Vegetables

Growing from seed and planting cauliflower in open ground

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Cauliflower in its nutritional properties exceeds even white cabbage. And how beautiful she looks in a salad bowl! It has a huge amount of nutrients, vitamins C, B1, B2, PP. If you do not tolerate white cabbage due to high fiber content, then it's time to think about cauliflower settling in your garden. It is digested much faster and is considered a dietary vegetable. White heads in boiled form, in soups and side dishes, in pickled form will be an excellent vitamin supplement to your table. The topic of our today's article is planting cauliflower, so let's move directly to the agrotechnical subtleties.

Site preparation

Planting cauliflower is made on pre-prepared beds, and agricultural equipment must comply with certain rules. In the autumn, after the main crop is harvested, the soil begins to be prepared for spring sowing. To do this, it is loosened, removing weeds and insect larvae. After about two weeks, fertilizers are applied to it — 5 kg of organic and 30 g of potash and phosphate fertilizers are spent per square meter. After fertilization, the bed is dug up on a bayonet spade and left to rest until spring.

With the onset of heat, the soil is loosened and urea is introduced - about 20 g per square meter. Do not forget: planting cauliflower is made in dense soil, that is, you do not need to re-dig it again. If you did not have time to dig up the ground in the fall, you will have to do it in the spring, but then it will have to be compacted and lightly packed before planting. This affects the quality of the heads: compliance with this rule is necessary so that they are dense and tasty.

Landing methods

Planting cauliflower is most often performed by seedling. However, today gardeners often resort to open sowing of seeds in the ground. Do not forget that head ripening occurs quickly enough, and in order to harvest during the whole summer, sowing of seeds can be done in 3-4 terms with a break of 20 days. For the earliest planting, seedlings are grown in greenhouses and greenhouses, and summer and autumn crops are made directly into the ground. Do not forget that when the air temperature drops, seedlings should be protected with a film.

Today in the market there are a huge number of varieties. For growing in greenhouses, early maturing plants are perfect. More recently, good cauliflower was grown only in the south, and today it is available everywhere. But even in a greenhouse, if the weather conditions are too cool, the heads may grow smaller than usual. Best achieves mid-season cauliflower. Planting on seedlings will allow you to take an early harvest, and sowing in the garden - also the second and third. Late varieties usually do not have time to ripen in a cool climate.

Sowing seeds

The first task is to grow an early harvest for summer salads, in which the cauliflower fits in perfectly. Landing on seedlings is carried out in compliance with the following rules. To get friendly shoots and healthy seedlings, you need to select only large seeds. Before sowing, perform the following procedure: seeds are wrapped in a rag and dipped in hot water. Do not heat it to a boil, the best option is 50 degrees. Now the activated seeds are cooled in cold water and soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate for 8 hours.

This preparation provides excellent germination. Ready for planting seeds are sown in special boxes. The soil can be any, but the mixture of peat and humus has best recommended itself. In addition, 15 grams of superphosphate and potassium sulfate should be added to the bucket of the soil mixture. Practically also planting cauliflower seeds in open ground. On slightly moistened and compacted soil, grooves are marked with a depth of 0.5 mm in which the seeds are laid out. They are covered with the same mixture and lightly covered with earth.

Conditions of detention

The optimum temperature for cabbage is +20 degrees. Under these conditions, seedlings will appear in about 4-5 days. Here the main danger lurks: cabbage tends to quickly stretch, so immediately after the emergence of shoots the air temperature is reduced to +6 degrees. After about 5 days, it is raised to 15 degrees - this helps to get acclimatized. The easiest way to fulfill this condition is if your seedlings are in pots, but planting cauliflower seeds in open ground leaves room for maneuver. The film covering the greenhouse is removed or opened from one edge. Thus the temperature is regulated.

Growing seedlings

If you are engaged in growing seedlings, then you have to perform a pick of seedlings when they are 8-10 days old. Before the procedure should be slightly moisten the soil. Remember that excessive moisture in the pots leads to diseases of seedlings. Immediately after picking, seedlings must be fed. The preparation of seedlings takes about 45-50 days. Bushes ready for planting should have at least 5 true leaves and a well-developed root system. Be sure to harden the seedlings, accustom it to the sun, cold and temperature changes. To do this, before planting, seedlings begin to make out on the street or leave in front of an open balcony. It is desirable for the last few days to fully determine the plants in the greenhouse. If it is cool at night, then the film can not be removed.

Cauliflower planting pattern

For planting plants in the ground choose the evening or morning time. Usually the seedlings are well watered the day before. In dry and hot weather, it takes root badly, so think in advance how you can apply tender plants. It is possible to refuse artificial shading only in three days after disembarkation. Planting cauliflower in open ground is done in a certain order, the earlier varieties can be planted closer, and the later ones can be farther apart because they are more bushy. The optimal location is 70 x 40 cm, it should not be thickened, because it affects the harvest, you will not get good heads.

However, the filler beds can serve as radishes, dill and lettuce. Due to the fact that these plants quickly heal and clean, they will not harm the main planting. Cauliflower seedlings are planted so as not to fall asleep apical bud. The earth around the young plant is well compacted, watered and covered with a layer of soil so as not to form a crust.

Seedless growing method: for which regions is suitable

For a start, it is worth noting that planting cauliflower in open ground has an undeniable advantage. Overgrown seedlings reduce the yield and degrade product quality, and you risk nothing: the plants will develop in the way it should be, in accordance with their biological clock.

Planting cauliflower seeds is best suited for arid, southern regions. But with the advent of early ripening varieties, this method is practiced by all gardeners, up to Siberia. The root system in this case grows less branched, but penetrates deeper into the soil. Before sowing, a marking is made directly on the bed with a distance between rows of 45-60 cm, depending on the characteristics of the variety or hybrid, as well as on the fertility of the soil. When the seedlings give the first true leaves, it is necessary to make thinning. 15 cm left between the plants in the row. When the seedlings release six true leaves, thinning is repeated, and again 15 cm interval should be left between the plants. to another place.

Cauliflower: planting and care

Like the closest relatives of culture, cauliflower is very moisture-loving. Optimum soil moisture should be at least 70 percent, drying is not allowed. This is especially important in the period of growing seedlings. Even a slight drying of the soil can lead to the formation of a shallow head or even loss of the crop, as it quickly begins to bloom. Very important and compliance with the temperature. Gardeners emphasize that cauliflower is much more capricious compared to other varieties. Planting and care implies constant temperature control. Prolonged reduction to + 10 degrees and below leads to a rapid transition to the flowering phase without the formation of a dense head.

As already mentioned, cauliflower is more demanding on the nutritional value of the soil than white cabbage. This should be known at the stage of growing seedlings. By the way, if you grow it in pots, then sowing can be done in February. Then in June you will already have cauliflower. Planting dates are greatly shifted if you plan to sow the seeds directly into the ground. Then you need to wait for the end of April, and that, if you have a greenhouse stretched. In unprotected soil can be sown only in May, when the seedlings are not threatened by frost. In the case of a strong decrease in temperature, you should use covering material. Planting cauliflower seeds implies regularly produced top dressing, only in this case you can expect a good harvest.

First feeding

Ten days after the picking, fertilizing is necessary. Planting cauliflower in the soil involves the introduction of organic matter after the first thinning. The best solution for this is a mullein or a mixture of 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potash fertilizer. Consumption - about 10 liters per square meter. The tasks of the first feeding are to optimize the growth and development of the plant.

The second and subsequent feeding

Approximately in two weeks top dressing should be repeated. Planting cauliflower seedlings in open ground is also accompanied by a second fertilizer application (the first was already done during the picking). The composition of the nutrient mixture may vary depending on the preferences of the gardener. The best is the infusion of mullein or chicken manure - 0.5 liters per 10 liters of water. In addition, you can purchase any concentrated extract of cow or horse manure at the store.

Diseases and pests

Pests include aphids and cabbage moths. Get rid of them by mechanical assembly or processing chemicals. But remember that cabbage absorbs absolutely everything that falls on it. In early spring, the planting should be treated with anti-fungal drugs. Phytobacteria and fungi can severely damage or completely destroy your crop. Because of the susceptibility of cauliflower to various diseases, many of them turn out to be from this useful vegetable, but in vain, because high-quality, modern preparations allow to solve these problems.

Cauliflower harvesting

It begins in July - early varieties are being harvested at this time. The latest, ripen in August - September. When harvesting should be guided by the size and density of the head. In addition, if the head is white, it also speaks of its ripeness. Most often, as soon as the fork reaches a diameter of 8 cm, it is time to cut it. Overdosing is bad for taste. If the head begins to crumble - this is also a signal for immediate cutting. Cabbage can be pickled, and it will be stored in the refrigerator for a long time as a ready-made cold snack. This tasty and healthy dish will provide the body with vitamins and pleasantly diversifies the menu.

Cauliflower: Description

The annual plant has a cylindrical stem with a height of 15 to 70 centimeters, a superficial, fibrous root system and whole or lyre-separate leaves. Leaves can be placed obliquely up or horizontally. The color of leaves depends on the variety and can be all shades of green. The fleshy flower stalks of cream, snow white, green or purple are eaten.

Technical ripeness vegetable reaches 90−120 days after sowing seeds. In regions with a warm climate, cauliflower is grown in a seedless way. However, most often gardeners grow first seedlings, which are then planted in open ground.

