Myrtle tree is one of the most attractive and interesting indoor plants. Pleasant aroma, beautiful flowering, ease of shaping, high decorativeness - these advantages are possessed by myrtle. Home care is organized according to certain rules. You will learn about them from this article.
The myrta family is well known among flower growers. In total there are about 10 varieties of myrtle. Homeland plants - the Mediterranean. Grows in a subtropical climate. Under natural conditions, it is a shrub or tree up to 3 meters high. When grown in an apartment reaches 60 cm.
The leaves are small, shiny, leathery, oval, dark green. If you rub them in your hand, they exude a pleasant spicy aroma. The main part of the essential oils is concentrated in small veins. Flowers are small on long stalks, with five petals and many stamens. Color - white or pale pink. Fruits - round small berries of intense blue color.
Full care for myrtle at home is organized in accordance with a number of rules. Myrtle is considered a capricious plant, often refuses to bloom or sheds leaves. Creating optimal conditions for growth and flowering helps to avoid this.
- Lighting and site selection. Easily carries the direct rays of the sun, but more like a diffused light. In the heat of his pritenyut. It blooms only with plenty of light. The optimal location - window sills windows facing west or east. In the summer the flower is rearranged to fresh air. In winter, provide full coverage.
- Temperature. In the summer season they are kept at 18-20 ° C. In winter, the plant needs coolness. Myrtle rearranged on a glazed balcony or loggia with a temperature indicator not lower than 6-8 ° C. After a good rest myrtle blooms magnificently and for a long time. When wintering in the room, the flower is well watered and systematically sprayed. This helps to avoid leaf fall, but does not guarantee flowering.
- Humidity. Grows better at high humidity. On spraying with warm, well-settled water reacts with a friendly release of new shoots. The need for moisture increases during the period of intensive growth. At this time, the procedure is carried out daily. Additionally, humidifiers and pallets filled with water are used.
- Watering. Water the plant often - as soon as the topsoil begins to dry. In winter, the need for water is less, but to prevent the complete drying of the soil is impossible. Stable soil moisture is maintained throughout the year. Do not allow water stagnation at the bottom of the pot.
- The soil. Soil for myrtle choose nutritious, not heavy, moderate acidity. The best mixture of peat, humus and sod with the addition of sand or perlite.
- Feeding. During the period of active growth, frequent feeding is every week. For abundant flowering choose fertilizers with high phosphorus content. Regularly use complex preparations for ornamental deciduous crops.
- Transfer. Until the age of four shrubs transplanted annually. Mature trees - once in 3-4 years. The optimal time is spring, before the onset of flowering. When transplanting do not allow the penetration of the root collar. At the bottom of the landing tank provide a thick layer of drainage. The size of the pot is determined by the diameter of the crown - it must be half the size. In a large pot myrtle will not bloom.
- Trimming and shaping. Myrtle - indoor flower, which is very easy to form. Shears a haircut easily, quickly shoots young shoots. Pruning myrtle is carried out in early spring before the start of active growth. The cropping method depends on the desired result. Throughout the summer, adjust the crown of the plant, pinching too long young shoots.
Cuttings are cut twice a year - in the middle of winter or summer. Choose semi-woody branches from the middle or lower part of the crown. The optimal length of the cutting is from 5 to 8 cm. Half of the leaves are removed from the cutting, the remaining half is cut. The lower cut is dipped in a growth stimulator. A good effect gives a mixture of heteroauxin with 0.25% ascorbic acid content. The container is filled with a light substrate of sphagnum and sand. The cuttings are placed in it at a small angle and covered with a film. A greenhouse with cuttings is placed in a cool, shaded place. At the rooting stage, the temperature is maintained at 16-20 ° C. Greenhouse periodically air, monitor the level of humidity, if necessary, carry out watering the soil and spraying cuttings. They take root quickly - no longer than a month. Seedlings are transplanted into pots with a diameter of 7 cm (an ordinary plastic cup will do). When the roots completely entwine a clod of earth, they roll them into a larger pot. The first bloom no earlier than 3 years.
