In Russia and the CIS countries, the apple tree is the most common fruitful tree. However, on a small summer cottage, planting more than two apple trees becomes a real problem because of their spreading crown. Colony-shaped cultures became a salvation for avid gardeners and lovers of homemade apples. Such apple trees are characterized by the absence of side branches, occupy a small area and give a good harvest. Because many gardeners choose as their favorite variety Apple-tree: landing and care it will not be a big deal for her, if you approach the matter responsibly from the very purchase of a sapling.
Tied young trees of the columnar apple
The history and distribution of compact apple
For the first time this species of tree was found by the summer resident from Canada about half a century ago. He was surprised by a nonstandard type of apple tree: it was a volumetric straight trunk, which instead of the usual side branches was covered with small shoots-fruits. He noticed that the shoots give a great harvest, and he instilled the cuttings of the find to an ordinary apple tree.
So, thanks to a stable mutation, in 1964 an initial variety of a columnar apple was launched, which was given the name "Vazhak". The amazing tree quickly attracted the attention of summer residents, which resulted in the active breeding of different varieties with apples of various sizes and flavors. Breeders found that the original unique characteristics of the apple are able to move from seed to genus.
Modern columnar apple trees have the following characteristics:
- the height of an ordinary tree is 2.5 m, the girth is 0.5 m,
- lack of oblong extra twigs,
- quick ripening of fruits
- different tree subtypes: miniature, medium and vigorous.
Such an apple tree can be covered with inflorescences already in the first season after transplantation, if you regularly fertilize the soil. Previously, the columnar species of a tree were grown only in corporate gardens, but in modern times they appear on many summer cottages.
Selling seedlings in pots with fruits
How to buy the right seedlings
The first step to creating a good apple orchard with a rich harvest is to buy the right “source code”. It is best to choose planting material in the nursery or specialty store. Vendors in the markets, and even more so private traders selling seedlings on the streets, are able to give out one variety after another or sell a pear instead of an apple tree.
To avoid fraud and buy a reliable sapling, you should adhere to the following expert advice:
- Buy a sapling with a tag indicating the type and age of the plant. If you ask, a reliable seller will attach to the purchase a written document with information about the growing region, resistance to cold, fruiting period and other data.
- Choose seedlings with a hidden root. Plants that are sold with the root system in the ground will be stored longer before planting and take root better on the site.
- Inspect the container in which the seedling is sold. It is necessary to find out whether the tree was moved to it before implementation or initially grew there. In the first case, there is a risk that the seedling will not take root.
- To acquire one-year saplings. They adapt more easily to two-year-olds, more likely they are beginning to grow and bear fruit.
- These plants do not have lateral processes, stem length - 60-70 cm, there are 5-6 buds.
- Keep the roots in a humid environment until planting. Immediately after the purchase, the root system is placed in a humid environment, if a plant with open roots was purchased. They are wrapped in a wet, dense fabric, and wrapped with a film on top.
If the gardener acquires a tree with a root system available for inspection, it is necessary to check each root. They should not be overflows and cones, they should be elastic and smooth. You can scrape one spine and consider the fabric: if it is white and alive, then the seedling is in order.
Important! The ideal purchase option is to come to the dacha to the seller, select the seedling you like on the plot and ask to dig. So you can inspect the site of the roots, which should not have injured fragments and growths.
Fruit ovaries on the columnar apple
Choose the time to plant an apple tree
The main factor that affects the landing date is favorable weather conditions. They may occur:
- In the spring. They choose the time before the start of sap flow in the trees, that is, before the buds begin to appear on the branches, but the soil is already heated. To plant a tree in the spring, a place for it needs to be prepared in the fall: dig a hole and fertilize it. During the winter, the soil will settle, the fertilizer will disperse over the soil, and apple roots will immediately fall into the nutrient soil. However, it all depends on the climatic conditions in the region where the tree will be grown. So, in the Moscow region and the Leningrad region landing time begins after April 15, and in the Urals and in Siberia a little later.
- In the fall. It is permissible to transplant trees in a warm autumn - for the Moscow region this is the period at the end of September / beginning of October, for the Urals - a little earlier. Planting occurs after the leaves fall from the trees about a month before the cold weather. The most important thing is to give the sapling time so that it can take root before the onset of extreme cold.
Important! If planting material was sold in a container with a closed root system, it can be planted even in summer.
Fruit trees with apples of different varieties
Features of columnar Apple: advantages and disadvantages
Short, thickened branches grow at an acute angle to the trunk. Even vigorous group without pruning forms a dense crown, clinging to it. The trunk and shoots are disproportionately thickened. They are covered with small kolchatka, with dense internodes. Flower buds and fruits closely adjacent to the stem. They appear in the third, fourth year.
Thanks to the selection, planting of columnar apple trees in the spring with a lump of land and obtaining a crop in the same year, in summer or autumn, depending on the variety, became quite real.
This is the greatest advantage of this variety. Other positive qualities:
- Dwarf type of growth, due to which the tree occupies a small area.
- Available height for care and harvest.
- The ability to grow on the site a lot of different varieties.
- The miniature dimensions of heat-loving hybrids allow you to grow them in a harsh climate, because they can be completely covered (wrap) for the winter.
- Give the original decorative garden at any time of the year.
Unfortunately, there are disadvantages:
- Relatively modest harvest from one apple tree. For example, 3-4 kg is harvested from a young tree; an adult plant gives 5-6 kg. Each tree of a strong-growing traditional variety is able to bestow 80-100 kg of fruit on the owner.
- Summer "columns" are much smaller than autumn hybrids.
- Many representatives are prone to diseases, in particular, scab.
- Low location to the ground increases the risk of fruit freezing during early frost and sudden temperature changes.
- Small apple trees are much more likely to suffer from the attack of rodents than their big relatives. In view of this, mandatory protection is required for the winter, especially for young seedlings.
- The term of life and fruiting is 15-20 years.
When all the pros and cons are taken into account, it is necessary to determine the appropriate landing dates. For each climate they have their own.
When to plant: spring or autumn, planting dates in different regions
Gardeners of all climatic zones are united by the rules by which the planting of columnar apple trees in the spring will become successful and guarantees the survival of seedlings with open roots. The main thing is to fulfill certain requirements: Work should begin when the soil warms up to +10. + 15 ° С, and air temperature - no less than + 15 ° С. Naturally, in the regions such weather is established at different times.
For example, in the Moscow region - at the end of April, the beginning of May, in the Urals - in the second and third decade of May, and in the south of Siberia - in the late spring and early summer. Landing is carried out before bud break, but after spring return frosts have passed. Planted plants with bare root system can be in the fall, but not later than three weeks before the onset of a steady cold snap. Young plants must take root. That is, to have enough time for the regrowth of hairy roots, which absorb nutrients from the soil. Otherwise, the seedling will not take root and freeze at a negative temperature.
Learn more about how to choose the right place for a column-like apple tree, and planting technology.
Preparing for landing
It is necessary to find a place on the site that is protected from turbulence and drafts. It is also important to orient the seedlings around the world. Ideally place the plants on the south side, where the sun will be from dawn to dusk. It is undesirable to locate trees in the northeast, where lighting is only until noon. Exclude the northern location, because the constant shading is one of the reasons why the columnar apple does not bear fruit. In addition to light, you need to take into account a number of other factors:
- features of accommodation
- selection of planting material
- soil optimization.
In other words, in order to maximize future yields, you need to take care of them long before planting.
Planting and care for the columnar apple (in short)
- Landing: in spring, before the start of sap flow or at the end of September and beginning of October.
- Bloom: in May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: fertile, neutral.
- Watering: young trees - once every three days, in heat and drought - every other day or every day. Mature trees once or twice a week. From mid-July, watering is gradually reduced, and in August, it stops altogether. The best way to water is drip.