Care for cauliflower seedlings

When shoots appear, they are exposed to a well lit but cooler place. The air temperature should be from +6 to +8 degrees. After a week, the daytime temperature rises to +15 degrees, and at night, seedlings should be given a temperature of about +10 degrees. If you grow cauliflower from seeds in a warm room, it may not form inflorescences.

When caring for seedlings, it should be watered moderately so that the soil does not dry out, but also not be too wet. The soil after irrigation is loosened and regularly treated to prevent fungal diseases. pink manganese solution. Other preventive plant treatments are also recommended:

  1. After the appearance of two or three true leaves, seedlings are sprayed with a solution of boric acid (2 grams per 1 liter of water).
  2. When two more leaves appear, they are treated with ammonium molybdate acid solution (five grams per bucket of water).

If the seeds were planted in common seedlings, then two weeks after the emergence of shoots they will need to dive. When transplanting the root is necessarily trimmed. Planted in separate containers, the plants are kept at a temperature of about +21 degrees. When the seedlings take root, the daytime temperature drops to +17 degrees, and night - to +9 degrees.

To improve the cold resistance of plants, a week before planting on the beds make feeding. To do this, use a solution consisting of one liter of water, three grams of potassium chloride and three grams of superphosphate. And two weeks before planting, seedlings begin to harden, accustomed to the open air.

Features of growing cauliflower

Both the quantity and quality of the healthy vegetable will depend on its care. Caring for cauliflower should be about the same as for the white. She needs watering, feeding, weeding, hilling and loosening the soil. During the season it is necessary to carry out preventive measures against diseases and pests.

Watering should be regular. After planting the seedlings at first, cabbage is watered about twice a week. Planted plants can be watered less often. If there is no rain, then watering is carried out after the soil dries out. With regular and heavy rainfall to water the vegetables in the garden is not recommended. If the soil beneath them all the time is too wet, it can lead to the development of fungal diseases. To cauliflower inflorescences do not darken and retain moisture, they can be covered by wringing two or three leaves for this.

Three weeks after planting plants in open ground they should feed with a solution of mulleinby pouring half a liter under each bush. Preparing a solution of ten liters of water and ½ liters of the composition. After another ten days, each plant is fed by a liter of solution, to which a tablespoon of the drug is added. Crystal. Last time during a season vegetables should be fed with mineral fertilizers at the rate of six to eight liters per bush. You can use nitrophoska, two tablespoons of which is diluted in ten liters of water.

Cauliflower is very fond of various pests, under adverse conditions, it is affected by fungal diseases. Therefore, when growing vegetables, it is necessary to carry out various preventive treatments. At the same time, chemical preparations are not used.

From slugs and insects you can use:

  • spraying infusion of tomato tops, burdock or onion peel,
  • dusting with tobacco or wood ash.

Fungal diseases can be avoided if you carefully follow all the recommendations.

Harvesting and storage

As soon as the heads of cauliflower are ripe, the vegetables should be cut. If they overripe, they will lose their healthy and taste qualities. Early varieties can be harvested in 60−100 days, middle-ripening ripening from 100−135 days, and later - four and a half months.

Cut the bush should be so that the head two to four leaves are left. Sometimes side shoots may form on the plant. If they are not cut off, then after a while they will grow and form new inflorescences.

Cauliflower can be stored in a cellar for up to two months. It should be placed in plywood or plastic boxes and cover with foil. If there is no cellar, then the vegetable can be frozen for the winter, pre-rinsing it under running water. In this form, it can be stored for a year, until the next harvest.

Cauliflower can be stored for a month in limbo. In this case, it must be dug up along with the roots, which are then cut off. The leaves are removed, a rope or a twine is wound around the stalk and the vegetables are hung. They should not touch each other, otherwise in places where the head touches will begin to turn black and rot.

Что представляет собой цветная капуста

Общее представление о капусте не касается сортов цветной, хотя она также относится к семейству крестоцветных. Растение имеет мочковатые корни, расположенные близко к поверхности грунта. Головки формируются круглой и полукруглой формы. Съедобная часть представлена густыми цветковыми кистями, длина которых варьируется от 2 до 15 см.

Cauliflower refers to annual crops with a growing season. 90-120 days after the emergence of shoots. Plant loves the lighttherefore, it is necessary to plant seedlings in well-lit areas.

The inflorescence is soft to taste with shades of milk, it is not for nothing that it is called vegetable curd. When cooking with the help of spices, it is possible to give the vegetable unusual notes that are not typical of cabbage.

History of origin

It is believed that cauliflower was bred in the Mediterranean. Previously, it was called as Syrian. In those days, the vegetable was late-ripening, had a bitter taste and a creamy-green inflorescence. For the first time the culture was described by the Arab botanist Ib el Beytar.

Culture got to Russia only 2 centuries ago, but it was possible to grow a heat-loving plant only in the southern regions. After the famous scientist Bolotov brought northern version of cabbage, it became possible to cultivate a vegetable in the northern part of the country.

Beneficial features

The cabbage contains many valuable vitamins and minerals that have a beneficial effect on the human body:

  • calcium improves the condition of hair, nail plates and teeth,
  • vitamin C promotes immunity,
  • potassium positive effect on the work of the cardiovascular system
  • magnesium and iron improve blood flow in the tissues
  • B vitamins activate brain activity.
Cauliflower is included in many dietary dishes.

Many dietary tables include cauliflower dishes. This is due to the ability recovery of metabolic processesadjusting the work of the digestive system. The active ingredients cleanse the body of toxins and other toxic substances, and the rich vitamin composition (A, D, E, K, H, PP, etc.) strengthens the protective function.

How to grow cauliflower from seed on the site

Inflorescences are grown seed and seedling ways. Of course, you can purchase ready seedlings and plant them around the garden. However, it is impossible to be sure of the quality of the used seed and the conditions of seedling germination. Therefore, it is rational to grow seedlings on their own.

Sowing time at home

Seeds are sown in 40-50 days before planting seedlings on an open bed, this period falls approximately on end of february.

Early varieties are sown first, after 2 weeks they are mid-season cabbages, and only a month later they start planting the seeds of late varieties.

Cauliflower seeds

The material for sowing is first sorted, then prepared before planting. Processing is done using a thermos with water, the temperature of which is 50 degrees. After 15 minutes of steaming, the seeds are immersed for a minute in cold water, after which they spend 12 hours in a solution of microelements that stimulate growth.

After the shoots appear on the surface of the soil, the temperature drops to 6-8 degrees. Days after 6-7 degrees should be increased to the daily rate of 15-18 and 6-8 at night.

Planting seedlings in open ground - the scheme and agricultural technology

Early ripe varieties are planted in open ground late April-mid May. A week before the start of planting, seedlings are fed with superphosphate (3 g), potassium chloride (3 g), diluted in a liter of water. This will increase the cold resistance of the shoots. It is also necessary to conduct quenching, accustoming the plants to a new habitat.

Early varieties can be planted in the ground in late April-early May

The soil prepared in autumn is planted before planting. In each well make a mixture of compost (humus), wood ash, superphosphate, urea (1 bucket / 2 cups / 2 tbsp. L / 1h. L.). All components are mixed with fertile soil.

Seedlings are buried in the soil to the first sheetsafter which it is well compacted with earth. Immediately after the landing, watering is carried out. Spring weather often presents surprises in the form of night frosts. To protect the bed from them, it should be covered with agrofibre or film.

Correct watering

Moisture is necessary for the normal vegetation of the plant, so watering is carried out regularly with a frequency 1-2 times a week.

Water consumption rate on 1m2 beds with young shoots up 6-8 l. Over time, the rate increases to 9-11 liters per 1 m2.

Irrigation regularity increases in hot weather. up to 3-4 times a week, but in any case, it is worthwhile to focus on the degree of soil moisture, because overmoistening is as dangerous for the plant as drying.

Features of loosening and weeding

Weed grass thickens the beds, causing the development of various diseases. In addition, it obscures the culture, resulting in dark spots on the inflorescences.

Weeding should be combined with loosening the soil, it is also recommended grind the bed with peat or dry grass. This will prevent drying out of the soil and rapid germination of the weeds.

It is recommended to mulch the bed with peat or dry grass.

During the growing season the cabbage must be fed 3-4 times. The first portion is introduced 3 weeks after transplanting seedlings. The best food for the culture is the solution of mullein (in a bucket of water dissolve a liter of liquid composition). Under every bush pours not less than 500 ml of fertilizer.

The second feed is introduced after 10 days. In a solution of mullein recommended to add 1 tablespoon of Kristalina. For each plant use 1 liter of the workpiece.

After another 10-14 days, mineral fertilizers are introduced (for 10 liters of water, 2 tablespoons liter. Nitrofoski, the consumption rate per 1 m2 is 6-8 l).

The advantage of cauliflower agrotechnics is the possibility of using biological agents without the use of pesticides. Effective will be dusting of wood ash or tobaccospraying infusions from onion peel or burdock.

As a preventive measure for diseases and pests, dusting with ashes can be used.

Susceptibility to diseases and pests

Cauliflower is susceptible to various diseases and pest attacks, therefore during the growing period it is necessary to regularly inspect the plants in order to identify the problem at an early stage.

The development of harmful microorganisms often begins as a result of watering violations or because presence of pathogen in seed material.

