propagate grapes with seeds is very difficult, and the result is dubious, and novice growers should not even try to do it. Varietal seeds are quite expensive, and there is no guarantee that they will give truly varietal grapes.
Planting grapes is recommended in the spring, in extreme cases, in June. Also grapes saplings are allowed to be planted in autumn before the first frosts begin. It is rather difficult to determine the most optimal time, but most often this procedure is carried out in April.
If you plan to plant seedlings in April, the soil needs to be prepared in the fall.
Grapes are a sun-loving crop, so they should be planted in well-lit places. Before this procedure it is also necessary to equip the arch. Grapes grow quite hard among the trees, so for him it is necessary to allocate a separate open area.
It is also worth paying attention to the fact that selection of grape varieties and seedlings takes an important role. Therefore, it is necessary to become more familiar with the characteristics of varieties, their basic properties, and also to find out whether it is suitable for the area and soil. Pay attention also to the resistance to air temperature drops. It is recommended to select disease-resistant varieties.
Grapes will grow poorly and regularly hurt in the marshland, as well as on the limestone soil. The grapes need a moist, well-ventilated soil rich in phosphorus and nitrogen. These facts must be considered in order to choose the right location for the formation of the vineyard.
How to plant grapes in spring?
No gardener will give an exact answer at what time and time it is recommended to plant grapes. However, spring expulsion has its positive sides:
- You have enough time to plan your plot carefully, after harvesting,
- If you fertilize the soil in the fall, it will allow it to gain moisture and become rich over the winter,
- After planting, young grape cuttings do not need to be sheltered from frost and protected from hares.
If you plant cuttings in April, then you should pay attention to the fact that the soil contains little moisture after winter. Therefore, you need young seedlings water every day and often feed. This is the main drawback of spring planting.
How to plan the site?
Planning a site for a vineyard is one of the most important stages in planting. From this will depend on the amount of the crop. Gardeners, as a rule, plant grapes in rows on a vertical trellis. The soil on the site must be leveled and loosened rake. This will reduce the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the soil. During the breakdown of the soil, it is necessary to map out the exact landing sites for cuttings so that the rows are straight. Rows should be located at a distance of about 3 meters from each other. The gap between the bushes should be about 3.5 m. This will allow the cuttings to occupy a large area for growth and nutrition.
Main advantages The correct markings of the plot for growing this crop are as follows:
- All grape bushes will be uniformly and equally illuminated,
- The grapes will be well ventilated, which will protect the plants from various pests and diseases,
- Thus, it will be easier to take care of the site and grapes, as well as to carry out watering.
By the way, you should pay attention to the fact that low-growing garden plants can be planted in the ground between the rows of grapes.
How to prepare the soil?
If you plan to plant in the spring, it is necessary to work the soil in the fall. This will allow the soil to be enriched with minerals in winter and also to accumulate enough moisture.
If talk about soil types, the most optimal for growing grapes are the following:
Grapes saplings are allowed to be planted both according to plantazh, and in separate holes. The continuous trench method is the digging of the soil to a depth of about 70 cm. The soil from different layers is digging in time, and fertilizer must be applied all the way down. Planting grapes in the spring should be carried out in a long trench. It is worth paying attention to the fact that preparing a plantation for trenches requires a lot of time and effort, so you can use a more simple patching method of landing. It is necessary to carry out a deep digging of the soil, as well as fertilize the pits.
In addition, for each type of soil required specific processing and certain types of feeding. For example, chernozem soils and loams need to be provided with additional aeration. Therefore, it is necessary to bury drainage from gravel or broken brick into deep holes, and the top is mixed with sand. Phosphate must be added to the soil as a fertilizer.
Sandy soils predominate in the Kuban. Spits are well ventilated, but they are deficient in humus. At the same time, it is not necessary to introduce drainage, but special attention should be paid to fertilizers and top dressing. To do this, select mineral dressings, the composition of which is rich in nitrogen or organic matter in the form of humus or peat.
Autumn is the best time to prepare the soil for planting. If you do not have the opportunity to break the plot, as well as prepare the soil for planting seedlings in the fall, you need to prepare in the spring a couple of weeks before planting the grapes.