The seed myrtle grows more slowly. When using seed collected from the parent plant, the characteristics of the variety may differ. The germination substrate is a mixture of peat with vermiculite. Before sowing it is watered with a weak solution of fungicide. Seeds of myrtle scatter on the surface, covered with a very thin layer of substrate. Landing capacity cover glass. Maintain the temperature at 18-20 ° C, monitor soil moisture - it can neither be overdry or pereuvlazhnyat. Every day, briefly clean the glass, airing the greenhouse. When creating favorable conditions, seedlings appear in 1-2 weeks. Dive into separate pots in phase 2 of these sheets. Flowering - not earlier than 5 years of age.
Diseases, problems and pests
Young myrtle rarely gets sick. Mature and old bushes are less resistant to pests and negative factors.
- Aphid and shitovka. Attack the plant with insufficient moisture. Adjust the conditions and carry out treatment with anti-coccidal agents.
- Spider mite Appears with insufficient soil moisture. Myrtle is treated with insecticides.
- Fungi and putrefactive bacteria. Their appearance provokes constant waterlogging of the soil. The plant is transplanted, removing the affected parts.
- Yellow, dull leaves with twisted edges. Sign of excessive lighting.
- Shredding leaves, stretching the stems. The reason is poor lighting.
- Leaf fall. Increased temperature and dry air in winter or stagnant water in the root system.
Growing myrtle at home is not an easy, but exciting experience. Having mastered the shape, you can give your myrtle any shape.
What to do after buying myrtle?
Buying myrtle, you need to understand that the plant has a pronounced period of rest. This means that you need to care for myrtle in summer and in winter in different ways. Because of this feature, the myrtle can be in different places depending on the temperature in the house and the time of year. The most favorable time for a plant is summer. Myrtle loves fresh air, so the plant can even prikopat with a pot in the ground, for example, in the garden. Before you drift, you need to think and decide on the place where the myrtle will grow.
Mirth is in great demand among flower lovers. But quite often when growing myrtle at home, various problems occur. For example, myrtle sheds leaves. This may be due to the incorrect content of the myrtle. Something similar can be observed when growing such famous plants as azalea or pomegranate. Caring for myrtle is quite simple, but still has its own nuances.
Location and lighting
Myrtle loves bright diffused light and easily transfers direct sunlight. But it is worth considering that the plant should shade from direct sunlight in the hot season. If you want to get flowers from the plant, then you need to take into account that the myrtle should be in a well-lit place. In the summer of myrtle can be taken out into the open air.
If myrtle grows in a room on a windowsill, then the best option would be western and eastern windows. If you have a myrtle in the south, it can get sunburn. In the north, the most unfavorable place for flowering: the flowers will be faded and quickly disappear. You can also note that the light acts on the myrtle, as a wake-up signal.
In winter, you need to give the plant as much light as possible. If the myrtle will stand in the south, then the rest period will last only a month, if in the north, then all three. If you had to change a permanent place, then it should be done gradually. Indeed, in another place the level of light will be different. Myrtle may lose the light or, on the contrary, receive its surplus, therefore, it is necessary to approach the rearrangement of the tree carefully and gradually. The plant does not like abrupt relocation. It is worth starting with the fact that little by little the myrtle can be placed a little further from the window, so it will get used to the new conditions of detention more quickly.
In summer, room temperature is quite suitable for myrtle. In general, the plant loves coolness or moderate temperature. The most favorable air temperature is 18-20 degrees. In winter, it is better to move the myrtle tree to a cool room with an air temperature of 6-8 degrees Celsius. Under these conditions, the myrtle will bloom profusely in the summer. You can, of course, arrange wintering for myrtle at room temperature, but in this case you will need abundant watering and constant spraying.
When the air is warm and dry in winter, leaves often fall near the myrtle, although you should not despair. If we continue to moderately water the tree, in the spring it will turn green again, however, the myrtle, which has suffered a warm winter, will not bloom.
Myrtle likes moist air, so it needs regular spraying. Usually, in the winter with cool content, myrtle is not sprayed, but in summer or in the warm season, the plant must be constantly sprayed. This is especially true of autumn and spring, when the plant is just in the active phase of growth.