The following diseases are considered the most dangerous:

  • mucous bacteriosis - the first signs appear on the head in the form of watery spots, for localization you need to cut off the affected area, capturing some healthy tissue,
  • blackleg - blackening and softening of the root collar and stem base, before sowing, the soil and seeds are disinfected, if lesions are detected, the plant is removed from the bed,
  • mosaic - on the leaves appear spots of different shapes and colors, the treatment of diseased bushes can not be, if they are found, they must be destroyed,
  • kila - fungal disease affecting the root system of the plant, manifested in the form of growths on the roots, with the identification of the bush is removed, protection is created by preventive measures,
  • persporosis - the fungus appears on the leaves as yellow spots with white bloom, the treatment consists in spraying the beds with a solution of Bordeaux liquid (1%) or polycarbocin (0.4%).

Harmful insects can also reduce yields or ruin a bed:

  • cruciferous flea,
  • cabbage fly,
  • aphid,
  • stem korytnobobotnik,
  • butterflies.

If pests or signs of the presence of larvae are found, it is necessary to treat the beds using the following means:

  • Entobacterin-3,
  • Actellic,
  • Aktara,
  • Spark M and others.
From the larvae and caterpillars will help the drug Iskra M

Chemical and biological products are used upon detection of signs of invasion of parasites.

But it is more effective to carry out prevention, which prevents the destruction of the culture by pests.

  • thorough cleaning of plant waste in the autumn,
  • removal of damaged shoots from the beds to localize the problem,
  • disinfection of soil and seeds,
  • spraying with biological solutions,
  • pollination of beds with wood ash.

Basic requirements and conditions

Cauliflower demanding sunlight

Temperature. For ripening and achieving technical ripeness of a cauliflower crop, it is necessary to have at least 120-160 warm days, depending on the variety. It would seem that the summer period of the middle band is quite enough for this. But the complexity of growing this type of cabbage lies in the fact that it is very sensitive to temperature fluctuations, so much effort is required to protect the landings during cold snaps and the shading of the beds from the scorching sun.

Place of landing. Cauliflower is demanding of sunlight. Good, dense heads are tied only when grown in open, highly lighted areas. Even close proximity to tall garden crops can negatively affect the quality of the crop.

The best cauliflower precursors: potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, beets, as well as peas and other legumes. Do not plant it after “related” crops, such as radishes, turnips, radish and other types of cabbage, after which pathogenic bacteria and fungal spores may remain in the soil.

The soil. Heavy, clay or poor soils for growing cauliflower are not suitable. These plantings yield a crop on sandy garden soil drained sufficiently with good circulation of moisture and air. To improve the nutritional value of cabbage beds, it is better to use organic fertilizers: rotted manure or mullein, humus, compost mass, non-acidic peat.

Roller growing tips

Humidity. Regular watering cauliflower planting is necessary, especially in the early stages of cultivation. But at the same time, the stagnation of water in the soil is often the main cause of the development of fungal diseases, so the frequency and volume of irrigation are determined depending on weather conditions and the amount of precipitation. As a rule, in the second half of the summer, when the ripening of the crop takes place, the cabbage is no longer watered.

Features dressings cauliflower

Cauliflower plantings for full development and high-quality ripening of the crop requires regular feeding. A rather long growing season gradually depletes the soil, and the culture at different stages requires additional micro-macroelements.

If you doubt the nutritional value of the soil, it will not be superfluous to feed the cauliflower a third time.

The first feeding is carried out about ten days after the transplanting, or by the time when there are 5-6 real leaves on the sockets. To do this, use liquid organics - infusion of mullein, bird droppings or herbal infusion added to the water for irrigation in appropriate dosages.

Two weeks later, a second feeding is carried out, already with the addition of mineral fertilizers: an infusion of wood ash, bone meal or a finished complex preparation - nitroammophoska.

If you doubt the nutritional value of the soil, it will not be superfluous to feed the cauliflower a third time, at the beginning of the formation of the head.

Video about cabbage planting and care

Sowing methods

Growing most varieties of cauliflower is often complicated by the fact that the quality of the future crop is negatively affected by temperature fluctuations. It is bad for her and possible cold snaps below 10 ° C, and hot weather, when the air warms up above 26-28 ° C. During such periods, the growth and development of planting is inhibited, the density and taste of the forming heads deteriorate.

Sowing seeds for seedlings spend about a month before the expected planting dates

Based on this, as well as taking into account the weather characteristics of a particular region, various methods of growing cauliflower are used - through seedlings, sowing in open ground or planting under temporary shelter. Consider the advantages and difficulties of each.

Sowing of seeds for seedlings is carried out about a month before the expected planting dates, usually from the end of March to mid-April. Seeds are sown in loose, moist and nutritious soil in individual cups or in a common container, deepening them by about 1-1.5 cm. Crops are covered with a piece of glass or film and put in a warm place for germination. After the emergence of shoots shelter is removed, and the capacity is transferred to the window sill, providing sockets with maximum illumination. Care of the growing seedlings is timely watering and spraying, and a week before planting it begins to harden.

When sockets form 4-6 true leaves and a positive average daily temperature is established not lower than 12 ° C, the cabbage is planted in open ground according to the scheme 70 cm between the rows and about 30 cm between the holes.

This method of growing cauliflower, though rather troublesome, is very effective. There is no other way how to grow cauliflower and get a good harvest in temperate weather. But in the southern regions, where the summer heat comes already at the beginning of May, there is no need for seedlings and cabbage is sown immediately on the beds.

Video clip about planting and growing

  • Sowing seeds in open ground

The advantages of this method, compared with the seedlings, are obvious:

  • it is less labor intensive
  • the plants immediately get enough sunlight and do not stretch out,
  • sockets do not need a transplant, which for some period inhibits their growth and development.

As soon as the weather sets in and the blowjob threat of return frost, start sowing cauliflower. The most rational placement pattern is double rows of landings with wide aisles for ease of maintenance. Between plants leave 25 cm for early and early ripening varieties and 40 cm for the heads of late maturity. Usually, 2-3 seeds are sown in each well, and after germination one of the most powerful and promising plants is left. Further care for planting the same - watering, feeding and timely removal of weeds.

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Basic techniques

Under the spring-summer cultivation of cauliflower soil is prepared in the fall. After harvesting the previous crop, it is thoroughly treated with a hoe to a depth of 6-10 cm. Then the plot is dug up, adding 7-8 kg of manure or peat-based compost per 1 sq. In the spring, before planting, mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil (ammonium nitrate - 30 g, potassium chloride - 20 g and 50 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. M) and re-dig it, carefully loosening the lumps.

Fresh cauliflower is stored in dark, cold rooms and regularly inspected. When black spots appear, it is separated and the spoiled spots are cut off.

Seed method involves sowing seeds immediately to a permanent place in open ground and covering with a film. Held in early May. No film - no earlier than the end of June.

The first two weeks the plants are carefully watered every 2 to 3 days at the rate of 8 to 10 liters per square meter, then they are watered once a week (12-15 liters per square meter). Correct irrigation time will be transferred to the morning or evening. Water temperature for irrigation is not lower than 18-20 degrees. The most intensive watering should be carried out during the formation of heads. Care must be taken not to wither cabbage leaves from the lack of moisture in the soil, which leads to the death of the plant thin roots.

Land preparation in boxes

Approximately 10 days later, the seedlings are picked. Before picking the plants watered with a solution of potassium permanganate. Seedlings dive into pots or cups 6x6 cm in size, filled with the same soil mixture. When sowing, each seedling goes deeper into the soil to the cotyledon leaves. Pots with pickled seedlings are kept at a temperature of 17-18 degrees. When the seedlings take root, in 4-5 days the temperature is reduced to 12–14 degrees during the day and at night to 10–12 degrees. Water the seedlings as the soil dries out, the temperature of the water for irrigation is 18-20 degrees. The room is regularly ventilated.

The advantages of this method, compared with the seedlings, are obvious:

Cauliflower seedlings: how to grow

This procedure is carried out in a week - one and a half after the cauliflower seedlings have risen. Growing and caring for her and suggest the correct transplant. Tighten the timing of the picks can not be. In more mature plants, the root system suffers greatly when transferred to other containers. As a result, they are much worse accustomed and develop in the future.

Cauliflower is a delicious vegetable. And while useful. In order to get an early harvest, it is grown seedling way. This technology is not difficult, but some recommendations must be followed. Further in the article we will look at how to properly grow cauliflower seedlings at home.

Seedlings of early cauliflower are planted according to the pattern of 70x25 cm, middle-ripening - 70x30 cm. Sometimes the aisles are made narrower (50-60 cm), and the distances in the rows are wider (40-45 cm). When planting seedlings, a pinch of ash is added to each well, mixing it thoroughly with the ground. Then pour 1 l of water into the well and plant the plants. After planting, the seedlings are watered regularly until it adapts to the landing site. A week later, the dead plants are replaced with new ones.

Cauliflower - an annual vegetable plant of the cabbage family. Homeland - the Mediterranean, is also widespread in Western and Northern Europe. Cauliflower was brought to Russia from Europe in the 18th century, cultivated everywhere in small quantities. Appreciated for its precocity and taste and for not too complicated care. В пищу употребляют головки (видоизмененные соцветия) растения, содержащие много витаминов и минеральных солей. Очень полезно употребление цветной капусты при желудочно-кишечных и сердечно-сосудистых заболеваниях.​

​После высевки участок надо мульчировать сухим песком и потом обильно полить. After the shoots appear and get stronger, they do a picking. In the process of growing cauliflower root dressing is carried out with a solution of nitrophoska (3-5 grams per 1 liter of water), the procedure is performed a couple of times per season.

