Fuchsias are bushes or trees. The leaves are opposite and placed on whorls, the shape of the foliage is oval, the shape of the edges of the leaf may differ.
Flowers like tubules, usually white or red, are terry and non-double. You can grow and ampelnoe and shtambovom tree. Pleasant is that this plant is not poisonous and its fruits are quite edible. We will tell about some types of fuchsia:
Types and varieties of fuchsias
Three Leaf Fuchsia low bush slightly above half a meter. Well branched, has pubescent twigs. Foliage assembled in several pieces, rounded, serrated. The flowers are small bright red.
Fuchsia elegant bush with stems of a reddish shade. It grows up to a meter. Inflorescences look like bells.
Fuchsia Hybrid Plants of this species are very different, since they are bred by hybridization from other species. Among them there are both indoor and garden rooms in various colors and sizes.
Fuchsia is brilliant grows up to two meters. Strongly branched, has large leaves, oval-shaped. Flowers red shades.
Fuchsia Bolivian usually does not exceed a meter height. A rather large foliage has an oval shape with pointed ends.
Fuchsia Magellan, other names are fuchsia multicolored and conical plants that grow even up to five meters in the wild. The branches are slightly covered in purple down. Foliage grows in groups, has a rounded shape, the edges are slightly jagged. Flowers axillary, can grow one by one, and can form inflorescences.
Fuchsia growing and care in the home
Caring for fuchsia is not difficult and it will be easy to grow this plant even from a novice grower. This flower needs a lot of diffused light. Direct rays can fall directly on the plant only in the morning and in the evening. To prevent the flower from burning, you can cover it with paper or a light cloth.
In the summer, it is advisable to bring fuchsia to fresh air, but this is done without success, so that the bush is accustomed to new conditions. When you place a fuchsia in the yard, then take care that it does not rain and it is not blown by drafts.
In order for a fuchsia to increase the green mass well, the temperature must be not lower than 20 ° C, in winter a drop of up to 5 ° C is required, but not lower. In winter, the flower also requires a large amount of light.
Fuchsia needs watering with soft water at room temperature. Watering is carried out as soon as the top ball of the earth dries. From the beginning of autumn, watering begins to decrease and by the end of it stops altogether. In winter, watering is performed extremely rarely, but if the temperature of the content is above 10 ° C, then it becomes more frequent.
Another necessary procedure is spraying. For him use distilled soft water. Since autumn spraying begin to do less, and in the winter stop.
From mid-spring to autumn, this shrub requires fertilizing, which should be done every 15-20 days. Use for this purpose complex mineral fertilizers. In winter, fertilizers are not required.
If you properly care for fuchsia, then it will be able to bloom beautifully and will even bear fruit. Lingering flowers must be removed so that they do not take away the power of the plant.
When fuchsia blooms, do not twist the pot and do not wear it, because it causes the flowers to fall off.
To stimulate flowering and improve the appearance of the plant you need to perform its pruning. So, the old stems need to be cut off, and the young ones to cut and pinch. Perform these actions during the period of building green mass.
To form a tree, you need to make a support for the stalk of fuchsia, and cut off all side shoots. The top of the tree is also cut. Further, after the development of several side branches, form the desired crown.
Fuchsia transplantation is necessary every year in early spring. Before performing the operation, the old branches shorten and slightly cut off the rhizome. If you have ampelny view, then you do not need to cut off the shoots.
For transplanting take soil with weak acidity, which can be done by mixing 3 shares of hardwood, 2 shares of sand and one peat. Also need to do drainage.
Fuchsia from seeds at home
Fuchsia can be propagated by seed or grafting.
For the first method, the seeds first need to pollinate yourself. If you take pollen from different species, you can create a hybrid.
It is necessary to sow seeds approximately in February, using for this purpose light and nutritious soil. Before sowing, the soil should be treated with manganese solution. Seeds just scatter on top of the ground, slightly pressing them to it.
Next, the container should be covered with foil and kept warm and light. The temperature is needed around 22 ° C, but if you have a cold-resistant look, then it will be enough for 18 ° C. See that the sun does not shine directly on the seeds and only diffused light falls on them.
From time to time, air the sown material and spray the soil.
With the advent of seedlings, the film will need to be lifted more and more for ventilation, and then removed altogether.
With the advent of two or three sheets, you need to dive young fuchsias in separate containers. Young plants should be sprayed and once for 15 days fertilized with complex mineral dressing.
Fuchsia breeding cuttings
When fuchsia is propagated by cutting, it is necessary to prepare twigs about seven centimeters long. They are placed in water or wet sand to form roots. This process will take 20-30 days. Next, the material is planted in several pieces in separate pots in the soil of humus, sand, leaf and sod land - all in the same proportions.