Selection of seedlings
In order to collect a good harvest from the vineyard, it is necessary to choose the material for planting. Stand out Three main types of planting material:
- Green seedlings in the form of seedlings.
The correct material should have at least 3 elastic roots, the length of which is about 10 cm. The roots should not be dry. On the matured upper shoot there should be 5 buds, and its normal length should be about 20 cm.
On good planting material you will not notice traces of diseases, fungal growths, as well as mechanical damage.
Properly selected planting material can bring following results:
- The main percentage of seedlings will take root,
- Fruiting grapes will start much earlier
- The overall yield percentage will increase,
- The life of the vineyard will be more.
Vegetative saplings of grapes will take root much easier, as they are in a state of active life. This kind of planting material must be handled with care, especially during transportation and planting.
General landing rules
If you plan to plant several types of grapes at once, then bushes of the 1st grade should be planted in one row with small intervals. Another variety is recommended to have away. Before planting, grape saplings must be prepared.
- The roots are updated at a distance of at least 10 cm,
- On the stem of the sapling must leave 5 packs,
- The root system of seedlings must be dipped in a liquid mixture of clay with a mullein and a stimulator of root formation.
If you have finished training, the material can be planted in trenches or in a separate hole. At the same time, saplings of grapes should be buried to a depth of about 40 cm. The root system of adult crops is usually located there. If a sapling or grape shank is shorter than the planting depth, it should still be planted according to the requirements, but leave a hole at the top of the pit.
Technique planting seedlings
In order for grape seedlings to quickly take root, give a good harvest and not hurt, you need to have some knowledge that implies the rules for planting grapes in spring. The technique of this procedure is not very difficult.
First of all, it is necessary to lay fertilized soil in the pit at the very bottom. In this case, the height of the embankment should be about 15 cm. After that, the roots gently straighten the seedling, and it is placed on the top of the embankment so that the roots fall down the hill. Further to the middle of the pit, it is necessary to fill in the fertilized soil. Lightly trample it and pour it with not cold water. Water for this will need about 2 buckets. When the soil is dry after irrigation, the hole must be completely buried. It is not worth compacting the soil.
The length of the seedlings above the soil will depend on the number of shoots. If there are two shoots on a seedling, it should be cut so that each of them has two buds. On a seedling with one shoot, you must leave 4 buds. The upper sprout is necessarily tied up.
How to plant vegetative seedlings?
This planting material is used to good greenhouse conditions, so before planting on the open area it is necessary to carry out hardening of plants. Thanks to this procedure, seedlings must acclimatize. To do this, green seedlings must be taken out of the greenhouse on the street in shaded places throughout the week. In no case do not put the planting material in direct sunlight, as ultraviolet harm young stems and leaves. With the onset of the evening, young plants are cleaned in the room.
Before planting, the container with the seedling must be carefully cut from both sides and removed. At the bottom of the pit to fill the soil layer with fertilizer. Seedling set at the bottom. It is best not to completely shake off the soil from the root system so that the roots do not break. After that, the pit is buried to the middle, and then soaked and watered with cold water. After the soil dries, the pit buries completely. Upper escape must be carefully tied up.
Hothouse green seedlings need to be planted in open ground only when the warm weather is fully established outside. Например, на Кубани это можно проделывать в апреле или в мае.
Как правильно сажать черенки?
Посадка винограда черенками является довольно рискованным делом, так как не каждый сорт дает приживающийся подвой. Посадка черенков можно осуществлять следующими способами: наклонно, вертикально, дугой вверх или вниз. Arcs need to plant the stock of those varieties that are characterized by poor rooting.
In order to develop a more powerful root system, it is necessary to plant cuttings, the length of which is up to one and a half meters. At the same time, the lower part of the flexible shoot must be carefully twisted at the bottom of the pit. After that, the pit wakes up the ground. From above it is necessary to leave one kidney, which in this case is covered with soil for protection. Thus, the roots will begin to develop from each complex node, so that the cutting will be better fixed in the soil.
As a rule, cuttings develop poorly in frozen, infected rot or tired soil after uprooting other garden crops or old grapes.
