Agat-25K is a biological preparation for protecting plants from diseases and increasing yields. Increases seed germination, enhances the development of the root system. It is intended for garden crops, but it is successfully used for indoor plants as a prophylactic and light fertilizer. The active ingredient is inactivated bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens, biologically active substances of plant and microbial origin, macro-and microelements. Available in the form of fluid paste in bottles of 10g. 1 scoop of the drug is diluted in 3 liters of water until completely dissolved, then the plants are sprayed three to four times with an interval of 20 days.
Alirin-B - a biological drug against diseases of indoor and garden plants. Contains bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Effective against powdery mildew, downy mildew (mildew), gray and white rot, late blight, anthracnose, septoria, alternariosis, cladosporia, root and stem rot, rust fungi. The consumption rate of the drug: 2 tablets per 10 liters of water for watering plants, and 2 tablets per 1 liter of water for spraying. Re-treatment after 5-7 days, up to 3 treatments in total.
Baktofit - a biological drug to protect plants from diseases, helps protect plants from powdery mildew: especially carnations, roses, delphinium, fruit and berry bushes - gooseberries and currants, when it is not possible to use chemicals. The drug is especially effective in cool weather during the period of regular precipitation, but spraying and watering should be done a day before the rain, at most, 6 hours before the rain, and repeated after 4-5 days. The drug can be used for preplant treatment of cuttings, seeds and tuber storage.
Baktofit - instructions for use, reviews, consumption rates.
Bordeaux liquid - one of the most powerful tools in the fight against fungal or bacterial diseases. For the preparation of Bordeaux liquid, it is recommended to use quicklime in the form of clods or fluff. For the preparation of a 3 percent solution of Bordeaux liquid, 300 grams of quicklime will be required (lime is pre-quenched with water) and the same amount of copper sulfate per 10 liters of solution. Copper sulfate and lime are each dissolved in 2-3 liters of hot water in a separate non-iron pot, then the volume of each solution is adjusted to 5 liters using very cold water. Lime solution is filtered through a double gauze, and then the solution of copper sulfate is poured with a stream with constant stirring into a lime solution.
The mixture should have a beautiful bright blue color and not contain an excess of copper. Copper acts as a poison in this preparation, and lime is introduced as an acid neutralizer. If you add less lime than you need, you can burn the plant. To determine the acidity of the liquid, an iron nail is dipped into it. In the case of an acid reaction, after 3-4 minutes the iron surface is covered with a red coating of copper. With a neutral and alkaline reaction, red bloom is not formed. The reaction of Bordeaux liquids can also be set to the litmus test. When acidic, the blue litmus paper turns red, and when alkaline, the red paper turns blue.
The solution should be used on the day of preparation. During the day, you can save it by adding sugar (5-10 g per 10 l).
The given proportions of substances are high - a very strong solution is obtained, this is how it is used on severely affected plants. Usually, for indoor plants, the following proportions are recommended: 100 g of copper and lime per 10 liters of water. All the details and warnings read: Bordeaux Liquid - instructions for use
Bona Forte Bona Forte fungicide - from fungal diseases for all houseplants. Effective against pathogens of powdery mildew, rust and other fungal diseases. Drug description
Bravo is a contact fungicide with a broad spectrum of action with pronounced protective properties, it is effective in prophylactic use against many fungal diseases of potatoes, wheat, and vegetable crops. Active ingredient: chlorothalonil, 500 g / l. Highly effective against late blight and perinospora (downy mildew). Effective in a wide range of temperatures. Duration of protective action is 10-14 days. The drug is compatible in mixtures with most fungicides and insecticides and could be used for indoor plants if it were not for packaging — it is sold in 5-liter cans. Consumption rate - 0.6 l / ha, apply 2-3 sprays with an interval of up to 10 days. Hazard Class II.
Vitaros is a preparation for dressing the bulbs and seeds from diseases (rot). Contains a water-suspension concentrate 98g / l of thiram and 198g / l of carboxine. Available in 2 ml ampoules and 10, 50, and 100 ml bottles. Effective against gelmintosporioz, fusarium, penicillosis, rhizoctoniosis and other diseases. The consumption rate of the drug is 2 ml per 1 l of water. Soaking the bulbs and seeds - 2 hours. Working fluid consumption - 1 l per 1 kg of planting material.
Vectra - fungicide. Contains bromuconazole. Used against powdery mildew, septoria, gray rot. Diluted with 0.2 - 0.3 ml of the drug per 1 liter of water. The effect of the drug lasts for about two weeks.
Gamair - a biological drug against diseases of indoor and garden plants. Contains bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Effective against bacterial leaf spots, late blight, powdery mildew, downy mildew, gray rot, white rot, keels, fusarium. Consumption of the drug - 1 tablet per 5 liters of water, with watering, and 2 tablets per 1 liter of water during spraying. Treatment is repeated every 7 days, three times.
Glyocladin - a biological drug against root rot. Protection of indoor and garden flowers, vegetables at the time of transplanting, sowing seeds, picks. Ease of use: Put 1-4 tablets in a pot with seedlings or a bowl of crops. Waiting period is about 7 days. The protective effect of 1-1.5 months while maintaining the conditions necessary for the development of the antagonist fungus. The greatest effectiveness of Glyocladin against Fusarium, Verticillus, Phytophthora.
Discor is a fungicide against many diseases of indoor flowers and garden plants. It contains difenoconazole. Available for home use in ampoules and vials, has a faint odor. The disc is not phytotoxic, if you do not exceed the dosage - the maximum allowable concentration of 5 ml per 10 liters of water. It helps in the treatment of powdery mildew, gray mold, fungal and bacterial spots, root rot, rotting of the stem base, according to some sources, the discor increases the germination capacity of seeds during dressing.
Detailed instructions on the fungicide, consumption rates - see the preparation Discor.
Kvadris SK is a systemic fungicide from the group of strobilurins for the protection of vegetable crops of open and protected soil (tomatoes, cucumbers), as well as grapevine and major diseases such as real and downy mildew, late blight, mildew oidium, anthracnose, alternaria, brown spot. Active ingredient: Azoxystrobin 250 g / l. Fungicide has a preventive and therapeutic effect. It is used on indoor plants, but with extreme caution - II class of danger! Available in 6 ml pack (foil bag), 1 l vial. The duration of the protective action is 12-14 days. The waiting time of the result after processing is 5 days. Consumption rate: for treatment, dilute 6 ml package in 5 l of water (preventive treatment - 6 ml / 10 l of water), this amount is sufficient for processing 1 hundred green mass. For use on indoor plants, you can use a medical syringe - type 0.6 ml and dilute with 0.5 liters of warm water for spraying.