How to make peat pots

The scheme of protection of cabbage from light.

  • During the first two weeks, seedlings grow extremely slowly, gradually their growth will become more intense. Before planting in a permanent place the plant should have 5-6 true leaves. 15-20 days before planting in the open ground, they begin to harden with low temperatures and the action of light, bringing the seedlings to the street during the day or airing the room. The first foliar dressing is carried out when the plants form two true leaves. To do this, in 1 liter of water, dilute the half-pills of the trace element. The second dressing is carried out at the beginning of the hardening of seedlings (dilute 1 tbsp of potassium sulfate and urea in a bucket of water). Feeding is carried out by watering the leaves with a small heel.
  • It is less labor intensive
  • Two weeks later, a second feeding is carried out, already with the addition of mineral fertilizers: an infusion of wood ash, bone meal or a finished complex preparation - nitroammophoska.
  • SpadeSoil

Preparation of this kind allows you to get the most resistant to frost plants. Begin hardening about 12 days before planting in open ground. To do this, in the daytime, seedlings are carried out on the balcony or placed in a greenhouse at an air temperature of about 5 grams. At night, pots must be returned to a warm room. Five days before disembarking, seedlings can be moved from a room to a greenhouse. In warm weather, the film is periodically removed from it, gradually increasing the interval of plants in the open air.

How to grow cauliflower seedlings in peat tablets

Picks are best done in peat pots. In this case, when transplanting plants into open ground, they will not damage the root system, and they will take root much faster and better. Carry out a pick so that the plants are immersed in the ground to the cotyledon leaves. At the end of this procedure, the cabbage should be mulched wood ash.

Cultivation without picking

Good cauliflower seedlings can be obtained in two ways: regular and pot. In the first case, the seeds are planted in boxes or in a greenhouse. In the second, special peat pots are used. A rather weak and delicate root system is what makes cauliflower different. The seedlings, the cultivation of which is not a very complicated procedure, will rise well and will be strong only when using very loose soil. Therefore, it is best to apply the second method. You can also use mixed technology. That is, the seeds are planted in boxes or a greenhouse, and the pick taken into peat pots.

Planting seeds in open ground is carried out to a depth of 1 cm. Seeding is usually carried out with pre-soaked seeds. When the first true leaf appears, the plants are thinned and left between them 15-20 cm (with a row spacing of 70 cm) or 35-40 (with a row spacing of 50-60 cm). Further care for sowing is the same as caring for seedlings.

How to fertilize

The cauliflower root system is located close to the soil surface and is less developed than the cabbage root system. After the formation of a rosette of 25-30 leaves, an inflorescence is formed, which has the form of a dense head of green, yellow, white or purple flowers. In general, the cauliflower to growing more demanding than other types of cabbage. It is sensitive to adverse conditions and care, although in general it is not demanding to heat, but less resistant to lower temperatures than the same kind of cabbage. With their long-term effects, plant growth slows down, and the heads used for food are small. The optimum temperature for the formation of dense and large heads - 15-20 degrees.

How to move to open ground

The first inter-row treatment is carried out to a depth of 5 cm approximately 10 days after planting, later loosened as needed after watering or rain, preferably every week. The first hilling is carried out approximately 20 days after planting, again - 10 days later. Hilling is necessary to carry out wet ground, which activates the formation of additional roots and increase resistance to lodging.

The scheme of the correct depth of planting cabbage: a-deep, b-normal, in-finely.

The plants immediately get enough sunlight and do not stretch out,

If you doubt the nutritional value of the soil, it will not be superfluous to feed the cauliflower a third time, at the beginning of the formation of the head.

Cauliflower - growing from seeds and further care

Using the technologies described above, very good cauliflower seedlings can actually be obtained. Growing it in open ground is also carried out according to certain methods. It is better not to dive all the plants at once. A few bushes should be left in the boxes just in case. Peat pots themselves are the easiest to purchase in a specialty store. But you can make them yourself. 45 days is a period for which a sufficiently large and strong enough to be transported to the beds of cauliflower can be obtained. Growing it usually begin in late March - early April. This is if they want to get an early harvest. More exact dates depend on the region in which the plot with the garden is located. In the southern regions of Russia, they will be earlier. In the middle lane and in Siberia, they start sowing later. During cultivation, at least 5-6 irrigations (at least 30 l / sq.m) are carried out. A prerequisite, especially during the formation of heads, is loosening the soil, which is carried out after each watering or rain. Care is the treatment of row spacing and hilling of plants. If necessary, they feed with complete mineral fertilizer.At a temperature above 25 degrees, small and loose heads are formed, especially when there is insufficient watering at this time. In addition to the ambient temperature, cauliflower is demanding for light conditions, especially during the growing season. Under the conditions of a long day, the formation of the heads of the plant is accelerated, but later they grow and flowering shoots are formed. There are a lot of cauliflower varieties, we select the best ones. Among the early varieties of hybrids are: Snow globe, Movir 74, Express. Mid-season varieties are presented: Domestic, Yako. Late cauliflower varieties: Consist, Regent. For the entire growing season, 3 to 4 supplements are used. The first is carried out to enhance the growth of leaves, for which use a complete organic fertilizer. To do this, in a bucket of water diluted 0.5 liters of mushy mullein. Spend 0.5 liters for each plant. After 10 days, give a second dressing, where 0.5 liters of mullein or chicken manure and 0.5 microelement tablets are placed on a bucket of water. Consumption of 1 liter for each plant. The third dressing is carried out in June, only for late varieties, in order to enhance the growth of the head. The solution is prepared by diluting 0.5 liters of mullein or chicken manure with the addition of art. spoons of superphosphate and one micronutrient tablet. Consumption - 6 - 8 liters per sq.m. If necessary, in order to get a more substantial harvest, such top dressing can be repeated in August. Grown seedlings of early varieties of white cabbage are planted from April 25 to May 5, late - from May 10 to May 20, mid-ripening - from May 20 to May 31, Deadline for landing is 1 June. Row spacing for early ripening varieties is 40-50 cm, distance between plants in the row is 25 cm, for medium and late ripening varieties, respectively, 60 cm and 35 cm. Sockets do not require transplantation, which for some period inhibits their growth and development.

Growing a good crop of cabbage in the country

Sawdust. The day before making the pots, you need to add some ammonium nitrate (1 kg per 1 m3). It is made in order to prevent the depletion of the soil mixture. The fact is that the bacteria processing sawdust absorbs a lot of nitrogen from the environment (in this case peat mixture).

Cauliflower seedlings, the cultivation of which must be carried out correctly, reacts very painfully to the lack of nutrients in the soil. Therefore, the soil under it should be prepared very carefully. Just great for growing strong healthy plants suitable mixture consisting of equal parts of turf land, humus and peat. It would be nice to add some phosphate fertilizer to the soil under the cabbage (for example, 20 g / m2 granulated double superphosphate).

This is done so that the head does not disintegrate and retains its color.

Currently, about 10 varieties of cauliflower have been zoned. Early ripening (growing season - 85-100 days) - Movir 74 (suitable for canning), Early Gribovskaya 1355, Snowflake. Middle-early (growing season - 95-120 days) - Domestic (suitable for canning), Moscow canning and Guarantee. Late-ripening (vegetation period - 175-230 days) - Adler winter 679, Adler spring and Sochi.

Planting seedlings in the ground

Tip! Towards the middle of summer, when the inflorescences begin to form and ripen, break the upper leaves of the head and “tuck” the head with them - so it will remain white, will not turn yellow and will not crumble.

Cauliflower has relatively recently entered our diet, but the popularity of this healthy and tasty vegetable is growing every year. Many gardeners have very successfully mastered the cultivation of cauliflower from seeds in our climate and are ready to share some secrets.SandBe sure to also disinfect the soil, spilling it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. To prevent the disease of seedling black leg should prepare calcined sand. They poured the surface of the soil in boxes after planting seeds. Sand can be replaced with high-quality wood ash.

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Care for white cabbage

Sowing of seeds for seedlings is carried out about a month before the expected planting dates, usually from the end of March to mid-April. Seeds are sown in loose, moist and nutritious soil in individual cups or in a common container, deepening them by about 1-1.5 cm. Crops are covered with a piece of glass or film and put in a warm place for germination. After the emergence of shoots shelter is removed, and the capacity is transferred to the window sill, providing sockets with maximum illumination. Care of the growing seedlings is timely watering and spraying, and a week before planting it begins to harden.The best cauliflower precursors: potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, beets, as well as peas and other legumes. Do not plant it after “related” crops, such as radishes, turnips, radish and other types of cabbage, after which pathogenic bacteria and fungal spores may remain in the soil.

Fresh mullein, diluted with water 1x1.

Planting material must first be calibrated, heated and etched. For growing seedlings should be taken large seeds. The use of such planting material allows to improve the yield by about 30%. When sowing large seeds, you get stronger cauliflower seedlings. Growing at home will be even more successful if you carry out a preliminary warming up of planting material. To do this, it is placed in a gauze bag and immersed in the last 20 minutes in very warm water (50 gr.). Next, the seeds are dried and proceed to pickling. Disinfection can be done with formalin solution (1: 300) or garlic juice (1 hour for 3 hours of water) for an hour.