For planting cuttings it is recommended to select dense, flexible and succulent planting materials. Planting material is recommended to take in the fall. After planting, cuttings must be watered on a daily basis.
Harvesting and storage of planting material of grapes
For spring planting use chubuki and seedlings. Saplings are grown from cuttings, and the cubs are cut from a one-year-old sprouting vine and rooted at the end of winter. Vine for Chubukov harvested for autumn pruning. Select one and a half meter lashes thicker than 5 mm.
When harvesting cuttings, at least 3 live kidneys are left on each. The length of the standard cutting should be 35 ± 5 cm. Cuttings are cut from last year's central shoots. Before putting them in storage, they are tied up in bundles and completely processed in a solution of copper vitriol.
During storage, it is necessary to minimize the loss of nutrients in order to maintain strength at root formation and shoot growth. This can be achieved at low positive temperatures close to zero, the storage of grapes cuttings at sub-zero temperatures is unacceptable. Since the vine and cuttings are often stored in a cellar or refrigerator at a temperature of 4-5 ºC, which leads to loss of moisture, care must be taken to ensure good moisture (wet sand or sawdust, occasional snow cover). At temperatures above 8 ºC, the buds swell and start to grow, so these conditions are unsuitable for the storage of planting material.
The cuttings are placed in wooden boxes and sprinkled with sand, the vine is also sprinkled with sand and covered with polyethylene.
For the entire storage period, it is necessary to sort out the cuttings several times and inspect the vine, monitor the temperature and monitor the humidity. When overmoistening mold fungi can develop. Dry or diseased cuttings culled.
It is better to store ready saplings with the closed root system in a bucket with the moistened sand. If the cellar is wet enough, then it will not be necessary to additionally moisten the sand during storage. For each seedling you need to attach a tag with the name of the variety and place of purchase.
Particular attention should be paid to planting material in the cellar with the onset of spring warming. A sharp rise in temperature can trigger premature growth processes in the kidneys.
Competently keep quality planting material - go half the way to the tab of the vineyard. After that, it will remain to plant the grapes in the spring.
Selection of a site for grapes and soil preparation
Grapes grow well in sunny, quickly warmed up areas in spring. It does not tolerate cold northerly winds and stagnant water. The soil should be loose and fertile.
The plot for spring planting is prepared in autumn: compost or humus is introduced, they are well dug up, and if necessary, drainage is arranged. It is also advisable to dig holes in the autumn, so the soil in the zone of the root system warms up faster and moistens better.
Planting holes should be from 0.6 to 1 m in diameter and about the same depth. The distance between the plants in the same row is 1.5–2 m, the aisles are from 2 to 3 m. With more dense plantings, the risk of developing specialized diseases of the grapes increases, as the circulation of air masses deteriorates.
At the bottom of each hole, they make a 10-centimeter drainage layer of rubble, establish a support for the garter of the future seedling and tamp it. At this autumn preparation is completed.
Preparation of seedlings and cuttings for planting
If the cuttings were stored in wet sand and successfully winterized, by the beginning of April they will have plump roots and leaves will open. Such material is already ready for planting, it will only harden the young plants. If the soil is warmed and the weather allows, they can be planted in open ground, first in schools. By the fall, they will develop into full-fledged seedlings and they can be planted in a permanent place.
To get seedlings, seedlings are cut from the stored vines, as in autumn grafting. Next, prepare the substrate (wet sawdust or a mixture of soil and sand), steaming it for disinfection. The cuttings and the landing of the chubukov is carried out from the beginning of March to April, when the sunny day will lengthen. Chubuki before planting soaked in growth stimulator.
It is better to plant each chip in a separate container, it is easier to plant it without damaging the root system. As a container for planting, you can use plastic bottles with a cut neck or welded bags of greenhouse film. At the bottom of the tank it is necessary to make openings for draining of excess moisture. Transparent walls of the container allow you to see how the root system has developed and whether it is healthy.
When planting, the chubuk is buried 10–15 cm in a wet substrate, since the top layer of the substrate dries out faster. Ideally, the roots should be formed somewhere in the middle of the planting tank. It is recommended to sprinkle cubas regularly with water. With the observance of technology, the germination of cuttings is quite active and by May a good seedling will be formed, suitable for planting in a permanent place. It is extremely undesirable to retain the chubuk in the substrate (sawdust) poor in nutrients, since the plant is very depleted and does not take root in the open field, even with good development.