Maxim is a systemic fungicide for protecting plants from diseases and disinfecting the soil. Especially effective against fusarium, gray mold, root rot, verticillium wilt, mold, etc. Available in 2 ml ampoules. To prepare the working solution, 1 ampoule (2 ml) is diluted with 1-2 liters of water. Under the plant 50-100ml prepared solution. Spray the soil evenly or spray it. This drug is moderately dangerous to humans and animals (III class of danger). Not phytotoxic. The working solution loses its properties after 24 hours.
Copper sulfate is a fungicide and antiseptic for home use, garden, vegetable garden. It is used to treat fungal and bacterial infections on indoor and garden plants in various concentrations - see instructions and consumption rates.
Mikosan - a biological product against diseases of indoor and garden plants. The action is based on increasing the resistance of plants to pathogens fungi. Or rather, the stimulation of the production of lectins in plant tissues is substances that disrupt the growth of fungi and bacteria. So the drug does not kill the causative agent of diseases, but allows the plant to most effectively deal with them. The drug should be used in the initial stage, with the appearance of several suspicious spots on the leaves, but if the plant is severely affected, the wilting and massive leaf weaving has begun, mikosan will not help. The consumption rate of the drug is 100 ml per 2 liters of water.
Oxyhom - contains copper oxychloride and oxadixyl. Contact-systemic fungicide for the prevention and control of diseases of garden and indoor plants. Effective against late blight, macrosporia, black bacterial spot, septoria, powdery mildew and downy mildew. The drug is not phytotoxic. Available in powder form in 4 g sachets. Dilute 1 packet (4 g) to 2 liters of water. Plants are sprayed as needed up to three times with an interval of 10-14 days. The drug is moderately dangerous to humans and animals (III hazard class).
Ordan - a drug against diseases of fruit crops. Contains 689 g / kg of copper oxychloride and 42 g / kg of cymoxanil, in the form of a wetting powder. Available in 25g sachets. Effective against late blight, Alternaria, perinosporosis, powdery mildew. Spray twice with an interval of 7-14 days, at the rate of 25 g per 5 l of water (from peronosporoz at the rate of 25 g per 10 l of water).
Previkur Energy - a systemic fungicide of a new generation, does not cause resistance in fungal phytopathogens. Treatment of root and stem rot, phytophtoras, downy mildew on roses and other flowers. Excellent stimulator of root formation in seedlings of vegetables and other crops. Attention: some plants may cause burns to the leaf tissue when spraying, read the instructions.
Raek is a preparation for powdery mildew, emulsion concentrate 250 g / l difenoconazole, is available in 2 ml ampoules and 10, 50, and 100 ml bottles. Protective action occurs within 2 hours. The working solution is prepared at the rate of 1.5-2 ml per 10 l of water. Spraying is performed twice with an interval of 10-15 days.
Sulfur colloid - its preparations belong to insectofungicides. It is used in the form of an aqueous solution in the fight against powdery mildew, anthracnose, ascochytosis, as well as mites. 50-100g of sulfur is diluted in 10l of water, you can
Skor - systemic fungicide from the class of triazoles. Contains difenoconazole, an analogue of the fungicides Discor and Chistotsvet. Used against powdery mildew, scab, oidium on grapes and other diseases. Diluted in the amount of 2-5 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water. The effect of the drug lasts for about one to two weeks. It does not help if there are spores of mushrooms! The multiplicity of treatments - 4. The drug is of low toxicity to humans and animals, non-toxic to birds.
Storby - fungicide. Contains kresoxim-methyl. Used against powdery mildew, peronosporoza, rust. Dilute 0.4 ml of the drug to 1 liter of water. The drug causes the emergence of resistance, so it is not recommended to use two seasons in a row.
Topaz is a systemic fungicide. Contains penconazole. It is used against powdery mildew and rust, as well as gray rot and fruit rot. Dilute 2 ml of the preparation for 10 liter of water (for powdery mildew) and 4 ml of the preparation for 10 liter of water against rust fungi. Topaz gives the best results prophylactic use at the beginning of the growing season to suppress the primary infection, as well as to prevent the spread of the disease or at the first signs of the disease. The interval between treatments: 7-14 days. The effect of the drug begins after 2-3 hours after treatment. Hazard Class III. Read more about Topaz fungicide.
Trichodermin is a biological agent for protecting plants against fungal and bacterial diseases. Trichodermin consists of a soil fungus Trichoderma lignorum (at least 2 billion spores per year) and crushed grain substrate. Trichodermin is capable of suppressing more than 60 types of soil pathogens causing such diseases as root and fruit rot, seed infections, macrosporosis, fusarium, rhizoctoniosis, late blight, etc. Trichodermin improves soil fertility, stimulates plant root nutrition, improves seed germination. The drug is available in powder form in packs of 10 g. Apply the drug Trichodermine in the form of an aqueous solution. To soak the seeds, a suspension of 10 g of trichodermine is prepared per 1 liter of water, in which seeds are kept. For watering plants, Trichodermin is also diluted with 10 g / l, watered at the root, but not more than with ordinary watering. For spraying, dilute 10 g per 5 liters of water. You can make a drug for prevention when transplanting plants - at the tip of a knife on a pot about 25 cm in diameter. You can add tyrhodermin to water for rooting cuttings, especially those that are rooted in decay, such as saintpaulia. The prepared aqueous solution of trichodermine can be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of 5 ° C for no more than 1 month, but allow the solution to warm to room temperature before use.
Trichophyte is a biofungicide to protect plants from a number of diseases, especially gray rot and root rot. Available in suspension in dark plastic bottles. To prepare a working solution, dissolve 25 g of the drug in 1 liter of water. Do not use too warm water. Pour the soil with the prepared solution and / or evenly spray the leaves. The drug is of low toxicity to humans (hazard class IV) and is recommended for use not only in the garden, but also at home.
Fundazol is a systemic fungicide to protect plants from diseases (leaf spot, powdery mildew, etc.). Available in packs of 10g. To prepare the working solution 1 sachet diluted with 10 liters of water. Spray the leaves evenly. This drug is highly toxic to humans and animals (hazard class II).