Proper care is not only growing, but also competent harvesting. Cauliflower heads are cleaned when they are of sufficient size. From 1 sq. M of landings clean 2 and more kilograms of heads. Cut the heads together with 3-4 rosette leaves. Plants that did not have time to ripen before the end of the harvesting period are pulled out along with the roots and used for their growing. To do this, they must have heads with a diameter of about 5 cm and at least 20 leaves.

The conditions for growing cauliflower and caring for it are almost the same as for growing cabbage seedlings. Seeds of early varieties are sown in the seedling boxes installed in heated greenhouses or other heated premises. About 2-3 g of seeds prepared for sowing are spent on each seed box. It is recommended to soak the seeds, for which they are placed in a gauze bag filled to 0.5 volume and soaked in clean water at room temperature for 10-12 hours. Before sowing, the soil is moistened and seeds are sown to a depth of no more than 1 cm. After seeding, sowing is mulched with a thin layer of sand.

Harvest

If you plant cabbage on barren and dry soil, the fruits will be small, weak and not developed. The same applies to alkaline and acidic soils, which are not acceptable for normal growth of cauliflower.

It belongs to the cabbage family, but surpasses all congeners in the content of proteins, fiber, vitamins, ascorbic acid.

Selected seeds are subjected to heat treatment to disinfect them from the causative agents of fungal diseases. To do this, we extract the seeds for 20 minutes in hot water at a temperature of 50 degrees, then quickly cool them, placing them for 2 to 3 minutes in cold water. Spread the treated seeds in a thin layer to a friable state. Seeds are ready for sowing.

It will be right to grow white cabbage in one place for no more than 2-3 years in a row. You can not use the same plot for planting cabbage earlier than in 4-5 years. The best predecessors for cabbage planting are onions, cucumbers, potatoes, root crops, legumes, and cereals. White cabbage is grown both by seedlings and by sowing seeds into the soil.

When sockets form 4-6 true leaves and a positive average daily temperature is established not lower than 12 ° C, the cabbage is planted in open ground according to the scheme 70 cm between the rows and about 30 cm between the holes.

Ways to Grow Cauliflower

Soil Heavy, clay or poor soils for growing cauliflower are not suitable. These plantings yield a crop on sandy garden soil drained sufficiently with good circulation of moisture and air. To improve the nutritional value of cabbage beds, it is better to use organic fertilizers: rotted manure or mullein, humus, compost mass, non-acidic peat.

Three parts of peat take 1 part of sawdust and 0.2 parts of sand. Only a little mullein (5% of the total amount) is needed - only for gluing the mixture. Otherwise, the walls of the pots will be very dense and rigid, and the roots will not be able to break through them. To the mixture of sawdust, peat and sand you need to add a little mineral fertilizer (ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride) and lime. It is best to make pots on the same day when the picking will be carried out.

The soil in the boxes carefully aligned. Then they plant the seeds of such a culture, like cauliflower. The seedlings, which are cultivated at home on sills, will germinate well and quickly when seeds are buried by about 1 cm. After embedding, the surface is powdered with calcined sand or ash. Next, the soil in the boxes should be thoroughly shed using a spray gun.

To grow them, they are placed in heated greenhouses or greenhouses cleared of biofuel, placing 35-40 plants per 1 square meter. Then the plants are covered with shields, mats, black foil and kept in greenhouses at a temperature of 5 degrees. Greenhouses, as the cooling, insulated sawdust or other improvised means. Harvest such a crop in December or in January.

Approximately two weeks after the emergence of shoots, the seedlings are picked. The seedlings of the earliest planting dates are grown in peat-humus pots. Seedlings of later periods can be grown and potless way. To do this, seedlings dive into the peat-humus soil of greenhouse beds or in seedling boxes.

Site selection and soil features

Fertilize the land in the garden! Potash fertilizers, which contain chlorine, cannot be used to fertilize the beds for planting. Take only mineral and organic fertilizers and dig deep the earth.

Such important elements as calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron. It contains irreplaceable nutrients.

The scheme of small shelters for cabbage.

The seeds of white cabbage of early varieties are sown from March 5 to 10, the seeds of late varieties from March 15 to 30, the seeds of middle-ripening seeds - on April 15-20. The soil mixture for seedlings is prepared by mixing in equal quantities turf ground, peat and sand. Sod land is better to take from places of growth of perennial plants. On a bucket of soil mix add 1 tbsp. spoon of superphosphate, 2 tbsp. spoons of wood ash and 1 tbsp. A spoonful of chalk or lime - fluff. Готовой почвенной смесью заполняют ящики для рассады, тщательно разравнивают и поливают раствором марганцовокислого калия. В грунте делают бороздки для семян глубиной 1 см на расстоянии 3 см одна от другой. Семена высевают в эти бороздки через 1 см друг от друга и засыпают той же почвенной смесью. Поливают через ситечко небольшим количеством теплой воды.​

​Такой способ выращивания цветной капусты хоть и довольно хлопотный, но очень эффективный. Другого способа как вырастить цветную капусту и получить неплохой урожай в погодных условиях умеренного климата пока нет. But in the southern regions, where the summer heat comes already at the beginning of May, there is no need for seedlings and cabbage is sown immediately on the beds.

How to grow cauliflower so that it is large and juicy?

Roller growing tips

This is a fairly new technology that allows you to get very strong plants. Bought peat tablets just need to put in plastic cups and pour with warm water. After some time, they swell and are converted into a nutrient mixture. In each cup put one or two seeds.

Caring for small seedlings is periodic soil moistening and weeding if necessary. Cauliflowers are planted in a greenhouse in approximately the same way. It is best to cover it with a special film, for example "Svetlitsa". Such material passes sunlight well and is hygroscopic (does not collect condensate).

You can also grow cauliflower heads in basements or cellars. In this case, the plants are tied up and hung on the trellis roots up. At the end of the growing process, the mass of cauliflower heads reaches 0.5 kg, and the diameter is 15-20 cm.

With the formation of 2-3 true leaves, plants are fed with a solution of potassium or ammonium nitrate, for which 5 g of ammonium and 15 g of potassium nitrate are diluted with a bucket of water. When 3-4 leaves are formed on the plants, foliar feeding is done by spraying with a solution of boric acid and molybdenum-acid ammonium (2 g per 10 liters of water). Seedlings are watered rarely, but plentifully, after watering the room is aired. About two weeks before planting in the open ground, the seedlings are gradually hardened, accustoming the plants to the outdoor temperature. The seedling is ready for planting at the age of 45-50 days. By this time, the plants should have at least 4-5 leaves.

Organic mix will provide a favorable environment for the development of the root system of cabbage and provide all the necessary supply of nutrients. You need to make from 4 to 8 kg of organic matter per 1 m2 and 80-100 grams of mineral fertilizers.

It is one of the most recommended dietary products. It has valuable healing properties and is very easy to digest. It is considered the best product for the introduction of the first complementary foods to babies.

Before planting the seeds, the soil is well treated, breaking up lumps and loosening it to a depth of 15–20 cm. Seeds are sown in prepared grooves in a nesting way. The distance between rows and sockets in a row is similar to the distance when planting seedlings. 3-5 seeds are sown in each nest, sprinkling them with a mixture of peat and humus. With the formation of second-third true leaves on plants, the crops are thinned, leaving two in the nests, and then one of the most viable plants. Next, take care of the sowing, as well as in the case of growing seedlings.

Boxes with seedlings placed on the windowsill, a day later the soil is sprinkled with water. At a temperature of 18-20 degrees shoots appear for 5-7 days. After the emergence of seedlings, it will be correct to move the box with the seedlings to a room whose temperature does not exceed 7-8 degrees. If this is not done, the seedlings will quickly stretch and then die.

Video clip about planting and growing

Humidity Regular watering cauliflower planting is necessary, especially in the early stages of cultivation. But at the same time, the stagnation of water in the soil is often the main cause of the development of fungal diseases, so the frequency and volume of irrigation are determined depending on weather conditions and the amount of precipitation. As a rule, in the second half of the summer, when the ripening of the crop takes place, the cabbage is no longer watered.

Cauliflower: growing seedlings

This method has recently become increasingly popular among domestic gardeners. When using it, very good cauliflower seedlings can also be obtained. Growing in this case is done from the first day in peat pots. However, this method is best used to obtain late seedlings. That is, when it is supposed to be transported to the ground in the summer.

Before shoots appear in the boxes, the air in the room should be heated to at least 18-20 g. The same temperature should be maintained in the greenhouse. To keep the air under the film cool in the dark, you should cover the structure with some kind of material at hand: straw mats, old blankets, etc.

That's all the secrets - nothing complicated.

Growing cauliflower in open field

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The positive effect of nitrogen fertilizers - a pledge of a large ovary and large leaves. When plowing, add humus, which will provide the site with the necessary carbon dioxide. Water and clean the area regularly from weeds to the end of the season and full maturity.

If we talk about how to grow cauliflower, then there are two ways: seedling and seed:

In areas with mild winters, if there is a greenhouse in the country, the winter method of growing white cabbage is used. In this case, planting seeds, to obtain seedlings, is carried out in September, and seedlings in the ground - in November. Crop harvested in mid-May, with the cabbage can be eaten before the head, which is especially valuable in spring.

Picking scheme of cabbage seedlings.