- Top dressing: regular: spring - 2-3 nitric, organic (fermented solution of chicken manure or mullein) top dressing, until mid-summer - 2-3 foliar top dressings with urea, in the first half of July they apply complex mineral fertilizer, and since August only mineral phosphate and potash fertilizers .
- Pruning: at the beginning of summer and autumn, after leaf fall.
- Breeding: by air, but mainly by grafting.
- Pests: apple green and plantain aphids, sawfly, glass bowl, red tick, moth, moth, leafworm, hedgehog, wormfish, currant, fruit and subcortical leafworm, fruit and fruit moth, various moths, rowan moth, unpaired, tanned and ringed shchristchik moth, unpaired moth, tanned and ringed silk shrike, various moths, various moths, rowan moth, unpaired, tanned and ringed shchristchik moth, unpaired moth, tanned and ringed shchristchis moth, various moths, rowan moth, unpaired, tanned and ringed shchristchik moth, unpaired moth, tanned and ringed shchristchis moth, various moths, rowan moth, unparalleled, tanned and ringed silk shredder. blood and krasnogallovaya aphid, goose-weevil, western unpaired bark beetle, sapwood, pear trumpet and sawfly.
- Diseases: proliferation of apple trees (witch's broom), bitter and fruit rot, mosaic disease, mosaic ringing, milky luster, flyworm, real mulberry tree, common cancer, rust, black cancer, dying off branches, scab, subcutaneous viral blotch, powdery mildew, rubberiness, flatness branches, glassiness of fruits, cytosporosis, black spot.
Kolonovidnaya Apple - description
The researchers found that the characteristics of apple-shaped apple trees are due to the presence of a special gene - Co. In such apple trees, branches from the trunk depart at an acute angle and grow almost along the conductor, so the trees look like pyramidal poplar. The stem of the columnar apple is thickened, overgrown with small sprigs with flowering buds at the ends. The side branches of the columnar apple trees are much less powerful than the skeletal branches of ordinary apple trees, most often they are replaced by grooves, spears and ringworms. The shoots of apple trees of colon-shaped varieties are thick, the internodes shortened on them. Tall varieties of columnar apple trees tend to branch 3-4 times, and medium-grown ones are 1.5-3 times stronger than dwarf varieties. From three to four years of age, lateral branching ceases. If the apical bud is damaged, the growth of the apple tree stops, but the branching increases, so for those who need an apple tree of exactly kolonovidnoy shape, it is very important to maintain a growing point at least the first two or three years of life of the seedling. And the columnar apple trees start to bear fruit, usually in the second or third year. The first 5-6 years yields increase annually, and from the seventh or eighth year, with proper care, they remain consistently high. The columnar apple does not bear fruit longer than 15–20 years, after which the main part of the rings dries out; however, medium- and vigorous varieties of columnar apple trees or trees grafted on seed rootstocks can prolong the life of the rejuvenating pruning.
Kolonovidnye apple trees save space to owners of small gardens, which on the site of one ordinary apple can plant up to several dozen colonoid trees. Two types of columnar apple trees are distinguished - varieties with the mentioned Co gene and ordinary varieties grafted onto superdwarf clone rootstocks and formed as columns. Planting of columnar apple trees and their care is the topic of our article.
Choosing the right type of columnar apple
If you look at the offers of online stores - literally captures the spirit: beautiful trees covered with fruits, loud names, enthusiastic assurances of unprecedented yield. An inexperienced gardener is tempted, but soon he is disappointed.
Russian scientists have found that 90% of the so-called columnar apple trees on the Russian market are counterfeit. Often under the guise of columnar cultures the wild bird is sold, in other cases the seedlings are obtained by amateur gardeners and do not give the promised results. Imported varieties are generally not adapted to our conditions. How to be? Everything is very simple:
- When purchasing, make sure that the variety is included in the state register of breeding achievements.
- Apple tree should be zoned.
- Do not chase after loud names and bright booklets.
The table below presents the varieties that have passed ten years of testing on the territory of Russia and have received the approval of breeders. Buy them exactly.
Tell you more about some varieties.
By right, it is considered one of the best varieties of columnar apple trees. The authorship is owned by Viktor Kichin Valeryanovich, a culture obtained by him in 1974 as a result of the crossing of the “Leader” and “Abundant” apple trees.
The tree is low, no more than 2 meters in height, with a compact crown and a dense root system. Already in the first year, the tree begins to bloom, in the fifth year, the yield is 5-8 kg per tree. But this is not the limit, with the right agricultural technology, you can double the figures. At the same time the fruits are large, juicy, tasty, ripen in late August. The variety has been recognized in gardens for its frost resistance and low susceptibility to disease.
You can grow in the suburbs and nearby regions, as well as in the Urals. In the State Register since 2002.
The trees slightly exceed the height of 2 meters, have a compact and compact crown. The variety is skoroplodny, already for the first year it is possible to collect 1-2 fruits from each tree. Apples are large and medium, weighing 100-250 g, in some specimens up to 350 g. The average yield is 5-6 kg per tree, but with the application of organic fertilizers and proper care, you can double the result. The flesh is juicy, sweet and sour, aromatic. The ripening is average, the crop is eaten from early to mid-September.
Feature - high resistance to various diseases, therefore, chemical treatment is practically not required. The variety is suitable for cultivation in central Russia and in the Moscow region.
The height of the trees is about 2.3 m, with a crown width of not more than 20 cm. Such dimensions make it possible to use seedlings not only for amateur gardening, but also in industrial gardens. The fruits ripen in early October, large, weight 100-250 g. The flesh is snow-white, juicy, sweet with a barely noticeable sourness. The yield of the variety is high, up to 150 t / ha or 6-10 kg per tree.
One of the few varieties of columnar apple trees that can be grown not only in central Russia, but also in the Urals, in Siberia and even in the Far East.
Trees, as a rule, have one trunk and reach a height of 3 meters. The krone is compact, narrow, fruiting occurs on kolchatka. Fruits are medium, sometimes large, weighing 100-140 g, some specimens 200 g. The yield is high, up to 6-7 kg per tree. Feature of the variety is the period of active fruiting, amounting to 14-16 years. Therefore, once a decade, the garden needs to be updated.
When buying, give preference to seedlings on a dwarf rootstock. You can identify them by the following features:
- root system of the fibrous type
- there are practically no thick vertical roots,
Dick, on the contrary, has multiple thick roots located at an acute angle towards the bottom. This information will allow you not to purchase counterfeit.
Having dealt with the selection and purchase of varieties, you can proceed to the next stage.
The rules of planting a columnar apple
It is possible to plant apple trees both in single holes, and in trenches. The choice of method depends on the size of the garden. For amateur gardening, planting in pits is quite acceptable, in industrial it is preferable to plant in ditches. The distance between the seedlings should be 1-1.5 meters. A thicker planting increases the risk of developing diseases, and it is difficult to care for such a garden.
Novice gardeners often do not know at what depth to prepare the seat. In fact, everything is simple: the depth of the pits or trenches is selected taking into account the development of the root system of the seedling. Корневая шейка после посадки должна быть чуть выше поверхности земли.
Технология правильной посадки:
- After digging a hole or ditch, let it stand for a month to sit down on the ground.
- Before planting, displace the excavated earth and humus in equal parts. As for mineral fertilizers, it is possible to use when planting, but the best result is provided by the introduction of a tree in subsequent years of development.
- Stretch the string or string along the future rows.
- Placing the seedling in the hole, straighten its roots, make sure that they are not directed upwards.
- Pour the seedling with the prepared mixture, compact the soil so that there are no air pockets.
- After planting, water the seedlings. Enough 2 liters per tree.
In the future, make sure that the soil does not dry out.
The plant is demanding of fertilizers, especially nitrogen. For dressings use the means prepared according to the following recipe:
- Water - 10 liters.
- Fresh cow dung - one shovel.
- Urea - 20-25 g.
All ingredients mix to a smooth consistency. Add fertilizer in the amount of 2 liters per tree. All you need is three dressings:
- the first - after bud break,
- the second is in two weeks,
- the third after another 14 days.
