As you know, a pledge of a bountiful harvest is a strong seedling. Is no exception and pepper. This culture is characterized by a long growing season, so the cultivation of seedlings approximates the time of its fruiting. In addition, young bushes are demanding to temperature and watering, and the seedling method allows the seedlings to provide comfortable conditions, thanks to which they grow more developed and form a larger ovary. To get high-quality and healthy plants, it is important to know how to plant pepper on seedlings. The timing of sowing, the preparation of seeds, the selection of nutritious soil — all these factors play a decisive role, so we’ll dwell on them today.
When is it best to plant pepper seeds for seedlings?
In January, it is still early to start planting pepper seeds, because there is still not enough light in this winter month, as a result the peppers will be sluggish and weak and as a result you will not get a good harvest from such plants. Before you start sowing pepper seeds, see the planting dates shown on the seed packaging.
Keep in mind that pepper fits exclusively seedling method of growing due to the long growing season of 120-150 days.
The first sowing of seeds should be carried out with mid February. Pepper seeds germinate is not always good, for example, if they were dried out by the producer, the germination time may increase to several weeks.
The seeds of their peppers usually germinate much faster than purchased ones, usually after 1 week. Purchased pepper seeds will take 10-14 days before the first shoots. This fact can be explained by the fact that purchased seeds are subjected to mechanical processing and are often overdried by the manufacturer to increase the shelf life.
So, 2 and 3 decades of February ideal time for planting pepper seeds for seedlings. The latest planting date is mid-March. If you plant the seeds later, then you will not have to rely on full-fledged fruit this year.
How to plant pepper seeds?
Experienced gardeners are advised not to soak the seeds of the peppers before planting, as this procedure will accelerate the germination of seeds by only a few days. The soil before sowing the seeds must be moistened, so that the seeds are easier to remove the shell from the seeds during germination.
If you make your own soil, you can add humus, in this case, do not need additional feeding.
Seeds are planted in the prepared soil to a depth no more than 2-3 cm. After that, the containers must be covered with polyethylene and put into a room with a temperature 22-26 degrees.
Periodically check the emergence of shoots. It is important not to miss this moment, since at the first shoots it is necessary to remove the film from the boxes with seedlings.
Pepper seedlings care
After emergence, transfer the seedling boxes to a cooler room with a temperature of about 20 degrees. Pepper seedlings are very fond of light, so be sure to arrange additional lighting for seedlings, especially on cloudy days.
Pepper does not like pick and change, because they have easily damaged and then the root system is restored for a long time. Best used for sowing pepper seeds. peat cupswhich after landing in the ground just turn into humus.
If such cups you could not find or you do not like working with them, then sow peppers in a container at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other.
Water the seedlings should not often, better than water at room temperature, or you can warm up a little. It is enough to spray pepper seedlings once a month.
Monitor the condition of the seedlings constantly. Pepper does not tolerate the drying out of the soil, so if necessary, increase watering.
Stocky and powerful seedlings can be planted in open ground at the age of 60-80 days. At this age, the first buds appear on the bushes.
The time of planting seedlings need to determine the orientation of the weather. This is usually the beginning of June, when the risk of frost returning is almost eliminated.
Video - How to plant and grow peppers?
Observing simple rules when growing pepper seedlings will help you to harvest a large crop of juicy peppers.
The main secrets of growing healthy seedlings - Pepper loves a lot of light and heat when growing, it is better to grow each sprout in a separate container, do not fill the seedlings with water, do not apply a lot of fertilizer.
Calibration allows you to determine which seeds are suitable for further cultivation. It is carried out very simply: planting material is immersed in the composition, consisting of baking soda and water. To obtain the desired consistency, 30 grams of salt should be dissolved in a liter of water.
Calibration does not require much effort from the gardener and helps to accurately determine the quality seeds
After a couple of minutes, you will find that some seeds have surfaced, and some have dropped to the bottom of the container used. It is these instances that you will need in the future. After calibration, wash the seeds under running water and dry thoroughly.
In order to carry out this procedure, you need a one percent solution of potassium permanganate. Before you put the seeds in the solution, sort them by size and place them in liquid for fifteen minutes. After dressing, rinse the seeds well and dry.
Seed treatment with a solution of potassium permanganate is considered the easiest way to disinfect them.
Processing takes place a couple of days before the seeds sink into the soil. Immersed in the composition with trace elements preferably seeds, pre-wrapped in cheesecloth. The water temperature at the same time should be forty degrees. In this solution, the planting material should stay during the day. At the end of the procedure, the seeds should not be washed, just dry them.
Ash is useful not only when feeding plants, but also in the preparation of seeds
In addition to the solution with trace elements, you can also use wood ash. To make the solution, dip two grams of ash in a liter of water. In order for the ash to be effective, the solution should be periodically stirred throughout the day, since it needs time to infuse. Immersed in cheesecloth seeds dipped in the solution for three hours, and after dry.
Since pepper is mainly grown in seedlings, it does not require germination, but if you want to hasten the development process, this procedure will help you. In addition, pepper sprouts are not too willing, because in some cases it is necessary to hurry it. Pre-disinfected seeds are covered with moistened gauze and placed in a warm room. After a couple of days, the seeds will begin to spit. For more information about the germination of pepper seeds before planting, you can read on our portal.
Germinated seeds sprout faster
Important! Germinated seeds are placed only in pre-watered soil, they can not ascend in dry ground.
