Turnip: planting and care, sowing seedlings


About how to grow turnips, our ancestors knew a few centuries ago. After all, this vegetable plant has been known to people for more than four thousand years. Already at this time, the person not only knew very well how to grow turnips, but also used it as one of the basic foodstuffs. True, with the advent of potatoes, the significance of this root has somewhat decreased. It was brought to Russia in about the fourteenth century from Greece.

Variety selection

For most of us, this vegetable is associated with a flattened root vegetable from old Russian fairy tales. It has a golden yellow color and a solid smooth surface. This species is one of the most common in our country. The people called him "Voshchanka." It is important for gardeners not only to know how to properly grow a turnip in the open field. It is equally important to choose the right grade.

Not all varieties of this root grow in our country. We usually grow turnip, obtained by Russian breeders. This is a variety of Petrovsky. Although on some garden plots the Japanese Geisha is growing well too. In addition to these two varieties recommended by the State Register, the following varieties are also cultivated in our country - the May green-headed yellow, the Milan white violet-head, the Golden ball, the Snow Maiden and others.

Optimal conditions for growing turnip

This root crop is a light-loving plant. Those who are interested in how to grow a turnip should be aware that it is a plant that requires a long day. Good illumination is one of the main conditions for its normal development. It is this that contributes to the accumulation of such a useful vitamin C in the root crop. Moreover, those who know well how to grow turnips are sure that the culture imposes increased demands on illumination primarily during the initial period of growth.

The optimum temperature for growing and growing this root is a period of fifteen to twenty degrees of heat. Those who are interested in how to grow turnips in the open field, you need to know that a lower regime can provoke the development of apexes. For normal growth, the plant also requires sufficient moisture in the soil and air. Particularly demanding culture of the soil in the period of germination and the formation of leaves. Experts who know well how to grow turnips in the open field, believe that timely watering at this time has a positive effect not only on the harvest, but also on the taste.


Turnips always need nitrogen. It must be fed to the plant during the entire growth period. Nitrogen contributes to an increase in protein in fruits. However, everything should be a measure, since with a surplus of nitrogen in the culture increases the growing season, moreover, keeping quality and quality of roots are reduced. At the first stages of growing and growth, the plant also needs phosphorus nutrition. This trace element stimulates the development of the root system, increases resistance to adverse conditions and increases the sugar content of the root. Potassium contributes a lot to carbohydrate, protein and ascorbic acid in vegetables. In general, trace elements such as boron, calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, etc. are necessary for normal growth and development of any plant. Turnip is no exception.

Where is the crop grown?

The most suitable for this culture are sandy or loamy soils, cultivated by peat. However, turnips are well tolerated and the soil with high acidity. And varieties that have flat root crops can be planted in a small arable layer - up to eighteen centimeters.

Those who are interested in how to grow turnips in the country should know that the best precursors of this crop are tomato, cucumber, corn, squash, beans and potatoes, under which organic fertilizers have already been applied. It should not be planted in strongly acidified areas, especially after cabbage.

Growing a turnip in the garden is not too difficult. The main thing is to know some features. Since turnip is a precocious crop, it can be sown several times in one season. For summer consumption, seeds should be sown in spring. The harvest will be ready in sixty or seventy days. For fall, planting in July is acceptable, and for winter storage - in early August.

When spring sowing, the land should be prepared as early as autumn. To this end, it is necessary to carry out a digging autumn and to make the necessary fertilizers. With the onset of spring at the landing site is deep loosening - up to twenty centimeters. Then the rest of the fertilizer is applied again. For summer sowing, the land needs to be dug up to a depth of twenty centimeters and before sowing it should be poured abundantly at the rate of fifteen to twenty liters per square meter.

Turnips can be planted on a flat surface in summer and on ridges or ridges in spring. The row spacing must be at least thirty centimeters. Turnips can be grown second or third crop after making compost. But if organic matter was not applied before planting, then humus should be given at a rate of two to three kilograms per square meter.

Phosphorus or potash supplements are applied in the fall and under pre-sowing treatment. Nitrogen fertilizers need to be made in the spring. Approximate doses are: ten to fifteen grams of urea per square meter, the same amount of sodium chloride and thirty to forty grams of superphosphate. If necessary, you need to liming the soil.

How to grow a turnip from seed?

Planting material should be taken only last year. The freshest seeds are a guarantee of a good harvest. Any agronomist who knows firsthand how to grow turnips will say this. At home, before planting, prepare seeds for sowing. This process involves the calibration and soaking of planting material. For convenience and uniformity of sowing, it is better to mix the seeds with sand or its mixture with superphosphate. The marked rows should be made grooves with a depth of two centimeters, which, as necessary, need to be moistened.

The seeding rate of turnip seeds is as follows: approximately one gram per square meter with a seeding depth of one to two centimeters. Planting material can be placed in the ground and in a nesting way - two or three pieces per hole, followed by thinning.

Usually shoots appear on the fourth or seventh day after planting, depending on the temperature. Care of the seedling includes the mandatory removal of soil crust. To do this, held small, for three to five centimeters, loosening. For all the time of cultivation is carried out from three to five inter-row treatments. Before the plant has formed three true leaves, thinning is carried out. The distance between the bushes in a row should be from six to eight centimeters, and when summer crops - up to ten.

Thinning is most often carried out in the phase of two true leaves. This occurs approximately on the twentieth day after germination. Between plants should leave a distance of five centimeters. When repeated thinning is done, it increases to ten. And at the third - up to fifteen centimeters. If sowing was carried out by breeding, then only the strongest plant should be left, removing all the others.

Those who know well how to grow turnips will say that weeding is very important for this crop. Weed growth should not be allowed in the weeds, because the roots are deformed by this, and their quality decreases. In total, three shallow loosening should be carried out per season. In this case, the plants better spud slightly. The soil in the garden should always be wet. The norm makes up to twenty liters of water for each square meter. Moreover, watering experts recommend alternating with loosening.

In general, the main stages in the cultivation of turnips are the provision of optimal plant density, sufficient moisture, soil purity and pest control, especially with cabbage flies and cruciferous flea.

Harvest and storage of turnips

Root crops for summer consumption should be removed selectively, when they reach a diameter of 6-8 centimeters, and for autumn and winter - one time before frost. The plant should be pulled out of the soil and immediately cut the leaves. A good yield is from two to five kilograms per square meter. Turnip winter is very well kept. The optimal temperature for storage is 0-1 degrees Celsius, and the air humidity is 90%. Root crops should be poured with wet sand or peat, although some store the harvest in plastic bags.