The same recipe can be used for weakened seedlings, one or two additional feeding is enough.
Scientists have found that in the conditions of Central Russia the introduction of potash and phosphate fertilizers does not give visible results, but the columnar apple is very favorable to nitrogenous substances. If annually feeding the trees with a mixture of manure and urea improves the growth and fruiting. Amount of fertilizer per one hundred garden:
- manure - 500 kg
- urea - 20 kg.
Instead of urea, you can use any kind of nitrate.
If there is sandy soil in your area, the amount of nitrogen fertilizers should be increased. Urea contribute 10 kg per hundred parts three times per season. For peat soils fertilization should be combined with irrigation. In dry peaty soil, nitrogenous top dressings are not absorbed by apple trees.
Do not get carried away with nitrogen supplements: their excess slows the growth and development of seedlings.
Useful Care Secrets
We have prepared for you a small list based on the recommendations of scientists and professional gardeners. Take advantage of it and you will be rewarded with a strong tree, giving a bountiful harvest.
- If there are a lot of fruits, help the tree by making additional dressings and more abundant watering (without excessive enthusiasm, so as not to re-moisten the soil).
- The top of the seedlings are often affected by frost, which leads to the appearance of two or three additional shoots. You can leave them, they will bear fruit the same way as the main trunk. But it is better to cut the ring in early May.
- Trim the lateral branches, leaving two or three buds.
- For the winter, tie the trees with ruberoid, spruce branches or spunbond. You can combine materials, pour sawdust and snow. Do not forget to remove the insulation in March and early April, so that the tree is not susceptible.
In Siberia, good results are obtained by growing colonized apple trees in stlant culture. Read more about this technique in the following material.
Diseases and pests: prevention and control measures
Measures to combat diseases and pests of columnar apple trees are the same as for ordinary crops. But you need to be more attentive to scab and moth. The main signs of disease and pests are in the table. There you will find the recommended drugs and their dosage.
Apple-tree pests: Apple tree beetle
Gray beetle up to 5 mm long. It feeds on the insides of the kidneys, gnawing them.
A characteristic feature - droplets of juice from the kidneys. Pest larvae actively destroy inflorescences, and grown individuals - foliage and fruits.
Fufanon 10ml / 10 l of water.
Inta C-M 1 pc / 10 l.
Double spraying with a consumption on a tree no more than 2 l.
Coloniform Diseases: Apple Scab
First, olive leaves appear on the leaves, then shoots and fruits become infected (dark spots, the fruit flesh softens).
Hamair 10 tablets per 10 liters of water. Three spraying.
Fitolavin 20 ml / 10 l. 4 treatments with an interval of 2 weeks.
The coloniferous apple tree is practically not affected by other diseases and pests.
Prevention consists in timely cleaning of the fallen leaves with the subsequent destruction, redigging between rows, spraying of trees with preparations before flowering.
Unfortunately, the peak of interest in columnar cultures in our country fell on the collapse of the USSR. At that time, gardeners and scientists had no time for experimenting and studying, they survived as they could. The popularity of these trees returned in the middle of the zero years, because too little time has passed to make more detailed recommendations for care. Many aspects of agricultural engineering are still unknown or in the stage of heated discussions.
If after reading the article you have any questions - ask in the comments. We will try to answer them. Do not forget to share the article in social networks, we will be pleased, and your friends will be useful.
Distinctive features are due to the presence of a special gene So. External description is:
- branches from the trunk go at an acute angle and grow almost along the conductor; apparently, the tree looks like a pyramidal poplar,
- the trunks are thickened and overgrown with small branches, at the ends of which there are flower buds,
- lateral branches are more powerful than skeletal on ordinary apples,
- thick shoots with short internodes.
Lateral branching ends in 3-4 years. When the apical bud is damaged, the tree stops growing, but the branching increases, for this reason it is necessary to maintain a growth point for at least the first couple of years of the seedling's life.
Apple trees bloom and come into fruiting, usually for 2-3 years. The harvest regularly grows for the first 5-6 years, in subsequent years everything depends on proper care. Fruiting lasts about 15-20 years, then almost all of the collar dries out, but medium and high-growth varieties, grafted on seed stocks, can still be "afloat", if you perform a rejuvenating pruning.
Below, we will tell you about the varieties of apple-shaped trees, about the features of their care and planting.
Colony Apple: Varieties
Depending on the height of the tree, apple-shaped apple trees are:
In terms of ripening varieties are divided into early, mid and late.
If speak about early grades apple-shaped trees, their fruits ripen from late July to early autumn. Apples can be consumed fresh or as an ingredient for making jams, juices or compotes. But these apples are stored for long. These varieties include:
- Medoc is a semi-dwarf variety that is resistant to pests and diseases, apples of a white and yellow hue, have a thick peel, flesh is juicy and grainy, has a pronounced honey flavor. The average fruit weight is 100-250 g, trees grow up to 2.5 m in height,
- President - srednerosly grade, winter-hardy, compact and high-yielding. Resistant to pests and diseases, apples are light yellow or light green, sometimes they have a pink blush. Medium weight - up to 200 g, soft, juicy and fine-grained flesh,
- Vasyugan is a winter-hardy, productive variety, resistant to pests and diseases, the apples are red-striped, have a conical shape, taste sweet and sour, the pulp is juicy, soft and creamy,
- Dialogue is a frost-resistant semi-dwarf variety, the fruits are small and juicy, bright yellow in color, have a flat shape. Resistant to insects and diseases
- Ostankino is a semi-dwarf variety, fruits are sweet-sour and fragrant, have a green blush. Average weight - up to 220 grams.
Mid-season varieties ripen throughout the autumn, they are used for use in pure form and for processing, the fruits are stored for long. The most famous varieties:
- Maljukha is a delicious variety, apples are large, truncated-conical in shape, color is bright yellow or yellow-orange, the skin is strong yellow in color, the pulp is fragrant and fine-grained,
- Gin - frost-resistant apples are bright red, the flesh is firm and juicy, the taste is sweet and sour,
- Triumph - semi-dwarf fruits of a dark red color, the skin is dense and glossy, the flesh is crispy and fine-grained, the taste is sweet, sweet, there is a slight sourness,
- Arbat is a highly productive winter-hardy variety resistant to pests and diseases, it ripens in autumn, the fruits are bright cherry, the pulp is juicy, sweet-sour,
- Yedzenu - vigorous apples, resistant to frost, have a yellow color and fine-grained flesh.
Late varieties ripen from October and can be stored until spring. Among the most famous are:
- Amber apple tree - frost-resistant semi-dwarf variety, fruits yellow-green, flesh fine-grained and sour-sweet,
- Currency - semi-dwarf large apples of a bright yellow color, the flesh is sweet, juicy and aromatic,
- Moscow necklace is a high-yielding variety, resistant to diseases and pests, apples are large and dark red, the skin is dense and juicy, the flesh is sweet with a little sourness,
- Bolero - green apples, white flesh, firm and juicy,
- Yesenia - high resistance to scab and frost, large fruits of dark red color.
Rules for the care of the columnar apple in spring and other seasons
In the spring, before bud breaks, trees should be pruned and treated for diseases and pests, as well as fed nitrogen fertilizer.
When forming buds on barely planted trees, they should be carefully removed, but in the second year of life, leave about 10 flowers, and then increase the load as they mature, the number of flowers should be twice as large as the number of ripened fruits. On the fruit links we leave a couple of inflorescences, but we postpone the repeated thinning for the summer.
Apple trees must not only be cut, fed and thinned. As part of the care, they need watering and loosening of the soil in the tree circle, but if you grow trees on clonal rootstocks, then when loosening there is a risk of root damage. Then the trunk circle is better to tin - sow the siderats 25 cm from the trunk and constantly mow them.