Bubbling is a more effective alternative to germination. It is made a couple of weeks before the expected date of immersion of seeds in the ground. For its implementation you will need:
- Tall vessel
- Pure water,
- The tip of the aquarium compressor.
Compressor for bubbling can be bought at a regular pet store, as part of an aquarium
To do the bubbling, you will need to fill the vessel with two-thirds of twenty-degree water and put a compressor on the bottom. Seeds are immersed in water as soon as it starts to bubble. In order to achieve the best result, control the uniform distribution of bubbles.
After a day, remove the seeds and dry them, avoiding contact with sunlight.
Hardening can be carried out by several methods:
- At the end of disinfection, immerse the seeds in warm water and wait for them to swell. After that, transfer them to a room where the temperature does not rise above 2 ° C for one and a half days. Dry the seeds,
- For twelve days, place the seeds in places with radically different temperature conditions. Heat them at half a day at twenty degrees Celsius, cold for half a day at two degrees. After dry the seeds.
To harden the seeds at low temperatures, just put them in the fridge.
As already mentioned, not all of these manipulations are required. If you wish, you can opt out of all the above points, but in this case, you may face large losses during the harvest. Seed treatment allows the grower to hedge.
Important! When selecting planting material, pay for its shelf life. Despite the fact that pepper seeds are perfectly stored, if they have crossed the six-year threshold, then you may not get any reaction from them.
Ground for planting pepper seeds for seedlings
Selection of good soil for seeds is no less important than seed preparation. Even the planting material processed according to all canons will perish in a dry clay substrate. To avoid seed loss, consider the basic requirements for seedling soil:
- Air and water permeability of the soil. The lighter and softer the soil, the better for growing seedlings, since moisture and air reach the roots more easily.
- Softness. After watering on the ground should not form a solid layer
- Nutrition. Presence of organic components in the soil is desirable.
- Low acidity. If you take the soil from your plot, make sure that it has neutral acidity indicators. An increase in the value may provoke diseases of immature seedlings (for example, kela).
The soil used for seedlings must have a loose structure and air flow well.
Among the elements that enrich the soil and feed the seedlings can be called:
There is also a list of qualities that soil should not have:
- The presence in the soil of various parasites. This item refers to the garden soil, which is recommended to pre-decontaminate with the help of potassium permanganate solution, since it is not always possible to see pests. Preventive measures will help to avoid unpleasant encounters with the results of their vital activity as the pepper grows,
- The content of the clay,
- High peat content.
Sometimes soil mixtures are intended for several crops at once.
If you doubt the qualities of your own garden soil, you can always get ready-made soil mixture. On such mixtures, usually indicated are the indicators of the toughness, as well as the content of useful elements. Moreover, there are commercially available soil mixtures that are churned for specific crops.
Pepper Ground Recipe
There are several soil options that are equally suitable for growing seedlings. The choice of one of them is based solely on the "taste" of the gardener and the availability of certain components:
- A mixture of sand, peat and humus. Each of the components is added in equal proportions,
- A mixture of humus, earth, peat and sand. The components are mixed in the same quantities. Optionally, ash is added to the final product - a glass for every ten kilograms of the mixture,
- A mixture of lowland peat, humus and superphosphate,
- A mixture of one part peat, one part sand and a pair of parts turf.
Peat and humus are the nutrient base for most soils.
Among the components that are not recommended to be added to the soil mixture are compost, manure, as well as non-treated turf.
To prepare the soil should begin no later than a week before sowing seeds. Since the seeds are immersed in the soil from late February to early March, the grower schedules days for tillage based on his intentions. Keep in mind that this week is the cultivation of the land already prepared since autumn.
The soil from the garden needs the most treatment.
Soil preparation includes, above all, disinfection, which is done in several ways:
- Etching This stage applies only to the garden soil, the safety and sterility of which you are not completely sure. Purchased soil mixtures do not need this procedure. Is treated by insecticidal and fungicidal preparations, the dosage of which is calculated on the basis of instructions,
In the absence of insecticides at hand, you can contact the proven potassium permanganate
Before placing the soil in the oven, make sure that it is spread evenly.
Sweet Pepper Description
Pepper is an annual plant that has a long growing season and is very thermophilic, so in our country it cannot be grown successfully by direct planting into the ground. It is necessary to grow seedlings correctly. In order to get healthy, strong and high-quality seedlings, it is necessary to choose the right varieties and prepare the seeds.
The variety of varieties that exists today makes it possible to pick up peppers of various colors, sizes and shapes. It can be almost white, light, yellow, pinkish, red, orange, even striped and almost black. The vegetable gets this color at the stage of full maturity.
Pepper in shape is cuboid, round, conical, rectangular, and also take various original shapes. Useful properties do not depend on a form and color, it affects only flavoring and aesthetic perception. Practically any variety is suitable for processing, and F1 hybrids are usually used for food.
Having dealt with a large selection of varieties and choosing the right one, any gardener thinks about how to plant pepper. To do this, under the cultivation of seedlings need to prepare seeds..
If you need to harvest peppers as early as possible, then you need to deal with seeds as early as March-April, taking into account where the seedlings will be planted: under shelter, in a greenhouse or in open ground.
Often the seeds germinate unevenly, slowly and reluctantly, because their treatment is desirable. Pepper responds well to warming, it can be combined with processing in biostimulants. Apply warm water around 36C. Biostimulants are natural substances, for example, succinic acid or aloe juice, or ready-made products like Intavir, Zircon, etc. Soaking approximately continues for a day, for a given time, all thin, small, floating or defective seeds are selected from the solution. They will not give a full harvest, because they can be safely discarded.