Opinions about Fundazol are very contradictory, its official status often changes. Some flower growers and collectors consider it to be the only effective against many fungal and bacterial infections, others very scientifically prove the inexpediency of its use. At the moment, the active substance benomyl is included in the list of pesticides allowed for use in the territory of the Russian Federation. However, iplsnts.ru does not recommend using basezol as the drug of choice immediately after detection of the disease - there are more effective and less harmful to humans and animals.
Detailed instructions and full information on fungicide - in the article Fundazol
Fitolavin - biofungicide and groups of antibiotics, intestinal and systemic action. It is effective against a variety of diseases caused mainly by putrefactive bacteria: from black leg seedlings or cuttings to bacterial burn, blotchiness, top rotting fruit. The drug is often used on cucumbers and tomatoes in open ground and greenhouses. It is also effective for the treatment of orchids bought in markdown or delivered by mail from Asia. However, the drug has its own characteristics, read more about it here - Fitolavin.
Hom - a drug to combat diseases of vegetables, fruits and ornamental crops. Active ingredient copper oxychloride. Effective against late blight, macrosporosis, cercosporosis, pernoporosis, anthracoase, bacteriosis, rust, bacterial spot, curly, downy mildew (mildew). Consumption rate - 40g per 10 liters of water. The number of repeated treatments - for room 2-3, for garden crops to 5. Toxicity class III.
Safety when working with fungicides
During processing with fungicides, one should not use food tableware, smoke, drink and eat food. The treatment is carried out in the absence of children, animals, and if there is an aquarium nearby, then it is tightly closed and opened only when the treated plants dry. In case of mass disease, it is possible to treat all contacting surfaces (window glass, frames, window sills, tiles, etc.) if possible.
For those who suffer from allergies or skin eczema, treatment is best done with gloves and a gauze bandage. Be sure to check the hazard class of the drug used. After the end of the work, hands, face and all used equipment should also be washed with soap and water. It is necessary to store fungicides in a dry place, out of the reach of children and animals, to protect from fire.
If the fungicide is inadvertently ingested into a human body, drink several glasses of water, induce vomiting and immediately consult a doctor.
What is the fungicidal effect of drugs on plants
The name of the substances - fungicides - comes from the merger of two Latin words “fungus” and “caedo”, which means “mushroom”, “I kill”. The compositions are directed against pathogenic fungi that cause plant diseases. Examine the effects of fungicides:
- fungicidal - responsible for the destruction of the fungus,
- fungistatic - partially inhibits the development of unwanted organisms,
- preventive - prevents the formation of fungus.
Fungicides belong to the category of toxic chemicals: they are included in the group consisting of insecticides, bactericides, nematicides, and acaricides. Protective and prophylactic properties are manifested due to the content:
- sulfur and its compounds: barium polysulfides, calcium,
- salts of metals: especially copper, mercury, cadmium,
- salts of dithiocarbamic acids,
- phenol derivatives,
- triazole derivatives, imidazole,
Types of fungicides
For a detailed introduction to the effect of fungicides, study their main varieties. Each species has its own characteristics:
On the effect on the pathogen: protective, therapeutic.
- protective - used for the treatment of healthy plants for the prevention of disease,
- curative - destroy the existing disease.
By purpose of use: standard, for seed dressing, processing of greenhouse and greenhouse land, for perennials during their hibernation.
- for seed dressing before planting or long shelf life - prevent the formation of fungus, mold, especially recommended for grain crops.
- for the treatment of greenhouse and greenhouse land - disinfects the soil from the spores of a parasitic fungus before planting the annuals, substances are characterized by volatility, therefore, are recommended for processing only in greenhouses, greenhouses,
- for perennials in the period of their hibernation - suitable for winter processing of indoor and outdoor plants, kill the fungus, without causing harm to crops,
- standard - used during the growing season.
By the nature of the distribution inside the plant tissues: contact and systematic.
- contact - active in that part of the vegetation, the soil, where they were introduced,
- systematic or systemic - penetrate into the vascular system of the culture, move through its tissues, act for 30 days,
- system-contact - consist of components of contact and system action, this combination is considered the most effective.
According to the active substance: organic, chemical.
- organic - contain microorganisms that, after exposure to culture, soil, decompose,
- chemical or inorganic - consist of chemical compounds: rich in copper, iron, mercury, sulfur, nickel, manganese.
Prevention and protection against diseases are carried out with the help of watering, spraying, dressing seeds. Methods of using fungicides:
- seed dressing, bulbs, tubers - planting material is disinfected, further infection with fungus, death of seeds, plants is prevented,
- spraying and pollination - contact action fungicides are used, the compositions are sprayed onto the affected cultures with a spray gun, if necessary, the procedure is repeated, begin pollination in spring, finish in autumn,
- soil application - systemic fungicides are used that not only effectively destroy fungal spores, pathogenic microorganisms, but are also well absorbed by the root system of plants.
Like any other chemical compounds, fungicides should be applied subject to certain safety rules. Use the following guidelines:
- Before work, wear protective clothing: gloves, glasses, apron, respirator.
- Read the instructions on the package.
- Make sure that small children, animals do not come into contact with substances.
- Do not eat the processed fruit, wait for the substance to dissolve.
- Remember that fungicides are poisonous, so do not let them fall into drinking water.
Fungicides: a list of biological preparations for plant protection
Cultivation of garden fruit, garden or ornamental plants is a favorite occupation of many gardeners and summer residents. However, it must be understood that it is impossible to grow a healthy culture without proper care. It is important to ensure in advance each flower a reliable protection against all sorts of diseases and dangerous pests.
Biological action of fungicides
When gardening, gardeners often have to use highly effective drugs - fungicides for plants, which are potent chemicals that can provide an effective fight against pathogenic microorganisms that cause the development of fungal diseases, such as:
- powdery mildew,
- gray rot
- root rot and others.
Fungicidal agents are divided into two groups according to the method of exposure:
Every gardener should know what fungicides are, how to use drugs in home gardening.
The use of fungicides for plants eliminates the likelihood of penetration of active substances inside. They manage to cover only the outer part of the culture, where the generative and vegetative organs of the fungus are located, causing further progression of the infection.