Pest control

In the first stages of cultivation up to the formation of the first two true leaves, that is, within ten days after the emergence of sprouts, the cabbage fly and cruciferous flea are the greatest danger to the culture.

To combat the first pest, it is recommended to apply such drugs as "Bazudin" and "Medvetoks" to the soil. And from the cruciferous flea well help means "Spark". If you do not take appropriate measures, then in dry and hot weather, this pest is able to completely destroy the shoots. It is recommended against cruciferous flea always to keep the area with sowing in an optimally wet state.

Planting and care for turnips (in brief)

  • Landing: Sowing in the open ground of turnip seeds for summer use - immediately after the snow melted, sowing of turnip seeds for storage - in July or early August. Sow turnips and winter, before the start of sustained frost. Sowing of seeds for seedlings is carried out in mid-March, and seedlings are planted in open ground in the second half of May.
  • Lighting: bright sunshine.
  • The soil: light, clayey, neutral.
  • Watering: regular and abundant, 1-2 times a week on average, spending 5-10 liters of water for each m² of garden bed. Watering is carried out early in the morning or after sunset.
  • Top dressing: 1-2 during the growing season with complex mineral fertilizer or organic. The best fertilizer is wood ash.
  • Breeding: seed.
  • Pests: cruciferous flea-beetles and bedbugs, cabbage flies, cabbage moth, cabbage aphid, cabbage scoop, cabbage and turnip moths, cabbage stem weevil, or sneaky-moths.
  • Diseases: kila, fomoz, mucous and vascular bacterioses, black leg and gray rot.

Turnip Plants - Description

Turnip root is a thickened, fleshy root crop, the stem is tall and strongly leafy, the basal leaves are lyre-pinniped, long-petiolate, stiff-haired, green, and the stem leaves are sessile, serrated or entire, ovoid, bare or slightly pubescent. In the first year, only the edible root and rosette of basal leaves develop, and in the second year, the root produces a leafy stem with flowers that form a corymbose inflorescence, which later becomes a racemose. Petals have golden yellow or frosted pale yellow flowers. The turnip fruit is a short, upright knotted pod in which red-brown seeds in the shape of an irregular ball mature. There are table and feed varieties of turnips. Feed varieties are known to us under the name turnips. Turnip is a relative of such popular vegetable plants as white cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, radish, radishes and other, less well-known cruciferous crops. We will tell you when to plant a turnip in an open field, how and when to sow it on seedlings, how to grow a turnip in an open field: how to care for a turnip, how to water a turnip, how to fertilize a turnip, what kind of turnip for open ground is better adapted the middle band, how to collect turnips and how to properly store turnips after harvesting.

Sowing turnip seeds.

Turnip seedlings sown for a half or two months before landing on the garden. Before sowing, hollow, damaged and deformed should be separated from the total seed mass. Immerse the seeds in a five-percent solution of common salt (5 g of table salt, dissolve in 100 ml of water at room temperature), mix the seeds so that air escapes from their surface. Good seeds will sink to the bottom, and worthless ones will float. After calibration, it is necessary to disinfect the seed, since 80% of the diseases are transmitted by seeds. The best method of treatment is thermal, that is, warming in hot water. Place the seeds in a fabric bag and lower for 20 minutes in a thermos with water heated to a temperature of 52-54 ºC, then immediately cool them for 2-3 minutes in cold water. Instead of heating, you can etch the seeds in a two-percent solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, for which you need to add 2 g of potassium permanganate to 100 ml of water at room temperature. After disinfection, thoroughly wash the seeds and soak them for swelling for several days in water, changing it twice a day.

Turnip seedlings are not afraid of cramping, so sow them thickly, but it is best to sow turnips in peat tablets: wet the tablets, so that the ground swells in them, put 2-3 seeds of turnips on each, place the tablets with crops under the transparent dome and hold them, without taking shelter, in a bright place away from direct sunlight until the emergence of shoots.

Growing seedlings of turnips.

High humidity, formed under the hood - a great environment for growing turnip seedlings. The temperature of seedling content is from 5 to 15 ºC, so the best place to plant is a glazed loggia or an unheated veranda.

When the seedlings open cotyledons, thin the seedlings with scissors - cut weak seedlings at ground level so that they do not take away nutrition from the more developed ones. For the rest, take care of the turnip seedlings as you do with the seedlings of any other plant - water and feed them in a timely manner, carefully loosen the soil.

Two weeks before the seedlings are planted in the open ground, they begin to conduct tempering procedures, bringing the seedlings to fresh air for a while every day and gradually increasing the duration of the session. When the seedlings will be able to spend the whole day on the air, it will be possible to plant it in the ground.

When to put a turnip in the ground.

We told you how and when to sow turnips for seedlings, however, gardeners almost always prefer to plant turnips directly in open ground. When to plant a turnip in the middle lane? The timing of planting turnips in the ground depends not only on the climatic conditions of the area, but also on what you grow it for. For example, planting turnips in the Moscow region for its summer consumption is carried out in late April, early May and early June, and turnips, planted from late June to mid-July, are suitable not only for food, but also for winter storage. Experienced gardeners to get turnips in the spring for 2-3 weeks earlier than usual, sow it before winter. Turnip seeds germinate at a temperature of 2-5 ºC, and if the temperature rises to 18 ºC and higher, then germination can be expected after 3 days.

Soil for turnips.

Turnip grows well on light, clayey, neutral soils, so the acidic soil needs to be lime, otherwise the turnip roots will be poorly stored. Planting turnips in the open ground is preceded by the preparation of the site, and planting turnips for the winter, and planting turnips in the spring suggest preparation of the site in the fall. For turnips fit beds, which grew up to her beans, tomatoes, cucumbers or potatoes. You can not sow turnips in the area where watercress, daikon, horseradish, any type of cabbage, radish, radish and turnip itself grew, because all these plants have common diseases and pests.

The plot is deeply dug, at the same time introducing 2-3 kg of organic matter (humus or compost, but not fresh manure), 1-20 g of potash and 10-15 g of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers per 1 m².

How to plant a turnip in open ground.