Inclined selected seeds are sown in rows in planting boxes and trays or distributed in cups. 2-3 seeds are placed in individual tanks, and planted with a distance of 3-4 cm in trays. Pepper is well tolerated in transplanting and picking, therefore one can not be afraid of thickened plantings.
Much attention needs to be paid to the soil for seedlings.. Pepper requires a lot of moisture and is demanding on the nutritional value of the soil, and its seedlings suffer from such a disease as “black leg”, and the plant quickly rot. Therefore, the soil must be moisture-permeable, fertile and "nourishing." She is obliged to retain good moisture and quickly pass through her surplus. If this vegetable is grown in small quantities, then in any gardening shop you can buy ready-made soil for seedlings.
When the planted seed begins to germinate, it is necessary to ensure timely ventilation and watering. In order to seedlings was strong and healthy, at the initial stage of development it is better to water by spraying. Water from a spray does not damage fragile escapes and does not wash out thin roots, moistening only the surface of the earth. This moisture is enough bushes, but not enough for the appearance of mold.
A couple of times a day plantations covered with polyethylene, you need to open for ventilation. Grown up seedlings dive from trays for a greater distance, and the bushes that grew in individual tanks, seated or remove a weaker plant. As a rule, leave 1-2 seedlings. A pick is required to make a stocky and sturdy seedling. If the plantings are thickened, the seedlings grow weak, pale and tall, as the plants are constantly competing for nutrients, water and light. Planted in open ground, this seedling later enters fruiting and is sick for a long time.
Pepper is demanding for lighting and very thermophilic, the same applies to seedlings. Therefore, seedlings grown in greenhouse or home conditions will need to be illuminated.
Planting seedlings in a greenhouse or under cover
Grown up seedlings with 2-3 true leaves can be transplanted under film covers or in a greenhouse. These works are performed at different times, taking into account the type of protection and the climatic conditions of the region. How can a Bulgarian pepper be planted correctly so that it starts to produce fruit quickly in protected ground?
- Peppers in the greenhouse with high-quality lighting and heating can be transplanted in March-April. Earlier transplantation requires significant costs for heating and electricity. Если в теплице невозможно рассаде обеспечить комфортные условия, то сеять семена и пересаживать рассаду необходимо позже. Наилучшее время для пересадки в теплицу – конец апреля.
- Под туннельные пленочные укрытия рассаду пересаживают в середине мая, с учетом погоды и региона. Перец боится морозов, и на грунте в том числе, от этого он быстро погибает. Therefore, it is planted with the expectation that the threat of a significant decrease in temperature is over.
Peppers are usually planted in pairs so that if one bush dies, the second continues to grow. During planting, the root collar is buried in the ground, as the pepper gives additional roots on the trunk. This is all the more important in the case ofwhen the seedlings are weak and small.
Seedlings after transplanting carefully watered and mulched. This operation allows unrestrictedly oxygen to enter the soil to the root system and retains moisture in the ground.
Cultivation in the garden and garden
For a bountiful harvest and large fruits you need to know how to plant seedlings in open ground. Hardened and sturdy seedlings are planted in the open ground. For what, 2 weeks before disembarking, it is hardened by opening a greenhouse or exposing it to the street. Initially, this is done for a few minutes, slowly increasing the time to several hours. Seedlings harden in the most quiet and warm time of the day. Draft is very dangerous - it can easily bend or break down seedlings.
Hardened seedlings are more resistant and better prepared for the conditions that await them in open ground. Because they start to bear fruit before and bloom, quickly develop a strong root system and take root.
Peppers are planted in the ground only when the threat of frost is completely bypassed. In the southern regions it is usually mid-May, in the northern regions the dates are shifted. Planted on a warm day, best in not very sunny and windless.
Before planting, the tanks with seedlings are watered abundantly. This is required for several purposes. To begin with, the seedlings turn out to be more stable and strong, and it is also easier to get it from the softened earth, without damaging the fragile and thin roots.
How to plant pepper in the ground, so that it grows quickly and well, gives juicy and tasty fruits, and also abundantly bear fruit? For this you need to observe a number of factors:
- Place of landing. Pepper requires even and open spaces, do not plant a plant in lowlands, on ridges, where it suffers from cold winds and dry winds, and where cold air accumulates.
- Priming. The plant is very demanding on soil fertility, because pre beds are well fertilized with mineral and organic bait. The ground should not be too sandy and loose, and also very clay and dense. Also, peatlands and acidic soils are not suitable.
- Water. Pepper requires a large amount of moisture. If it is not missed at the initial stages of growth, young plants will grow flimsy and stunted, during the formation of fruits from a lack of water the ovary will fall, and when ripe, the fruits become shriveled, dry, bitter and tasteless.
- Heat. The most terrible enemy for this plant is wet and cool weather. In such conditions, the pepper is easily affected by viruses and fungal diseases, gives tasteless and small fruits. Sunny and warm weather is perfect for him.
- Solar lighting. Pepper needs uniform illumination and a lot of sun, so place the plant properly on the site, preferably from the south.
How to place pepper on the garden?
Given the variety of pepper can be tall or short. Anyway, the bushes need to be planted at a distance of about 50 cm between each other, so that the plantations are well lit and aired. This is all the more important for large-fruited pepper species, because when they touch, the bushes can rot.
