Growing apple trees in the country is much more difficult than it might seem at first glance. In order to regularly take a good harvest, it is necessary to care for fruit trees, to know the main diseases of apple trees and their treatment. It is about the diseases of apple trees, their leaves and methods of treatment will be discussed in this material.
Mealy dew: how to determine the disease, methods of treatment of apple
This fungal disease is one of the most common in gardens, gardens and flower gardens. Mealy dew on the apple tree affects the bark, leaves, buds and tree shoots. First, they form a dirty white bloom, which then changes color to brown, dark spots appear. The leaves on the tree begin to turn yellow, dry and fall off, new shoots do not grow, and the tree does not have enough strength to bear fruit. If you do not notice and do not take medical measures in time, the mycelium will resume its activities in the spring. It easily tolerates frosts, persisting in different parts of the tree. Therefore, treatment, as well as prevention, must begin in the spring. The tree is treated with a solution of special preparations, for example, “Skor” or “Topaz” at the rate of 2 ml per 10 l of water. After the tree blossoms, it is sprayed with a solution of copper oxychloride - 40 g per 10 liters of water. You can use the drug "Hom".
Means and methods of dealing with scab
One of those diseases of the apple tree that affects the leaves of the tree. Saplings may also be completely affected. Unless urgent action is taken, the stalks and flowers are affected. It is possible to diagnose this disease by a light green, and then olive-brown oily bloom on the leaves. Because of it, the leaves dry and fall. When the disease affects the fruit, they can not be poured: cracks and spots on their skin deform the apple and slow its growth. The fungus is activated in wet weather, when it often rains, there are abundant dew and fog. Moreover, the mycelium easily tolerates frosts, remaining in the fallen leaves of the tree.
Effectively and permanently eliminate the scab on an apple tree by treating the tree three times per season with Bordeaux paints (4%). The first time the procedure is carried out in the spring, as soon as the buds begin to bloom. If this moment was missed, spraying during the budding period is acceptable, but already 1% liquid. To prepare the solution, you need a bucket of water and 400 g of the drug. The second time treatment with a fungicide should be carried out immediately after the apple tree has blossomed. The third is carried out in two to three weeks. If the state of the tree is very deplorable, you can double the number of treatments per season.
Such drugs as “Zircon”, “Skor”, “Vectra”, and “Topaz” have proven to be excellent. They will help in the fight not only with scab, but also with other diseases. As a preventive measure, do not forget to clean and burn fallen leaves in the fall, as well as dig up the earth around the trunk of a tree.
How to cure an apple tree from fruit rot (moniliosis)
The disease is activated in late summer, when the fruits begin to ripen. At first small specks of brown color appear on them, which grow relatively quickly and cover the whole apple. It becomes soft and inedible.
Among all the diseases of apple trees and methods of dealing with them, fruit rot is considered the most problematic. It is almost impossible to identify at the initial stage, it appears already in the period of fruiting and rapidly covers the entire crop. It is impossible to fight the disease at an active stage of development, but preventive measures turn out to be effective - spraying the tree with “Khom” or the like. It is diluted in proportions of 40 g per bucket of water and sprayed in the spring during the emergence of young leaves. The second time to carry out this procedure is necessary after the apple tree blooms. It is necessary to spray at the rate of 5-6 liters per adult tree and 2 liters per young.
In the middle of summer, if you suddenly find brown leaves on an apple tree, which eventually turn black, dry out, change shape, most likely your apple tree has bacterial burns. The disease is brought into the garden most often through saplings and cuttings, purchased from untested stores or received as a gift from friends and neighbors. Subsequently, they can lead to the death of planting material, as well as damage to the crop on adult trees - apples rot in the trees, but do not fall.
The only effective way to fight a disease is prevention. To prevent it, it is necessary to buy seedlings and cuttings only in verified places, carefully studying them for the absence of diseases. Time to engage in pest control in the garden. They are carriers of diseases. When working with the tool, always wash and process it after manipulating suspicious trees. To prevent diseases of apple trees on the bark, leaves, fruits and not worry about their treatment, spend time disinfecting the soil in the garden. To do this, prepare a solution of copper sulphate, which is poured over the soil (in a bucket of water 60 g). The trees themselves should be treated with the drug "Hom" in the above proportions.
How to protect the apple tree from cytosporosis
Cytosporosis is a fungal disease that affects the bark of trees. On it, ulcers of dark color first appear, which in time increase in size and penetrate into the trunk, changing their color. For extensive cytosporosis, large brown-red ulcers are characteristic, around which the bark of the tree gradually dies, falling off along with the branches. If the apple tree is not treated, it will soon die. The situation is aggravated by poor soil, improper care and watering the tree.