Sowing seeds in open groundCauliflower plantings for full development and high-quality ripening of the crop requires regular feeding. A rather long growing season gradually depletes the soil, and the culture at different stages requires additional micro-macroelements.Complex fertilizer

Without picking, you can grow late seedlings and right on the garden. In this case, the seeds are sown quite rarely (according to the 10x56 cm scheme). They take care of plants in the same way as when grown in boxes, pots and greenhouses. To protect the seedlings from frost, arcs are set and a film is placed on them. Usually a small cabbage takes up only a small part of the bed space. After four sheets grow on it, it is distributed over the whole area.

Harvest Secrets

After the cabbage has risen, the temperature of the ambient air can be reduced in the daytime to 6-8 grams, at night - to 5-6 grams. This will help strengthen and harden the plants. A week later, the temperature should be increased to 10-12 gr. and maintain at this level for about 10 days, right up to the pick. Such a regime will allow growing healthy, strong, not pampered seedlings.

Cauliflower heads are used fresh, boiled, fried. They are also marinated, used to make soups, casseroles, side dishes and salads.

Regardless of the method of planting, do not forget that the cauliflower is planted on the site after such predecessors, such as legumes or root crops, onions, early potatoes or early cucumber varieties. When grown as a second culture, cauliflower is placed after early green crops and under-winter crops of root crops.

After harvesting, cabbage blossoms can be frozen. This will provide the best storage conditions to consume it all year round. And preserve vitamins.

With the seedling method, the seeds are sown in a heated film greenhouse, in pots with peat-humus soil in mid-March. Planted in open ground in mid-May.

Care includes watering, weeding, and row spacing, fertilizing, pest and disease control.

Cauliflower is a delicious vegetable. And while useful. In order to get an early harvest, it is grown seedling way. This technology is not difficult, but some recommendations must be followed. Further in the article we will look at how to properly grow cauliflower seedlings at home.

general description

This cabbage variety got its name for the fleshy heads and flower stalks, which are commonly eaten in the embryonic budding stage. This annual is mostly familiar to us in white, however, there are much more elegant varieties - from cream to yellow, green and even pink-purple. The root system is located high in the surface layer of the soil.

Depending on the variety from germination to technical ripeness, it takes from 90 to 120 days. It is grown in both seedling and seedless ways, but in the second case, the yield in the exhaust gas can be obtained much later and only under favorable weather conditions. For example, an abnormally cold and rainy August can reduce all work to nothing.

It is interesting! Under natural conditions, this culture does not grow anywhere. It is believed that it was withdrawn by the Syrians (for which it was called Syrian for a long time), after which it was exported to Spain and Cyprus and quickly spread throughout Europe, and then on both American continents.

Planting dates

Depends on varietal characteristics and are divided into three periods. Early varieties should be planted 40-50 days before the proposed transfer to the exhaust gas. In the middle lane it will be approximately the end of February or the first days of spring. Two weeks later, they begin sowing seeds of medium-term ripening, and only a month later, in late March or early April, late varieties.

Seed preparation

Seed pretreatment includes the following steps.

  • Calibration. The largest, even and heavy seeds are selected. You can make a selection, pour all the seed into a glass of water and mix well. All that remains to float on the surface, you need to throw.
  • Hot heat treatment. It can be produced in two ways, at will.
    1 way. Pour hot water (+ 50C) in a thermos and leave for 15 minutes.
    2 way. Pour dry seeds into a sieve (you can do this before calibration in water) and quickly scald it with boiling water.
    In both cases, immediately after heat treatment, they must be cooled for 1 minute in very cold water. This will be an excellent prevention not only of viruses that often live on the seed coat, but also against bolting.
  • Soak. Normal water may be suitable for this, but it is much more efficient to use a mineral solution, for example, Fitosporin. This will serve as an additional feeding and stimulate germination.
  • Cold heat treatment. After the sunflower seeds have been turned, they should be washed well and put in the fridge for a day without freezing (about + 5C). To increase the stability, hardening can be repeated by removing the seed for a day in the heat, and then putting it back in the cold for 24 hours.

Substrate preparation

The soil should have a neutral acidity, the optimal composition - humus, sand and fens in the ratio of 10: 1: 1. Such an option would also be suitable: peat, mullein and rotten sawdust (or another component of the so-called “brown” part of the compost) in a ratio of 4: 1: 1.5. Moisture the substrate, make it a little wood ash and mix well.

Drainage must be placed at the bottom of the tank!

Planting seeds

The embedding depth is 0.5 cm. Seeds are covered with earth, watered and compacted. Seedlings do not tolerate transplantation because of a fairly weak root system, so it is better to plant them in separate containers.

Temperature conditions

The optimum temperature of the air until the sprouts appear is + 19-21C, after which it is desirable to lower it to about + 10C.

You can put the pots on a cold veranda or window sill (exclude drafts!), But the place should be bright autumn. After a week, you can again raise the temperature, but it should not exceed +22 C, and it is better to stay at 18-19 C during the day and a few degrees lower at night.

Despite the fact that the culture is thermophilic, seedlings can not be grown in a hot room. In this case, the heads will subsequently begin to form prematurely and it will be possible to forget about the full harvest.

Moderate watering with periodic very careful loosening can be supplemented with a single preventive tillage with a weakly concentrated manganese solution.

This should be done at the very beginning of the process. When 2-3 true leaves appear, spraying with a solution of boric acid (2 g per 1 l of water) should be carried out. After waiting for the seedlings to release another leaf or two, you can optionally add treatment with ammonium molybdate (5g per bucket of water).

The need for molybdenum increases when grown on acidic soils. But overfeeding with this trace element is even more dangerous than its deficiency!

As already mentioned, cauliflower seedlings do not tolerate any transplant, so the conventional agrotechnical does not suggest picking. They should be planted either in separate pots or in common, but with a wide step. In the extreme case, thickening is allowed when sowing, followed by removal of weaker shoots.

If the need for picking did arise, it should be done at the age of 2 weeks with careful pruning of the roots along the perimeter. The temperature regime after picking is similar to that recommended during landing.

Planting in open ground

Approximately a week before the expected time of transfer of seedlings should stop feeding. The only thing that can be beneficial is the introduction of a solution of potassium chloride and superphosphate (3 g each for 1 l of water). This measure, combined with the hardening of seedlings (placing on the site with a gradual increase in time) will help increase resistance to possible temperature drops.

Terms of transplantation

The landing of early varieties sown at the end of February or the first decade of March starts approximately from April 25 to mid-May, depending on the weather. Mid-season seedlings are planted in the second half of May or even in the first days of summer. The time of late ripening varieties comes in June, based on the readiness of seedlings.

Lunar Recommendations

It is recommended to plant and transplant all types of cabbage, as crops that produce fruits in the aerial parts, during the period of the growing Moon.

This is best done in the first quarter of the moon, excluding the New Moon. Landing should not be carried out at the time of the sunset of the satellite and its rise, it is best if the moon is below the horizon at all.

It is best to plant cauliflower on a garden bed on an overcast but warm day, towards evening.

Site selection, crop rotation requirements

Plot should be located in an open sunny place. Even a light lace shadow will lead to the fact that the leaves will grow large, and the head will form a small one. In a completely shaded area, the heads will not be tied at all. Stable winds and drafts are undesirable.

Potatoes, onions of any kind, garlic, and carrots will be the best predecessors of the cabbage variety. It is great if, last season, cereals or legumes grew here, which are excellent siderata for crucifers. But in those places where beets, tomatoes, all varieties of radish and any kinds of cabbage were grown, it will be possible to plant this species no earlier than 4 years later.

Soil requirements and preparation

A soil with a neutral pH (6.7-7.5) is preferred. Before transferring the seedlings, it is desirable to fertilize it with any mineral complex at the rate of 90-100g per 1 m2. In acidic soils, you can mix "fluff" or another deoxidizer. It was desirable to dig up the plot to the depth of the shovel even in winter (as well as deoxidize it), and only to superficially loosen it in the spring season. Sufficient density of the soil is an important condition; it should not be too loose, otherwise the heads will be the same.

Seedless cultivation of cauliflower in open ground

You can safely practice this method in the southern regions, sowing the seeds is similar to seedlings, but immediately in the FG. In colder areas, it is still recommended to grow seedlings at home or in a greenhouse. But you can sow in the already warm or compost-heated earth seeds of early varieties and immediately to the garden bed. In this case, it is necessary to cover it at the time of night temperature drops with a film or to build for each mini-greenhouse from half a plastic bottle (take that part that has a lid), deepening the cut into the ground.

Lids on warm days can be removed for airing. The rules of planting and care are similar to those described for the rassadny option.

Chances are that late cauliflower varieties planted in a seedless way will not have time to mature in middle latitudes.

Watering, loosening, weeding

Moisturizing should be regular and sufficient. In normal weather conditions, it requires watering first twice a week (until the plant has entered into force), and then once (taking into account natural rainfall). Per 1 sq.m. the beds will initially require a little less than 1 bucket of water, but with the growth of the heads, the consumption rate will increase.

Between irrigation, the land can be loosened superficially, combining with weeding. The least easy and painless to remove weeds well the day after the rain. Too frequent or abundant watering can cause decay and the development of fungal infections.

It should be remembered that the vegetable has a very weak and shallow root system, therefore, it is preferable to replace both loosening and weeding by mulching.