Between the rows you need to leave a distance of about 80-100 cm, taking into account the height and size of the plant. The larger the bush, the greater the distance must be between the rows and rows. Thickened plantings will give small fruits.
Watering plants is the primary issue. If there is not enough water in the flowering phase, then part of the ovaries and flowers will fall off or disappear. If the moisture is not act during the pouring of the fruit, then their appearance and taste will suffer.
Watering plantings preferably in the evening, after 19:00, under the root of warm water, abundant. Ideal to organize drip irrigation. For this purpose, special hoses with a large number of holes are made. Slow irrigation deeply saturates the earth with moisture, as a result, the pepper keeps well in the ground, extracts water from the lower layers of the soil, forms deep and strong roots. If watering is insufficientthen surface and weak roots are formed, subject to drying out.
Diseases and pests
As a rule, sweet pepper affects the following diseases: bronze, verticillis, fusarium, phytoplasmosis, black leg, gray and top rot, late blight.
- Stolbur or phytoplasmosis is expressed by the fact that the roots of the plant begin to rot, dwarfism develops, the fruits grow tasteless, thin-walled and small, the leaves turn yellow, harden and curl, as a result the plant dries. The fight against the disease is carried out by treating the bush with Akara during planting and 20 days after it - spraying the pepper at this stage of development will not cause harm. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically remove weeds and loosen the ground in the area.
- Verticillosis - fungal disease, manifested in three forms: dwarf, green and brown, each of them is expressed in its own way. Since the destruction of pathogens on vegetable crops with pesticides is undesirable, only preventive measures remain: the destruction of plant residues in the fall and the cultivation of varieties that are resistant to verticillus.
- Late blight is a common disease that affects tomatoes and peppers. Symptoms - the appearance of hard spots on the fruit, which capture the pulp. They destroy the disease with drugs Barrier, Barrier, Oxy, but only before the flowering of the plant.
- Fusarium - a fungal disease in which the leaves get a poisonous yellow shade. Infected plants are destroyed, others are carefully looked after: they do not allow growth on the weed area, they are watered moderately in the morning. Do not forget that next year it is better not to plant pepper in the area that is infected with Fusarium.
- Vertex rot appears on the fruit with a lack of moisture and is expressed in black or shiny deep spots. In some cases, the cause of the disease may be an overabundance of calcium and nitrogen in the soil. The affected bushes are burned, while others are treated with calcium nitrate.
- The black leg infects the basal part of the stem of the seedling due to its very dense planting and maintenance at high humidity of the air and soil. After a while, the stem softens and the seedling dies. In order to prevent the disease, it is necessary to sow the seeds spaciously, monitor the humidity in the greenhouse and sip the seedlings in a timely manner. If infected seedlings are found, immediately remove them, dry and loosen the ground where the seedlings grow, and treat it with wood ash.
- Signs of spotted wilt or bronze look like brown spots on leaves that turn purple or bronze. As a rule, these spots are located along the main leaf vein. Due to the development of the disease, the top of the bush dies, the fruits in the region of the stem become covered with annular pale yellow, brown or green spots. In order to save the crop, mature peppers are cut off, and the land is no longer watered. The fungus is destroyed by Fundazol, but before treating the plant with a fungicide, carefully weigh all the advantages and disadvantages of this spraying.
- Gray rot strikes with gray bloom of mold and putrid spots every bush at any stage of development. As a rule, rainy weather provokes the development of this disease. The infected parts of the shrub and fruit must be removed and the plants treated with fungicides.
Spider mites can annoy peppers from pests, aphid, slugs and wireworm.
- Wireworm or larvae of the beetle beetle, remaining in the ground for 5 years, gnaw the root system of plants. In order to get rid of the wireworms, in the fall they dig up the soil in the garden, and before planting the pepper in the spring, several baits are put on the plot, pieces of sweet root crops are buried in the ground and having marked these places. The larvae will invariably creep to these lures. Every 2-3 days traps dig, collect and destroy the larvae.
- Get rid of aphids infused tobacco dust or wood ash in 10 liters of hot water in the amount of one cup. It is also possible to use treatment with a composition of rapidly decomposing insecticides like Celtan or Karbofos at the rate of: for 10 liters of water, one tablespoon of money.
- Spider mites appear on the bushes during drought, they are located on the lower part of the leaf plate and suck the juice. If you do not know how to treat pepper from a tick without using insecticides, then we offer a recipe for a non-toxic solution: 1 tbsp. Dishwashing liquid or liquid soap at the same time with a glass of finely chopped garlic or onions, as well as ground dandelion leaves are mixed in 10 l, infused and sprayed with this solution on pepper at any stage of development.
- To protect the bushes from slugs, you can use scattered mustard powder, ground pepper or nuts. You can also arrange a bowl of beer, clams on them crawl from the entire site. And do not forget to loosen the earth in the heat between rows 5-6 cm deep.
Properly grown and planted sweet pepper seedlings are a guarantee of a good harvest. If you do everything right, then all your efforts will not be in vain. Especially in the article it is described in detail how to sow the sweet pepper correctly on the seedlings, the rules of sowing and planting dates are given.
When to plant seedlings of sweet pepper?
Even the earliest ripening variety of Bulgarian pepper has a growing season of up to 140 days, and the time from germination to ripening is at least 90 days. Plus, seed germination - germination time is from 10 days to 1 month.