For the treatment of the disease, spraying with Hom is used in the spring when the buds on the apple tree begin to swell. For the procedure it is necessary to choose a warm and lovely day. The second time the tree is treated with a solution of copper sulphate before flowering. The third treatment is carried out immediately after the end of flowering with the same “Home”. On the eve of winter, the stumps of large trees should be whitened, and the apple trees themselves should be fed with phosphorus or potassium.
For the treatment used such methods. Cut the affected branches, wounds cleaned with a sterile instrument, removing up to 2 cm of healthy tissue. Sections are treated with 3% copper sulfate and covered with garden solution. If there are hollows in the tree, they must also be repaired. Remote affected parts of the tree are collected and burned. Every two to three weeks, treated areas should be checked to ensure there is no relapse. Lime stem must be treated not only in autumn, but also in spring.
Description of milky luster, how to cure an apple tree from this disease
Many people think that the milky luster affects the trunk of an apple tree. But in fact, the disease begins with the leaves and gradually affects the cortex. If you notice that the leaves turn yellow in an apple tree, then they blister with white and silver stripes and crumble, for sure this is a consequence of the destruction of the tree with a milky luster. In the running version, dark spots appear on the bark and trunk. The tree loses its strength very quickly and dies.
The treatment consists in removing the affected bark of the tree and processing the cuts with a special glue. As a preventive method, treatment of the whole tree with special solutions is recommended, whitewashing the trunk with lime in the fall and spring. Proper care, timely feeding and regular watering are also important.
Methods of dealing with black cancer
Perhaps the most serious disease is black apple cancer, the control measures against which are very labor-intensive. The disease affects the bark of the tree, the fruits and the leaves. On the latter there are spots that are spread in size and quantity. The bark of the tree cracks and turns out, can first rise, and then crack. Black rot appears on the fruit. If time does not begin treatment, the tree soon dies.
As soon as the disease is detected, all affected branches and leaves should be cut and burned. Sections and cracks are treated with a 1% solution of copper sulphate and a garden pavement is applied. After flowering apple trees need to process a solution of Bordeaux liquids.
But these emergency measures are not as effective as preventing disease. Watch carefully for the soil around the tree, which must be disinfected in time. Trees need timely and proper care, since diseases appear primarily on weak plants.
Time to deal with pests that spread disease, as well as with other diseases that weaken the tree.
As you can see, to get a rich and juicy harvest of apple trees, you need to work hard near the trees. They are subject to a number of different diseases that lead to the death of not only the harvest, but also the tree itself. But if you adhere to agricultural technology, in time to carry out preventive measures, most diseases can be prevented.
General characteristics of apple diseases
Before starting treatment, you need to understand what caused the disease. All types of apple diseases are divided into three main groups:
The treatment of these ailments is very different. Whatever disease the plant is struck, it is necessary to remove all parts of the diseased tree in time - the bark, branches, leaves, fruits. This will stop the spread of the disease to healthy areas.
Treatment of fungal diseases It begins with spraying the tree trunk and the crown of the tree with chemical or organic preparations. Bordeaux liquid, colloidal sulfur and copper sulfate are considered the most effective means. Standard recipes for the preparation of the solution for processing:
- Bordeaux liquid 3% - copper sulphate (300 g) and lime (300 g) will be required for 10 liters of water,
- a solution of copper sulphate - 12 liters of water 2 tbsp. spoons of copper sulphate and liquid soap without fragrances (1 tbsp. spoon), you can add mashed soap,
- sulfur solution - 70% colloidal sulfur (80 g) is diluted in 10 liters of water.
Spray preferably at the first sign of illness. However, it is necessary to take into account that 3% Bordeaux liquid is used only in autumn and spring. In summer, trees are sprayed with a 1% solution. For its manufacture reduce the number of drugs.
Cancer and Bacterial Diseases cure is quite difficult. Even if the treatment was successful, the shoots for grafting are unsuitable from this tree. In particularly difficult cases, when treatment is to no avail, the seedling is uprooted.
To protect the garden from dangerous diseases, apply only healthy and proven planting material. Tools should be disinfected after and before work, otherwise the risk of infecting a healthy plant increases.
Symptoms of fungal diseases and fight against them
Apple trees are mainly affected by fungal diseases that can be prevented by prophylaxis.
It is important to know that scab trees are affected by high humidity. Therefore, if there is a lot of precipitation, without waiting for the appearance of the disease, you should proceed to preventive treatment.