In early summer, tree care is complex fertilizing with the use of mineral fertilizers. When the ovaries appear on the trees, you need to re-thin them so that only half of them remain on the branches. When the apples grow to the size of a cherry, there are 2 ovaries in each inflorescence; when they become the size of a nut, the ovary remains alone. As a result, there should be one apple on each fruit bearing link.
Watch carefully for changes in the appearance of apples, so as not to miss the onset of disease. If they are detected, it is urgent to take action.
At the end of the summer, we stop feeding the tree with organic matter and nitrogen and turn to potassium, which will contribute to the speedy maturation of young shoots. And so that the tops do not freeze in winter, on each of the four top leaflets, shorten the leaf blades by two thirds.
In the fall, when you harvest, the trees are fed and treated against pests and fungi, and if necessary, they are pruned and prepared for winter.
When planting a columnar apple.
Coloniform apple trees are best planted in early spring, before buds begin to blossom in the trees, but planting is also possible in warm weather in late September or early October. Apple seedlings are better to acquire one-year-olds - they take root much easier than two-year-olds, grow faster and begin to bear fruit, however, choosing planting material, make sure that the roots of seedlings are not overdried or rotted. Prefer planting material in a container - it can be planted in the ground even in summer. The site for columnar apple trees is chosen open, with free access to sunlight and heat, but protected from strong wind. The soil on the site should be moisture-permeable, fertile, and the occurrence of groundwater is not higher than 2 meters.
Planting a columnar apple in the fall.
If you decide to plant not one or two trees, but a full-fledged apple orchard, place the seedlings in a row at a distance of half a meter from each other, leaving 1-meter wide aisles. Pits for seedlings of at least 90x90x90 cm should be prepared at least two weeks before planting, otherwise, if the trees are planted without prior preparation, the root neck after the precipitation may be underground, and this should not be allowed.
When digging holes, fertile soil layer should be discarded in one direction, and the bottom - in the other, so that they do not mix. If you plant apples in heavy soil, be sure to place a drainage layer of sand and rubble on the bottom of the pit. Then add to the fertile soil 3-4 buckets of compost or humus, 50-100 g of potash fertilizer and 100 g of superphosphate, and if the soil is acidic, add 100-200 g of dolomite flour, mix well, put the soil mixture in the pit, level and leave for two weeks to soil settled and compacted.
After half a month, pour the rest of the soil mixture into the hole with a hill, place the seedling on it so that its root neck is just above the plot surface, straighten its roots, fill the hole with barren soil from the bottom layer, compact the soil and 30 cm from the stem to form around each trees circular hole with a roller with a height of 10-15 cm. In each hole after planting, pour 1-2 buckets of water, and when it is absorbed, grumble the tree circle with peat, sawdust or cut grass. If you are worried that a gust of wind can break an apple tree, drive a peg near it and tie a tree to it.
How to plant a columnar apple in the spring.
If you are going to plant colonized apple trees in spring, it’s better to prepare pits for them in autumn - during the winter the soil will settle, clump up, fertilizers will dissolve, and the roots of your seedlings will be in fertile nourishing soil, which will allow them to grow quickly and, perhaps, even bloom. The rest of the procedure for spring planting of columnar apple trees is no different from the autumn one.
Care of the columnar apple in the spring.
In the spring, before budding begins, pruning and disease-prone apple trees are pruned and prevented from being treated, and also fed with nitrogen fertilizers.
When the buds begin to form on the apple trees, they are carefully removed on the newly planted trees, ten flowers can be left on the apple trees of the second year of life, and gradually increase the load on older trees, leaving only two times more flowers than apples should ripen. In total, two inflorescences are left on the fruit links, postponing the repeated thinning for the summer period.
In addition to pruning, fertilizing and thinning, the apple trees need watering and loosening the soil in the near-stem circle, but if you grow trees on clonal rootstocks, then loosening can damage the roots. In this case, it is better not to carry out mulching, but tinning of the circle of a tree - in the radius of 25 cm from the trunks to sow the green manure and regularly mow them.
Care of the columnar apple in summer.
In the first half of June, they carry out complex feeding of columnar apple fertilizers with mineral fertilizers. As soon as the ovaries appear on the apple trees, they re-thin the future crop - only half of the ovaries are left on the branches. When the future apples become the size of a cherry, only two ovaries are left in each inflorescence, and when the fruits reach the size of a walnut, only one of the two ovaries is left — in total, one apple will be poured on each fruit bearing link.
In the summer, you need to carefully monitor the appearance in the garden of pests and any changes in the appearance of apple trees, so as not to miss the onset of any disease, and if you can diagnose the problem, take action immediately, otherwise the crop will be threatened. The treatment of colloid apple trees from pests and diseases is carried out no later than a month before harvesting.
Since August, they stop feeding apple trees with organic matter and nitrogen fertilizers - at this time, trees need potassium, which helps the young shoots to ripen faster. In order to keep the tops of colony-shaped apple trees from freezing in winter, on each of them, in 4 upper leaves, leaf blades are shortened by two thirds.
Features of the columnar apple
Scientists have found that such unusual characteristics of the columnar apple directly depend on the special gene Co. In these plants from the trunk branches depart at an acute angle, and they grow almost along the conductor. In this regard, such apple trees are externally similar to pyramidal poplars. Such an apple-tree has a thickened trunk, on which grows many small branches, and flower buds are located on their tops. Skeletal branches of simple apple trees are much more powerful than lateral branches of columnar apple trees. Often they are replaced by spears, rags, or collar. The shoots of such a plant are quite thick, with shorter internodes located on them. Dwarf varieties have a lower tendency to branching as compared with medium growth (1.5-3 times) and tall (3-4 times). After the tree is 3–4 years old, the lateral branches cease to grow. In the case when the apical bud is injured, the growth of the plant will stop, but at the same time the side branches will begin to actively grow. In this regard, those gardeners who want to grow a columnar apple should do everything in order for the plant growth point to remain at least for the first 2 or 3 years. Цвести и приносить плоды такое яблоневое дерево начнет на 2 либо 3 год жизни. Урожай в первые 5–6 лет с каждым годом становится все обильнее, но уже с 7–8 года жизни растения он наблюдается стабильно высокий, однако это только в том случае, когда за яблонькой будет обеспечен правильный уход.The columnar apple tree bears fruit no more than 15–20 years; after this period, most of the ruts die. But if you grow strong or medium varieties or a tree that was grafted on seed rootstocks, then in these cases a rejuvenating pruning can be used that can significantly prolong the life of the apple tree.
Apple trees such as columnar trees are ideal for owners of small gardens. So, instead of one ordinary apple tree, you can land several dozen columns. There are 2 different types of columnar apple trees:
- varieties that have a gene So,
- simple varieties that were grafted on superdwarf clone stocks (they are shaped like columns).
What time to plant
Experts advise planting this type of apple tree in the springtime, but you need to have time to do it before the buds begin to open. If you wish, you can plant a sapling in the open ground in the autumn in the last days of September, or the first - in October, the main thing is to have warm weather. For planting, it is recommended to purchase one-year seedlings, rather than biennials. The fact is that such comparative plants easily take root and begin to grow and bear fruit much faster. When choosing a seedling, special attention should be paid to its roots, so, they should not be rotten. Trees with dried roots are also not worth buying. It is best to buy a seedling in a container, it can be planted even in summer. A suitable site should be open and sunny, but it should be remembered that such an apple tree requires protection from strong gusts of wind. Soil needs saturated with nutrients and well permeable to water. Groundwater at the site should lie at a depth of not less than 200 centimeters.
In springtime, it is necessary to prune apple trees and process them for the purpose of prophylaxis against a variety of harmful insects and diseases. You need to make these procedures before the buds unfold. At the same time, fertilizers containing nitrogen must be applied to the soil.
In apple trees planted this year, you need to pick off all the buds formed. In plants of the second year of life, only 10 buds are left. Starting from the third year of life, the load on the tree should not be increased immediately, but gradually, so that the bud leaves 2 times more on the plant than the fruit should ripen. So, on each fruit link 2 inflorescences should remain, while thinning is done again in the summer period.