All means are capable of acting for different periods, depending on the length of stay of chemical compounds on the surface of the culture. A special result is seen with regular processing every 3-5 days with an interval of 10-12 days.
A key feature of contact fungicides is to local action on green spaces. They are not used to treat signs of damage, but to destroy pathogenic fungal formations that are on the surface or in plant tissues. It is important to understand that fungicides are not able to penetrate other parts of the plant, therefore, treatment with them is completely safe.
Act systemic medications built on a different principle: during processing, they affect all internal systems, moving through the tissues and making a number of changes in the physiological and biochemical processes that take place inside the plants.
Further, they decompose in the internal organs of flowers, garden or agricultural crops, which causes the rapid formation of metabolites. In this state, the plant produces strong immunity, which contributes to quick cleaning of harmful fungus.
Some gardeners are of the opinion that it is not safe to use systemic fungicides, since decomposition products formed after processing can harm the plant. To prevent possible complications, it is necessary to use chemicals of the first type - contact. However, it is important to have time to carry out all the processing procedures a month before harvesting.
Types and principle of action
When searching for antifungal drugs in specialty stores You can find ready-made solutions in the form of a powder, suspension or emulsion with good solubility in water. Depending on the composition, there are several fungicidal drugs:
- Inorganic. Among them are drugs of 1-4 classes of danger for humans and warm-blooded creatures.
- Organic The composition of such funds contain active microorganisms that can have a suppressive effect on pathogenic fungi.
Biological fungicides are recommended for use on summer cottages, since they are characterized by excellent efficacy and are practically harmless both for garden crops and for the human body. However, during processing activities, all safety rules must be observed.
Many modern gardeners and gardeners are looking for the most effective drugs to combat diseases of fungal origin. In search of good solutions, they pay attention to innovative chemicals that guarantee high efficacy at low doses.
However, it is not recommended to get involved in such means, and the effectiveness that is not always stated in advertising is a reality. In the list of really good fungicides of the chemical type, which have managed to prove their effectiveness after lengthy experiments and research, it is important to highlight:
- Bordeaux liquid
- copper sulphate,
- abiga-peak, sun,
- potassium permanganate,
- soda ash,
Such tools were tested by experts and earned the right to be called one of the most effective of its kind. However, when operating chemicals at the site, you must be extremely careful and carefully study the instructions for use. Otherwise, you can harm yourself and crops.
The range of fungicides with highly effective action is very extensive. In addition, in recent years, new solutions have emerged on the market that can protect plants from all sorts of diseases. Among them biological fungicides of contact action. They are made on a completely different principle than the previous, chemical. The basis of these drugs contain active bacteria that localize pathogens of fungal diseases and have a detrimental effect on them.
Biofungicides allow you to effectively deal with the problem without damaging the green spaces, animals, fish, bees, as well as people. If you wish to purchase good biological products, pay attention to the following list:
- Hamair P,
- Planzir and others.
It is important to understand that it is necessary to start treating plants with contact chemicals using chemicals long before flowering, as well as after harvesting. As for biological solutions, they effectively work throughout the growing season. In addition, among biofungicides there are also such preparations that can be exploited at the stage of fruit ripening. In any case, a novice gardener must understand that all fungicides are only preventive tools. If the active substances reach the causative agents of the problem, it causes their death. However, if the disease progresses, and the culture is severely affected, then it will not be possible to solve the trouble with such drugs.
How to work with contact fungicides
As mentioned above, the use of fungicides is quite demanding and painstaking process. Before you start work, you need to carefully consider security issues, preparing specialized clothing, rubber gloves, glasses and a hat. After finishing the work, the clothes should be washed thoroughly, and hands and face should be washed with soap and water.
Before you start processing garden, garden or crops, prepare the ready-made solution, observing the correct dosage and all the recommendations that are attached in the instructions. Also, do not overlook the advice of experienced professionals, guided by their personal experience and skills.
The particular efficacy of the use of fungicides is seen when processing in the early morning or evening, in dry, calm weather. If the spraying was carried out before the rain or after it, a good result should not be expected. Active substances will simply be washed away by rain and will not take effect. As a result, the defeat will progress.
When carrying out spraying it is necessary to pick up an operating mode on small dispersion. The resulting solution cloud should spread to the lower and upper parts of the plant.
It is important to understand that it is impossible to spray the green parts of crops that will be eaten. To increase safety, it is necessary to have time to cultivate green spaces before flowering and fruit set.
Use the container where the solution was, for re-work Absolutely forbidden. Instead, it must be disposed of in designated areas for toxic chemicals. Storage areas for fungicides should be restricted from general access, while the preparations should be kept in sealed packages.
Given these recommendations, you can prevent the development of dangerous fungal diseases and at the same time protect yourself, plants and pets from the aggressive effects of highly toxic products.
Most available fungicidal drugs possess high toxicity. Therefore, before you buy them and use on your site, you need to find good reasons. You must also carefully read the instructions for use and make sure that you can carry out processing activities on their own. Highlight a list of the most popular and effective fungicides for plants.
The composition of this drug from the contact-system group is copper oxychloride and oxadixyl. Most often it is used for prophylactic purposes and the suppression of various diseases of horticultural and indoor crops. Perfectly fights with late blight, macrosporosis, black bacterial spot and other hazards. Lack of toxicity increases the safety of using the product.
To begin processing, you must first prepare a highly effective solution. To begin with, 1/3 of the water should be poured into the fixture's tank, and then the stirring mechanism should be started and some preparation should be added. In the future, it remains to pour the remaining part and mix the solution well. The ready mix is used for plentiful spraying of the culture which has given in to a fungus. In the process it is important to use only pure water.
As for the dosage, optimal performance keep at the mark of 1 packet of Oxyhoma per two liters of fluid. Sometimes it is necessary to carry out up to three procedures with an interval of 10-14 days. For processing is used exclusively freshly prepared solution.
Among significant benefits facilities:
- highly effective system-contact action,
- the ability of long lasting effect,
- minimal toxicity, if the treatment is carried out at the correct dosage,
- economical consumption for preventive purposes.
This biological fungicide is different. high efficiency in the fight against pathogens of fungal and bacterial diseases. The composition of biofungicide contains spores of the soil fungus Trichoderma lignorum and crushed grain substrate.
The drug is able to eliminate more than 60 varieties of pathogens that cause all sorts of diseases, including:
- root rot,
- seed infections
- Fusarium and other troubles.