The second reason for the appearance of the disease is a very dense crown of trees. It is necessary to regularly thin out the crown and remove the branches that grow inward.
Recognize the disease is easy. First scab appears on the leaves, then on the fruit. The pathogen is carried by the wind.
Symptoms of the disease:
- brown spots appear on the leaves, which after some time become olive,
- gradually stains are moving to the fruit. As the fruit grows, the spots grow and merge, the apples begin to crack and then rot.
Prevention should be carried out in spring and autumn. The tree is sprayed with urea solution. After small fruits have appeared, they are treated with copper oxychloride (40 grams of the drug are taken for 10 liters of water).
If the disease has already begun, then crown Bordeaux liquid is treated. In more severe cases, use special drugs.
This disease spreads quite quickly and affects the bark of the tree. Appears mainly on too heavy or poor soils, as well as as a result of poor maintenance and improper watering.
Symptoms of cytosporosis:
- dark ulcers appear on some parts of the cortex, then they increase and become red-brown in color,
- the area of the affected bark dies off along with the branch that is closest to it.
Apple cytosporosis - treatment consists of removing diseased areas and stripping the bark. If this is not done, cytosporosis will penetrate into the tree and destroy it.
As a preventive measure, the trunk is whitewashed in the fall and spring, and the tree crown is sprayed with copper sulphate.
Another disease of fungal nature. The main cause of the disease is the damaged bark, through the wounds of which moniliasis occurs. Spores of the fungus are carried by insects or wind.
- fruits are covered with brown spots,
- fruits become completely rotten, the disease goes on healthy apples.
When the disease appears, all infected apples need to be removed, they dig up the trunk circle. It should remove the main source of infection - the drop.
As a preventive measure, in the early spring (as soon as the buds bloom), spraying of 3% Bordeaux liquid is carried out. During the growing season, treated with 1% solution with an interval of 15 days.
Symptoms of bacterial diseases and their control
Bacterial diseases are considered very dangerous.Without proper treatment, an apple tree may die in a short time.
Bacteriosis is a fairly serious disease that is caused by specific bacteria. The disease can suddenly and quickly hit a tree, destroying it during the season.
Symptoms of bacteriosis:
- the bark is covered with dark-colored spots, and subsequently the diseased parts of the bark die off,
- buds turn black, leaves are framed on the edges and then wither (hang on a tree in the form of black icicles).
The disease may be chronic. With the chronic variant, the apple tree gradually dies off over several years. The background of the disease or its onset is usually found in May.
At the first signs of illness It is recommended to process wood 3 times with zinc chloride (50%), with an interval of 4 days. In spring and autumn, it is necessary to remove the affected branches with the capture of 8 cm of the healthy part. The cut should be disinfected with a solution of copper (1%) or iron (3%) vitriol and be sure to cover with garden grease.
Preventive spraying and whitewashing
Any disease is easier to prevent than a long to treat it. This rule applies to the control of pests of apple trees.
An effective preventive technique to protect the garden from pests is early spring blue spraying. For it is necessary to prepare 3 - 5% Bordeaux liquid. To do this, on the day of spraying, pour 300 grams of copper sulphate into 5 liters of heated water.
In another container, thoroughly mix three glasses of thick slaked lime, strain the lime mortar through a mesh, on which impurities and large pieces of lime will remain. In a milk of lime pour a thin stream of vitriol solution, mix. It turns out 10 liters of Bordeaux liquid for prophylactic spraying. Use the solution on the day of preparation.
Spraying start with pristvolnogo circle soil, moving to the trunk and crown. Blue spraying is detrimental to many pests, including pathogens. It is important to protect the eyes and respiratory organs and spray apple trees in protective glasses, a respirator.
The whitewashing of apple tree trunks is an effective, time-tested, prophylactic method against insects of pests living in cracks in the bark, as well as against various lichens and fungi.
A simple mixture for whitewashing is prepared by adding slaked lime to the water. But you can prepare a more effective and reliable mixture for a thorough protection. In 15 liters of water to dissolve a kilogram - two clays, a kilogram of manure and a kilogram of slaked lime or chalk. After three days, the mixture is ready for use, you need to whiten the trunks at a height of 1.5 meters, deepening the whitewash and on the underground part of the trunk by 4 - 5 cm, previously digging up the trunk to this depth, and after the procedure again prikat it. Whitewashing is carried out in spring and autumn.
Many gardeners, seeking to get ecological clean apples, use biological methods to control pests of apple trees.