Sowed, prepared as described above, turnip seeds with two-line ribbons, keeping a distance of 20 cm between the lines. Before planting, you must first loosen the ground on the beds, and then roll it in, make 1-2 cm deep grooves and sow turnip seeds in them approximate frequency of 2 pieces per centimeter. Carefully seal the seeds and water the area.

Planting turnips for the winter.

Subwinter seeding turnips before the start of sustainable frosts. During the winter, the seeds will undergo a natural stratification in the ground and will sprout together in spring. Seeds are buried a little deeper than during spring or summer sowing, and they fall asleep with earth, not frozen and petrified at this time of the year, but prepared in advance by peat or sand. Landmarks are placed on the edges of the plot, which in the spring will not let you forget where you planted the turnip. As soon as the snow falls, scribble it evenly on the garden and you can forget about the turnips before spring.

How to grow a turnip.

Growing turnips and caring for them is simple and enjoyable. As soon as the turnip rises, it should be thinned out, removing weak shoots from the site. After that, sprinkle the bed with wood ash to protect the culture from the cruciferous flea. Кстати, читатели спрашивают, что посадить с репой, то есть, какая культура уживается с репой на одном участке. Лучше всего растут возле нее горох и бобы.

После обработки грядки золой замульчируйте ее сеном или соломой, чтобы вам не приходилось слишком часто рыхлить на участке грунт. И тем не менее рыхлить грунт на грядке вам все-таки придется, как и убирать с нее сорную траву. Two weeks after the first thinning spend the second. The rest of the cultivation of turnip is not much different from the cultivation of other root crops.

Watering turnips.

The turnip plant is moisture-loving, therefore it requires regular and abundant watering, especially in a dry time. On average, it is 1-2 watering per week. Depending on the weather and the phase of development of the plant, 5 to 10 liters of water are needed for each m² of land. If the turnip lacks moisture, its roots will become hard, coarse, and the flesh will be bitter. Most of all, turnips need moisture during the period of seed germination, when the seedlings form true leaves, and at the stage of intensive growth of root crops. When the roots get the right amount, the water flow must be reduced, otherwise the turnips may crack.

Watering is best done in the early morning or after sunset. Water should not be cold. It is best to put in the garden a large barrel or bath, in which tap water can stand and warm up in the sun. Young plants are watered from a watering can with a fine sieve, tall turnips can be watered.

Top dressing turnips.

Cultivation of turnips for the period of growth and ripening of the culture involves one or two supplements. Turnip fertilizer can be carried out with complex mineral compounds, and it can be limited to organic matter. Many gardeners believe that the best fertilizer for turnips is wood ash, and as a preparation of the site for turnips, they burn a fire on it, and then scatter the charred remains of the tree on the site and dig the ground with them.

When the seedlings just release the first true leaflets, grass organic supplements can be a good support for them.

Pest and turnip diseases

All cruciferous diseases and pests are common, so they can not be grown in the neighborhood or one after another in the same area. Of the turnip pests most often affect cruciferous fleas and bedbugs, cabbage flies, cabbage moth, cabbage aphid, cabbage scoops, cabbage and whitefish, cabbage stem weevil, or stealthy.

Diseases affecting turnips include kila, fomoz, mucous and vascular bacterioses, black leg and gray rot.

Turnip processing.

In order to protect turnips from diseases and pests, it is necessary to observe crop rotation. Planting and care of turnips in the open ground should be carried out strictly in accordance with the agrotechnical rules, including:

  • - mandatory pre-sowing preparation and seed dressing,
  • - thinning of seedlings to avoid thickening of the bed,
  • - timely removal from the site of weeds,
  • - destruction of plant residues of turnip at the end of the season,
  • - careful digging of a site after harvesting.

If, despite all your precautions, a turnip struck the fungus, try to immediately remove diseased specimens from the garden bed and use folk remedies to fight fungi, but if the disease has taken effect, you will have to apply the treatment with fungicides like Fundazole, Topsin and other preparations actions.

In pest control, it is also advisable to use folk remedies, for example, decoction of tomato or potato leaves, boiled for half an hour in water, then filter the broth and diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3. Before treating the turnip, dissolve 40 g of grated soap in 10 liters of the composition. This remedy will rid the turnips of scoops, whiteflies, moths, flies and other insects, but if there are too many pests, they will have to be treated with Carbofos, Aktellik, Metaphos or some other insecticide.

Cleaning and storage of turnips

Planting and caring for turnip, carried out in accordance with the agrotechnics of culture, will surely provide you with a good harvest of this tasty and healthy vegetable. As we have already written, only that turnip that was sown from the last days of June to the end of July is suitable for winter storage. In Russia, there was a tradition to pull a turnip on Vozdvizhenie, that is, on September 27. You should not delay with the harvest, because overgrown root crop loses its taste.

Root vegetables carefully dug in a sunny sunny day, trying not to damage them, because the injured turnips can rot during storage. After extracting the root crops from the ground, they cut the tops of the tops, leaving only petioles 1-2 cm long, remove woody roots, clean off the ground, dry in the shade, sort, and first stored under a layer of straw mixed with the ground, about 10 cm thick, after which is lowered into the cellar or cellar, where they should be stored at a temperature of from 0 to 3 ºC. In the cellar, turnips are laid in boxes with dry sand or peat chips in such a way that the roots do not touch each other. The shelf life of late turnips in such conditions is several months.

If the turnips are small, it is stored in a refrigerator wrapped in polyethylene. In the same form it can be stored on the balcony. With proper storage in the refrigerator and on the balcony, turnips can last up to 30 days. At room temperature, it can be held for up to two weeks, after which its flesh begins to taste bitter. Better stored roots with a diameter of at least 5 cm

Types and varieties of turnips

By purpose, the turnip varieties are divided into table and fodder, and among the table sorts of turnips, a group of salad varieties is distinguished. In table varieties, only roots are suitable for food, while in salad varieties, roots and leaves are also valuable. In terms of ripening, varieties of turnips are divided into early ones that ripen in 40-60 days, middle-ripening, ripening in 60-90 days, and later ones, which take 90 days or more to reach ripeness. Different varieties of turnips and taste. We offer you the most popular in the culture of turnip varieties:

  • Petrovskaya-1 - unpretentious and well-stored medium early crop with rounded, slightly flattened yellow, juicy fruits of a sweetish taste,
  • White Night - productive mid-season variety of Czech selection with white roots weighing up to 500 g with white, juicy pulp,
  • Geisha - cold-resistant early ripe fruitful variety of Japanese lettuce turnip cocaba with white round fruits weighing up to 200 g, lacking a sharp-bitter taste typical for turnips, and suitable for eating tender leaves, which are used for salad,
  • Snow Maiden - early ripe and highly productive variety of lettuce turnip with small white and rounded roots weighing up to 60 g with thin skin, juicy, tender pulp and salad leaves rich in vitamins,
  • May yellow greenhead - early maturing variety, unsuitable for storage, with tender and juicy pulp,
  • Sapphire - lettuce turnip, the main value of which is the leaves - smooth, juicy and tender,
  • Snow White - early ripe cold-resistant and shade-tolerant salad variety with white rounded fruits weighing up to 80 g with white, dense, but juicy and tender pulp of excellent taste,
  • Golden ball - middle-early unpretentious cold-resistant and consistently fruitful variety with rounded yellow roots weighing up to 150 g with a thin smooth and delicate skin and dense juicy pulp,
  • Early ripe purple - a popular variety with rounded white fruits with a diameter of 8-12 cm and a weight of 65 to 90 g with a purple top and white, juicy and sweet pulp.

In addition to the described, such varieties as Crunch, Tokyo Cross, Push-pull, Pull-pull, Snowball, Snowball, Russian size, Russian fairy tale, Orbit, Presto, Rattle, Long, Maya white, Little Red Riding Hood, Lyra are in demand in the culture. , Flapjack, Nurse, Comet, Dunyasha, Burnt Sugar, Dutch White, Gribovskaya, Dedka, Granddaughter and others.

The correct time for planting turnips in open ground

Short growing season 60 - 80 days lets get over the summer two crops. The first sowing is carried out in the Moscow region in the middle of spring - April, the beginning of May. In the Urals and in Siberia, the dates are practically the same, there they plant a turnip in early May, and in early spring - in late April.

Planted in the spring root crops do not store for a long time, they go for summer consumption or are used in the preparation of winter blanks. Root vegetables harvested in late June, early July.

Second sowing - summer, gives the crop, suitable for long-term winter storage. Deadline for planting in the central zone July (first decade), in the northern regions (Siberia, the Urals), summer sowing should be carried out mid to late june.

When sown at a later date, the root crop may not be formed even when using early ripening varieties. It is possible to calculate the term more precisely: to subtract from the date of the expected end of the season the ripening time indicated on the pack.

The best varieties for planting in the suburbs and the middle zone

In Moscow, any variety planted at the right time, will give a good harvest. Thanks to the frequent rains, the turnips in the villas near Moscow are growing excellent. For winter consumption, you can advise the old, proven variety - Petrovskaya-1.

Peter's turnip is suitable for long-term storage. The roots are yellow with white, juicy flesh. The taste is pleasant, a little sweet. The shape of root crops is neat, flat-round. Vegetation period 70-80 days.

Good grade for the Moscow region Geisha - perfect for summer. Root is juicy, tasty with white flesh and skin. Edible leaves, they contain beta-carotene. Plus varieties - no arrow.

Turnip varieties for cultivation in Siberia and the Urals

A great choice for the Ural and Siberian summer residents will be the variety Russian size. Root crops will be pleased with a large size (2 kg), excellent classical taste and a long storage period. Sow grade Russian size at the end of June, clean after 2 - 2.5 months.

For summer consumption, ideal grade Snowball. Root crops are large, white, without bitterness, recommended for diet. Productivity at a grade is steadily high. Leaves can be used to make salads.

Seed preparation

To improve the germination of seed material, to save it from possible infections in various ways:

  1. Bubbling during the day.
  2. Use a biostimulant solution for soaking.
  3. Prepare an infusion of ash (tablespoon per liter), insist day, keep the seeds in the prepared solution for 6 hours.
  4. Seeds hold for 2 hours in garlic water. Garlic water protects against bacteriosis. It is necessary to take a tablespoon of grated garlic, pour over lukewarm water (½ cup).
  5. Sprout the seeds in a damp cloth. The napkin is constantly moistened, periodically opened for ventilation.
  6. Pour the seeds into a small jar, close it with a lid and put it in a container with hot water (50 degrees) for 30 minutes.

The size of the seeds is small, they are dark in color. It is difficult to sow: it is difficult to ration the number of seeds per unit area, it’s hard to see where it’s sown and where it’sn’t. Seeds can be mixed with river sand or sprinkle them with potato starch.

Preparing beds for planting in the garden

The ridge can be equipped in areas where they grew tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, corn, beans. Planted after radish and cabbage can not. You can dig a ridge in the fall, adding a standard set of fertilizers for digging (superphosphate, potassium nitrate, humus), or in the spring, adding additional urea.

If there is wood ash, it should certainly be added to the soil during the preparation of the ridge. Per square meter is enough 1 cup. Turnip ash responds well. Digging depth not less than 20 cm.

Fresh manure under turnips do not make. Manure reduces the quality of root crops.

Biological features of turnips like plants

Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) belongs to the cabbage family. This is a biennial plant. In the first year, root crops and a rosette of leaves are formed; in the second year, the plant blooms and forms seeds. Turnip seeds are round, smooth, small, brown in color. The mass of 1 thousand seeds is 1.5-3.8 g. They remain viable for up to 5 years.

Turnip - the most cold-resistant plant of the roots. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 1-3 ° C. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 8-10 ° C. Young plants withstand frosts of up to -6 ° C, adults - up to -8 ° C. Early ripening varieties are less resistant to frost than late ripening ones.

Turnip subspecies

In Russia, mostly grown varieties of turnips of the European subspecies. The shape of the roots they can be flat, rounded, oval and elongated. The outer color of the roots is yellow or white, and in some cases the head of the root can be violet or green. Pulp of root crops - yellow or white. The bark is thin, smooth. Root crops are immersed in the soil for one third or half of their length. The leaves are dissected, less often whole, pubescent, but they are smooth. Root mass from 200 grams to half a kilo.

In varieties of turnip of the European subspecies, roots are used for food, both raw and after cooking.

Recently become popular varieties of turnip Japanese subspecies. The plants form smooth, beautiful, round or flat-rounded root vegetables 5–20 cm in diameter with white color. The leaves are whole.