Also, the columnar apple trees should be watered in a timely manner and the loosening of the topsoil of the trunk circle should be done. However, in the case when the tree is grown on a colonic stock, in the process of loosening the soil can be injured plant roots. In this case, the near-stem circle is recommended to be tinned, not sprinkled with a layer of mulch. To do this, it is necessary to retreat a quarter of a meter from the trunk and sow grass-green manure in a circle, which will need systematic mowing.
Care in summer
Until mid-June, you need to make a comprehensive feeding, for which use mineral fertilizers. After the ovaries are formed, it will be necessary to thin them a second time. As a result, ½ part of the ovary should remain on the tree. After the fruits are similar in size to the cherry, it is necessary to make sure that there are only 2 ovaries in each inflorescence. When the apples are similar in size to a walnut, one of the two remaining ovaries must be removed. As a result, only 1 fruit should grow on 1 fruit bearing link.
In the summer, do not forget to carry out preventive examinations of apple trees. If any harmful insects are detected or the plant becomes sick, then it is just necessary to take timely measures to treat it or get rid of pests, otherwise you may be left without a crop. 4 weeks before the scheduled date of gathering fruits, all treatments of the plant against harmful insects and diseases should be stopped.
With the onset of August in the soil no longer apply organic fertilizers, as well as those that contain nitrogen. At this time, it is recommended to apply only potash fertilizers to the soil, because they contribute to the more rapid maturation of young shoots. In order to prevent the upper parts of the shoots from frost in the winter, they need to be shortened by 2/3 to 4 leaves, which are at the top.
In the autumn, when the fruits will be harvested, fertilizer must be applied to the soil and processed against harmful insects and fungi that have taken shelter in the bark, as well as inside the soil of the trunk circle. If necessary, pruning should be done for sanitary purposes, and then the trees should be prepared for wintering.
Colony Apple Processing
At the beginning of the spring period (before the sap flow begins) and in the autumn time (when the leaves fall off), it is necessary to process these apple trees in order to prevent diseases and harmful insects. Processing should be subjected to the surface of the wheel circle. Most often, gardeners in this case use a solution of Nitrafen or Bordeaux mixture (1%). This treatment will help get rid of harmful insects and pathogens of various diseases that are in the soil of the circle of the trunk and in the bark of the apple tree. There are those gardeners who use a solution of urea (7%) for springtime, which acts as a fungicidal and insecticidal agent, as well as nitrogenous fertilizer.
Due to the fact that such an apple tree does not have a taproot that goes deep into the soil, and the root system is surfaces and is within a quarter of a meter from a trunk, then watering young plants in summer in normal weather is necessary 1 time in 3 days . In dry and hot weather it is necessary to water the columnar apple trees every day or 1 time in 2 days. Watering mature plants should be carried out 1 or 2 times in 7 days. From the second half of June, watering is reduced a little, and from the beginning of August watering of these plants ceases altogether, the fact is that they must have time to complete the formation of flower buds, as well as growth, and also prepare for wintering.
In order for the soil not to dry out too quickly and there is no dense crust on its surface, the near-stem circle is covered with a layer of mulch (straw) or it is sown with green manure. Watering such apple trees is recommended by the drip method, while the supply of moisture to the root system should be dosed. However, once every 4 weeks it is necessary to produce abundant watering so that the soil can get wet to the depth at which the roots lie. 1 time in 2 weeks in the evening after the sun goes down, it is necessary to thoroughly water the crowns of plants with a hose.
Since a very large number of apples are formed on this tree, it takes up a lot of nutrients from the soil. In this regard, such a plant should be fertilized throughout the entire period of intensive growth. In spring, organic fertilizer must be applied to the soil. To do this, use both fermented chicken droppings and slurry. In order for the tree to receive the required amount of nitrogen, you can spray it with a solution of urea (7%), but this must be done at the beginning of the spring period, before the buds begin to open. After that, before the beginning of the second half of the summer period, if desired, the plants can be fed 2 more times in a foliar way and the urea solution (0.1%) can also be used.
During the peak of intensive growth (from the beginning to the middle of June), the trees need complex mineral fertilizers. Since the beginning of August, organic fertilizers should no longer be used for fertilizing. During this period, the columnar apple requires potassium, as it contributes to the rapid maturation of the upper parts of the shoots.
At the beginning of the autumn period, the stumps of young colony-shaped apple trees must be carefully covered with spruce or wood shavings. It should be remembered that only dry covering material should be used, and it should be protected from the penetration of rodents. It is impossible to cover plants with straw. In the event that the near-stem circle is mulched with straw, then it should be removed in the fall, because it is simply loved by various rodents. When the snow cover appears, it is necessary to make an earthing up of the base of the apple tree with snow.
How to prune the columnar apple
One of the main principles of pruning an apple tree should be remembered - the more part of the branches you cut, the more intensive their growth will be. So, for example, you cut the branch about ½ part, and at the same time there are 3 or 4 peepholes on it. After some time, from these eyes will grow 3 or 4 strong escape. In the event that you will cut 1/3 of the branch, and it will have 7 or 8 eyes, then 7 or 8 middle shoots will grow from them. If pruning is done correctly, then each year the growth of the apple tree will be 10–15 centimeters, and 2 or 3 lateral buds will appear.
While you are cutting the branches, you should not forget that you should not touch the center conductor. Otherwise, having lost a point of growth, the tree will begin to actively grow the branches.
At the beginning of the spring period, all lateral branches should be cut near the tree of the first year of life so that each of them has only 2 buds left. In the next 2 or 3 years, it is necessary to engage in the formation of fruit links from young shoots. Those side shoots that are not needed, it is recommended to carefully cut off while they are green. The fact is that the healing of wounds on a lignified shoot takes a relatively longer time.
Before the sap flow begins, a formative pruning should be done. In plants of the first year of life, all lateral branches should be pruned, while they should have 2 buds on them. Also, sanitary pruning is performed, during which diseased, intersecting branches, as well as those affected by severe frosts in winter are removed.
In the second year of life a tree is pruned, forming fruit links. To do this, of those 2 shoots that grew on the cut branch last year, you need to cut off the one that is located more vertically, leaving only 2 buds on it. A horizontally located shoot will start bearing fruit already this year, and from cutting it will appear 2 powerful shoots.
In the third year of life, those branches that gave fruit in the past year should be removed. With the remaining twigs, the same pruning procedure should be carried out as in the past year. It should be remembered that the fruit unit can operate for no more than 3 or 4 years. After this period, it should be cut on the ring.
In the case of the death of the apical point of growth, it is recommended to trim the conductor, with only 2 buds left. Wait until the lateral branches grow from them. Of these branches should be left only 1, and it should be placed vertically. This branch will replace the conductor. The remaining side branches should be cut on the stump (not on the ring), and the stumps should be of the same length as plain stones.
Colony-like reproduction of apple
For reproduction of Apple-tree apple trees, a method of grafting a varietal cutting on the stock that is most suitable is used. However, in order to successfully perform such a procedure requires experience. You can propagate and seed, but it will take too much time and take a large number of forces. And not all the apple trees that grew from the seed are kolonovidnymi. To propagate such a plant, experts advise air layering. Make a branch selection at the very beginning of spring, the thickness of which should be similar to a pencil. Then, at the base, an annular incision of the bark is made, the width of which should be 5 mm. After that, it is necessary to moisten the cotton wool in Heteroauxin and wrap this incision for 24 hours. Next, for wrapping the notch, you should use moistened peat, while this place is covered with a black polyethylene bag and fixed so that air does not get under it. Do not allow the peat to dry completely. In the autumn time, the roots should grow in the place of the incision. After that, the branch is separated from the parent plant and planted in the soil. The probability of success of such breeding is 50:50.
To grow seedlings of this type of apple trees is not an easy task. In this regard, it is recommended to buy them in proven nurseries, while transporting seedlings must be properly.