Fuchsia can also be propagated by even lignified cuttings. To do this, make a cut around the branch and wrap it with a film with crumbled wet peat, which is moistened from time to time. When the roots appear from under the film, it will be possible to cut the branch below the ring and plant it in the soil for further development.
Fuchsia leaf reproduction
For this method, you need to take a large leaf with stem and part of the stem with axillary bud. To root it you need to prepare the soil from two parts of sphagnum, three vermiculite and one peat.
The sheet is placed in the ground. It should sit gently, it is not necessary to crush the substrate. Cover the material with a can to create greenhouse conditions. Sometimes ventilate the flower and water as needed.
After two or three weeks rooting will end and the bank will need to be left only at night. After another 15 days, the plants can be transplanted into separate containers for further development.
Diseases and pests
Fuchsia is rarely sick, but problems may arise with it. For example, a plant will feel bad if there is stale air in the room. Fuchsia loves freshness, but is also sensitive to drafts.
- With a quick end to bloom your fuchsia, pay attention to watering and the temperature at which the plant winters, because it can be caused by too much watering or warm wintering temperatures. Also, this happens due to lack of light and fluid in the spring and summer.
- If in winter this plant stands in bright light, then, most likely, it throw off the leaves. During this period, it can be rearranged to a slightly shaded place. If buds appear in winter, they need to be plucked.
- At another time leaf fall due to low humidity and generally lack of moisture, as well as hot temperatures.
- Bud fall comes from a small amount of light and intense heat, and also from unstable watering. Another reason for the fall of the buds will be the movement of fuchsia during flowering or drafts.
- With excessive watering, especially in winter, fuchsia begins to suffer from spots that affect its leaves.
- Also, this plant can infect pests. The most common ones are whitefly and spider mites.
Features and Description
One of the most beautiful members of the family of firecrackers. An evergreen shrub native to South and Central America. A characteristic feature - the stems of a reddish hue and small oval leaves. As a houseplant fuchsia - hybrids of various colors and shapes.
Breeders deduced interesting varieties with regular and double flowers. Two-tone varieties are highly valued. The flowers are held on long, thin stalks, shaped like Chinese lanterns.
It is grown in the form of compact bushes, as an ampelous culture or a stem tree. Fuchsia looks beautiful in the garden in compositions with other flowers. Periods of flowering in individual varieties differ - composing collections of different varieties, achieve flowering from early spring to late autumn.
Important! In winter, the fuchsia begins a phase of rest. During this period there is a restoration of the strength of the plant, the laying of flower buds. For abundant flowering next season create favorable conditions for rest. In the middle of autumn, watering is gradually reduced, stop fertilizing. Closer to winter, a flower pot is moved to a cool place of 10-15 ° C. In a city apartment a flower can be taken out on a glazed, warmed balcony. A further decrease in temperature is harmful.
Varieties and varieties
All varieties of fuchsia have pronounced features. They differ in colors, shape of leaves and flowers.
- Fuchsia trifoliate. Compact, low bush. The height rarely exceeds 50 cm. The branch is plentiful, the branches are pubescent. Rounded, toothed leaves are collected in several pieces. The flowers are not large, rich red.
- Fuchsia is elegant. Shrub type plant grows up to a meter. The branches are reddish. The flowers are shaped like bells.
- Fuchsia hybrid. The variety includes dozens of artificially bred varieties. Differs in the increased decorative effect, a variety of coloring. Different hybrids are intended for cultivation in the apartment or in the open field.
- Fuchsia is a Bolivian. Shrub not higher than a meter. The leaves are oval, relatively large, with a pointed point.
- Fuchsia Magellan. Call conical and multicolored. In nature, it grows to 5 meters. Branches with sparse purple pubescence. Flowers axillary, solitary or forming inflorescences.
Tip! Any indoor type of fuchsia for the summer can be landed on a flower bed. This benefits the plant. In the fall, with a cold snap to 15 ° C, the flower is carefully dug out and transplanted into the pot again.
Features of cultivation and the fineness of care
Decorative and flowering intensity depends on how to care for fuchsia. Important location, lighting, watering schedule.
- The choice of location and lighting. The flower is susceptible to changing places - easily drops buds and flowers. Changing it during the active growth phase is not recommended. Choose a moderately lit place. Well suited eastern and western windowsill. Placing on the south window is allowed only with shading. On the north windows light up fluorescent lamps.
- Temperature. Prefers moderate heat 18-20 ° C. Too high a temperature affects the appearance of the plant. In winter they contain at 10-15 ° C.
- Watering. Regardless of the time of year, water is watered regularly. In the summer, more often and more abundant, in the winter - less often and more moderately. Excessive moisture is not allowed - regular watering only after the surface of the soil has dried completely.
- Humidity. Humid air is good. The flower is regularly sprayed from a small atomizer. Use warm, well-settled water.