Japanese turnip roots have a less pronounced European flavor. They accumulate up to 17 mg% of vitamin C, a number of other valuable components. Differ in precocity.

Along with root vegetables, many varieties of the Japanese subspecies also use leaves for food. Their leaf plates are thin and delicate, characterized by a significant content of ascorbic acid (up to 75 mg%), carotene (1.8 mg%), and mineral substances.

There are leafy forms of Japanese turnip. Plants form a shallow root crop and a well-developed leaf rosette consisting of large, undressed leaves. This green product contains up to 75 mg% ascorbic acid, then 3.3 mg% carotene.

In the republics of Central Asia, local varieties of a subtype of Afghan turnip are grown. These root crops are flat-round, with red or white bark.

Afghan turnips содерж to content ↑

Cultivation of turnips - optimal conditions

Turnip - light-loving plant. Good illumination contributes to the accumulation of vitamin C root crops. It places high demands on light in the initial period of growth. This plant is a long day.

The optimum temperature for growing, root growth - 15-20 ° C. Low positive temperatures provoke the flowering of plants.

For normal turnip growth, sufficient moisture in the soil and air is necessary. It is particularly demanding on soil moisture during the period of germination and the beginning of the formation of leaves, as well as before harvesting. Watering in these terms has a positive effect on the taste and yield of root crops.

Suitable for the cultivation of turnips are loamy and sandy soils, cultivated peatlands. It tolerates increased acidity of the soil. Grades of turnip with flat root vegetables put up with a small arable layer (15-18 cm).

The best predecessors are crops under which organic fertilizers are applied: cucumber, zucchini, tomato, legumes, potatoes, corn. It is not necessary to grow turnip in acidified areas, after cabbage. Turnips and other cultures of the cabbage family should return to their former place no earlier than 4 years later.

Turnips have a significant need for batteries.

Nitrogen is required throughout the growing period, it contributes to an increase in protein content in root vegetables. When it is abundant, the growing season increases, and the quality and quality of the product decreases. In the first stages of cultivation, the growth of the root is important phosphorus nutrition.

Phosphorus stimulates root growth, increases plant resistance to adverse conditions, increases sugar content of root crops.

Potassium contributes to the accumulation of vegetable protein, carbohydrates, ascorbic acid.

Calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, manganese are also important for normal growth and development of plants.

Planting turnips - agricultural technology

Turnip is a ripening crop that allows you to sow it several times per season. Mostly it is grown in two, less often - three terms. For summer consumption, seeds are sown in spring - in Kuban at the end of March - April, and in central Russia - the end of April and the beginning of May. Harvest is ready in 60-70 days.

July sowing is acceptable for autumn use; the growing period is 50-60 days. To lay in winter storage, sowing is carried out in late July-early August, the harvest is harvested after 70-75 days.

When spring sowing, soil begins to be prepared in autumn. Carry out a autumn perekopka with the introduction of the necessary fertilizer. In the spring, deep loosening (up to 20 cm) with the introduction of the remaining part of fertilizers is carried out. For summer sowing, the soil is dug up to a depth of 20-22 cm, watered before sowing (15-20 l of water per 1 m 2.

Turnips can be grown on a flat surface (in summer) or on ridges or ridges (in spring). The distance between the rows is 30 cm.

It is grown 2-3rd culture after the introduction of manure. If no organic matter is added, then 2-3 kg / m 2 of humus are given under the crawl. Phosphate and potash fertilizers are applied in the fall (2/3 doses) and under pre-sowing treatment (1/3 doses). Nitrogen fertilizers are fed in the spring. Approximate doses of fertilizers: urea - 10-15 g / m 2, superphosphate - 30-40 g / m 2, potassium chloride - 15-20 g / m 2. If necessary, conduct liming of the soil.

Seed preparation for sowing includes sizing and soaking. For convenience, uniformity of sowing the seeds are mixed with sand or a mixture of sand with superphosphate. In the marked rows make grooves 1.5-2 cm deep, which, if necessary, moisturize. Sowing with irrigation is especially important during summer and autumn growing periods.

The seeding rate is 1-0.15 g / m 2. Глубина заделки семян 1-2 см. Можно сеять также гнездовым способом, по 2-3 семени на гнездо с последующим прореживанием. Всходы обычно появляются на 4-7 день, в зависимости от температуры.

Уход за посевами включает борьбу с почвенной коркой, для чего проводят мелкое, на 3-5 см, рыхление. For the entire period of cultivation spend 3-5 inter-row treatments.

Prior to the formation of three true leaves on plants, they are thinned. The distance between plants in the range of 6-8 cm (with summer crops - up to 10 cm).

On 1 m 2 place about 48 plants.

The soil should be constantly wet, irrigation rate of 10-20 liters of oxen per 1 m 2. Watering is recommended to alternate with loosening.

The main points of agro technology of turnip cultivation are:

  • the fight with cruciferous flea and cabbage fly,
  • ensuring sufficient moisture and purity of the soil,
  • ensuring optimal plant density.
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Harvesting and storage of turnips

For summer consumption, roots are picked selectively when reaching a diameter of 6-8 cm. For autumn and winter consumption, turnips are removed before the onset of frost in one go. Plants pull out of the soil, immediately pruned leaves. The yield is 2-5 kg ​​/ m 2.

Turnip Snow Globe

Turnip is well kept in winter. The optimal storage temperature is 0-1 ° С, the optimum air humidity is 90-95%. Root crops are sprinkled with wet sand or peat, they can also be stored in plastic bags. All this allows you to provide yourself with fresh root vegetables for the whole year.

Brief description of cultivation

  1. Sowing. Sowing of turnip seeds in open ground for use in the summertime is carried out immediately after the snow cover has come down, and for winter storage - in July or in the first days of August. This culture can be sown and before winter, do it shortly before the onset of sustained frost. On the seedlings turnips are sown in mid-March, while seedlings are planted in the open ground from mid to late May.
  2. Illumination. A suitable area should be well lit.
  3. Priming. Turnip grows well in clay light, neutral soil.
  4. Watering. It is necessary to water a turnip plentifully and systematically. On 1 square meter of a bed 0.5–1 bucket of water is taken. It is necessary to water a turnip on average 1 or 2 times in 7 days, and they do it in the early morning or in the evening after the sun goes down.
  5. Fertilizer. During the growing season, such a culture is fed 1 or 2 times, for this purpose organic fertilizers or a mineral complex are used. Turnip best responds to fertilizing wood ash.
  6. Breeding. Seed method.
  7. Harmful insects. Cruciferous flea beetles and bedbugs, cabbage flies, cabbage moth, cabbage aphid, cabbage scoop, cabbage and turnip moths, cabbage stem weevil, or sneaky trunk.
  8. Diseases. Kila, fomoz, mucous and vascular bacterioses, black leg and gray rot.