Main varieties with photos and descriptions
The separation of varieties is made depending on their growth, namely, they are divided into vigorous, medium growth (semi-dwarf) and dwarf. And they are divided by the time of ripening of the fruits into late (winter), mid-ripening (autumn) and early (summer). Below are varieties divided by maturity.
On these plants, ripe apples can be collected from the last days of July, until the first - September. Such fruits are eaten fresh or from them harvested jams, jams, compotes, etc. The shelf life of such apples is relatively short.
Most popular varieties:
Such a semi-dwarf variety is characterized by high yield and resistance to frost, diseases and harmful insects. Yellowish-white apples have a rather thick rind, as well as juicy and granular flesh with well-distinguished honey taste. On average, each apple weighs 100-250 grams. Plant height can vary from 200 to 250 centimeters.
This semi-dwarf compact variety is distinguished by high yield and resistance to frost, harmful insects and diseases. The fruits are very fragrant, painted in pale yellow or pale green color, in some cases they form a small light pink blush. On average, apples weigh from 150 to 200 grams. Fine-grained pulp is juicy and tender.
Such a productive variety is resistant to frost, harmful insects and diseases. The shape of the red-striped fragrant fruit is conical, the taste of the flesh is sour-sweet, and it has well-defined subcutaneous spots. Cream-colored pulp is distinguished by its softness and juiciness. On average, the weight of the fruit is 140-200 grams.
Srednerosly grade differs in productivity and resistance to frosts, wreckers and diseases. Apples of a rich yellow color are not very large, but they are rather juicy. The shape of the apples is flat.
Srednerosly grade possesses resistance to harmful insects and diseases. Fragrant, sour-sweet fruits have a light green color with a blush that has a fuzzy, blurred shape. Juicy apples can weigh from 100 to 220 grams.
Also quite popular among gardeners are varieties such as: Chervonets, Ray, Ideal, Raika, Flamingo, Gala, Cheremosh, Iksha, Green Noise, etc.
Fruit ripening on plants of such varieties occurs during the whole autumn period. They are eaten fresh or make a variety of preparations for the winter. Such apples are stored for a relatively short time (maximum until January). Popular varieties:
This dwarf variety is among those that have the highest taste. Truncated conical shaped dessert apples are large. They are painted in orange-yellow or rich yellow color and weigh from 150 to 250 grams. Durable glossy skin is quite thin, and the yellow, fragrant flesh is fine-grained. This variety is high yielding and skoroploden.
The variety is characterized by yield and resistance to frost. Saturated red fruits can weigh 80–200 grams. Sour-sweet pulp is hard and juicy. Apples can persist until January.
Srednerosly grade. The apples have a rich dark red color and have a striped blush on their surface. The shiny skin is quite dense. Snow white crispy flesh fine-grained. She has a sweet dessert taste with a slight sourness. On average, apples weigh 100–150 grams.
The variety is distinguished by high yield and resistance to frost, harmful insects and diseases. The fruits ripen in the last days of September or the first - in November. Saturated cherry color glossy apples of medium size have a sour-sweet juicy flesh. The average weight of the fruit is from 100 to 120 grams.
Such a vigorous variety is resistant to scab and is winter-hardy. On the surface of yellow colored apples there are red touches. The average fruit weight is 150 grams. Fine-grained dense yellowish-green flesh has a sour-sweet taste. Tastes are high.
Also quite popular are such varieties as: Idol, Ladoga, Titania, Teleleimon, Melba, etc.
Amber Necklace (Amber)
Srednerosly grade differs in productivity and resistance to frosts. Large greenish yellow apples have a blush. Fine-grained fragrant flesh juicy and sour-sweet.
Srednerosly skoroplodny grade, characterized by high yield, resistance to frost and scab. Fruits are large (weight about 200 grams) have a rich yellow color with a red barrel. The snow-white sweet juicy flesh is quite fragrant.
Такой самобесплодный сорт отличается высокой урожайностью и устойчивостью к морозам, вредным насекомым и заболеваниям. Плоды довольно большие темно-красные. Кожура плотная. Сладкая, сочная мякоть имеет легкую кислинку. В среднем яблоки весят около 170 грамм.
Плоды большие и их средний вес около 200 грамм. Твердая белая мякоть отличается сочностью.
Обладает высокой устойчивостью к морозам и парше. На поверхности больших яблок (средний вес 170 грамм) имеется сизоватый налет воска.
Also quite popular are such varieties as: Constellation, Snow White, Senator, Trident, Victoria, Barguzin, Garland, White Eagle, Sparkle, Peasant, etc.
Colonoid apple varieties for Siberia
Here are suitable varieties that withstand severe frosts (up to minus 40 degrees). These include Iksha, Barguzin, the Peasant and the President. At the same time, the Vasyugan variety can transfer frosts to minus 42 degrees. They are suitable for cultivation in the Urals, Siberia, the Far East and the Moscow region.
Creation of the plan: single or group landing
In landscape design, a tree planted alone in an open space is called a tapeworm. You can arrange a single tree in the garden if:
- The neighbor is already growing a similar variety that blooms simultaneously with your apple tree. A pair is necessary for the pollination, otherwise the plant will not bear fruit.
- Provided wind protection at any time of the year.
- The apple tree is lit enough.
- A single plant does not violate the decorative integrity of the garden.
In small gardens, columnar apple trees are planted in one row near the fence. If the area allows, the orchard is formed using the planting scheme, keeping the distance between plants in the row of 50-70 cm, in the aisle - 1-1.5 m. The correct placement technique provides the trees with optimal lighting and food.
Landing pit preparation
On fertile soils, the size of the pit for a single tree is 30x30x30 cm. Unfortunately, such conditions are extremely rare, therefore the natural soil needs improvement. This means that the seat is prepared larger and filled with a fertile mixture. Ideally, if the preparation took place in the fall, and the apple tree is planted in the spring. At whatever time the work is carried out, it is better to carry out refueling of the planting holes in advance, no later than a month before planting the seedlings.
Depth of the pit for different types of soil
If there are sandy soils at the site, the seat is prepared with a size of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 m. At the bottom, clay is poured with a layer of 10 cm to retain water. Side walls are fixed with the help of scrap materials, such as slab. It turns out a form resembling a large flower pot, which is filled to the brim with a fertile mixture. On clay soils, the pit is 50 cm wide and 70 cm deep, 70 cm deep. Drainage consisting of sand and crushed stone, 20 cm thick, is poured at the bottom. An average loam mixed with fertilizers is placed on it.
Features of the preparation of the pit near groundwater
Before you prepare a permanent residence of the apple in the open field, it is important to ensure that the depth of groundwater is not more than two meters from the surface. Otherwise, you need to drain the site or build a terrace of the bulk of the soil. For this purpose, retaining walls are built or gabions are installed. The height of the structure depends on how much the water level rises. It is determined in the spring when the topsoil dries out, or in October. Dig a hole 2 m deep and observe its condition. If the water does not go away within two weeks, then you need to take steps to drain for planting apple trees.
To facilitate the care of columnar apple trees will help the proper preparation of the soil during planting. If you make organic fertilizer, then on further feeding can be forgotten for 2-3 years. In the planting pit for one plant you need:
- humus or compost - 3-4 buckets,
- superphosphate + potassium salt - 100 g or 200 g of wood ash.
To improve the structure of clay soils, add peat downstream 2-4 buckets. Sandy soils are optimized using clay or chernozem - 2-3 buckets per planting pit.
Preparing for the winter
Apple trees are freed from dry and fallen leaves, treated with protective equipment, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied. Immediately before the frost stem spud lower peat or soil from the garden. This is necessary to protect the grafting unit.
It is impossible to gather the soil around the tree, because of this the roots will become bare.
In areas with a harsh climate, plants cover for the winter completely, wrap spunbond. It is impossible to meet a modern garden without apple trees. Thanks to the lucky chance and hard work of the breeders, compact column-like varieties have been developed, which every owner of even a small piece of land can afford.