- Feeding. In the period of growth and flowering using balanced fertilizers for pelargoniums. Other complex means for flowering crops are allowed. The recommended frequency of dressings is no more than 2 times per month. In winter, fertilizers are not applied.
- Transfer. Transplanted infrequently - as the root system grows. The signal for transplanting is the sprouting of roots through drainage holes. Pot for fuchsia choose small. In spacious tanks, the plant is gaining green mass, increasing the root system, flowering is weakened or ceases altogether.
- The soil. A mixture of compost, peat, humus and coarse sand is recommended. Sand take twice as much as the other components.
From personal experience! For a friendly and lush flowering in the composition of the soil mixture, add the horn or bone meal. Per liter of substrate - a tablespoon of flour.
Formation begin at the earliest stages of development - after rooting and the beginning of the growth of the cutting. You can use one and common ways of forming.
- Upright shrub. Suitable shrub varieties of fuchsia. Formation consists in pinching shoots after the appearance of two pairs of leaves. All subsequent side shoots pinch in the same way. With a small distance between the nodes, pinching through 3 nodes is allowed.
- Standard tree. Cluster varieties are used to form a trunk. Next to the handle, a support is inserted into the ground, tied with a soft material. The rest period is not needed by the young Stambu. Side shoots of the first order are not removed, but limit their growth by pinching after 2-3 pairs of leaves. As they grow, they are transplanted into larger containers. At the height of 0.5-1 meters pinch the top. Krona is formed on the basis of the bush. The regularity of the pinch makes the crown thick and level. To grow a stem tree, it is not recommended to choose varieties with large flowers.
- Ampel form. On the first shoots leave only one node. Side shoots pinch after 2 pairs of leaves. Subsequent growth is not limited.
Fuchsia is easy to form, quickly recovering from pruning. The only negative is the delay in flowering.
Tip! It is useful to feed young plants with organic matter and fertilizers with a high nitrogen content. Adults for lush flowering fertilize with potassium and phosphorus.
At home, fuchsia from seed for the purpose of reproduction is rarely grown. Seeds, collected independently, in most cases do not carry the characteristic features of the mother plant. Use better seeds purchased in the store.
- Seeds. Sow on a wet substrate without embedding, cover with a film. Fuchsia seeds germinate quickly - shoots appear after 1-2 weeks. After 2 months after germination, the grown seedlings dive, after another two months they are transplanted into separate pots. Carefully monitor the soil moisture, protect from the sun.
- Cuttings. Reproduction of fuchsia cuttings is considered a more reliable way. Cutting cuttings are allowed at any time of the year, the optimal period is spring. The length of the cuttings - 10-20cm. Can be germinated in water or soil. The lower leaves on the handle are removed, the rest is cut in half. Put in the water with the addition of activated carbon and heteroauxin. Top cover with a cropped plastic bottle. The roots appear quickly - after 4-10 days. The development of the root system is not waiting, planted in the ground immediately after the appearance of the first roots. Some growers prefer to root cuttings directly in the ground.
The composition of the soil and its proportions
For the full growth and development of the plant it needs a quality substrate. For fuchsia, you can prepare the soil yourself by combining these components in equal quantities:
For quality drainage, place pebbles or expanded clay on the bottom of the tank. The soil should be loose and breathable. Air circulation at the horse system promotes the flow of oxygen to the flower. In addition, the soil should fit snugly to the walls of the pot and support the flower well.
Grow up fuchsia at a humidity of 55-60%. She likes humidified air. So you have to spray it. When it is hot in the street, then spray in the morning and evening. In the fall and spring - 2 times a week, and in the winter to be from this (how to keep fuchsia in the winter in the basement and in the apartment, you can find out here).
For the cultivation of fuchsia in summer, the optimum temperature is + 18 ° С - + 20 ° С. If these figures are overestimated, it will adversely affect the condition of the plant. In winter, contain a flower at a low temperature: + 8 ° C - + 10 ° C. How to water a fuchsia? The flower responds positively to abundant moisture, especially when the ground begins to dry out.
In the summer, watering is carried out every day. Just make sure that there is no excess of moisture, as this can cause rotting of the roots. In winter, water 2-3 times a month if the temperature is below 0 degrees. Even being in the cold, the soil of the flower should not completely dry out.
For full growth and development of the flower requires additional feeding. Use for this mineral and organic compounds. They contribute to improved growth, prolonged flowering, increased resistance to harmful substances and parasites. The composition of the fertilizer should contain such substances:
There are two types of dressings: root and foliar. The first type involves the penetration of the nutrient composition into the soil and the absorption of substances by the root system. When foliar feeding the leaves of the plant to spray from the inside.