Thus, if you have seeds of an early or mid-season variety, then sow the Bulgarian pepper for seedlings no later than mid-February (northern areas), beginning of March (middle lane).
The rate of germination of seeds of Bulgarian pepper, depending on air temperature:
- 26-28 ºC - 8-10 days,
- 20-24 ºC - 13-17 days,
- 18-20 ºC - 18-20 days,
- 14-15 ºC - up to 1 month
To accelerate the germination of seeds can be their pre-soaking and preparation.
Seed preparation for sowing consists in their disinfection, stimulation and soaking.
Before starting the preparation, lightweight seeds should be discarded, as weak plants will grow from them or they will not sprout at all. To do this, the available seed poured into the water. After a few minutes, all the seeds that remained on the surface of the water are discarded. Work continues with drowned, then full-weighted, seed material.
Disinfection of seed material is carried out with potassium permanganate solution (common manganese is common). To do this, dilute the weak pink solution, in which the seeds are immersed for a couple of hours. Non-chemical method of disinfection - heating in hot water (50 ºC) for 20 minutes. After which the seeds are immediately cooled in cold water.
Stimulation and fertilizing are carried out by special means such as Épin (Humat, Zircon). The existing drug is dissolved in water strictly according to the instructions, because overdose is extremely harmful. In the resulting solution shift the seeds of Bulgarian pepper, which is removed from the solution of potassium permanganate. In the "top dressing" material is kept for 20-30 minutes. Then washed and soaked for germination.
Sprouting is conveniently carried out between two cotton pads. For this, the seeds are laid out on the surface of the disk and covered with another one. The upper disc can be signed with a ballpoint pen if you want to plant several varieties of pepper. Wet discs should be moderate. Filled seeds completely "suffocate" and die.
As soon as the peppers came, they should be planted in the ground. We can not allow visible germ - it will easily break off when sown. The germination stage can be skipped, but it will somewhat delay the germination time.
Note! Seeds that are pre-processed by the manufacturer, do not need preseeding manipulations. On a bag of such seed, it is written “Do not soak it!”. Follow this instruction - soaking such seeds will damage the nutritional and protective capsule.
Preparing the soil for sowing seedlings
It is possible to sow sweet pepper in a “purchase” soil, in peat tablets or in self-prepared soil. Experienced gardeners believe that at least 50% of the land for seedlings should be from their garden. This is explained by the fact that the plant "gets used to extract" food from a specific soil mixture. A cardinal change of soil when planting seedlings from the “purchased” land to the garden for a long time delays the development of the plant.
Requirements for seedlings:
- neutral or weakly acidic environment
- sufficient organic content for looseness and moisture retention,
- sufficient nutrient content
To create such a soil mixture is not difficult. Have to take:
- two pieces of garden land,
- one part of peat or special soil for seedlings,
- one part of humus, compost or top layer (10 cm) of meadow land,
To increase nutritional value and adjust the acidity it is added to 10 liters of soil:
- oven ash (who has it) - a handful,
- lime (who has no ash) - a handful,
- double superphosphate - 2 matchboxes,
Top-dressing with potash and nitrogen fertilizers is best done later, when watering seedlings.
Note! Cooked soil mixture is required to shed a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection. The second way to kill pathogens in the garden soil is to preheat it to 60 ºC.
Ways of sowing pepper on seedlings
There are several ways to plant sweet peppers in seedlings:
- Classic - pepper is sown in a “common” container and subsequently dive into a larger container or individual pots.
- In finished cassettes - 1-2 seeds are sown without picking.
- In peat tablets, 1 seed is sown without picking.
- In twists - in rolls of toilet paper, followed by seating young sprouts in large containers or individual pots.
Note! The best results are obtained by growing seedlings of Bulgarian pepper without picking, planting in separate containers. Pepper, unlike tomatoes, does not tolerate transplantation, it is ill for a long time and lags behind in growth.
Optimum landing time
When planning to grow pepper seedlings on your own, first of all you need to decide when to plant the pepper on the seedlings. Date of sowing of seeds for each variety is determined individually. It depends on:
- planned growing conditions (open ground, greenhouse),
- age at which the pepper is moved to the ground,
- seed preparation.
The duration of the vegetative development of peppers depends on the ripeness of the variety. If early ripening varieties ripen within 100–120 days from the moment of seed germination, then late ripening peppers require about 150 days before the start of fruiting. Accordingly, the early varieties should be planted a little later.
Seedlings are transferred to the main site at the age of 60–80 days. When calculating the time for sowing seeds, add another 7–10 days to their pricking. If you plan to grow peppers in unprotected soil, then you need to wait until the earth warms up to +10 .. + 15 ° C. An earlier planting will cause a delay in the vegetative development of the plant.
The optimal landing period is the period between February 20 and March 10. If the gardener plans to plant the plants in early June, then the optimal time for sowing seeds will be March. If you plan to plant pepper in the greenhouse in late April, then the seedlings at home can be planted in early February.
In the southern regions, agronomists advise planting seeds for 2–3 decades in February, and in the northern regions - in March.
When choosing a day of landing should be guided by the lunar calendar. The most favorable period is considered to be the location of the moon in the constellation of Cancer, Pisces or Scorpio. If you pre-soak the seeds, the optimal day is selected for their first contact with water.
Favorable for the lunar calendar in 2018 are the following dates:
- January 1, 20, 21, 25, 26, 29, 30
- February 14, 18, 21–22, February 25–26
- 1, 8–11, 20–21, 24–26, March 29–31,
- April 9, 11, 18, 25–29.