Biological measures against pests
The advantage of biological methods of combating insects - pests is that they can be used for almost the entire period of flowering, ovary and ripening of the crop.
Here the gardener comes to the aid of a small, up to 1 mm, insect - a trichogram. After mating, these microscopic living creatures lay their eggs in egg pests. Trichograms are especially effective in the fight against aphids, the codling moth, ophthalmia, leafworms.
Adult insects do not harm the plant, feeding on nectar, but the larvae parasitize on the eggs of pests of apple trees, they can significantly reduce or completely destroy their population. It is enough 1 - 3 grams of bacterial material to destroy 80 - 90% of the pests of apple trees. Trichogram can be purchased in special laboratories. The full life cycle of a trichogram does not exceed two weeks.
Против большинства листогрызущих насекомых, тлей, плодожорок помогает опрыскивание настоями и отварами из различных культур и трав:
- луковой шелухи
Опрыскивание травяными настоями лучше производить в вечерние часы, общее количество таких опрыскиваний за сезон может достигать 5 - 6 раз.
After the foliage of the crop has been dismissed, it is possible to fight apple pests with the help of ready-made biological products:
- fitoderm, destroys aphids, mites, moths
- bitoxybacellin, a universal remedy
- entobakterin, effective in warm weather, not lower than +15
- lepidocide, acts only on caterpillars
Use biological products in strict accordance with the attached instructions.
Sometimes the degree of damage to the fat pests is such that their destruction will require the use of potent chemicals.
Chemistry against pests of apple trees
Despite the fact that many gardeners are prejudiced in advance against the use of chemistry in their garden, subject to all the conditions laid down in the instructions for preparations, the exact observance of the processing time makes them safe for human life and health.
Processing karbofosom will defeat most insects - pests. The first treatment should be carried out before the buds start blooming, and the second - immediately after the flowering period. When preparing the spray solution, maintain the concentration indicated on the packaging.
When treating apples with agricultural poisons based on organophosphate compounds, it is necessary to follow safety precautions, at the first signs of poisoning with karbofos, chlorophos, theophos it is necessary to stop the treatment and take measures to provide first aid to the injured and antidote therapy.
Brown spotting (phyllostiktosis)
The manifestation of phyllossticosis is accompanied by small brown spots with dark brown rim on the leaves. In the center are visible spores of mushrooms - black spots. Spots can cover the entire surface of the leaf plate.
For prevention (spring before flowering), spray trees Bordeaux liquid 3-4%. After flowering, process the same solution with a concentration of 1%. The third treatment spend 3 weeks before picking the fruit. Begin treatment in the fall: get rid of the fallen leaves, dig pristvolny circles, cut the crown, spray the plants with a solution of urea 5%, and soil the soil with 7% preparation.
Black cancer is a serious fungal disease, during which black spots are formed on the leaves, and black rot appears on the fruit. In addition, there is a darkening of the bark, cracks appear on its surface, because of which it begins to turn inside out.
To begin treatment in the spring, when the air temperature reaches 15 degrees or more. Use a sharp knife to remove the affected areas, grab about 1.5-2 cm of healthy bark. Disinfect wounds with copper sulphate of 1-2%, lubricate with garden pitch. After flowering, spray the plant Bordeaux liquid 1%. If after 1-2 years the disease reappears, cut down and burn the tree.
Fruit Rot (Moniliasis)
Fruit rot is dangerous because ripening fruits are affected by brown spots located on the surface. In the future, the spots become larger, because of which the taste of fruit is lost. There is a rapid spread of the disease, which spoils the entire crop. It is almost impossible to detect the disease at the initial stage.
If a tree is ill for a long time, it will not be cured. You can prevent the disease by applying preventive measures: in early spring, treat the plant with Bordeaux liquid 3%, fungicides. Carry out the second treatment before flowering, using Bordeaux liquid 1%. After harvesting, spray the tree with a solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 100 g per 10 liters of water. Each plant takes about 3 liters of solution. Get rid of affected fruit.
It is a disease that causes the bark of a plant to suffer. The first symptoms appear on the foliage. The leaves begin to turn yellow, on the surface one can see stripes of white-silver color. This leads to a fall of the foliage. The disease continues to progress - dark spots appear on the cortex.
For treatment, remove the diseased areas of the bark of the tree, then treat the sections with 1% copper sulfate and garden pitch. Spray wood with Bordeaux liquid 1%. In the spring before and after flowering spend two treatments.