Shading

Despite the high demands on lighting, the heads themselves in direct sunlight tend to be covered with ugly dark spots, loosen and bloom. Поэтому, как только они начали формироваться, их следует притенить. Лучше всего для этого подходят листья самого же растения. Иногда их просто заламывают вверх, но так они быстро приходят в негодность. Удобно использовать для этой цели прищепки, соединяя пару-тройку листов над растущими соцветиями.

Достаточно будет произвести 4 раза за вегетационный сезон.

1 time

After 2 weeks after landing on a permanent place (but not later than 3 weeks) using an aqueous solution of bird droppings from a ratio of 1:15. On one sapling - 1 liter jar. Avoid contact with the trunk and the entire aboveground part!

2 times

After another couple of weeks with a 10% solution of mullein with the same precautions. Days after 10 it can be repeated with the addition of Kristalina according to the instructions.

3 and 4 times

During the active formation of the heads with a break of 10-14 days. Any mineral complexes are used.

There are quite a few of them, which is why gardeners often ask themselves why cauliflower is rotting (turning yellow, drying out, not growing)? We briefly describe the most common problems.

Alternaria

External manifestations - dark spots and concentric circles on the leaves, which die in the first place. The infection has a fungal formation and develops particularly rapidly in hot and humid summers. Against Alternariosis effective Bordeaux mixture, copper sulfate and other fungicides. Prevention - treatment of seed material composition "Planriz".

It affects the roots, causing ugly growths on them and blocking the transport of nutrients.

Wood ash and dolomite flour solution will serve as a good “antidote”, and “pushonka” introduced during planting will serve as prevention.

After infection with the keel, it is impossible to resume cabbage cultivation in this area for 5-7 years.

Ring spots

Leaves and stems are covered with growing black dots, reborn into rings. This is a fungal disease that leads to yellowing of leaves and damage to the head. If the treatment with fungicides did not give results, the plants are removed from the site with its subsequent disinfection.

Vascular bacteriosis

It is expressed in the appearance of spots with progressive leaf necrosis and black rot of fruits. The forecast depends on the time of the problem - the young seedlings will not give the harvest.

Effective drugs - Planriz and Trichodermin.

Vascular bacteriosis often affects crops with impaired cruciferous crop rotation.

Wet rot

It develops on the background of overmoistening and is manifested by the appearance of black oblong spots that grow, rot and emit a fetid odor. Mechanical damage can cause illness. If the degree of damage is high, you need to remove what else is suitable for food, and dispose of all plant residues.

In addition to the diseases described, the vegetable is susceptible to damage by perinospora, black leg and mosaic.

The most frequent and persistent pests are common in the cruciferous family.

Cabbage Fly

It destroys the roots, laying eggs in the root part of the stem or cracks of the earth, the larvae of which literally fill the root space.

Means of struggle - Malathion in a 0.2% solution (1-1.5 cups per bush). Handle 2-3 times with a break of 6-7 days.

Cruciflo flea

It feeds on leaves, spoils the seedlings.

The solution of Trichlormetaphos is effective against this bug, the treatment of which is recommended to be repeated after 10 days.

If you seal the cauliflower planting with garlic or tomato bushes, the risk of damage to the cruciferous flea and cabbage aphids is much lower, because they do not tolerate their smell. Celery will provide the same protection against a cabbage fly.

Cabbage Aphid

Not only draws vital juices, but also is a malicious carrier of infections.

In the initial stages, all the usual folk remedies are effective against the pest: infusions of garlic and onions, decoctions of tansy, potato tops and wormwood, tobacco dust, mustard. If the offensive became widespread, insecticides are used - Biotlin, Aktar and others.

Harvesting

Readiness is determined by the state of the heads and the recommendations on the package. Overgrowth should be avoided as they will begin to darken, loosen and bloom. The best time for cutting is morning, before the dew dries, except for days after night frosts.

In order to preserve the harvest much longer, it is dug out with roots and outer leaves, and then it is dropped in a box of sand in a cellar or other cool, but non-freezing place.

Growing cauliflower in the open field does not present any difficulties, but it requires attention and strict adherence to the recommendations. And then the harvest will diversify your table until the New Year!

Hardening seedlings

Preparation of this kind allows you to get the most resistant to frost plants. Begin hardening about 12 days before planting in open ground. To do this, in the daytime, seedlings are carried out on the balcony or placed in a greenhouse at an air temperature of about 5 grams. At night, pots must be returned to a warm room. Five days before disembarking, seedlings can be moved from a room to a greenhouse. In warm weather, the film is periodically removed from it, gradually increasing the interval of plants in the open air.

Which grade to choose?

The following varieties are suitable for cultivation in climatic conditions, for example, near Moscow, and in the territories of Siberia and the Urals. For convenience, we classify varieties in accordance with the rates of their growth and maturation.

  1. Early ripening Movir 74, Early Gribovskaya 1355.
  2. Medium early. Mid-season Fargot, Pioneer and others.

Cauliflower Pioneer

  • Late-ripening For example, Skywalker F.
  • Important note! Cauliflower does not feel well at temperatures above +25 degrees. Residents of hot regions are encouraged to give preference to Coleman and Ameising varieties - they normally tolerate such conditions.

    Ameising F1, a hybrid of Dutch selection, with heads weighing up to 1.8 kg, high-yielding

    Cauliflower varieties and hybrids

    At the moment there are many varieties and hybrids of cauliflower. There are both early and late varieties. Also, the vegetable can be an exotic color, for example, orange or salad.

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    Early maturing culture has a short growing season. The heads are rather dense and surrounded by leaves. The leaves are slightly shorter than the cabbage of medium or late ripening.

    The difference between mid-ripening and late ripening varieties in the length of the rosette leaves. In addition, the head can be formed at a temperature of +20 ° C. The vegetation period for early varieties and hybrids is about 80-110 days.

    Harvest can be 100 days after shoots appear.

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    The head has a white and cream color, as well as a rounded shape. The average weight of a head of cabbage is about 1 kilogram.

    Consume as you can in fresh or processed form. The variety is rich in sugars and ascorbic acid.

    This variety is an early ripe hybrid of cauliflower and Romanesco broccoli. Head of cabbage dense light green color.

    The average head weight is about 2 kilograms. Good for winter freezing.

    Cabbage ripens 96 days after sprouting.

    The variety is fruitful, the heads of cabbages are round and dense, they do not lose the white color during storage. The average weight of about 1 kilogram. Vegetable is recommended to freeze. Sugar and ascorbic acid content is high.

    The growing season in middle and late ripening varieties and hybrids is about 120-135 days.

    The variety is distinguished by its taste and low in calories.

    The culture is resistant to frost and disease. The heads of the head are purple and rounded. The average weight of ripe vegetables is 1.5 kilograms. The variety is stored for a long time and is subject to freezing.

    Gregor P3 F1

    The high-yielding hybrid included in the State Register of the Russian Federation. The heads of the head have an unusual shape, and the mass is about 3 kilograms.

    Cabbage is recommended to use both in fresh and processed form.

    Cheddar F1

    The grade is considered early ripe and contains carotene, differs in excellent tastes.

    The average weight of a cabbage from 1 to 2 kilograms. It is recommended that the heads of the Cheddar F1 be frozen for the winter.

    Planting cauliflower seedlings in the ground

    The place for planting cabbage should be well illuminated. Seedlings should be planted on a warm cloudy day. Pre-soil need to feed. This may be a mixture of peat, compost and humus at the rate of 10 kg per 1 m2, it is also recommended to apply manure to the soil. The scheme of planting seedlings 50 * 25 centimeters. A handful of ash should be added to each well. Deepen the plant should be before the first leaf. Do not forget to water the seedlings.

    1. For the first time, seedlings that have just been planted in open ground should be covered with foil,
    2. The first 3 days you need to create a shade for seedlings,
    3. After two weeks, seedlings can begin to spud and fertilize (liquid mullein),
    4. In order to protect plants from pests, it is necessary to sprinkle the ground with wood ash (one cup per 1 m2 will be enough).

    Tip! Beginners should learn in more detail about how to carry out the process of feeding plants. Our video materials have detailed descriptions of the preparation of solutions.

    Cauliflower care

    The optimum temperature for the seedlings to bloom, from +16 ° C ... to + 25 ° C. If the soil is too dry, the quality of the crop will decrease significantly. In order for the culture to not bloom ahead of time, you need to create a shadow.

    After the heads of cabbies appear, they also need to create shadow conditions. To do this, break down the side leaves of cabbage so that they are next to each other.

    Cauliflower requires timely watering. If there is a lack of moisture, then there is a risk to collect much less crop. In order to keep moisture in the soil as much as possible, you should loosen the ground by about 6 centimeters or make mulching.

    Pest control

    Culture can suffer from fungal diseases. If there are signs of a fungus, then it is necessary to treat the seedlings with the special preparation "Fitosporin". The drug is able to fight the pathogen in a direct way. Also dangerous for cabbage are the cabbage caterpillars and cabbage moths. To combat this parasite, you need to use the biological preparation "Enterobacterin". An effective remedy is considered to be an infusion of burdock leaves.

    To prepare the infusion will need:

    • 1/3 of the bucket of burdock leaves,
    • water.

    Infusion should stand for about a day.