It is undesirable to plant seeds on January 16–18, February 15–17, March 16–18, and April 15–17.
Pros and cons of planting seeds immediately in open ground
Some owners of personal plots do not want to grow seedlings at home. They are waiting for warming to immediately sow the seeds in the open ground. But this method of growing is considered risky, because pepper is a heat-loving culture. With sudden spring frosts, the plants may die.
Try to grow peppers, planting seeds immediately in open ground, can residents of the southern regions and the middle zone. In the northern regions and zones related to risky farming, such an experiment is unlikely to complete successfully.
You can use only the early ripe varieties, the rest do not have time to begin to bear fruit before cooling. Seeds are recommended to be planted in the ground no earlier than mid-May - early June. The probability of frost should be minimized.
The advantages of this method of planting include the absence of the need to grow seedlings at home. Cultivation in open ground minimizes labor costs.
But this method has drawbacks:
- the ability to grow only early ripening varieties,
- high probability of death of plants or developmental delays due to unplanned cooling,
- вероятность полного дозревания урожая до похолодания невысока даже на юге.
Огородники вынуждены постоянно следить за температурой и накрывать посевы агроволокном, если на ночь передают снижение температуры.
Landing in open ground
Правила выбора и подготовки грунта для семян
The owners of personal plots who want to get a strong, healthy seedlings must responsibly approach the issue of soil preparation. It must meet the following requirements:
- the absence of pests and pathogens,
- neutral or weakly acid reaction, the optimum pH level is 6-6,5,
- high nutrient content
- sufficient moisture capacity
You can buy ready-made soil in a specialty store or prepare it yourself. For cooking you will need:
- garden land (2 parts),
- humus, rotted manure (1 part),
- wood ash (the amount is determined based on the fact that a large handful of ash is required for 1 bucket of humus),
- sawdust (1 part),
- peat (1 part).
If there is no sawdust, they are replaced by coarse sand. Garden land should be reclaimed where over the last 3-4 years, solanaceous crops (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, peppers) have not grown.
Also, summer residents can prepare the substrate from:
- humus (3 parts),
- peat / turf (3 parts)
- river sand (1 part),
- ash (250 g per 5 liters of prepared soil).
When self-preparing soil mixture, it must be calcined in the oven or steamed in a double boiler for an hour. This is required to kill the pathogens of bacteria and destroy weeds.
If it is not possible to use humus and find ashes, add mineral fertilizers: ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potash nitrate. Potassium chloride or potassium salt should not be used, these fertilizers contain large amounts of chlorine, which is harmful to the roots of young plants.
One day before planting, you can additionally disinfect the soil by watering it with boiling water.
Sowing pepper seeds on seedlings step by step
2.5 months before the planned date of planting seedlings begin the process of sowing seeds. You can do this as follows.
- Drainage (expanded clay, pebbles) with a height of 1–2 cm is placed on the bottom of the containers prepared in advance, the ground is poured from above. It is best to plant the seeds in separate pots or cups, 10–12 cm deep and 8–10 cm in diameter. If there are no cups, they can be planted in a common container.
Soil for seedlings
- Seeds on the surface of the soil laid out with tweezers or hands. If they are planted in a general container, then the optimal distance is 1.5–2 cm. 3 cm is left between the grooves. You can spread 2 seeds in separate cups.
- After completion of the seed laying process, the ground is filled up with a layer of 1–2 cm. It is not necessary to tamper it thoroughly, otherwise it will be difficult for germs to germinate. After completion of the soil gently watered, it is necessary to ensure that the seeds are not washed to the surface.
- On top of the container with the ground covered with a transparent material: glass, plastic film. This is necessary to create a greenhouse effect. When the first sprouts appear, the cover is removed, the plants need air.
Emergence of seedlings
Many appreciated the benefits of growing seeds in peat cups. When using them, there is no need to worry about possible damage to the roots during transplantation. The seedlings are sent to the ground right in the cups.
Picks - need or not, how to do without it, how to hold
Peppers dive when it has formed 2 true leaves. This usually occurs 3-4 weeks after germination. When transplanting young plants can be deepened by no more than 0.5 cm.
Many agronomists advise to immediately plant the seeds in large pots in order to do without picking peppers. The plant tolerates this procedure poorly. If the roots are damaged, the vegetative development period is extended by 1-2 weeks.
But if the seeds were planted in a common container, then one cannot do without a pick. Plants begin to shade each other, and this negatively affects their growth, their development. Also, a picking is needed to reduce the risk of developing root rot.
Minimize the likelihood of damage to the roots can, if you take out several plants simultaneously with a clod of earth. This should be done after abundant watering of the soil. A gardener clod of land with plants is laid on a horizontal surface and carefully separates each plant.
Dive peppers in pots with a volume of about 150 ml. In them, the seedlings will be easier to settle down. The hole in the pots make such that the roots can accommodate freely. After moving the plants are sprinkled with earth, slightly compacted and watered.
Planting peppers in open ground
After 60–80 days of vegetative development, seedlings can be transplanted into open ground. The process of transplantation begins in the stage of the first buds and 7–8 true leaves, while the height of the plants must be at least 20–25 cm. Transplanted into the open ground is allowed only tempered seedlings. She must be accustomed to low temperatures, direct sunlight and wind.