Bacterial burn (bacteriosis, necrosis)
Bacterial burn occurs due to special gram-negative rods, affecting both young and adult plants. Often the infection is entered with the newly purchased planting material. Favorable conditions for the development of the disease is heat and warm rain. Because of bacteriosis, the tree loses its main shade, dark spots appear on the plant, the leaves darken and begin to curl, the fruits look dark and unnatural.
To prevent infection - carefully inspect new seedlings. Use measures against pests and parasites that cause diseases. Water the soil with copper sulfate at the rate of 60 g per bucket of water. In the fall, remove the diseased branches so that the cut point is 20 cm below the site of infection. Disinfect. During the growing season, spray apples with Bordeaux liquid - this increases the resistance to the disease.
Bacterial root cancer
The cause of the development of bacterial root cancer is the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens stevens, which penetrates the roots of the tree through wounds. After a couple of months, a lot of growths appear on the roots, starting to rot, releasing a large number of bacteria. With the development of the disease, the plant usually dies.
Bacterial root cancer is almost incurable, but in the early stages it is possible to get rid of the disease. Disinfect the soil using a weak formalin solution at the rate of 1 l per 100 l of water. Add the solution to the soil in the fall on warm, dry days. On 1 square. m takes about 20 liters of solution. Instead, you can use bleach - 1 square. m square make 200 g of funds, then level the soil with a rake.
Apple viral diseases
The causative agents of viral diseases are usually the smallest particles of living protein - they are parasitic on plant cells, because of which it begins to lose its ability to grow and may die.
Mosaic is a common disease that an apple tree is exposed to. On one tree, the disease may appear less and be accompanied by a weak yellow-green mosaic, on another plant there is a bright yellow mosaic pattern on the leaves. In the summer to determine the mosaic is almost impossible. With the disease, the leaves become shallow, as if they lack nutrition, the fruits also become small, lose their taste, the plant itself looks weakened, depleted.
For treatment, try to provide spatial isolation between new seedlings and old, diseased gardens. Use healthy planting material. Effectively limiting the disease by thermotherapy of plants at a temperature of 37-38 degrees during the month, followed by regeneration of the top. In case of a disease at a late stage, dig a tree and burn it.
Star cracking fruit
It is still unknown what pathogen affects the spread of the disease. The harmfulness of the virus is high, when infected with plants, the yield is greatly reduced, the fruits lose their attractiveness, their mass is significantly reduced. Usually, the disease manifests itself in young, not yet ripe fruits - they form formless spots, and in their center there are cracks, which have a stellate shape. The peel near the cracks becomes dark brown, almost black. The leaves on the upper branches become lighter.
To fight the disease, dig and destroy the plant. As a preventive measure, it is desirable to use a healthy planting material, to treat the plant from pests - they can be carriers of the disease. Remove weeds in a timely manner, treat apple trees with special preparations every spring.
Plants suffer from this disease in the second half of the summer - thin side shoots and even root shoots of dormant buds are exposed. Overgrown stipules become large, young shoots become red, the leaves turn yellow and fall prematurely, the fruits appear to be unripe. The root system is unable to cope with excessive growth, which is why the life cycle of the plant ends before the seed formation phase.
Panicles are not treatable. You need to uproot the plants as soon as possible and burn them. For prophylaxis, experienced gardeners recommend spraying the plants to protect them from sucking pests, they are carriers of viruses.
Rosette (small leaf)
Rosette - a viral disease, during which the leaves become smaller, become rigid, acquire a yellow-green shade, are deformed. The edges of the leaves are twisted, and the plates themselves become cup-shaped. A diseased apple tree bears fruit, but the fruit becomes small, losing its apple taste. The internodes of shoots are greatly shortened everywhere, the rosettes of leaves appear on the tops - healthy and deformed.
For treatment, it is necessary to timely remove and destroy the parts of the plant on which there are signs of the disease. Treat the cuts with oil paint, mixing it with zinc sulfate. If the disease has passed to the last stage of development, use the same solution in a concentration of 5%, with medium lesions - an 8% solution. If many parts of the plant are affected, use a 12% solution. For prevention, it is advisable to add feedings in spring and timely remove weeds.
The causative agent of the disease is the Apple stem grooving virus. In the place of accretion of a scion with a stock, wide strips of a furrow, pitting, separate brown necrotic spots or necrotic lines are formed. The trunk bust begins to swell, scars and dark spots or brown lines with a dark shade appear on it. Infected plants prematurely bear fruit, painted in bright red color. Shoots grow slowly. Usually the tree dies.
There is no cure for the disease. Gardeners recommend not to waste time and not wait until other plants fall ill. Just need to uproot the tree and burn it.