If the cuttings are few and all varieties are rare, it is better not to be lazy and grow them at home before planting. For novice winegrowers, this method will provide a guaranteed result. It is very important to choose the right time for planting cuttings, they depend not only on the light zone (when the summer season is at its height, only greenhouse landings begin in the Far East), but may also change depending on the nature of spring weather.
Planting grapes in open ground
Planting grapes saplings carried From mid-April to late May in advance prepared pits. To sleep a landing pit, they prepare a mixture of garden soil with humus, you can add sand and ash.
The seedling is transferred to a pit together with a lump of earth, buried to the root neck or a little higher (after shrinkage, the neck will be on the surface). The landing pit is filled up so that a spacious irrigation hole remains. After planting, it is necessary to water the saplings abundantly and shade them so that the spring sun rays will not burn the delicate leaves. When the soil warms up well, a layer of mulch is made to protect it from overheating and drying.
Podroshchenny chubukov have a less developed root system, which is more susceptible to weather factors. Therefore, when planting, the chubuk does not fall asleep strongly, allowing the sun to warm the upper layer for normal root development. Already in summer, the pit is filled with humus or compost and mulched.
The roots of a seedling or Chubuk should be at a depth of 0.5 - 0.6 m, otherwise they may freeze in the first winter.
Immediately after planting and until the plants gain strength, they conduct daily moderate watering. Further care for the grapes of the first year of life consists of weeding, watering and loosening. Treatment for diseases and pests is carried out if necessary.
Spring grapes grafting
If you do not produce rearing, the cuttings are planted in early spring, slightly updating the lower section. In order not to store seedlings and cuttings, cutting can be carried out in the spring. During pruning grapes are selected medium shoots with short internodes. Cuttings are cut 30 - 35 cm long with 5 buds.
Planting grapes in spring cuttings has a number of features:
- before planting, the cuttings are soaked in water before swelling, and after they are treated with a root growth stimulator,
- put in a trench at an angle of 45º,
- two buds are left on the surface,
- top cover with plastic bottles,
- the soil is mulched with steamed sawdust.
With this method of breeding ready seedling can be obtained only next year. For spring planting cuttings are most acceptable.
For successful growth of grapes it needs fertilizing with fertilizer. The first feeding of seedlings is carried out in the spring with a solution of urea, the second - in the beginning of summer with infusion of mullein. Excess fertilizer reduces the winter resistance of the seedling and lengthens the period of aging of the shoots. For rooted cuttings it is better to use foliar feeding.
Features of the preparation of planting material
If you want to get cuttings yourself, you need to take care of healthy planting material long before planting:
- You should choose the mother bushes in advance - you can mark them so that in the fall it is easy to find the desired vine.
- Cut the cuttings from the bushes that showed excellent performance during the fruiting period and have no signs of disease.
- It is absolutely not suitable for breeding chubuki with elongated interstices and mechanical damage, curves or thin.
Important! It is also worth a close look at the next bushes for signs of disease.
Important! If you have no such experience, then it is recommended to purchase cuttings of grapes that are grown in your region, because already acclimatized planting material will take better root.
Preparation of cuttings begin when the grapes fly around the foliage.
To determine that the bush is ripe, you can on the following grounds:
- Light brown color of the branches.
- If you pick up a green sprout, it will be much colder than a vine that is ready for grafting.
- If you put the cuttings that have ripened in a 2% solution of iodine, the liquid will change its color to blue.
Important! Fat shoots are not suitable for cutting Chubuk, as they cannot give the root system.
The diameter of the cuttings must be at least 10 mm and must have 3-4 live buds. The length of the cutting should be about half a meter.
Grape cuttings - when to plant better?
Gardeners consider autumn to be the most successful breeding season for grapes. In spring, young plants receive an impulse for development. Moreover, when planting sprouts in the fall, they will not experience any stresses associated with winter storage of cuttings. Grapes over the summer will get stronger and faster, the first berries can be removed in the second year.