The action of the active substances causes soil fertility improvement, rapid saturation of the root system with additional nutrients, as well as an increase in the germination of planting material.
To prepare the suspension, where the seeds will be soaked, it is enough to take 10 grams of the drug and dilute it in one liter of water. If the tool is used by the method of watering plants, then the optimal dosage will be the same as in the previous case. When watering, it is important to deliver the suspension directly under the root, using medium portions of water.
The prepared solution for spraying is created as follows: 10 grams of the product are fed to 5 liters of water.
Trichodermin renders excellent preventive effect during transfer work. In this case, the consumption rate is determined as follows: a 25-cm (diameter) pot is used such amount of the drug, which is placed on the tip of a knife.
By the way, not only adult plants can be treated with this tool, but also young cuttings, by placing it in water, where they are aged before planting. In this case, the flow rate is 5 grams per 5 liters.
To effectively deal with all sorts of diseases, it is necessary to prepare such a suspension: 5 grams of the substance diluted with 5 liters of water. Then the damaged culture should be removed from the pot and cleaned of the soil composition.
The affected root elements will have to be removed, and the main rhizome should be thoroughly washed with a suspension. After this, it is better to transplant the plant into another pot, where a fresh substrate has previously been placed.
The problem of protecting garden, ornamental and agricultural crops interests many gardeners and summer residents. To effectively deal with all sorts of diseases, highly effective chemicals are often used, including fungicides. With their help you can quickly and efficiently get rid of the problem and prevent its further progression.
However, in order for the drug to be very effective, but at the same time safe, when choosing the appropriate solution, preference should be given to those products that have the least toxicity. Choosing the best drug, take into account the recommendations of professionals, as well as read all the attached instructions and recommendations. Such simple actions will prevent undesirable consequences from improper handling.
Gardeners and gardeners for the most highly effective control of various pests often change drugs and buy new ones. Especially pay attention to such means that with small doses can give the maximum effect. But one should not experiment like that.
It is better to buy well-known, proven drugs that have already been used and have proven themselves. It is best to process the plants before they start flowering and after the harvest has been harvested.
There are many different contact agents on the market. Готовятся они иначе, чем неорганические фунгициды.In organic preparations, the main component is active bacteria, which during use can inhibit the causative agents of fungal diseases of crops.
It is preferable to use biological fungicides in the country and the garden, because they are non-toxic, do not harm people, plants, bees, animals, fish, and, moreover, are highly effective. Drugs can be used during the growing season. These drugs are now available that can be used during fruit ripening and harvesting.
Acrobat MC (Dimetomorph)
Biological preparation in granules. Systemic local fungicide to kill late blight, dry spot on potatoes. On grapes and cucumbers destroys powdery mildew. Toxic. It is necessary to spray during growth. Harvest can be no earlier than 20 or 30 days after spraying. Proportions: 20 g per 5 l of water,
The biological preparation, is issued in tablets and in the form of powder. It is effective in the fight against fungi, parasites on crops and in the ground. Successfully destroys powdery mildew, root rot, white spotting, blight, rhizoctoniosis, and peronosporoz.
Reduces toxicity in the soil after the plants are treated with chemical fungicides, restores their microflora. It is recommended to apply to plants that grow at home and in the garden, can be combined with other biological products. proportions: 2 tablets per 10 liters of water,
"Bordeaux mixture" (copper sulfate, calcium hydroxide)
Powdered preparation, actively protects vegetables and fruits, berries and melons, as well as ornamental plants and flowers. Toxic. Proportions: 300 g per 10 liters of water,
Used for the prevention and treatment of plants. Basically penetrates the leaves. Proportions: 5 g per 8 liters,
Biological fungicide, powdered and in the form of tablets, used to kill fungi that infect crops and soil. It can be used for indoor plants and all varieties of fruit trees. Proportions: 2 tablets per 10 liters of water,
Suspension fungicidal, having a large range of effects. Protects soil, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, potatoes and grapes from various types of fungi, brown spots and powdery mildew. Increases yield. Phytotoxic, combined with other fungicides. Proportions: 200 ml per 7 liters of water,
Copper sulfate (copper sulfate)
Contact drug, powdered, with a wide range of actions. Designed to lead the destruction of fungal diseases and various diseases in berry, fruit and ornamental crops and shrubs. Proportions: 100 g per 10 liters of water,
Systematically local powdered fungicide with a large spectrum of action. It perfectly protects tomatoes and potatoes from macro-proriosis and phytophtoras, and cucumbers from powdery mildew. Proportions: 20 g per 10 l of water,
Emulsion fungicide, which serves as a plant protection for a long time, effectively treats phytophthora, powdery mildew, coccomycosis and leaf curl. It has the ability to penetrate plants quickly. When two hours have passed since spraying, it is not washed off by rain. Proportions: 2 ml per 10 l of water,
Highly effective drug, granulated, has a wide range of effects, which is aimed at the treatment of diseases of grapes, as well as decorative, vegetable and fruit crops. Helps with black spot, powdery mildew, scab. Proportions: 4 ml per 8 l of water,
Powdered systemic fungicide, which has the effect of protecting against various fungal infections of seeds and plant leaves. Promptly eliminates traces of powdery mildew, sulfur rot and spotting. It is combined with various regulators necessary for growth, pesticides and fertilizers. Proportions: 10 g per 0.5 l,
A granular preparation that perfectly protects pear and apple trees from Alternaria and monilosis. Berries and grapes saves from different rot. Proportions: 2 g per 10 l.
The most highly effective and common means to combat various fungi and diseases of cultures are fungicides. When choosing a drug, you should take into account that it is as effective as possible. It is important that the tool brought the plants as little harm as possible. Therefore, low toxic fungicides are preferable. Before applying fungicides, you must read the instructions and prepare the solution, exactly following the dosages specified in them.
Brief description of fungicides
What is the high use of systemic fungicides, why do these drugs have excellent antifungal and anti-stress properties, and what products deserve to be in your garden because of their performance and reliability?
It is important to understand that there are organic and inorganic preparations. In any case, both the first and second types may be the only solution to combat various fungal pests. Currently, the list of systemic fungicides is overwhelmed with a mass of various offers. The list of available products is very extensive and is constantly expanding, so anyone can choose the right tool for their backyard.