Growing turnip from seed

Seeding turnip seeds for seedlings is carried out 6–8 weeks before planting in open soil. Before proceeding to sowing, sowing material should be sorted out, and all injured, hollow and deformed seeds should be selected. Then it must be immersed in a salt solution (5%), for its preparation it is necessary to combine 100 milligrams of water at room temperature and 5 grams of salt. The seed must be thoroughly mixed, which will remove air bubbles from its surface. Bad seeds will float, and suitable seeds will sink to the bottom.

After that, the seeds need to be disinfected, since 80 percent of the diseases are transmitted through seed. It is best to warm them well, for this use hot water. Seed material is poured into a bag of cloth, which is placed in very warm water for a third of an hour (from 52 to 54 degrees), then it is immediately immersed in very cold water for 2–3 minutes. Seeds can also be disinfected in a solution of manganese potassium (2 grams of a substance are taken for 100 milligrams of water at room temperature), immersed for a third of an hour.

Well washed seed need to be placed in water for swelling for several days, at the same time you need to replace the liquid 2 times a day. It is recommended to sow seeds rather thickly, but experts advise using peat tablets for this. To begin with, tablets should be soaked in water for swelling, then 2 or 3 seeds are laid in each of them. The tablets are removed under a transparent dome and transferred to a well-lit place, which is protected from the direct rays of the sun. As soon as the seedlings seem, the shelter must be removed.

What time to plant

Turnips can be grown through seedlings, but the most popular among gardeners is sowing directly in open soil. Many gardeners are interested in what time to sow turnips in middle latitudes? At the time of sowing of such a culture in the open soil is influenced by the climatic features of the region, as well as the purpose of its cultivation. For example, in the suburbs for summer use turnips are sown in the last days of April, either in early May or in the first days of June. If the turnips are sown from the last days of June to mid-July, then it can be used for preparing various dishes and for winter storage. In order for the turnips to be obtained 15–20 days earlier than usual in the springtime, for this purpose, they use sub-winter seeding. Seedlings appear already at a temperature of 2 to 5 degrees, but if the air warms up to 18 degrees and higher, then shoots may appear after only three days.

Suitable soil

For the cultivation of such a culture is ideal neutral light clay soil. In this regard, the acidic soil must necessarily lime, otherwise the keeping quality of root crops will significantly deteriorate.

Before you start planting, you must carefully prepare the site. Regardless of how long it is planned to plant, the site should be prepared in the autumn. Tomatoes, potatoes, beans and cucumbers are good precursors for this plant. And after such crops as: watercress, daikon, horseradish, any type of cabbage, radish, radish and turnip can not grow turnips, because all these plants have the same pests and diseases. The site should be digging deep, while the soil should be made from 2 to 3 kilograms of compost or humus (you can not use fresh manure), 10-15 grams of phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers, and 15-20 grams of potash per 1 square meter plot.

Rules for planting in open ground

Prepared seed need to be sown with two-line ribbons, while the distance between the lines should be about 20 centimeters. Immediately before sowing, the soil at the site is well loosened, and then it is rolled. Only then on the garden can make grooves with a depth of 10 to 20 millimeters. Seeding density should be approximately 2 pieces per 10 millimeters. Carefully pour in the grooves and water the crops.

Sub-winter sowing

Sowing turnips for winter is carried out shortly before steady frosts begin. During the winter time, the planting material will undergo a natural stratification, and with the onset of spring, friendly shoots will appear on the bed. When sub-winter sowing, it is necessary to sink seeds into the soil somewhat deeper than when sowing seeds in summer or spring. For backfilling of grooves, it is necessary to use sand or peat prepared beforehand. It is recommended to install landmarks along the edges of the beds so that in springtime you can easily find a plot with crops. After the snow falls, they need to shower crops, while at the same time try to layer was smooth.

Turnip care

Growing turnips on your site is very simple. After the emergence of seedlings, it is necessary to thin them out, and at the same time it is necessary to tear out all weak seedlings. Then the surface of the site should be covered with a layer of wood ash, this will protect the turnip from the cruciferous flea.

Next to the bed on which turnips are grown, experts advise growing peas or beans. When the site is covered with ash, it should be sprinkled with a layer of mulch (straw or hay), this will reduce the amount of loosening of the soil surface in the garden. But despite the mulch, the plot will still need to be systematically loosened and weeded. When the first thinning is completed, the second is carried out in a fortnight.

How to water

Such a culture is moisture-loving; therefore, it should be watered systematically and abundantly, especially during a long drought. On average, it is watered 1 or 2 times in 7 days. The amount of water that is taken per 1 square meter of land depends directly on the turnip development phase, as well as on weather conditions, and it varies from 5 to 10 liters of water. If the plants lack water, the roots will be rough and tough, and the flesh will acquire a bitter taste.

During seed germination, the culture needs timely watering most of all, as well as during the formation of true leaf plates and at the stage of active growth of root crops. After the roots have reached the required volume, the amount of water used for irrigation must be reduced, otherwise they may begin to crack.

Watering turnips is recommended early in the morning or in the evening after the sun goes down. Cold water for irrigation can not be used. On the site it is recommended to install a volume tank in which the tap water can settle properly and heat up in the sun. For watering young bushes using a watering can with a small sieve, adult plants need to be watered.

Diseases and pests

All members of the Cabbage diseases and harmful insects are the same family; therefore, it is highly undesirable to grow them near or close to each other. Most often turnip such harmful insects, such as: cruciferous fleas and bedbugs, cabbage flies, cabbage moth, cabbage aphid, cabbage moth, cabbage and turnips, or cabbage stem weevil. This plant can infect the keel, fomoz, mucous and vascular bacterioses, black leg and gray rot.

Technology of sowing turnip seeds in the ground

Row the day before sowing seeds well wateredspending on every square. m 2 buckets of water. Rows are marked on the ridge, observing an interval of 30 cm between them.