Fuchsias are demanding fertilizer applications. So that their search or lack of a negative impact on the state of the flower. Immediately after planting, nutrients should not be added within 3 weeks.But when fuchsia got accustomed, then you can make a schedule of fertilizers. Make them with each watering 3-5 times a week. Moreover, the earth should not be too dry or too wet. For young plants it is useful to use compounds with a high concentration of nitrogen. For stronger and adults to increase the content of phosphorus and potassium.
Since the assortment of nutrients for fuchsia is wide, this complicates the choice. For the correct choice of fertilizer will be guided by the following recommendations:
- Carefully examine the composition. Complex fertilizers are preferable to simple ones, since the flower will be able to receive the entire portion of various nutrients and trace elements.
- When caring for fuchsia, preferably apply liquid concentrated formulations. They are not only effective, but also simple in terms of application. It is enough to dilute the cap with water, as it is written in the instructions, and to water the flower.
So, we summarize the above. When growing fuchsia, it is important to choose the right substrate, pot and dressing. As for the capacity for a flower, it should be low and at the same time wide. It is still fashionable to grow a flower in peat tablets. Sow 1 seed in a tablet moistened with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Reproduction and transplanting
Reproduction of fuchsia occurs in two ways:
- Seeds. The peculiarity of this method is that a new plant can be very different from its parent. This is due to the fact that the flower self-pollinated. As a result of growing from seeds, you can get a greenhouse of different colors of the same genus.
- Cuttings. Have a bush wake up in winter cut off a young shoot. Its length should not exceed 20 cm. After removing all the leaves from the bottom of the spine, place it in clean water. After the formation of roots stalks transplanted into the soil.
As the flower grows, transplant it into a larger pot. This manipulation is carried out every year so that the root system is not closely transplanted with fuchsia in autumn or spring, when the plant is at rest.
Details on how best to plant a flower - seeds or cuttings, read this article.
Seed preparation and germination
You can get the seeds of the plant with your own hands. To do this, select a flowering plant, select the flowers that have just appeared and remove the anthers, concentrated in the stamens, on them. Next, apply the pollen of the paternal flower to the pestle. in such a pollination, place the flowers in pre-prepared fabric tubes, tie them with threads.
Seeds are formed within a month. As soon as the testis has fully ripened, the bag is removed and the fruit is carefully removed from the plant. It is slightly dried and shake out the seeds contained therein.
How to care?
Further care of seedlings is simple, but requires adherence to a number of important rules:
- Place the seed container on a warm and sunny windowsill. Ensure that direct sunlight does not fall on the pot.
- For seed germination requires a temperature regime of 18-22 degrees.
- The soil should always be wet and not wet. If the soil is too wet, a mold will form on it, which will destroy even the strongest seedlings.
- As the soil dries, spray it with a spray bottle. Once a day, air seedlings with soil to saturate the soil with oxygen.
- After 20-30 days you can see the first shoots. From now on, watering regulate. Gently moisten the root of the root with droplets of a syringe.
- You can open the container for a longer juice so that the seedlings adapt to room conditions.
- As soon as the young plants will have 2 leaves, make a picking - plant them in separate pots. For this perfect plastic cups 100 or 200 ml. At the bottom of the tank to make holes, put a layer of drainage and nutrient mixture. Carefully transplant each sprout into a glass, keeping an earthen room and filling the ground from the sides of the seedling.
Like any plant, fuchsia can be affected by disease. You can select only the most common:
- Mealy dew. Recognize the disease can be characteristic spots of whitish color. The main cause of the development of the disease is a surplus of moisture. For processing use Topaz or Fundazol.
- Chlorosis. Promotes yellowing and dry leaves. Yellowing occurs due to an overabundance of moisture or a lack of magnesium. To combat the disease is suitable a weak solution of manganese.
- Infectious diseases. You can recognize them by the presence of dry brown spots on the inside of the leaves. Cut off the affected parts of the plant, and treat the plant itself Bordeaux liquid. To carry out treatment 3 times a day for 10 days.
From pests for fuchsia, whitefly and spider mite are dangerous. To combat them use insecticides. Treatment should be carried out 2-3 times a week until all parasites are eliminated.
Fuchsia is an ornamental plant that actively adorns balconies, loggias and window sills. Its main advantages remain rapid growth, abundant and long flowering, unpretentious in terms of care. Observing the above rules, the flower will always delight with its beauty and excellent health. Now you know how to grow and shape fuchsia.
Location, lighting and temperature
Preferred windows on the north or east side. At peak solar activity, shading is required. In this capacity there may be curtains or blinds. In winter, when the day is short, additional artificial light is required. Phytolamp can extend lighting up to 10 hours a day. If only south is available, then the flower is kept there until mid-spring, and then transferred to the balcony until September. Direct rays do not harm only in the early morning. The rest of the time they can cause a burn.