Biological fungicides for plants are special substances of biological origin, which serve as an effective means for preventing, preventing and controlling fungal infections, insects and other pests that can harm indoor flowers or garden crops. Most of the drugs are indispensable for ensuring reliable protection of seeds during the period of dressing.
If the term is translated from Latin, it will mean "killing mushrooms." The timely use of fungicides for indoor plants or garden and garden crops will help to preserve the health of the plants, improve yields, and prevent the development of dangerous mycoses. For this reason, every self-respecting summer resident must responsibly respond to the need to purchase such drugs for his site.
Characteristics and basic properties
With proper operation of fungicides for plants, protection of fruit and vegetable crops, as well as indoor plants will be maximum. Such tools effectively fight disease-causing fungi and prevent their further development. If you do not know how to make the right choice, you can not figure out the names and models, rely on professional staff from hypermarkets for the home, garden and backyard, or study the mass of available articles on the portals of the country economy. Such tips will help make the right choice, which is perfect for specific circumstances and situations.
Fungicidal substances may vary depending on some parameters that determine the strength of the effect. To make the right decision when choosing a suitable drug, you should consider these features.
By origin, fungicides are divided into:
- organic (biofungicides, which are composed of certain bacteria),
- inorganic (preparations created using complex chemical reactions and compounds).
According to the degree of decomposition produce:
- inorganic fungicidal preparations that persist in the soil for a long time and have a great influence on pests,
- models of biological origin with environmental safety and harmlessness to the environment and soil,
By impact force:
- formulations of plant ingredients. They are considered to be "softer" and safer, but their effectiveness is not high enough
- Chemical based compounds that work much faster, but very often contain toxic components and can harm the human body,
Also fungicides can be divided into different groups according to the nature of distribution among plant tissues:
- contact. Designed to combat pests on upper tissues, including the surface of leaves and stems. Such agents quickly and productively fight against any fungal manifestations and work on the basis of contact with active substances.
- system. They are considered more effective due to the ability of the internal penetration of substances into the tissue of cultures through the vascular channels. Often these drugs are used to protect the seeds.
According to the purpose of operation:
- for soil treatment,
- for dressing pre-prepared seeds,
- for spraying during the growing season,
- to effectively prevent fungus,
- as a universal compound (sometimes it is used in the treatment of cultivated coniferous plants),
It is important to note that recently, an incredible increase in the popularity of biofungicides has been noticed, which are distinguished by a more sparing action and quite good performance. Many gardeners and flower growers refuse to use chemicals, fearing that they may harm the plants and the quality of the soil. Very often, these tools cause various diseases in people, including a complicated degree of poisoning, if the treatment did not follow the basic rules of care. In turn, biological fungicides for plants are particularly effective in protecting indoor plants and crops that are eaten.
Fungicides are presented in the form of special powders, which are introduced into the soil or carry out seed dressing, as well as in the form of solutions intended for spraying plants. Some types of drugs will be effective at different stages of life and development of fruit and vegetable crops. If we are talking about the fight against fungal infections of different cultures, then you must follow the basic safety instructions, protecting yourself from the negative effects of active substances:
- it is important to take off new clothes and put on old clothes that will tightly cover the body,
- You should also wear a medical mask or respirator,
- eyes are protected by special glasses,
- After a set of measures, you should thoroughly wash your hands with antibacterial soap,
- used items of clothing in any case can not be used for normal wear. They need to be carefully washed, dried and moved to a special box.
Failure to comply with any rules can lead to various negative consequences, cause an allergic reaction or poisoning. It is better not to risk your health and carefully consider the mandatory preparation for the upcoming procedure.
The use of drugs for indoor plants and garden crops
For effective prevention of fungal diseases, contact and systemic fungicides are used. At home, experts recommend the use of biological products, which include active bacteria. When operating in urban apartments, it is possible to apply the compositions in the form of emulsions, solutions and powders. As for chemical fungicides, they can be used before the beginning of the growing season or after the completion of flowering and the harvest of fruit. Biological preparations are suitable for use at any time of the year, and individual funds can be used in the collection of fruits.
Potted flowers need intensive protection from a variety of pests and diseases, so their use should be mandatory. Otherwise, the intensity of the development of dangerous diseases will be very high.
As for the application of the solution and the powder on a fungicidal basis for the garden, such preparations will be effective in soaking the seeds. They can also be added to the soil during loosening and digging. This will prevent the development of fungus in the soil and protect it from the development of dangerous pests. Spraying is carried out in early spring and by the end of autumn, which is an effective method for antifungal processing of crops, and especially such as peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes, etc.
Dilution of fungicides
To use the drug as efficiently as possible, it is necessary to properly dilute it in accordance with a certain proportion and general rules. So, the dilution of the fungicide is as follows:
- first you need to find a tank, in which quality can be used a tank or a bucket, and pour it on the third part with water,
- after that, powder and concentrated emulsion are poured into the container,
- after thorough mixing, the remaining water is added to the composition. The mixture needs to be mixed again.
- to ensure effective control of fungal manifestations, the prepared solution must be put into operation as soon as possible. Even a short stagnation can reduce the effectiveness of the tool, and especially when it comes to bio-based fungicides.
Experts do not recommend cooking too large amounts of fungicides. Also, do not leave the solution open during storage. This can lead to disastrous consequences, including poisoning of people or pets who may accidentally drink part of the composition.
Features of the choice of an effective drug
If we are talking about the choice of a fungicidal agent, you need to know a number of subtleties and features that will significantly simplify the upcoming purchase. In the process, it is necessary to take into account the area of treatment, the types of plants being treated, the degree of toxicity and the extent of damage. You should also consider the advice of professional agrotechnicians, gardeners, gardeners and connoisseurs of different flower plants. Do not forget that in nature there is a mass of pathogenic fungi that can be resistant to any chemical compositions, therefore, from time to time the drugs used must be changed by others in order to increase their effectiveness.