Description of the processing and irrigation of the columnar apple
Before sap flow in early spring and in the fall after leaf fall, columnar apple trees are subjected to preventive treatment, and the soil must also be treated for pests and diseases in the area of the tree trunk. For this, a 1% solution is used. Bordeaux mixture or Nitrofen.
Treatments are needed for the destruction of microorganisms and pests living in the bark or soil. Often for spraying using a 7% solution of urea, which acts as a fungicide, insecticide, and nitrogen fertilizer.
As for irrigation, such apple trees do not have a taproot that goes down, their root system is placed on top within a radius of 25 cm from the trunk, in normal summer weather, young trees are watered once every three days.
And if the weather is too hot and dry, then the soil should be moistened under the trees in a day, or even a day. From mid-June, they are watered even less often and they stop watering by the end of August, so that flower buds form, the tree grows, and it is ready for winter.
For long-term preservation of moisture in the ground, and that it does not have a crust, mulch near-stem circle with straw, or sow it with green manure. Watering the crown apple is better. drip methodMoisture should be dosed to the root system, however, once a month, water the tree abundantly so that the soil in the tree near the root can be moistened. Twice a month in the evenings crowns of apple trees are plentifully watered.
Top dressing and shelter for the winter
Since many fruits form on the apple trees, they choose all the useful components from the soil, respectively, it is necessary to feed the plant the entire growing season. In the spring, organic fertilizers are added to the near-stem circle, for example, fermented chicken droppings or liquid manure.
Also in early spring, before budding, the trees are treated with a 7% solution. urea. Until mid-summer, two more top-dressings with the use of urea are allowed.
During the growing season at the beginning of summer, the plant does not need mineral fertilizers, and in August we exclude organic components, leaving only potassium.
In the autumn, the shtambs of young plants should be made a good shelter with the use of wood shavings or lapnik. The straw does not fit, and if you mulled the trunk circle with its help, then in the autumn remove it so that mice and rats do not start.
Colony Apple Trees
Crop on such an apple need only lateral branches in early summer or late autumn when preparing a tree for winter.
The key pruning principle is that the more you cut, the more active the branch will grow. So, if it is shortened by more than half, the remaining 3-4 eyes will give 3-4 good escapes over time.
During pruning, you need to understand that it is impossible to trim the center conductor, when clipping a growth point, the plant will branch.
In the first year of early spring, the lateral branches are cut off, only two buds are left. The next few years, new shoots form fruit links. But it is recommended to gently pull out unnecessary lateral shoots with green ones, since wounds when pruning lignified shoots are capable of healing are extremely difficult.
Before the sap flow to hold apple pruning. In the first year, the lateral branches are trimmed and leave two buds. For sanitary purposes, you must also remove these branches:
In the spring of the second year fruit units are formed. Of those two shoots that grow on a previously cut branch, leave a horizontal shoot, which will produce fruit in the summer. The vertical shoot cuts up to 2 buds, it will then give two strong shoots.
In the third year, the sprout, which fruited the year before, must be cut, and the rest is pruned by analogy with last year. Any fruit link "works" for about 4 years, then it is cut into a ring.
In the case of the death of the apical point of growth, the conductor is cut off, and two buds remain, you need to wait until the lateral branches grow. Choose one that grows vertically, this branch will act as conductor. Other lateral branches are carved on the stump, but not on the ring. The length of the hemp should correspond to simple kolchatka.
Tree pests and diseases
Like other types of apple trees, columnar trees are exposed to the negative effects of such pests as:
- glass house
- red tick and others.
To combat them should be using insecticides and special hunting belts on the basis of corrugated paper.
Common diseases of this tree are:
- powdery mildew,
- milky shine
- cytosporosis, etc.
So, we reviewed the description of columnar apple trees, as well as the features of care for these trees.
The material will be useful if you want to plant in your garden this type of tree.
Breeding varieties of columnar apple - the choice for every taste
First you need to understand the advantages of columnar apple trees over traditional, tall varieties. The main advantages and characteristics of columnar varieties are:
- A high degree of fertility - the crop will appear in the second year after planting seedlings.
- The compact sizes of a tree allow to break a garden on a small free site.
- The traditional taste of ripe fruit is no different from ordinary varieties, and the yield from one tree is even higher.
- Convenience in the care of the crown of the tree - low columnar apple trees easier to handle pests. Harvesting from a compact tree does not cause trouble to the gardener: you do not need to use special tools for picking apples and tall ladders.
What grades to prefer
Choosing seedlings of columnar apple trees, you should remember that there are two types of compact trees:
- Apple varieties with the So genome grafted onto dwarf rootstocks (003, Currency, Arbat).
Breeding work on the cultivation of apple trees with a compact crown, which were carried out by scientists with the Macintosh variety, were crowned with success. The first dwarf colony-shaped variety "VAZhAK" (Wijeik) was bred in 1964. Further selection on the basis of this variety allowed us to obtain all modern varieties of columnar apple trees.
The choice of location and planting apple-shaped columnar varieties
The layout of trees during planting depends on the layout of the existing garden and the plans of the gardener himself. If you plan a single planting of several trees of columnar varieties on the area of a growing garden, then seedlings can be planted in any free space. At the same time, it is necessary to make sure that neighboring trees do not obscure low-growing columnar varieties.
When planting a large number of dwarf trees is useful to adhere to the recommended planting scheme:
- Trees are planted in rows.
- The distance between the rows is 1 meter.
- The distance between the trees in a row is at least 0.5 meters.
For planting trees should choose a place protected from flooding. With a high level of groundwater it is necessary to arrange reliable drainage at the bottom of the landing holes. For the drainage layer suitable pebbles or gravel, as well as coarse quartz sand, which are stacked in layers with gravel.
When choosing planting material preference should be given to annual seedlings. Young trees take root more easily in a new place. Their root system does not have long core roots, which are injured when digging up mature trees in preparation for the sale. The survival rate of annual seedlings is much higher than that of older apple trees.
At the site of the proposed garden it is worth noting pegs of the landing pits. The finished pit has a square shape, all sides are about 0.9 m.
Important! The pits for planting columnar apple trees can be larger or smaller than the standard size. It depends on the root system of the individual sapling. You should not plant trees in cramped pits in which you can not freely straighten the roots of the tree.
Mainland soil, excavated when digging holes, should be mixed with compost or filled with organic fertilizers at the rate of 4 kg per 1 seedling. It is recommended to add 100 g of potash and phosphate fertilizers to each pit, which should be thoroughly mixed with the soil.
The seedling is installed in the pit strictly vertically, carefully filling the pit with soil, compressing it from all sides at the stem.
Care of young saplings is the guarantee of a future rich harvest.
Caring for a columnar apple is reduced to correct pruning of the crown, rationing of the crop and timely agrotechnical measures.
When pruning the crown, which is carried out in the spring, you should not be afraid to cut off the excess, the main thing is not to cut the central trunk. Side shoots, shortened by 2/3 of the length, quickly grow, forming strong skeletal branches.
Harvest young apple seedlings can give for the second year. Fragile branches will not withstand the weight of heavy fruit, so you should pick out most of the ovaries, leaving 3-4 pieces per tree. Gradually, the number of fruits on the tree increase.
Important! Tweeze carried out carefully, trying not to damage the young leaves. On the branches leave the buds in the amount of 2 times more than planned to get the fruit.
When the ovaries reach the size of a nut, one of the two is removed to get one apple.
Another important agrotechnical technique that must be used in the cultivation of columnar apple trees is the tincture of the tree trunk. The fact is that the root system of apple trees of this species does not have pivotal roots. Weak surface roots are very delicate and fragile. Grass or cereals planted in tree trunnion circles will help to preserve the soil moisture and save the apple root system from mechanical damage. As an alternative, you can use the mulching of the soil surface.
Watering plantings carried out at least once every 3 days, while necessarily arrange drip irrigation tree crown.