Depth of seed placement on light soils 2 cm, on heavy, clay soils - 1 cm. Powder the seeds in the grooves better sifted with compost or humus. Seed rate per square meter 1 g.

Turnip seeds are planted in well-spilled soil

Post-departure care conditions

Already on the 7th day the first green shoots will appear, on the 5th day, if the daily temperature is above 15 degrees. Emerged shoots require watering. You should not wait for high-quality root crops, if we neglect watering. With a lack of moisture, the roots will be small, not juicy, with hard pulp. Irrigation rate 20 l / m².

Usually turnip often rises, after 2 - 3 weeks shoots stand thin out. After the first procedure, a distance of 3 cm is left between the two plants. A little later, the planting will have to be thrown again. With spring sowing between two shoots, 6 cm is left, with summer - 10 cm.

The main pest of young turnips - cruciferous flea. Pest is dangerous in the first month after emergence. At occurrence of pests to a ridge to process with the preparation "Spark".

The defeat of turnip cruciferous flea

The second most dangerous pest young turnip - cabbage fly. She is frightened off from young landings by tobacco dust, tobacco, bitter pepper, ash. Powder ridge spend the day after watering.

Turnip is especially good in winter. Soup with sauerkraut and turnip is an original Russian dish that will satisfy even a gourmet. Growing healthy roots for the winter is not difficult, the main thing is to water them in time.

Planting turnips in open ground

Many gardeners prefer to sow the turnip seeds immediately into the ground. Seed dates sflights from the climate of the region in which the plant will be grown. For summer consumption, the turnip planting is done from the end of April until the beginning of June, when the land on the site warms up well. If the vegetable is grown for winter storage, crops are produced from the beginning to the middle of July. Two or even three weeks earlier, the harvest can be obtained by planting seeds in the open ground before winter.

When the air temperature is from +18 degrees and higher shoots appear in three days. But seeds can germinate at temperatures from +2 to +5 degrees. In this case, seedlings will have to wait a little longer.

Plant can be after potato, cucumber, tomato, legumes. Only three years later it is possible to plant a turnip after radish, radish, cabbage, horseradish, daikon, watercress and turnip.

The site for the vegetable is chosen with a neutral, clay, light soil. Root crops grown in acidic soil will not be stored for a long time, therefore lime is added during preparation of the beds. Prepare and fertilize the bed must be in the fall. On one square meter of land is added:

  • compost or humus - 2 kg,
  • phosphate fertilizers - 15 grams,
  • potash fertilizer - 20 grams.

Fresh manure into the soil for planting turnips can not be added.

How to plant a turnip? Sow seeds should two centimeter deep grooves. The distance between the rows should be about twenty centimeters. For each centimeter beds are placed on two seeds. Landings sprinkled with earth and watered from a watering can with a shower head.

Before sowing seeds are necessarily processed. For this you need:

  1. Go through planting material and remove from it deformed, damaged and hollow seeds. To understand which seeds are unsuitable for planting, they are soaked in 5% salt solution and mixed. Good planting material will sink to the bottom, and the spilled seeds are thrown away.
  2. Planting material before sowing it is recommended to disinfect. To do this, it can be etched for 20 minutes with a 2% solution of potassium permanganate or put into a fabric bag and heated for twenty minutes in warm water with a temperature of + 52 ... + 54 degrees. After warming the seeds cool for two minutes in cold water. The planting material pickled in potassium permanganate is washed under running water.
  3. The disinfected seeds are soaked for several days in water for swelling. Water is changed twice a day.

When autumn sowing, seeds in the ground should be buried deeper. Sow them should be before the onset of frost. On top of the seeds sprinkled with sand or peat. When the snow falls, it is necessary to throw an even layer on the beds with the landings.

Turnip diseases and pests

From diseases turnips can affect - gray rot, black leg, vascular and mucous bacterioses, fomoz, keel. Sick plants should be removed from the garden immediately, and the remaining healthy ones treated from fungi folk remedies. If they do not help, you will have to treat the area with Topsin, Fundazole or another fungicidal preparation.

Of the pest turnips like stem weevils, stump and cabbage whitetail, cabbage scoop, aphid, moth, fly, cruciferous flea. If there are few pests, then folk remedies can be used to destroy them. Will help get rid of various pests decoction of potato or tomato tops. It is prepared according to the following recipe:

  • fresh tops are poured with water and boiled for thirty minutes,
  • filter the broth and diluted 1: 3 with water,
  • grated rub the soap and add to the solution (10 liters - 40 grams).

If there are many pests, it is unlikely to get rid of them with the help of folk remedies. In this case, you have to use insecticides.

In order for plants to be as little as possible affected by diseases and pests, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures:

  1. Disinfect the planting material before sowing.
  2. Observe crop rotation.
  3. Timely weeding the beds.
  4. Thin thickened shoots.
  5. At the end of the season destroy the remains of plants.
  6. After harvesting beds necessarily dig up.

Observing all the rules for planting and caring for turnip in the open field, in the fall you will collect a good harvest of tasty and healthy fruits, of which in the winter it will be possible to make fresh salads.

Characteristics and features of turnips

Turnip - comes from Western Asia. The age of the root, according to experts, has at least four thousand years. In any case, the ancient Romans, who belonged to the classes of the poor, were well aware of the existence of turnips. Simple agrotechnology ensured good root crop yields. He was baked, boiled, steamed, extinguished, stuffed ...

The food is used turnip rhizome - a fleshy root crop. On a high stem, the plants have a lot of foliage: stiff-haired, long-petized and pinnate are growing at the root, and dentate and slightly pubescent (or naked) above.

In the first year of a turnip life, only its rhizome and basal foliage actively develop. Flowers with golden yellow petals appear only in the second year. Short pods develop from flowers, inside which dark red seeds ripen, shaped like irregular balls.

Feed turnip varieties are called "turnips".

Useful properties of the plant

Folk healers of antiquity used turnips as the strongest anti-inflammatory agent. Today the plant is widely used for preventive purposes and to cure colds. No less known are the expectorant and sedative properties of turnips.

Important! The main wealth of this root is glucoraphanin. This antioxidant is able to prevent the formation of malignant tumors.

Turnip - a source of mineral salts, acids, vitamins and other trace elements. Especially in its root crops of potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, carotene and magnesium.

What kind of turnip will we plant?