The tree can be damaged by rodents, broken as a result of natural disasters, or the branches will begin to break due to improper crown formation.
To prevent rodent attacks, prepare a mat of branches or shrubs, wind them with a central trunk and lower branches. The use of corn "shields", reeds, fir branches. The main thing to remove protection after the end of frosts.
Since pests can hibernate under the covering material, remove heat and burn their accumulations when heat arrives. Slight damage to the barrel cover garden pitch. Usually, small teeth marks disappear by the end of the summer. Broken branches cut under the base, apply a garden pitch or a mixture of ordinary yellow clay with mullein in a 1: 1 ratio.
Excess or lack of moisture
If you are able to properly organize watering, the tree will normally grow and develop. Apple trees do not like the lack and lack of moisture. The main part of the water "comes" from the soil through the root system. But at the same time in dry and hot weather, be sure to regularly water the plant. The lack of moisture can lead to the fact that the tree will begin to age, which will adversely affect the yield. Fruiting will be irregular, and the ripened fruits will not only lose their presentation, but also their taste.
Excess moisture can adversely affect the immunity of the tree, the plant may be subjected to various diseases. If moisture is not absorbed into the soil and water stagnates, there is a risk of root decay.
Thermal damage is often caused by exposure to low temperatures. Severe frosts can cause damage to branches, bark and even the root system. Not only sunny, but also frosty days are not less dangerous for the plant. The bark warms up, sap flow begins in it, but when dusk comes, the temperature lowers and the cambium freezes. This leads to the formation of cracks on the bark of the fruit tree.
If frosts occur in spring, when buds and leaves form, the plant may stop fruiting or will die altogether. To avoid this, cover the apple tree for the winter using fir twigs or covering materials. If the summer is hot and the temperatures are high, it may appear negative on the leaves and bark. Be sure to water the tree, especially effective in this case sprinkling the crown and trunk.
Apple trees extremely often become a “delicacy” for various insect pests. They can cause severe damage to the leaves, flowers and fruits of the tree. The most dangerous insects are apple flowering beetles, mites, goose, aphid, bark beetle, fruit moth, apple podozhorka.
To combat parasites, the use of modern insecticides is recommended - they do well with insects. The main thing is to start processing the plant in time.
If the plant is poorly cared for, it can suffer greatly. Not only water the tree well, but also provide it with the proper diet. Fruit plants need trace elements. With a shortage of such micronutrients, the following disadvantages appear:
- Manganese. The leaves become motley, their veins are clearly visible.
- Nitrogen. The tree grows slowly, the leaves become a pale shade.
- Copper. Brown spots appear on leaves.
- Phosphorus. Shoots and scapes redden.
- Boron. The fruit ovary cannot fully develop.
- Potassium. The leaves turn brown.
With an excess of nitrogen, the branches and the crown grow actively, but the fruiting weakens. For this reason, limit nitrogen input during fruit ripening. In this case, it is recommended to increase the introduction of phosphate and potash fertilizers.
Apple tree - a fruit plant that can be subjected to various diseases. To prevent a disease in time or to cure a tree, it is necessary to know the symptoms and treatment methods. Only proper care, regular watering, feeding and preventive measures will help protect the tree from the disease.
The disease is formed on the roots of a tree, getting there through cracks and wounds.
Symptoms of root cancer:
- solid and dense growths appear on the roots,
- the root system is developing improperly, the central root is affected by cancer.
The treatment is quite complicated. All growths must be cut off, after which the seedling is disinfected in copper sulfate solution.
The disease is very insidious, because once in the ground, cancer cells have been living there for many years and are waiting to hit the plant. It is necessary to carefully choose seedlings and prepare the ground well for planting.
This is not all diseases of apple trees.that gardeners have to contend with. It is necessary to carefully monitor all the trees in the garden, to take proper care of the seedlings and not to neglect the preventive measures.
Mealy Dew on Apple Trees
Many cultivated plants suffer from this dangerous disease, and it is excited by a parasite called powdery mildew, able to survive even 50-degree frosts. The best conditions for its development is the spring period, followed by over-wetting of the soil and high humidity. The whole apple tree suffers from powdery mildew: bark, buds, leaves, young emerging shoots and the next harvest.
With a mealy bloom, off-white or gray, shoots and leaves are covered, and sometimes fruits. With the maturation of the mycelium of this type of parasitic fungus, the bloom turns brown, and many black patches are added. At first it is easy to remove, later compacted. Affected foliage twists, turns yellow and gradually dies off, and young leaves stop developing. Formed fruit ovary can crumble, the yield is sharply reduced. In severe forms of powdery mildew, yield loss reaches up to 50%.