Among the most popular fungicides that have proven themselves in the fight against various diseases and fungi, the following can be identified:
- Abiga Peak. The drug belongs to the group of contact agents with excellent effectiveness in combating many plant diseases that can be caused by bacteria and fungi. Inside the package with the fungicide is an aqueous suspension, which contains copper oxychloride. According to experts, the effect of this solution performs an excellent prophylactic treatment and treatment of many species of cultivated and wild plants. As for toxicity, it is minimal with respect to insects and other living organisms. Phytotoxicity is also absent
- Topaz. The tool is considered a powerful systemic fungicide, which will be useful in the prevention of a variety of mycoses in garden and garden crops. The effectiveness of the impact of active substances on the pest can be seen in a few hours after application. The drug is in glass packaging and presented in the form of a concentrated emulsion,
- Screen KS. It belongs to the group of biological fungicides, which consist of spores and living cells. It has an excellent impact on the prevention of fungal diseases of various garden crops, including cucumbers, peppers, zucchini, eggplant and others. It is also very effective in preventing mycosis in indoor and greenhouse plants.
Before you buy one of the products you are interested in, carefully read the instructions and refer to the selection of a suitable proportion with full responsibility. This will help to avoid negative consequences in the future and carry out a truly effective prevention or treatment of plants in your backyard.
Adding an article to a new collection
Harmful insects and diseases do not leave landing alone, even when there is nothing left before the harvest. It is impossible to treat the garden and the garden with "chemistry", what to do? Take advantage of biological products!
Biological agents include products that contain beneficial microorganisms with certain properties or plant extracts (and sometimes all in a complex).
Biological products can be divided into 3 groups:
- plant extracts.
They are harmless to humans, but harmful to insects. In addition, many of these drugs contain beneficial microorganisms.
Benefits of Biologics
- Substances contained in biological insecticides and fungicides do not accumulate in plant tissues, while they effectively suppress certain plant diseases and do not cause harm to humans and animals.
- Drugs do not need to be periodically replaced with new ones, because pathogens and insects do not get used to them.
- Some drugs not only fight infections or insects, but even strengthen the immunity of garden crops (Fitosporin-M, Gamair, Fitotsid-r, etc.).
- Usually, a small amount of a biological product is enough to cope with the problem.
Fungi Based Bioinsecticides
The principle of action of these drugs is that first they paralyze the pests and their larvae, and then destroy them. This happens with the help of substances that the fungus secretes. Streptomyces avermitilis. On many sucking insects, in particular ticks and nematodes, they act disastrously. Drugs based on fungi (avermectins) are especially effective in the early stages of pest development (caterpillars, larvae).
What is applied against
Клещи, нематоды, колорадский жук
Тля и белокрылка
- Перед использованием препараты на основе грибков нужно правильно подготовить (строго по инструкции).
- Plants can be processed only in the evening when it becomes cool.
- Preparations can be fatal for beneficial insects, for example for bees.
- Store drugs should be at a temperature of 4-6 ° C in a dark place.
This group includes only 2 drugs: Bicol and Bitoxibacillin. They are produced on the basis of the bacterial strain. Bacillus thuringiensis and produced in the form of powders.
The shelf life of these drugs, given that they consist of bacteria, is quite long - 1.5 years. They are convenient to store, and they do not cause allergies.
What is applied against
Spider mite, aphid, Colorado potato beetle, leafworm
- They are not so easy to find on sale.
Immediately it should be said that this is not about those garden pests that you probably imagined. These preparations are prepared using microscopic creatures that can penetrate into the bodies of various insects at any stages of their development (except eggs) and destroy them in 2-3 days. The fact is that nematodes secrete bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdusthat destroy pests. Recently, these drugs are becoming the most popular among biological insecticides.
What is applied against
Weevils, thrips, mushroom mosquitoes, wireworm, bear, cabbage fly, cockchafer, locust
- Before using the drug, its special preparation is necessary to bring nematodes out of rest. To do this, the tool should be kept for several hours at a temperature of about 25 ° C without access of light. And before processing, to irrigate the plants, since nematodes do not like dryness.
The composition of these drugs include beneficial fungi that can penetrate into the mycelium of harmful fungi and destroy it. Due to this, the development of fungal disease in plants slows down or stops altogether.
What is applied against
Rot (white, gray, dry, root), as well as late blight, verticillis, gelmintosporosis
White and gray rot
- Small shelf life.
- When stored in heat, the preparations quickly lose their properties.
This group includes a whole range of different tools that make both root and foliar way. In addition, these drugs can resist fungal and bacterial diseases, and some even protect plants from pests.
Means introduced into the soil inhibit the action of pathogenic fungi around the roots, thereby creating a safe environment for plant development for some time. Biofungicides used in spraying secrete antibiotics that destroy pathogenic fungi.
What is applied against
Rot (gray and white), powdery mildew, phytophthora, ascohitoz, alternarioz
Root rot, blotch, powdery mildew, fusarium, blight, brown rust, bacterioses (vascular and slimy).
Bacterial burn, spotting, necrosis, cancer
Fungal and bacterial diseases
Rot, scab, fusarium, black leg, brown rust
- To choose the right drug, the plant needs to make an accurate "diagnosis." And this is not always easy to do. At the same time, bacteria-based biofungicides act strictly against pathogens of specific diseases.
Biological products from plant extracts
This group allocates funds derived from plant extracts and capable of "working" as fungicides or strengthening the immune system of garden crops.
What is used
Pine and spruce needles extracts
Increases productivity, strengthens the immune system, enhances the ability to restore tissue, improves the absorption of useful substances by plants, has antimicrobial and antiviral effects
Siberian fir triterpene acids
They improve seed germination, increase yields, increase the resilience of horticultural crops, prolong the shelf life of fruits. Prevent the occurrence of bacterial, viral, fungal diseases, as well as reduce the risk of brown rust, white and gray rot, late blight, anthracosis
Extracts of cypress, Himalayan cedar, pine and plantain
Accelerates fruit ripening, increases yield, strengthens immunity, increases resistance to change to abrupt climate change.
Juice of golden rose, barberry and ginseng
Strengthens the immune system, neutralizes the negative effects of ultraviolet radiation, removes toxins and heavy metals, improves the taste of the fruits of garden and garden crops
Also biologics for diseases can be classified by appointment, because at different stages of development plants can attack various ailments. So, some substances are best suited for seed treatment, others are used for soil disinfection, and still others are better to use during the growing season.
Biological products for seed treatment
Gardeners prefer three biological products. Fitosporin-M considered the most versatile (suitable for dealing with any disease), Planriz recommended for the treatment of cucumbers and cabbage and copes with vascular bacteriosis, and Baktofit effective only against root rot of cucumbers.
What diseases are used against?