During flowering to the lighting special requirements: you can not twist the pot, allowing the UV light to cover one or the other side. Such manipulations will end up dropping the buds.
Tropical native needs to create a special microclimate. With this there are no problems in the summer, when the required performance - 19-26 degrees. By late autumn, they fall to 7-9 degrees. Such measures are necessary for transition to a state of rest. It is important to regularly ventilate the room. Clean and fresh air is the key to full development.
Avoid drafts and gusting winds. Hot days with an indicator of + 30 and above are more destructive for the beauty of fuchsia. It disposes of leaves and buds until the necessary temperature is restored. Do not panic, this is normal.
Humidity and watering
It is particularly capricious in the stage of active growth. Then you have to spray it twice a day: early in the morning and after sunset. This schedule is chosen for the prevention of sunburn, which often occur due to the remaining droplets on the surface. It is permissible to put a pallet with pebbles next to or under the pot, but the water level in it should be below the level of the tank. Constant contact with liquid is fraught with rotting roots.
Watering is resumed in full with the onset of spring. Humidification is frequent and abundant.. It is recommended to water with warm, purified from harmful impurities and chlorine, water. In between “drinking” the upper layer of the earth dries out slightly. Full drying should not be allowed. At rest, moisture access is significantly reduced. If the plant overwinters under normal conditions, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the soil layer.
Soil and fertilizers
Exotic beauty is not demanding on the soil. Any fertile, with a neutral pH level. Improve with the help of nutrients can be almost any substrate.
Prepare it personally with the following composition:
- turf and leaf soil,
- compost and sand.
All components are taken in equal parts and thoroughly mixed. Mandatory drainage layer.
Best of all, fuchsia responds to the introduction of mineral complexes, specially created for flowering indoor crops. Lush, long flowering and succulent leaves ensures a good balance of nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. From March to September, they are paid twice a month. During the "winter vacation" all feeding stops.
Pruning and care during flowering
Without molding and pinching, a scanty uneven crown is obtained, the stems grow arbitrarily, and there are few buds. In the process, the growing point is removed, which contributes to the doubling of shoots. This method helps a lot against building up green mass in winter, with a lack of lighting. The adult form of the ampelous form requires pinching over two leaves, and the bush one - over three internodes.
The first pinching occurs when the stalk is rooted and it has 2-3 pairs of leaves. At the same time give shape, shortening the side shoots. By the 3rd month a compact ornamental shrub is obtained.
The flowering period is a particularly sensitive period. It is forbidden to change it: the location or twist the pot around its axis, repot. In response, the plant drops buds and foliage. Fertilizer is allowed with iron, phosphorus, zinc and boron. Such complexes are diluted with water and applied every 6-7 days. A sure sign of the need for nutrients - weakening of flowering.
Required as needed, after the purchase and in the event that the root system is completely occupied the pot. It is filled with ready-made substrate or self-cooked. A drainage layer of medium-sized pebbles, fragments of stone or expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the tank. A layer of substrate is superimposed on it, and the plant is transferred to the center along with an earthy clod. The rest of the space is filled with soil mixture.
The process is completed by trimming the stems by one third, abundant watering and installing the container on the sunny side. Having done everything correctly florist will receive abundant and lush flowering.
This leads to non-compliance with the elementary rules of care. The lower part of the culture becomes soft, the color is close to brown. This is a consequence of the regular stagnation of moisture. In this case, even good drainage can not cope.
You can help your pet only by transplanting it into another ground, removing all those affected by the fragment and restoring the irrigation schedule.
The most suitable period is from February to March. If the variety is slowly growing, it is permissible to dilute it in August-September. The length of the planting material is 7-8 cm. For rooting, choose water, fertile loose soil or sand. For the formation of roots enough month. It is followed by a transplant into a larger vessel.
If the goal is a magnificent flowering bush, 2-3 cuttings are planted in one container. Flowering begins in the same year.
A more complex option due to the need for artificial pollination (mixing the seeds of several types of bright beauty). Hybrids are able to exceed all expectations with their color. They are sown at the end of autumn. The first shoots appear after 4-5 weeks.
As soon as they get stronger and acquire three leaves, they dive into peat cups of two seedlings. By the spring transferred to a separate pots.
From the adult healthy specimen cut off the stems with leaves. They are deepened into the soil by 1 cm. To create a greenhouse effect, cover with glass or film. Daily water spraying at room temperature is required.
The appearance of the outlet at the base indicates readiness for a “move” to a new vessel.
How to choose a plant in the store
On sale you can see single or double-planted specimens. Choosing a seedling for the purchase is recommended to pay attention to:
- properly formed crown, well-executed pinching,
- indoor climate and conditions of detention (state of the upper layer of the earth, temperature and humidity),
- healthy appearance (juicy greens, the absence of yellowed or dried stems, spots and stripes on them),
- root system (it should not be visible from the drainage holes).