Preparation of cuttings can be carried out at the beginning of autumn, and planting begins in October and can be carried out before the first freezing of the soil.
Important! This method of cultivation is not simple and easy, but gardeners consider it the most reliable.
If you decide to disembark in spring, then the second half of April - early May will be the best time. Late planting is not recommended since the moisture from the soil will evaporate quickly, there is a risk of drying up of the root.
Important! Far from everything depends entirely on the gardener's preferences. Be sure to take into account the region of residence, because a lot depends on the climate:
- Residents of the northern regions (Ural, Siberia) should stop planting cuttings in the autumn, as the sprout may not survive the harsh winter.
- For the southern regions, where the climate is mild and warm (Krasnodar Territory, southern Ukraine), the method of autumn planting grapes cuttings is perfect.
Preparation of cuttings
From grafting and planting the vine depends on whether the grapes take root. Therefore, this stage of garden work should be taken more than seriously.
Important! Before planting the cuttings of grapes without roots, they should be saturated with moisture, dipped in a bucket of clean water. In other cases, the cut material is placed in cellophane, previously wrapped in a wet napkin.
Preparing cuttings for autumn disembarkation:
- Use for cutting Chubukov pruner or a sharp knife.
- Make sure that when cutting not formed creases or flattening of the bark.
- Eyes on the vine should not crumble at the slightest pressing. Carefully inspect the cut - in the matured cutting it will be white.
- The cut is performed diagonally, the lower part of the incision should be near the eye, and the top - 2-3 cm above the left buds.
- The thickness of the cutting should be from 0.7 to 1 cm.
- Before grapes are planted with cuttings, the cubs are placed in water for 48 hours, then smeared with melted paraffin, put into a solution of water and a root system growth stimulator for a day.
- Next, the cuttings are placed in the soil or sawdust with the addition of a root growth stimulator.
Important! If there are several varieties, it is recommended to label them immediately. Watering the seedlings regularly, preventing the drying of the upper layer of the earth.
Preparing the pit for planting grapes
Grapes are planted with seedlings at the end of the winter period, until the buds wake up and wake up. But the recess for this is better to prepare in the fall in advance. Then the earth will settle in it.
We start digging up the pothole after delineating its boundaries. But first, let's determine the location of the future vineyard. The average size of a grape bush - 1x1 m. Such volumes make it possible to fill the hole with a sufficient amount of quality and loose soil.
Preparing the pit before planting grapes
The method of creating a recess for planting is well known to experienced gardeners. For those who do it for the first time, we will explain in more detail. The removed upper layer of the earth is deposited in one direction, and the lower - in another. The latter is not useful to us at all, it should be defined in some other place.
Pothole is filled in layers:
- sand bucket
- humus bucket
- some ash
- 4 buckets of the top fertile chernozem.
The amount of the last that remains from digging will not be enough, so you have to take it, for example, from the beds. The content is well mixed, as in a regular pot. These actions are repeated until the recess is completely filled.
Also, do not forget about fertilizers. On the pot of the size described above, 200 g of superphosphate, 40 g of ammonium nitrate will be needed. If during the formation of the soil composition no ash was used, then it is also advisable to add another 200 g of potassium salt.
At the end of the work she watered. The earth will immediately settle, it will be clearly visible. We'll have to fill it, perhaps more than once. This is the reason why planting grapes with additives is not desirable to produce in the newly prepared soil. Sown land will easily damage the roots of the plant and tighten it deeper than necessary. If the grapes are planted in spring, at least 2 weeks should pass from the beginning of the laying of the hole before planting the grapes.
How to plant grapes in spring? Selection of seedlings
So, before planting grapes cuttings in the spring, it is necessary to determine its subspecies. This takes into account many factors such as technical or table grapes you need, and when you want to harvest: early - in July, medium - at the end of summer, or late - already in the fall?
For many, depending on the location of the suburban area, the most important issues are frost resistance and resistance to diseases, including fungal diseases. It is also important to infect the area in which the plot is located by such beetles as May and pipe pipe, which are very fond of the leaves of many sweet varieties.