All varieties of turnips are divided into table and fodder. Особое место в перечне первых занимает группа салатных овощей.If the edible part of table species is only the rhizome, then the salad ones are used entirely - both tops and roots are suitable for food.

By the period of ripening, the turnip varieties are subdivided into early ones (they can be eaten in one and a half to two months), middle-ripened (ripen in two or three months) and late (ripen over 90 days). Each type has its own taste.

The following is a list of the most popular varieties:

  1. White Night. The so-called white turnip (its name was due to the corresponding color of the pulp), derived by Czech breeders. The average weight is 0.5 kilogram.
  2. Petrovskaya-1. Fruits are yellow, slightly flattened, sweetish. Suitable for long storage. The average grade.
  3. Snow Maiden. Early thin-skinned lettuce root vegetable (its average weight is 60 grams or less). Distinctive characteristics of this variety are juicy flesh and tender leaves.
  4. Geisha. Early and cold-resistant lettuce turnips. The average weight of a round-shaped rhizome can reach 200 grams. The root and foliage of this variety lack the bitterness characteristic of Russian turnip.
  5. Sapphire. Salad root with delicate leaves.
  6. May yellow greenhead. Not used for storage, "ripening". Popular due to juicy pulp.
  7. Golden ball. The average weight is 150 grams. Root crop is yellow, round, smooth. Early variety. Under the delicate skin - juicy flesh.
  8. Snow White. Can grow and ripen on shaded areas. Leaves can be used for salads. Root white, juicy. The average weight can reach 80 grams. Early variety.
  9. Purple early. The root weight at the time of full maturity can reach 65-90 grams. The diameter of the ripened specimen is 8-12 centimeters. You can distinguish this variety from the rest by the purple vertex. Juicy root pulp has a white color.

When to plant culture?

The time for planting a turnip and its ripening depends not only on the climatic characteristics, but also on the purpose for which the landing is undertaken.

For example, in the suburbs planted seedlings in the ground in the last days of April or in early May, to enjoy turnips in the summer. The landing of specimens, which should serve as supplies for the winter, is carried out in open ground from late June to mid-summer. In Siberia and the Urals, the deadline for landing is the first week of July.

Experienced farmers know that the seeds of early varieties will germinate 2-3 weeks earlier than expected, if they are sown before the onset of winter cold. With the arrival of spring, young growth will seem out of the ground, even if the thermometer does not rise above 5 ° C.

If the ground temperature warms up to 18 degrees, the first shoots will appear in just a couple of days.

It is noticed that when planting fresh seeds care for turnips can be minimized. Vegetable will show such properties as excellent germination, provided that the seeds before planting were soaked in warm water (or a weak solution of potassium permanganate), and then completely dried.

Growing turnips in the open field

Some gardeners, taking into account the small size of the turnip seeds, consider it necessary to mix them with sand before sowing in a country cottage. As a result, seedlings do not germinate in close proximity to each other. A teaspoon of seeds requires half a cup of sand. The seeds prepared in this way sow two thin paths, observing a distance of 20 centimeters between them.

The traditional method of sowing is slightly different from the method described above. To grow a root crop, before planting seeds, the soil is first loosened, tamped, and then two parallel grooves are drawn with a depth of 1 or 2 centimeters. Grains are sown in such a way that two seeds are planted on one centimeter. The distance between the grooves is 20 centimeters.

Important! Some gardeners, given the small size of the seeds, glue them with paste to a paper tape.

Soil preparation

Turnip "prefers" a light clay neutral soil. In this regard, the soil is characterized by high acidity, mixed with lime.

The root crop will take root well on the beds, where cucumbers, tomatoes and potatoes were previously ripened. Strongly not suitable for planting turnips plots of home gardens, which grew horseradish, daikon, cress, radishes, radishes, all kinds of cabbage and ... turnips. The ban is explained by the presence of common enemies in these cultures and their susceptibility to the same diseases.

The terrain on which this moisture-loving root crop will feel great, should be flat or understated.

Turnip Pick

Seedlings are so tender that picking after planting in the open field can be a painful procedure for them. Therefore, the best option for germinating seeds is the use of peat tablets.

In the second half of May, the tablets are buried in the garden along with the seedlings, keeping a distance of 30 centimeters between the plants.

Neighborhood with other plants

Turnips are not recommended to be planted in close proximity to “related” cultures belonging to the cruciferous family. Absolutely all the members of this huge "family" are plagued by the same pests - flies, bedbugs, cabbage fleas, aphids, moths, weevils, moths, and so on.

Regarding the compatibility of crops in the garden, then experienced gardeners plant a turnip with peas, lettuce, marjoram, parsley, celery.

Proper care of the culture

This vegetable is unpretentious and not exacting. Caring for him is easy. The process involves the usual thinning, watering, loosening and fertilizing. Observing all the recommendations below, a gardener will receive a fairly generous harvest - about four kilograms of turnips from one square meter of land.

You can fertilize turnips with both mineral and organic compounds. Feeding is carried out a maximum of twice during the growing season.

Among the organic fertilizers suitable for top dressing, it is necessary to select compost, wood ash and manure.

If the soil in which the root is planted is fertile enough, you can refrain from additional dressings.

Turnip is a moisture-loving plant, so it is necessary to water it regularly and abundantly, especially if we are talking about a young root vegetable. For shoots appearing on one square meter of land, you need 8-10 liters of water.

During the period when the plant is in the stage of formation of the root, the water flow is increased to 10-12 liters.

As the roots grow older, water consumption is gradually reduced to prevent cracking of the roots. Turnips are watered twice a week, and even with regular rainfall.

The optimal time is earlier morning and late evening. Irrigation of young shoots carried out using a watering can with a small sieve. The grown up and got stronger root crops process from a hose. Water intended for irrigation should not be too cold.

Irregular irrigation is reflected in the taste of the pulp and the general condition of the roots: they are noticeably coarser and bitter. From excess plants rot and lose their ability to withstand attacks of harmful microbes.

Thinning and weeding

The soil in which the turnip grows, you need to regularly loosen, simultaneously removing weeds. Otherwise, a crust forms around the plant, making it difficult to naturally ventilate the soil. To rid themselves of the need to loosen the earth after the next watering, some landowners mulch between rows of straw.

On the eve of the first loosening, experienced gardeners recommend sprinkling a bed of mustard or ashes to protect newly hatched seedlings from the onslaught of cabbage fleas.