Features care for fuchsia at home
When you take care of home, the fuchsia flower retains its inherent seasonality in nature. The period of active growing season and flowering lasts from spring to autumn, and the plant rests in winter. Therefore, compliance with the temperature during the care of the indoor flower is very important.
In summer, plants feel best in a moderately heated room or in a garden at a temperature of 16–24 ° C.
If the atmosphere is cooler, the development of plants is slowed down, the formation of new buds stops, that is, cooling becomes a signal for a fuchsia about the beginning of a dormant period.
Exceeding the strips of 25 ° C has a depressing effect on decorative culture. Fuchsia can throw buds, foliage shallows, pales. At such times, plants are at risk of pests and diseases, and this danger is most likely to occur when growing and caring for fuchsia in the garden.
On hot days, you need to take all measures to:
- protect the blooming beauty from the scorching sun,
- regularly irrigate greens with soft water,
- increase the humidity of the air in the room.
In room conditions, fuchsias settle down perfectly on the western or eastern windows. There are plants necessary for flowering and the preservation of the foliage of juicy foliage. If the pot is forced to be on the north window, the flower provides illumination up to 12 hours a day.
Watering and feeding the fuchsia flower at home
From spring to autumn, fuchsias should receive abundant watering, which gradually diminishes by the onset of the resting season:
- flowering plants have the greatest need for water,
- when the fuchsia is resting, completing the massive flowering, the soil beneath it is moistened about once a week.
It is a different matter if the flower is going to rest. How to care for fuchsia in the winter?
In winter, flowers are watered no more than twice a month. At the same time be sure to provide staying in a cool room at low positive temperatures. If this is not done, growing and caring for fuchsia at home will become much more complicated.
In the warmth and with a lack of light during the winter, the shoots are drawn out, the leaves partially or completely fall off, and the bare beauty of the former beauty remains on the windowsill. With the advent of spring, these plants are lagging behind in development, less amicably and willingly enter the time of flowering.
In winter, top dressing is not needed, but during the growing season they help the fuchsia to form many buds and recover quickly after flowering. Fertilize flowers begin in the second half of March. For top dressing weekly apply complex means for flower cultures.
When caring for fuchsia and growing it at home, you need to remember that watering with fertilizer is carried out on a slightly damp substrate. Fuchsia foliar dressings are carried out on the back of the leaves.
After transplantation, the plant should not be fed for about a month. The same rule applies to young, only rooted seedlings.
To accelerate the formation of green mass, plants are watered with fertilizers with a high nitrogen content. And for laying and maintaining lush flowering need compositions with a predominance of potassium and phosphorus.
When growing and caring for fuchsia in the garden, a good result is given by fertilizing with compositions rich in organic matter, and adult specimens respond positively to the introduction of trace elements.
Transplant for fuchsia care at home
In order for the plant to have enough strength for active flowering, it is important for it to get abundant and complex nutrition. At the same time, the soil in which the flower grows plays a significant role. In the care of fuchsia at home, it is desirable to include annual transplants, which should fall in the spring - the time to start the awakening and growth of the flower.
As a substrate, you can take any loose ready-mix for ornamental crops, mixing them with garden soil or well-rotted humus. If the fuchsia flower grows on the balcony or at home, a little loam can be added to the ground to reduce the rate of evaporation of moisture. At the bottom of the ceramic, protecting the root system of fuchsia from overheating the pot must do drainage.
Reproduction of fuchsia at home
You can grow new fuchsia plants by propagating the flower with seeds or vegetatively. More often they use vegetative, as in the photo, reproduction of fuchsia, care at home in which it is much easier, and young seedlings mature more quickly and begin to bloom.
Cut at the tip or stem cuttings as desired at any convenient time from spring and throughout the summer. It is only important that healthy buds form on the shoots and not green, but already semi-woody stems get into the ground.
If the rooting of cuttings is carried out in autumn or winter, the plant must be provided with additional illumination and support the “summer” temperature and humidity conditions.
The cuttings are cut with a sharp clean knife, after which all the leaves are removed from the shoots except the top pair. Root fuchsia with the same success can be:
- in water,
- in wet perlite,
- in a mixture of peat and sand.
How to care for fuchsia after cutting? After only 1-2 weeks, when the formed roots become visible on the cuttings, they can be transplanted into separate small pots with a diameter of up to 9 cm. If planting is carried out in a large container, for example, to grow ampelous culture, several rooted cuttings are transferred to the container at once.
Чтобы цветение ампельных и кустовых фуксий было максимально пышным, растения через два или три года приходится обновлять. Штамбовые экземпляры растут и сохраняют декоративность дольше. Но здесь при выращивании и уходе за фуксией в домашних условиях и в саду обязательно активно применяют обрезку.