Landing in open ground
When transplanting in open ground pay attention to the temperature of the soil and air. The earth should be heated to + 10 ° С. It is unacceptable that the air temperature at night falls below +12 .. +14 ° C.
When disembarking, it is recommended to adhere to the following rules:
- choose a sunny place, protected from drafts,
- pre-dig the soil to a shovel depth, fertilize with humus or peat,
- for each seedling, wells are dug at a distance of 0.3–0.5 m from each other, the exact distance depends on the variety of pepper (0.25–0.3 m can be left between low-growing determinantal species, and 0.5 for tall indeterminate crops –0.6 m),
- between the rows leave at least 0.5 m,
- mineral fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) are applied to each well, the wells are spilled with boiling water,
- seedlings are moved into the ground together with the soil in which they grew, and they are covered with earth above,
- seedlings are watered abundantly, after absorbing moisture, fill the ground so that the surface becomes even,
- bushes can be mulched peat.
Subject to all the rules for planting seedlings should take root.
Video: a proven way to grow
Having decided to engage in independent cultivation of seedlings, you will have to deal with many nuances. It is important to properly prepare the soil, process the seeds before planting. Grow strong seedlings can, if you follow the rules of irrigation, to create optimal conditions for growth. Important air temperature, lighting, humidity. You also need to remember that the timely application of fertilizers stimulates the growth and development of plants.
Pepper seedlings: when to plant?
Peppers belong to cultures with a long period of germination. From sowing seeds to planting young plants in the ground or greenhouse it takes from 90 to 100 days. The seedlings of early ripe varieties reach the desired size after 3 months, they can be planted when the soil warms to 16-18 degrees.
Knowing when to land in the ground, you can accurately calculate the timing of planting pepper for seedlings. In central Russia, sowing seeds is better in February or early March. In warmer regions, seeds are sown starting in January, and seedlings are planted in late April.
In areas with cold climates, seeds are planted in the middle or even at the end of March.. Late-sown plants are better planted in a heated greenhouse, so that all the fruits start to ripen. For transplantation into a year-round greenhouse, peppers are sown twice a year, in January-February and at the end of September.
Many vegetable growers check the dates of landings with the lunar calendar. The best time for sowing pepper is when the moon is in the first phase under the influence of Libra, Scorpio, Aries or Sagittarius. Depending on the year, dates are shifted, you can see the current days in a special calendar. It indicates the most appropriate dates, as well as the days on which landings should be avoided.
Appropriate Drop-off times are also indicated on seed packets.. Early ripening varieties with a shorter growing season can be sown at the end of February; late ripening varieties are sown as early as possible. Seedlings sown in January will have to be illuminated, since the light day at this time is too short for the normal development of young peppers.
Planting pepper seeds for seedlings
Before sowing seeds of pepper to seedlings you need sort out full seeds. You can check them by soaking in 3% saline solution. For sowing seeds are suitable, sank to the bottom. Before planting, it is recommended to soak them in a growth stimulator or freshly squeezed aloe juice for 10-12 hours.
Such treatment significantly improves germination. Some growers disinfect the seeds, soaking them briefly in manganese or 3% hydrogen peroxide.
For planting preparing the soil from a mixture of garden or turf land and old humus. It can be replaced with peat or commercial soil mixture. For greater nutritional value, superphosphate or wood ash is introduced into the soil. The soil is thoroughly mixed, it should be homogeneous, light and crumbly..
For planting fit containers with holes in the bottom and pan.
You can plant seeds in pieces of plastic film, rolled up in the form of cups, paper or plastic containers, peat cups or tablets. When planting seeds in separate containers, you can eliminate the subsequent pick.
Customized containers should not be too spacious.
How to plant peppers on seedlings correctly?
Most often, seeds of pepper are sown in convenient plastic containers. They are tightly filled with soil in such a way that there will be about 2 cm to the sides. With this filling, there will be no leaching of the soil during watering. Soil need to tamp and shed a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
How to sow pepper on seedlings? After 12 hours, grooves are made on the surface of the soil about 1 cm deep. Seeds are sown at a distance of 2 cm from each other, the space between the grooves is 4-5 cm. Top sown with earth, slightly tamped and sprayed with warm settled water.
Sowing pepper to seedlings can be done in a spacious container or in separate containers: cups, rolled pieces of thick film. Landing in individual tanks eliminates the subsequent picks. It is important to choose high quality seeds.to avoid culling.
How to plant peppers on seedlings in separate containers? When planted in cups, the ground is moistened with warm water, a hole is made in it that is 1-1.5 cm deep. The seed is carefully laid out and sprinkled with earth. Glasses are tightly mounted on a pallet.
How to sow pepper seedlings in peat tablets? Before sowing, tablets with a diameter of 3 cm are folded into a deep container and filled with warm water. After a few hours, the peat will swell and increase in size, the tablets will turn into neat columns. Excess fluid is drained.
In the upper part of the posts there are small holes that need to be deepened and laid out in them proklynuvshiesya seeds. The wells are filled with crushed soil and slightly crushed. Watering the planted seeds is not necessary. Peat columns are installed in a plastic container. You need to put them tightly to prevent rollover. From above the tray is covered with a cover or a film.
How to plant peppers for seedlings, photo:
Temperature and watering
Immediately after sowing containers or pots are placed in a warm place. The optimum temperature for germination is 27-28 degrees. Some gardeners specifically warm up the soil before planting, placing it closer to the battery. Lowering the temperature delays germination and often causes the death of seeds.