Having a high winter hardiness, mycelium, even with the most severe and prolonged frosts, does not all perish, some remain and produce safely in the next season, wintering in the infected buds. The tree infected with powdery mildew loses its winter hardiness and can suffer greatly from frost.
A universal preventive and health-improving measure is the elimination of unviable branches and shoots in spring and autumn. It is necessary to take all measures to promote the active drainage of the soil of growth, and to monitor the conditions of sufficient ventilation of the crown.
For the prevention of diseases of the apple can use the fungicide "Topaz", which is better to treat the entire apple orchard, especially in the presence of apple varieties: "wounds Semerenko", "boyken", "white rosemary". It is best to apply this tool in the earliest terms of the beginning of the growing season, and for the whole further period prior to picking the fruit, treat it with Topaz 3 more times at regular intervals. After harvesting, one-percent solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate will consolidate the success of mildew control, at the rate of: 2 tablespoons of the preparation, 1 tablespoon of liquid soap in a bucket of water.
Можно обрабатывать пострадавшие от мучнистой росы деревья и водным раствором коллоидной серы в три приема за сезон вегетации: первый — в начале бутонизации, второй — после цветения, а третий — спустя 2 недели от предыдущего опрыскивания. Если результаты обработки дают даже успешные результаты, не следует отказываться от профилактических мер — эта инфекция часто возвращается.
The apple fungus that causes the scab usually infects pears and apples. The fungal parasite scab spreads through airborne droplets, especially in conditions of a long rainy spring. The visual signs of this disease manifest themselves as an olive-brown leaf color, and later - with a multitude of dark gray spots and cracks on fruits, through which putrefactive infections penetrate them, and the storage of the affected fruits is impossible. Leaves fall due to scab of their petioles. The scab of a scab does not harm the main mechanism of the existence of a tree - photosynthesis, and the tree continues to develop even with the oppressed scab fungus, but one cannot count on the harvest of full fruits.
It is best to start fighting with such fungal diseases of the apple tree as powdery mildew and scab, with classical prophylaxis during spring and autumn processing of fruit trees: harvesting and eliminating the burning of fallen leaves, mummified fruits and dried branches. In the spring treatment include spraying the trees before the start of flowering with biofungicide "Fitosporin M" or Bordeaux mixture.
The following fungicides have recommended themselves well in the fight against scab: “Gamair”, “Fitalavin” and “Horus”. It is advisable to spray before and after flowering.
Not everyone probably knows that such mineral fertilizers in aqueous solution work well as fungicides: 15% potassium salt, 10% ammonium nitrate, 10% ammonium sulfate. Use these concentrated aqueous solutions of the listed fertilizers through spraying the tree as foliar feeding and fungicide against scab. For its prevention, the percentage of aqueous solutions must be reduced.
Fruit rot - moniliosis on an apple tree
Manifested this disease of the apple in late August, during the ripening of the fruit. Protracted wet weather contributes to the activation of monilioz, especially on apple trees affected by coddle and infected with scab. Moreover, the rotted fruits can share fruit rot mycelium with healthy fruits. It begins with a small putrid speck that can grow to defeat the rot of the whole fruit, which becomes loose and not suitable for use.
Moniliasis is more cunning than other fungal infections, since its symptoms are postponed until the crop fully ripens, with which the putrid fungus is able to deal with great damage to it through the contact of an affected and healthy fetus. Even hard frost does not kill monilioz, its spores overwinter on infected mummified apples.
Therefore, a mandatory measure for the prevention of all fungal diseases of the apple is a thorough cleaning and elimination through burning of the remnants of dried fruit, rotted carrion and dead shoots in the autumn-spring seasons. After collecting the fruit, the areas where the foci of moniliosis were concentrated should be sprayed with a 5% aqueous solution of urea. It is not necessary to fight monilioz autonomously. It requires a frontal fight against all infections and pests that can either create conditions for a parallel infection or spread it across all plants.
It is necessary to strictly monitor the appearance in the garden of one or another type of pests: geese, sawmill and moths, moniliosis peddlers. It is more expedient to prevent their invasion altogether. It will help preventive spring spraying of all fruit trees on swollen buds, and then a second time immediately after flowering and the last time - at a two-week interval along the growing season - on fallen leaves. For this purpose, an aqueous 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or a 0.3% solution of copper oxychloride suspension is suitable.