If it is not possible to cut cuttings suitable for propagation from the bush, use fuchsia leaves. Large healthy leaves are cut with cuttings, and then one centimeter is buried in moist perlite. Under conditions of a greenhouse, with daily spraying, high humidity and constant temperature, miniature sockets develop at the base of the stem.
When they are strong enough, they are separated from the leaf and planted in separate pots. In the future, care for fuchsia at home is not different from the usual, when the flower is grown their cuttings.
The pot is desirable to choose a ceramic. In a plastic pot, the plant will be hot in summer, and it is better to take care of it in advance, protecting the roots from excessive heat.
The size of the pot should be directly dependent on the size of the root. It is better to transplant fuchsia several times than to plant it in a huge-sized pot. This is due to the fact that the soil, not developed by the roots, can begin to turn sour, which often causes rotting of the roots.
The presence of drainage holes is one of the main criteria for choosing a pot. Fuchsias do not tolerate stagnant water.
Required soil composition
Powering fuchsia requires light soils with good drainage and neutrality.. It is best to independently mix the soil in the right proportions, thereby protecting the plant from harmful elements that can get into the universal soil.
- The best option is peat, compost and leaf humus mixed in the same volume with the addition of double the volume of sand.
- You can also mix turf, leaf humus and ash in a ratio of 5: 2: 2. In this embodiment, the humus can be replaced with granulated peat.
Both of these options are suitable as a home soil mix and serve as a nourishing and moisturizing primer for growing fuchsia.
How to correctly form the humidity level?
The plant needs to form and maintain a moisture level that is around 60-70%. The exception is the period of rest, which comes in winter. For spraying, it is advisable to use a bottle with separated water and a spray bottle. There are several rules for proper hydration:
- the water should be warm
- it is necessary to spray twice a day,
- if several fuchsias grow in a flower garden, it is not necessary to use a spray gun - it is better to take a small bowl, fill it with pebbles and fill it with water.
In dark rooms, fuchsia blooms may deteriorate.however, green mass develops quite well. Therefore, in order for the flower to grow well, on sunny days it is better to expose it to the light, but at midday to tidy up the place darker. It is permissible to use window blinds or other thick curtains that will provide a good shade.
How to grow a flower: step by step instructions
- It is necessary to choose a pot, soil and fertilizers. To get started, stop on a small pot made of ceramic, about 10x10 in size.
- Pick up the soil - you can buy a universal mix, adding a little sand to it, or mix your own turf, peat and sand in a ratio of 3: 2: 1.
- The first fertilizer also needs to be entered simple - the soil with the addition of nitrogen is perfect for starting flower care.
Planting and care for fuchsia (in short)
- Bloom: in the spring.
- Lighting: in the morning - bright diffused light, in the afternoon - penumbra (eastern or western windowsill).
- Temperature: in summer - no higher than 20 ˚C, in winter - no higher than 15 ˚C.
- Watering: in the period of growth - regular, but moderate, after drying the top layer of soil in the pot. In winter, watered 1-2 times a month.
- Air humidity: it is recommended to sprinkle the leaves in warm dry time with warm water or place the pot on a tray with wet pebbles.
- Top dressing: since March, once every 10 days as fertilizer for flowering houseplants. In winter, feeding is stopped.
- Trimming: twice a year: after the growing season (at the beginning of October) and in the winter (at the beginning of January).
- Rest period: late autumn and winter.
- Transfer: annually in spring.
- Reproduction: seeds and cuttings.
- Pests: aphid, whitefly, spider mites.
- Diseases: rust, powdery mildew, root rot.
Home Fuchsia - growing description
In nature, fuchsia looks like a shrub with flexible branches. The leaves are fuchsia, green or slightly reddish, oval, opposite, slightly pointed and jagged at the edges. Fuchsia blooms profusely and continuously drooping flowers, consisting of a bright calyx and a tubular corolla with folded edges. The blades of the calyx are longer than the petals, and the stamens are longer than the calyx. Fuchsia flowers - on long stalks, flowers pink, white, red, orange, cream, purple, violet - sometimes there are three different shades in a flower. The fruit is an edible berry.
The plant is so plastic that it can be given any shape - ampelous, bush, pyramidal, or it can grow a stem tree. In addition, different varieties of fuchsia bloom at different times with flowers of different colors, and you have the opportunity to create a collection of fuchsias that will bloom from early spring to late autumn. Fuchsias differ in flowering time, flower color and appearance. For example: simple (non-terry) flowers, varieties: Brutus, Winston Churchill, Bon Chord, semi-double flowers, varieties: Tennessee Walts, Snowcup, Satellite, terry - Midge, Swingtime, Workshop, tasselvetkovye - Leverkusen, Swanley Yellow.
How to care for fuchsia at home.