    Cauliflower in a greenhouse

    In order to harvest the early harvest, it is necessary to plant seedlings in greenhouse conditions in early May. In a greenhouse, the growing conditions should be the same as when growing seedlings in open ground. The optimum temperature is about +15 degrees. If the plants do not have enough light, you need to create an artificial light. To do this, use fluorescent lights.

    Since the humidity in the greenhouse is high enough, do not forget about the daily ventilation. Airing is necessary so that no rot or other infection forms on the plants.

    In greenhouse conditions, you can grow seedlings for the second harvest. You need to germinate seeds in containers, then after picking the seedlings are transplanted into the ground. Before planting seedlings, you need to harden it. In the daytime, you need to open the vents or doors to create a draft. If seedlings of other heat-loving crops grow next to cauliflower, then for the period of airing they should be covered with a covering material.

    In the autumn in the greenhouse for cabbage also need a place. Those plants that do not have time to mature in the open field, you need to dig up with the roots and plant in the greenhouse so that they can ripen. It is important to monitor the temperature. The thermometer should not fall below +5 degrees. If frosts begin, plants should be folded with a film or other material.

    Conclusion

    In fact, there are no special secrets of growing cauliflower at home. If the culture will receive proper care, the heads can grow up to 0.5 kilograms. Often late varieties of cabbage do not have time to ripen before the onset of cold weather, so it is necessary to grow them in greenhouse conditions. When growing the cabbage does not need light, but requires only regular watering of the roots. From the leaves there will be an outflow of nutrients into the inflorescences and thus after a couple of months you can grow a small cauliflower head.

    Watch the video! Growing cauliflower from seed to harvest

    Where to plant cauliflower?

    Choose a warm and sunny area - in the shade we get only a lot of leaves without a fully formed head. Cabbage likes moist soil and air. The best option is sandy and loamy soil with a neutral pH (within 6.8-7.2) and a rich content of humus.

    Determine the best soil type for planting cauliflower

    Cauliflower can be planted in areas that were previously used for growing legumes, cucumbers, carrots, as well as cereals, onions and potatoes. Territories where previously turnips and radishes, tomatoes, radishes, beets, and cabbage were grown can be used to grow cauliflower only 4 years after the last harvest of the above crops.

    Recommendations for preliminary preparation

    Both seeds and soil need preliminary preparation.

    Cauliflower seeds

    Seeds are first lowered into the water heated to about 50 degrees and kept there for 15 minutes. After that, send them in cool water for about 1.5 minutes. Next, we will need to keep the seeds in a solution containing microelements for 12 hours (we buy at a specialty store), then rinse them thoroughly with water and send them for about a day in the refrigerator.

    On the photo - sowing cauliflower seeds for seedlings

    The plot in the garden is starting to prepare for the future planting of cauliflower from the autumn months, by introducing calcareous substances. In the spring we make organic fertilizer in the amount of 1 bucket per square meter. To each prepared well we add a mixture of a pair of large spoons of superphosphate, a small spoon of urea and a pair of glasses of wood ash.

    Growing home seedlings

    Seedlings will grow in a mixture consisting of equal shares of sand, peat and sod land. Components such as humus and garden land are not suitable - the risk of infection of plants with a black leg is high.

    For sowing early varieties choose the day between March 5 and 10, late - 10-20 March. If you wish, you can sow the seeds directly into the ground under the film - this is done in April.

    Sowing Cabbage Seeds in Ground

    We propose to increase the chances of getting a healthy and strong crop, after growing the seedlings in boxes, and then transferring it to the ground.

    The procedure for growing seedlings

    Traditionally used boxes with a height of about 100 mm, a width of about 300 mm and a half-meter length. For convenience, the longitudinal wall of the box make detachable.

    Wooden box for seedlings

    Along the bottom of the box lay out the stones of small size to ensure drainage.

    Claydite can be used for drainage

    Fill the tank with a soil mixture. Align it, slightly moisturize and slightly compacted. We mark on the surface of the ground grooves with a depth of about 5 mm, maintaining a 3-centimeter step between them. In the row between the seeds, we provide about 10 mm distance. We fill up the seeds with a soil mixture and compact it a little.

    Sowing seeds in seedlings

    After sowing, we maintain in the room with future seedlings about + 20-25 degrees temperature. When shoots appear, reduce the temperature to approximately +10 degrees. After a week of this mode, during the day we keep the temperature at + 15-17 degrees, at night - + 9-10 degrees. Warmer is not necessary - the heads will form too soon.

    Water moderately. Excessive moisture will cause the development of black legs, too little watering will lead to the formation of dwarf heads.

    The two-week-old seedling passes the picking stage, i.e. seating in individual tanks. Sometimes they do it already on the 9-10 day, transferring the seedlings into cups with dimensions about 8x8 cm.

    The recommended depth of seedlings is up to cotyledon leaves. Within 3 days after the picking, we maintain the temperature at about + 19-20 degrees, then reduce it to + 16-17 degrees during the day and about + 9-10 degrees at night.

    Early varieties are transplanted into the garden in the first days of May, and later ones - within 2-3 weeks of the same month. Approximately 2 weeks before transplantation, seedlings begin to be gradually accustomed to temperature differences, wind and sun, i.e. hardened.

    Home Care Seed Care Tips

    The standard scheme is as follows.

      During the first 4-5 days after sowing (i.e. before the emergence of the first shoots), the soil is sprayed with water. It is very convenient to do this with a spray gun. The container with the future seedlings during this period is in a room with a temperature of + 18-20 degrees.

  • After the emergence of the first shoots, home seedlings are transferred to a room with a temperature of up to + 8-10 degrees. In warmer conditions, it will stretch too much.
  • After 9-14 days, the seedlings are transplanted into separate containers. Recommendations for the correct conduct of this stage were cited earlier.

    Example of planting seedlings in separate cups

    After germination of these leaves in the amount of two pieces, foliar dressing of the emerging cauliflower seedlings is conducted. Смесь для осуществления подкормки готовим так: разводим половину маленькой ложки удобрений с содержанием комплекса микроэлементов в литре прохладной чистой воды. Смесь используем для опрыскивания. Второй раз подкармливаем перед началом закаливания смесью из 0,15 г молибденово-кислого аммония, 0,2 г борной кислоты, а также 0,15 г медного купороса на литр чистой воды.Final foliar feeding is carried out when the head of cabbage grows to the size of a walnut. This time the spraying is done with a solution of this composition: 10 liters of water, a large spoonful of potassium sulfate and a similar amount of urea. Each plant is sprayed with a glass of a similar mixture.

    Feeding seedlings. Leaf spraying

    5-7 days before transplanting seedlings into the ground, we stop watering. For a couple of hours before planting, we water the seedlings with clean water at room temperature.

    Water the seedlings at the root

    Landing in the ground

    The optimal timing of home planting seedlings in the ground was mentioned earlier, but some owners do it much earlier - in the first weeks of April. During this period, at night, the air temperature can still fall below 0. To ensure the protection of seedlings, it is covered with pieces of plastic film laid on small arcs.

    For 1 plant of early varieties, a plot with dimensions of 0.4x0.5 m is needed, mid-ripening - 0.5x0.5 m, late ones - 0.6x0.6 m. The seedling is deepened to the level of the first true leaves. During the first 2-3 days after disembarkation, home seedlings should be carefully shaded.

    Rules for planting cabbage in the ground

    We water every 5-7 days, moderately. Watering is best done by sprinkling. To reduce the frequency of irrigation, planting should be promulgated with organic fertilizer in accordance with the instructions.

    After irrigation, loose soil about 7-8 cm in depth. The first hilling is carried out 3 weeks after the cabbage is planted. The second - after another 10 days. Some owners spend the first hilling after 2 weeks after transplanting, the second - after the same time. As practice shows, both methods give equally good results.

    Cauliflower, seedlings

    After 3 weeks after disembarkation, we apply top dressing in the form of liquid mullein or other suitable composition (we specify in a specialized shop in accordance with the variety of cultivated cabbage). For dusting the soil and cabbage, you can use wood ash in the amount of one cup per square meter. Such treatment will get rid of pests and at the same time act as a feed.

    Growing cauliflower in a greenhouse

    Cauliflower pests and control

    Cauliflower care

    Regularly inspect cabbage stalks for the presence of small white cabbage eggs. Collect those and destroy. If many stems are affected, spend 1-3 watering with insecticide. The solution flows under the root, there is no need to treat the whole plant.

    Young cabbage leaves may be affected by cabbage moth eggs. The caterpillars hatching soon from them will pose a great danger to the entire crop. The situation is saved only by treating the whole plant with insecticides in accordance with the instructions for the chosen remedy.

    Important! Chemical processing is not carried out if heads have already begun to be tied.

    For the treatment of cabbage are suitable not only chemical poisons, but also products based on vegetable components.

    Milkweed infusion works well against caterpillars of moths, moths and scoops. Pour a kilogram of its roots and leaves with about 4 liters of water, set it on low heat, bring to a boil and boil for about 3 hours. Then we filter the broth and add water to it in such quantity that the total volume will increase about 3 times. Use for irrigation of affected plants.

    Against the same pests helps burdock. Fill the bucket with a burdock about a third of the height and fill it with water to the edges of the container. Leave for 3 days. Strain the infusion and use it for weekly spraying of plants.

    Use burdock leaves to control pests

    And lastly, a useful note: do not waste time and effort trying to grow cabbage on sour soil - nothing good will come of it. Lime the soil and work on normalizing its pH values.

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