An effective means to combat rotten fruit is the Khom fungicide, which, according to the instructions, is diluted in cold water and carried out with at least two treatments: the first is on new foliage, the second is after flowering.
This is important: it is necessary to fight monilioz by regularly spraying fungicides according to the scheme, combining them with the execution of proper agrotechnical measures for the care of fruit trees.
Bacterial Burn Apple Tree
The cause of this disease is an infection of Gram-negative bacterium bacteria that can affect apple trees of any age. This infection spreads from top to bottom, and it most often gets into the garden with the purchase of new uncertified saplings or cuttings. Favorable conditions for the spread of this disease are warm rains at high temperatures. As a result of this infection, the flowers fall off and the harvest types also fall significantly.
You can find out the disease by the black spots that appear all over the tree: the branches and shoots are covered with watery black spots, and the foliage becomes charred and charred. With the development of the disease, the leaves are bent and, even completely withering away, remain on the branches.
Affected flowers become dark brown in color and fall off, and the fruits look unhealthy and dark, stop growing, but remain on the branches until late autumn.
For the purpose of prophylaxis, any planting material purchased without certificates should be especially carefully examined. To carry out preventive sprays common for all fruit trees against diseases and insects that can spread an infection in the garden. It is useful to carry out soil disinfection with copper sulphate solution at the rate of: 60 grams of the drug per 10 liters of cold water.
The next method of preventing bacteriosis can be considered the timely pruning of dead branches best in late autumn, on the eve of winter. Cut off the affected branches need to be below the boundary of necrosis by 20 centimeters. Cutting tools must be sanitized before and after cutting. Be sure to handle the place cut / saw cut, covered with a layer of natural linseed oil or garden war.
All cut material is immediately burned. And all the trees during the growing season must undergo the required number of treatments with fungicides so that they go into the winter healthy and winter-hardy, with sufficient immunity against fungal and bacterial infections.
Apple Disease Classification
Apple trees can hurt for many reasons. These can be adverse weather conditions, neglect of the rules of agricultural engineering, nutritional deficiencies and many others. Any disease affects the yield and can cause the death of the tree.
Signs of damage depend on the pathogen.
Pathologies are divided into 3 groups:
1. Fungal (mycoses):
- fruit rot (moniliosis),
- powdery mildew,
- brown spot (fillostiktoz),
- black cancer,
- milky luster.
- bacterial burn,
- bacterial root cancer,
- bacterial necrosis.
- star cracking of fruits
- panicking (proliferation),
- rosette (small leaf).
The earlier the treatment of the apple tree begins, the greater the chances of saving the crop and the plant itself.
Bacterial burn (bacteriosis)
The main signs: the appearance of black spots on the whole apple. The leaves begin to darken and curl, but they remain on the branches. The flowers are made dark brown, fall. Fruits get a dark shade, do not ripen.
Treatment options include:
- Spraying trees Bordeaux liquid (1%) in the spring.
- Soil treatment with copper sulphate solution (5%).
- The destruction of insects, parasitic on apples.
- Autumn pruning of dry and damaged branches that need to be burned.
All parts of the trees are affected (from bark to fruit). Flowers turn brown, then black, fall off. Spots appear on fruits, leaves. On the leaves, the edges necrotize, the leaf plate is wrapped along the main vein and dries out. On the shoots appear spots, which then cover the entire young shoots.
On the branches, the tree trunk forms a necrotic spot, which further increases in size. Oily spots appear, from which oozing fluid. Cambium, the inner layer of the bark swell, become yellow-orange, exfoliate from the wood.
The treatment consists of the following measures:
- Cut the affected branches with a seizure of 2-3 cm of healthy tissue, burn them.
- Disinfect the sections with carbolic acid (5%) or copper sulphate (1%).
- Cover the cuts with oil paint or garden putty.
- Treat the stains on the trunks with a 5% zinc chloride solution. There is no need to clean the wounds. This procedure should be carried out every 3-4 years.
Effective biological preparations are bactericides of directional action: Gaupsin, Pentophagus-S, Fitosporin, Alirin-B. As a prevention of the spread of bacterial necrosis, Bordeaux liquid treatments are necessary (1%).
Star cracking fruit
The disease affects young fruits. Shapeless spots appear on them, in the center of which star-shaped cracks form. Surrounding fabrics are made dark brown, almost black. The leaves on the branches of the upper tier brighten, the tree does not grow well.
Apple tree will remain sick for life, infected with viruses. Fighting them is impossible. In identifying the disease tree must be rooted out and burned.
- use of virusless planting material
- spraying against sucking insects (aphids, mites),
- weed control.