Home care for fuchsia is surprisingly easy. It should be remembered that fuchsia prefers cool rooms in which the temperature does not rise above 20 ºC. Summer. In winter, the temperature should be no higher than 15 ºC. The best place that could take a fuchsia at home is the east or north window sill. If in the summer the apartment is too stuffy, it is better to take the plant to the balcony or to the courtyard and find a well-lit place for it where the sun's rays fall only in the morning. At noon and until the evening fuchsia prefers penumbra. Watering should be regular and sufficient in the period of growth and flowering. Watering is necessary after drying the top layer of soil, while ensuring that there is no stagnant moisture in the roots. Water for watering needs to be defended or filtered. In late autumn, watering is reduced, and in winter it is watered 1-2 times a month. It would be nice to grow fuchsia in a thick ceramic pot in order to avoid overheating of the roots in the summer heat. Spraying water in the summer will refresh your beauty very much, you can also achieve the desired humidity by placing a fuchsia pot on a tray with wet pebbles.
Fuchsias growing in open ground, it is better to feed biological fertilizers. Fuchsia at home responds well to supplements with ready-made complex fertilizers for flowering plants, which are applied once every two weeks during the growing season. In these fertilizers, as a rule, there is no nitrogen component or it is very small. In the winter months, there is a period of rest, and the plant will not need feeding.
Trimming homemade fuchsia.
Experts suggest cutting room fuchsia twice a year: at the end of the growing season - in early October, and in winter - at the very beginning of January. The first pruning involves the removal of all withered branches at a height of 2 cm from dormant buds that are in the sinuses, which are easy to detect by carefully examining each branch. After pruning, you can begin to remove pests, seed boxes that you do not need, and spent flower stalks. The second pruning is carried out in January and represents the final formation of the crown of the plant.
Reproduction fuchsia seeds.
Fuchsia grown from seeds rarely retains the characteristics of the original plant, therefore this method is interesting only for those gardeners who are addicted to selection experiments. The complexity of this method is the need to exclude self-pollination of fuchsia and pollination of plants by insects. To do this, anthers are removed from the still unblown flower, and the paternal plant pollen is applied on the stigma of the pistil. After that, they put a cover on the flower to isolate it from insects. You can make a cover out of paper or fabric, fastening it below the flower thread. When the fruit is ripe, it is carefully cut, the seeds are removed and dried for a day or two. Fuchsia seeds are sown on top of the wet substrate without being sealed, then the container is placed in a greenhouse and kept in good light and room temperature. Seedlings will appear in a couple of weeks, after one and a half or two months, the seedlings are planted more spaciously (diving), and in another couple of months the young seedlings are seated in separate pots. It is necessary to accustom seedlings to the environment gradually, opening the greenhouse for a while, otherwise unadapted seedlings may die after being placed in normal room conditions.
Reproduction fuchsia cuttings.
And yet the most reliable way of breeding fuchsia is vegetative, namely, cuttings, since it can be used at any time of the year, but it is still more reasonable to reproduce fuchsia in spring. It is best to take young cuttings, since woody-woody segments root and grow too long. The length of the cutting on average should be 10-20 cm, the leaves in the lower part of the cutting are removed, the rest is shortened by half. Water for rooting take filtered, placed in water, the stalk is covered with a plastic bag or a plastic bottle. The roots of the stalk may appear already on the fourth day, and maybe the tenth. Do not wait for the long roots to grow, plant a stalk into the substrate as soon as the first young roots appear. Among flower growers there are daredevils who plant fuchsia cuttings into the ground right away, bypassing the stage of rooting them in water. But greenhouse conditions should be created by cuttings anyway.
Fuchsia in winter
Fuchsia in the winter gradually passes to the rest period, which is necessary for almost any plant. If she rests fully and restores her wasted strength, then you can hope for abundant and long flowering next year. To prepare the plant for rest, it is necessary to gradually reduce the watering of fuchsia, stop fertilization and, finally, move the pot to the cooler room with an air temperature of 10-15ºC, where the fuchsia will be hibernating. In a typical city apartment, a loggia or a balcony can be used as such a premise, provided that they are covered with glazed frames and warmed.
Do not forget to prune the plant and kill the pests before hibernating. If you worry that the fuchsia will be cold, warm the pot with foam or put it in a box with sawdust. Fuchsia can spend the winter in the cellar, and even in the garage, since it doesn’t care for it, during this period light will come into the room or total darkness will come. But if your fuchsia has to spend the winter on the windowsill in a well-heated room, you can hardly expect from it that in the spring it will quickly pick up the necessary shape and bring you happiness with an unprecedented flowering. Fuchsia is an unassuming plant, but it requires love and care, like any other. Therefore, if you condemn an exotic plant to winter penal servitude on a windowsill, you will have to make sacrifices and keep the glass pane in the “airing” position almost around the clock.