Technical grape types are distinguished by exquisite qualities, but they are rarely used as food because they have a sour or cloying taste. They are used mainly for the manufacture of wines, tinctures and juices. These include:
- Aligote, Cabernet Sauvignon, Amur Potapenko, Kokur white,
- Rylaines pink sidilis, Muscat Odessa, Tsimlyansky, Crystal,
- Northern Shoulders, Khasansky, Bianca, Isabella, Lydia.
Dining types know and love everything. They are sold in grocery markets and are a favorite delicacy of many. These include:
- Novocherkassk Anniversary, Talisman, Rochefort, Fun,
- Transfiguration, Memory Negrulya, Hope Azos, Original black,
- Laura, Codreanca, Super Extra, Kesha,
- Friendship, Gourmet gourmet, Cardinal steady, Kishmish radiant, Harold, Galben Nou, Delight, Aladdin, Timur.
The early ones are very much loved by summer residents, but they are harder to grow. They are thermophilic and need to be watered abundantly, protected from the sun and direct winds, so not every locality allows you to grow such. The best early grapes are:
- Violet, Anniversary of Kherson "Summer Resident", Delight white,
- Codrean, Muscat pink early, Russian,
- Transfiguration, Magaracha.
To the middle are:
- Flamingo, Gift Zaporizhia, Hope AZOS,
- Talisman, Demeter, Grapes Stashevsky,
- Rizamat, Impulse.
Late - often sown together with early ones, in order to enjoy the fruits twice a season. They are characterized by thick and elastic skin, so they are used for storage and blanks for the winter. Among them are the most delicious:
- Asma, Muscat of Alexandria, Lydia,
- Buyur, Hrushevsky white, Danko, Centaur Magaracha,
- Merzhaniani, Alb De Jaloveni, Muscat White, Alphonse Lavalle.
How to plant grapes saplings?
Итак, пришло время высаживать присадки винограда. Это нужно делать в надлежащем порядке:
- в том месте, где осенью вы сделали участок с удобренным грунтом под посадку лозы, выкапываем лунку в 50 см глубиной и шириной,
- на дно ее насыпается холмик из плодородной земли,
- grape additives are set by the “heel” on its top, and the roots are neatly straightened, distributed evenly in all directions,
- then, holding it with your hands, the hole is half-filled with black soil and trampled down,
- a peg is set,
- everything pours water
- when it is absorbed, everything is finally filled with soil (now infertile and loose),
- spud plant to the level of green growth.
Planting grapes cuttings in spring
Before planting grapes in spring cuttings, you must carefully prepare. The basis of the process is the ability of this plant to revive from escape with the preservation of absolutely all the properties of the parent vine. For planting cuttings from grapes in spring, it is necessary to prepare material from autumn. For this fit the branches remaining from pruning.
The preparation of a grape cutting is made as follows:
- from each branch, all shoots, leaves, whiskers, stepchildren are removed,
- cuttings are cut in such a way that each of them has four buds. The cut is made at an angle of 2 cm above the kidney,
- grape cuttings are tied up in a bunch, kept in water for 24 hours, etched with blue vitriol, dried,
- then they turn into a film and go to the basement for storage or just in the fridge,
- in February, cuttings are taken from the storage site, checked for viability. Not dried and not rotted will germinate at home,
- they are first immersed in warm water for 2 days. Change the water often
- after that, each of them is planted in a plastic cup filled with fertile soil,
- holes are made in the bottom of the glass. The grape vine is watered regularly,
- when the leaves bloom on it, and the grown roots will be visible through the transparent walls of the glass - it's time to plant it in the ground. This is done in the same way as planting grapes in spring saplings.
Having done everything according to the instructions, you will save in the cuttings all the properties of the mother vine.
Now you know how to plant grapes from cuttings and additives. It is quite simple and even a novice gardener. It is enough only to comply with the technology, and then in just a few years the vine will bestow a wonderful harvest on you.
Preparing the soil for grapes
It is possible to plant cuttings in any soil, because in this respect the plant is completely picky. However, some nuances should still be taken into account, because dessert and table varieties of berries like different soil:
- Table grapes should be propagated by cuttings best in humus-rich soil on the hillside. Groundwater at the landing site should be approximately three meters deep.