When sprouts appear on the soil surface, the seedlings are placed in the brightest place. Well, if over the landings will be mounted lamp for additional lighting. The perfect day for peppers lasts 12 hours. At night, the landing can be covered with an opaque cloth.
After germination, the room temperature drops to 20-25 degrees. Watering pepper seedlings need 1 time in 5-6 daysFirst, from the spray gun, and then from the watering can. The container with seedlings is periodically rotated so that the seedlings grow evenly. After the appearance of the first 2 leaves, the plants are ready for picking.
In time planted seedlings grow well, do not get sick and do not need special care. Strictly observing the mode of watering and maintaining the desired temperature in the room, you can not worry about the young planting.
It is important not to keep it in the house for too long and to plant for permanent residence before the onset of the flowering phase, otherwise the fruiting process will slow down.
So, we figured out how to plant pepper seedlings at home, do it correctly and effectively, the rules of sowing, how and when to sow the seeds, care after sowing.
The classic homemade method of growing seedlings
“Dedovsky” method of growing seedlings of pepper at home has the right to exist and even has some advantages:
- When sown in a common container, seed germination is not particularly important.
- Sow in small dishes conveniently.
- When diving seedlings, weak plants are rejected.
- If you comply with the terms and dive farming techniques, then the pepper will transfer it relatively well.
- Planting in the “native” land will not allow the plants to get sick and for a long time to get used to the new ground after planting in the greenhouse.
For sowing, they take a small container with the ground and sow the seeds densely to a depth of 0.5 cm. The earth is watered, the top is tightened with a film and the container is placed in a warm place. After the sprouts appear for a day (two), the seedlings are transferred to a warm window. As soon as the sprouts turn dark green, the first real leaf will appear - they need to dive.
The box for picking (if there are no separate containers, which is preferable) should be at least 12-15 cm deep. Seedlings should be watered several hours before transplanting. Seedlings are planted at a distance of 10-15 cm, preferably in a checkerboard pattern.
Landing in twist (in Moscow)
Sowing seeds for germination between the tapes of toilet paper have become not so long ago. There are supporters and opponents of this method. The main advantage of this method of germination is compactness.
The technology is as follows:
- On the table put a tape of cellophane (convenient to use cut along the length of the food package).
- Toilet paper is laid on top and sprayed with water from a hand sprayer (important! The edges of the paper and cellophane should be the same).
- On a ribbon of cheap (thicker and rougher) toilet paper, the seeds are laid out at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other and from the top edge of the paper at the same distance.
- Cover the seeds with a layer of paper, moisten well.
- Roll in a weak roll, without effort.
- Put a twist in a container at the bottom of which poured some water.
- Clean the design in a warm place.
As soon as sprouts appear, twisting is transferred to a lighted place. Planting in the soil for seedlings produced with two developed cotyledon leaves. The roll is spun and cut with scissors into separate fragments with sprouts. Seedlings are planted in a permanent container, where they will develop before planting in the garden.
Growing seedlings at home is not too troublesome with a certain skill. Follow the terms and agrotechnology, give the seedlings light and heat - the Bulgarian pepper will delight you with a crop before frost.
Terms of sowing seeds for seedlings
As already mentioned, the time of sowing seeds varies. The main criterion for deadlines is the sun, before which the landing of pepper will be a meaningless enterprise. The fact is that the seedlings always need the sun rays in order to grow and give these leaves. No lamps can replace natural light.
When planting seeds should focus on the emergence of long sunny days
Therefore, the southern regions of Russia, in which the sun begins to heat earlier than in other territories, can afford to sow the seeds at the end or even in the middle of January. Gardeners with sites located in the North-West, it is better to wait for March, so as not to lose the seedlings.
Sowing seeds on seedlings: step by step instructions
So, the soil and seeds are prepared, the spring sun has risen - it is time to sow the planting material.
Step 1. Prepare a bowl in which the seeds will germinate. Since the pepper does not tolerate the pick, it is advisable to use single containers immediately in order not to carry out the transplant later. Peat pots with a diameter of ten centimeters will work well. Keep in mind that the peat quickly absorbs moisture, because the seedlings will need more frequent watering. As capacity fit plastic cassettes.
If you want to avoid seedling picks, plant the seeds in separate containers.
Step 2. Fill the selected container for seedlings with soil so that it occupies half of its volume, and tamp it with a scoop or spoon. If before you germinated seeds, the soil should be well hydrated.
Before sowing germinated seeds the soil should be watered.
Step 3. Laying out the seeds, follow the 2x2 centimeters scheme to a depth of at least four centimeters (if you use the box). Deep planting is explained by the peculiarities of the pepper root system: if it grows very close to the surface, then the bush will not keep its shape and will begin to fall.
To further the root system is well established in the soil, plant seeds should be deep
Step 4. If you dip the seeds, cover it with a layer of five centimeters and compact it.
Shifts placed in containers should be covered on top with a primer.
Step 5. Контейнер с семенами накройте сначала стеклом или полиэтиленовым пакетом и переместите в теплое помещение с температурой не менее 28-30 градусов. В таких условиях перец всходит уже к концу первой недели. Если температура будет опускаться ниже этого порога на несколько градусов, семена будут созревать дольше – порядка двух недель. If the degrees are too high, the seeds will dry out.
The first days after sowing seeds, it is recommended to load the containers in plastic bags or film
If you take into account all the rules for the care, the seedlings will be ready for transplant three and a few months after planting the seeds.