Top dressing of dwarf apple trees
About fertilizing when planting seedlings was mentioned above. During the season, it is useful to feed the plants with urea at least 3 times: after the leaves bloom, they feed for the first time. After about 2 weeks, fertilizer is applied again, and after another 2 weeks, fertilizing is repeated.
Diseases and pests of dwarf apple trees
For miniature trees, the fight against the same pests as on tall apple trees is relevant. The trees are often attacked by the Schlechtindal mite. This microscopic pest is able to weaken young trees, which after infection gradually lose their foliage, wither and lag behind. To deal with the tick should be with the use of special chemicals.
In addition to mite, apple trees are harmed by moth, scab, aphid. Damage to plants by spots and moniliozom requires the use of antifungal agents. The earlier the pests are noticed and the timely treatment is started, the less the apple orchard will suffer.
Apple-tree is kolonovidnaya: photo
- Why do the branches dry on apricot?
- Choice of colophonic cherries for the Moscow region: the best varieties
- Raspberry "News Kuzmina", or the reason for love - in taste
- Secrets of growing home lotus
The neighbor is growing very tasty apricot. I want to try to grow in the same bone. Help advice how to do it right.
It does not matter the grade of apricot, as long as you like it. In any case, it will not be possible to grow exactly the same tree, since during reproduction from a seed, the seedling does not inherit the features of the mother tree. Fruits can both surpass the "parent" and grow wild. Therefore, it is better to ... read more
Tell me, when does the period of leaf fall in an apple tree, as well as a rowan tree, end?
Fall foliage is a seasonal phenomenon in the life of trees and shrubs, which has been observed since early autumn. Getting rid of the leaves before the onset of winter cold, the trees regulate the process of consuming moisture, significantly reducing its need ... read more
What is the difference between apple varieties, champion, glory to the winners and the Orlovsky synapse?
Champion, Glory to the winners and Sinap Orlovsky - these are all names of famous varieties of apples. To understand how they differ, it is necessary to consider the description of each variety separately ... read more
Good day to day. I want to grow an apple tree with an old apple tree, I really like to know that a dwarf stock is needed (m9) and a graft from an old apple tell me where I can get a dwarf stock or how to grow, the procedure is very interesting, I will be very grateful for the answer. Thank.
Watering a columnar apple.
Since the columnar apple trees lack a taproot extending deep into, and their root system is located superficially within a radius of only 25 cm from the trunk, young trees in normal summer weather will have to be watered once every three days. If summer is hot and dry, then be ready to moisten the soil under the apple trees every other day, and maybe daily. Older apple trees should be watered once or twice a week. From mid-June, apple trees are watered less frequently, and in August, watering completely stops, so that the tree has time to form flower buds, complete growth and prepare for winter.
Чтобы влага сохранялась в грунте дольше и на его поверхности не образовывалась корка, приствольный круг мульчируют соломой или засевают сидератами. The best way to irrigate colloid apple trees is drip, with a dosed supply of moisture to the root system, but once a month you should still carry out abundant watering in order to wet the soil in the tree trunks to the depth of the roots. Twice a month after sunset you need to water the crowns of apple-shaped apple trees with a hose.
Top dressing of columnar apple trees.
Forming a huge number of fruits, the columnar apple trees select all the useful substances from the soil, so the apple orchard feeding is carried out during the whole growing season. In the spring organic fertilizers are applied in the near-stem circles of columnar apple trees. This may be slurry or fermented chicken manure. As foliar nitrogen fertilizing, you can use tree treatment with a seven percent solution of urea in early spring, before the buds swell. Later, until mid-summer, you can spend two more foliar application of apple trees with urea with a concentration of 0.1%.
At the height of the growing season - in the first half of June - apples need complex mineral fertilizers, and since August organic substances are excluded from the composition of top dressing, because trees at this time need only potassium, which accelerates the ripening of apple tree tops.
How to propagate columnar apple.
Kolonovidnye apple can be propagated by grafting the varietal cuttings on a suitable stock, but this requires the experience and skill of a professional gardener. Seed breeding method - the longest and time consuming. In addition, when seed reproduction occurs, the splitting of signs occurs - this means that not all seedlings will be colonic. It is best to carry out the multiplication of the columnar apple by air layering. To do this, in early spring, choose a branch as thick as a pencil, make an annular incision of the bark half a centimeter wide at its base, and wrap it for a day with cotton wool soaked in Hetero-Auxin. Then the incision should be wrapped in wet peat and placed in a black plastic bag, securing it so that air does not penetrate it. Make sure that the peat does not dry out. By the fall, roots form under the film, and the branch can be separated from the apple tree and planted. The probability of success of this method is about 50%.
Growing columnar apple trees on their own is very difficult, it is much safer to get them in a nursery with a good reputation and take care of their proper transportation.
Early varieties of columnar apple.
This category of apple yields ripe fruit from late July to early September. Summer varieties are eaten fresh or processed into compotes, jams and juices. Fruits of summer varieties are stored for long. The best early varieties are:
- – Colonoid apple tree - fruitful and cold-resistant semi-dwarf variety, resistant to diseases and pests, with fruits of white-yellow color with thick skin and grainy, juicy pulp with a pronounced honey flavor. The average fruit weight is from 100 to 250 g. Trees of this class reach a height of 2-2.5 m,
- – colon apple tree President - compact, medium grown, high-yielding, winter-hardy and disease-resistant and pest-resistant variety with fragrant light green or light yellow apples, on which a pinkish blush sometimes appears. The average fruit weight is 150-200 g, their flesh is fine-grained, juicy and soft,
- – columnar apple Vasyugan - winter-hardy productive variety, resistant to diseases and pests, with a conical shape with fragrant red-striped apples of a sweet-sour taste with pronounced subcutaneous points. The flesh of the fruit is creamy, soft and juicy. The weight of apples is 140-200 g,
- – Dialogue - productive semi-dwarf frost-resistant variety with small but juicy bright yellow fruits of a flat form. The variety is also highly resistant to diseases and harmful insects,
- – columnar apple Ostankino - resistant to diseases and pests semi-dwarf variety with sweet and sour fragrant apples of delicate green color with a red blush of a blurry form. Juicy fruits weigh from 150 to 220 g.
In addition to those described, early-ripe varieties of columnar apple trees have proven themselves well: Chervonets, Luch, Ideal, Raika, Flamingo, Gala, Cheremosh, Iksha, Green Noise and others.
Mid-season varieties of columnar apple.
Mid-season, or autumn varieties ripen throughout the autumn. They are used for food and processing, since the fruits of these varieties are also stored for a short time - at best, until January. The most popular of them are:
- – Maluha - one of the most delicious dwarf varieties with large truncated-conical dessert-type fruits of bright yellow or yellow-orange color weighing 150-250 g, with a shiny, thin, but strong skin and yellow, fine-grained and fragrant pulp. This dessert variety is characterized by rapidness and productivity,
- – Gin - frost-resistant productive variety with beautiful bright red apples weighing from 80 to 200 g with a juicy, firm pulp of sweet-sour taste. Fruits are stored until January,
- – Triumph - semi-dwarf variety with fruits of a bright dark red color with a striped blush over the entire surface, with a dense, glossy skin and a snow-white, fine-grained crunchy pulp of sweet dessert taste with a slight sourness. The average weight of the fruit is from 100 to 150 g,
- – columnar apple tree Arbat - This winter-hardy and highly productive variety, resistant to diseases and pests, ripens in late September or early October. Its medium-sized bright cherry shiny fruit with a juicy flesh of sweet-sour taste weighs 100-120 g,
- – Yezenu - strong-growing productive variety resistant to scab and frost with yellow fruits weighing about 150 g, covered with a red dash. The flesh of apples is fine-grained, dense, greenish-yellow, sour-sweet, of excellent taste.
In addition to those described, middle-ripening cultivars Kumir, Ladoga, Titania, Teleimon, Melba and others are popular.