- On dark and stony soil, grapes feel just fine, because this soil warms up faster, as it attracts the sun's rays.
Before you plant the grapes with cuttings, you need to check the soil in the selected location. Especially the vine loves the following types of soil:
- Carbonate or low carbonate,
- Light colored sandstone,
- Red soil
- Black earth
- Sandy soil
- Dark and light chestnut soils,
Important! The soil should be fertile, light and breathable.
After planting throughout the vegetative season, the soil should be constantly loosened.
Important! It is not recommended to plant cuttings of grapes, as in any other way, on wetlands, as the root system will die from lack of oxygen.
Landing trenches or pits are fertilized and prepared in advance. The soil must necessarily settle well before landing.
Choosing a landing site
The landing site must be selected correctly:
- To plant a grape stalk in a place where the old plantation was just uprooted is by no means impossible, since spores of viral and fungal diseases, various insects can remain in the ground. Landing at this place can be started only in 2-3 years.
- Since airing is very important for the vine, it is not necessary to seat the chubukas in the shade and between the trees.
- Saplings planted in the direction from south to north. Thus, maximum illumination and warming up of the plantation is achieved.
To rooting plants was good, you must follow these rules when planting grapes cuttings:
- Landing is carried out in trenches or pits. The fertile soil from the upper layers from a depth of no more than 30 cm is thrown to one side, and the other soil is thrown to the other, which over time is simply removed from the site.
- The trench width should not be less than 80-90 cm, the pit should have dimensions of 80x80 cm. The depth of both the trench and the pit should be at least 80 cm.
- Place for planting chubukov should be spacious enough for the powerful root system of the growing grapes to feel comfortable.
- The bottom of the trench or pit is covered with drainage.
- Fertilizers and humus in the amount of 2 buckets are mixed, a layer of fertile soil is poured on top, which was removed from the pit earlier.
Important! As a drainage fine crushed stone perfectly will approach. It is impossible to plant cuttings directly on the humus, since the root system will get burns and will not develop further.
How to plant cuttings of grapes?
- It is important to observe the distance between the planted plants. It must be at least 2.5 meters.
- Between the rows of vines make a three-meter indent.
- The graft is buried in the ground at an inclination of 45 degrees and it is added dropwise with earth, trampling the soil around.
- Seedlings are planted with a north orientation.
- Each planted stalk is poured over with warm water and a plastic bottle is put on it.
- After the water has been absorbed into the ground, it can be loosened, thereby restoring oxygen to the lower layers of the soil.
- If planting is carried out in the fall and the air temperature is quite low, then the cuttings are immediately covered with sawdust, pine needles or peat. Protective mound should be at least 30 cm - only so grape seedlings will be protected from frost.
Important! It is imperative to ensure that at least two buds remain on the surface.
Important! In one pit you need to pour at least 4 buckets of water when planting.
There must be airspace between the first layer of cover and the pit. With the autumn planting, a powerful root system will soon form, and in the spring, the vegetative development of the young vine will begin.
Grape seedling care
- First of all, it is very important to pour water on the planted vine abundantly in time.
- It is better to cover the ground under the seedlings of mulch. As the latter, hay is quite suitable. The mulch will retain moisture in the soil, will not allow it to evaporate quickly, and also prevent the growth of weeds. Important! Before watering the mulch is removed and then put in place.
- The beds with seedlings need to be periodically weeded - this way you will provide the lower layers of the soil with oxygen that is so important for the roots of the grapes.
- When planting in the fall in the middle of summer, the seedling needs to be deepened by 20 cm. Having excavated the plant, remove the extra roots - this is necessary for the better development of the main root.
- For the prevention of disease seedlings need to be treated with fungicides.
- In the fall is installed under the trellis seedlings.
- Next fall you need to do the cutting of the grapes. This measure is necessary not to grow wild grapes.
- Since the root system of young grapes is weak and not fully developed, it is recommended to cover the bush in winter. Vine descend from the trellis and cover with a film.
In order for the vegetative propagation of the vine to be successful, you need to know how and when to plant the grapes by cuttings, because it is this method that gardeners consider to be the most effective. Observing the nuances of this difficult business, you will soon be able to get the first harvest from new bushes.