Classification of fungicides
Depending on the composition, these drugs are divided into:
- biological fungicides,
The composition of biological fungicides include some types of bacteria, fungi, or components of plant origin that have an active antifungal effect. Organic fungicides are easy to use, little toxic to insects and warm-blooded animals, and can be used in combination with other herbicides. But the effect of their actions has a relative short duration - from several days to a month. Preparations of this type have gained wide popularity among gardeners and gardeners.
Chemical, or inorganic, fungicides are composed of various chemical compounds with a more pronounced fungicidal effect. They are divided into:
- copper-containing (for example, Medyan extra),
- sulfur-containing (colloidal sulfur, Tiovit jet),
- iron-containing (inkstone),
- containing compounds of other elements with fungicidal effect.
Organic organic fungicides, such as carbamates (Consento, Tattudithiocarbamates (Acrobat, Bogatyr) morpholines (Convertible Duo), imidazoles (Mirage) other. The effect of the use of chemical fungicides is more obvious and long-term, but these drugs can damage both plants and animals. In addition, they permanently pollute the soil.
Various fungicides remain on the surface of the plant or are able to penetrate into the internal tissues. Depending on this, they are divided into
Contact - form a surface film on plants and actively affect the fungal infection only by direct contact.
Systemic fungicides after reaching the surface penetrate into all plant tissues and destroy the pathogen in any part of it.
Fungicides for plants are produced in the form of powders, tablets, suspensions and concentrated solutions. Instructions are attached to each preparation, which must be strictly followed when preparing the solution or when spraying the powder. The fungicidal action of biological products is most pronounced in freshly prepared solutions, so they should be used immediately after preparation. Chemical fungicides should also not be stored in order to avoid poisoning of pets or children.
There are preparations for treating the soil from fungi that can live in the ground. These fungicides in the form of a powder poured into the ground when it is digging or dissolved in water and contribute during watering. Some drugs are used to treat seed and tubers before sowing. And, of course, the largest group of fungicides is used to treat green parts of plants during the period of active growth. For the season usually produce several preventive sprays.
Fungicidal preparations are also used to prevent spoilage of grain or vegetables by fungi during their storage on vegetable bases or in granaries. Universal remedies have been developed that can be used for both prevention and treatment of mycoses. In different periods of plant vegetation, it is recommended to use certain types of fungicides.
Principles of drug selection
When working with fungicidal preparations, it is necessary to observe personal safety measures. It is possible to prepare solution only in rubber gloves. Respiratory tract must be protected by a respirator or cotton-gauze bandage. Eye protection is carried out with glasses.
The choice of antifungal agent should be made taking into account the area of treatment, the types of plants being treated, the degree of toxicity, the extent of damage to plants and the soil. It is necessary to listen to the advice of specialists, agricultural engineers, gardeners and gardeners, amateur growers. Since many types of pathogenic fungi are capable of producing resistance to a specific chemical substance, the drugs must be changed from time to time to ensure their effectiveness.
Characteristics of the most popular fungicides
The most popular fungicides:
- Abiga Pik - A contact-type drug that is effective against many plant diseases provoked by bacteria and fungi. The package contains a concentrated aqueous suspension. Fungicidal action is provided by copper oxychloride. This drug is intended for the prophylactic treatment and treatment of many species of cultivated and wild plants. Toxicity to insects is not high. Phytotoxicity is not pronounced.
- Topaz - systemic fungicide. It is used for the prevention of various mycoses in cultural plantings in gardens and vegetable gardens. The effect of the application was revealed with the defeat of plants with powdery mildew and rust. In glass packaging - a concentrated emulsion. Antifungal compound - penconazole.
- Screen CS - contact fungicide of the new generation, which has a very high efficiency against late blight of potato, apple scab, mildew and black spot of grapes. Form release - concentrated suspension, the active active ingredient - fluazinam. The drug has a low toxicity, in relation to the plants is not toxic.
- Fitosporin-M - biological fungicide. Contains spores and live cells of Bacillus subtilis. Used to prevent fungal diseases in eggplants, zucchini, cucumbers and other garden crops. Woz, garden, indoor and greenhouse plants. Effective against most known mycoses of plants. Perhaps combined use with chemical pesticides, fertilizers and growth regulators.
- Kvadris - a drug with a broad spectrum of action. In the composition - azoxystrobin. Form release - concentrated suspension. It is used against all known mycoses of plants. They are treated with grapes, potatoes, onions, tomatoes and cucumbers, as well as sports lawns.
- Profit Gold - the drug acts both on the surface tissues of the plant and in the deep ones. Effective with diseases of cultivated plants caused by various fungi. Contains 2 compounds with active antifungal action. Cymoxanil is the main active compound, penetrates into the internal tissues of the plant and spreads with the juice current to all parts. Famoxadone for a long time remains on the surface tissues of the plant in the form of a film, providing protection from infection. It differs from other drugs in color (brown granules) and a slight specific odor. Packages with different weight of the drug are on sale.
- Thanos - deep-acting fungicide. A substance with a pronounced antifungal effect - cymoxanil - quickly penetrates the plant tissue. Recovery plants using this drug occurs even after 1-2 days after infection. It is realized in the form of water-soluble granules. With this drug, you can protect potatoes, sunflower, tomato and onions from diseases. The solution is resistant to washing.
- Trichodermin - preparation of organic origin. The fungicidal action of the drug is provided by the spores of the fungus living in the soil, which saves the plant from infecting with many types of various pathogenic microorganisms, causing rotting of the roots and fruits, late blight and other plant diseases. Trichodermine solution is suitable as a prophylaxis for indoor plants. They also plant seeds before planting. Available in powder form. This drug is safe for both warm-blooded and insects, fish, etc. It is not phytotoxic.
- Alirin b - organic preparation containing beneficial soil microflora. Form release - dry powder and tablets. This biological fungicide is used to suppress fungal plant diseases and the spread of fungal pathogens in the soil. It protects plants from root rot, septoria, rhizoctoniosis, late blight and many other dangerous and widespread diseases. It is used to restore beneficial soil microflora after the use of toxic pesticides. Suitable for all types of garden crops and houseplants.
Conclusion and conclusions
Now it became clear what fungicides are, but before using the selected or recommended drug, it is very important to carefully read the instructions. It is necessary to carefully observe all proportions when breeding. Otherwise, many drugs are capable instead of benefit to bring significant damage to plant crops. When working with chemicals, you should protect yourself with rubber gloves, goggles and a respirator.