In spring and summer, the myrtle is watered regularly and abundantly as soon as the topsoil dries. In winter, of course, myrtle needs to be watered less often, but still it is impossible to allow the soil to dry out, otherwise the plant will die. Water myrtle should be warm and soft water as possible. It is important to ensure that the potted earth never dries out. Regardless of the time of year - there must always be a moist soil in the pot. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that water does not stagnate in the pot.
The optimal composition of soil for the cultivation of myrtle: turf, humus, peat land and sand in equal proportions or clay, turf, peat and humus soil with the addition of sand in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 0.5.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
From spring to autumn, myrtle should be fed every week. Depending on what kind of tree you want, you want to get and feeding for myrtle is chosen. If you want the plant to please its flowering, you need to use fertilizer with a high level of phosphorus. If you prefer a miniature tree, it is better to use nitrogen fertilizers. In general, conventional liquid complex fertilizers can be used for decorative leafy plants.
It is best to transplant an adult myrtle once every 3-4 years, and young plants are transplanted annually in spring before the onset of flowering. When transplanting myrtle can not bury the root neck of the plant, it can lead to various diseases or to the defeat of rot. At the bottom of the pot necessarily spread a good layer of drainage. The pot for myrtle should not be too big, enough to fit the root system. For transplanting and handling, you need to pick up a pot that is two times smaller than the crown volume of the plant.
Trimming and Pinching
For myrtle pruning is the ability to drastically change the shape of a plant and carry it out best in spring. If you pinch young branches in time, you can increase the density of the crown, you can pinch as needed at any time of the year.
On pruning and pinching myrtle you need to pay special attention and devote more time to it. After buying a myrtle, you should decide which tree you want to see at home. For example, if nothing is done, the myrtle tree may eventually take on a pyramidal shape. If you trim the top of the tree, it will look like a shrub. If you cut the sides, in the end you get a magnificent tree. In any case, how not to prune the myrtle, it will still bloom and delight its master. But it is important to remember one thing: if the myrtle is often pinned down, then the flowers will eventually become much smaller than before.
In general, if you figure this out, a myrtle tree is one of the plants that are served by their defragmentation. It can always be trimmed in different ways and thereby give it a unique look. But do not overdo it. When a small plant needs to be taken into account, the trunk is still young and will not be able so proudly to hold a lush bush. You just need to wait a bit and the myrtle will get stronger and in three years will show itself as a beautiful bush.
One note when transplanting myrtle, you need to ensure that the trunk remains on the surface of the earth, and so the whole transplant algorithm is suitable, as well as for other plants living in the rooms of the house. Landing immediately in a big pot bug. For a tree that is only three years old, the pot should be at least 12 centimeters in diameter. Land for myrtle is bought in the store.
Reproduction by cuttings
Propagation by cuttings should be carried out no more than twice a year. The first time you need to do in the winter (January-February), and the second time to focus on the spring or mid-summer (July). Cuttings should be taken from the bottom or middle of the tree. The length of the cutting should be 5-8 centimeters. To prevent moisture evaporation, leaves can be removed from the cutting, the rest can be simply shortened. To rooting was fast, you can use stimulants.
The most suitable mixture for rooting is a mixture of sand with moss. If this is not, then you can use the usual sheet earth, in which coarse sand. The temperature at which the rooting procedure will take place must be between 16-20 degrees.
The best time for rooting is winter. The light at this time does not need a cutting at all - on the contrary, you need to shade this place. Utensils for rooting should be strictly not deep, after rooting, you need to cover the cutting cap. Sometimes the plant needs to be ventilated so that it does not fester at its early age. Usually rooting takes about a month. After that, it can be safely planted in a small pot with a diameter of about 7 centimeters.
When propagated by cuttings, flowering occurs at 3 or 4 years.
Seeds are evenly distributed over the soil surface and sprinkled on top of a thin layer of substrate. Capacity with seeds covered with a film or glass to create greenhouse conditions. The temperature must be maintained within 18-20 degrees. Capacity with seeds must be periodically ventilated. The soil is kept wet all the time.
Seedlings usually germinate in 1-2 weeks. When the seedlings have two full leaves, they can be transplanted into separate small pots. Transplantation is carried out by the method of transshipment. In the future, care for young plants is the same as for adult myrtle. Transplantation is carried out when the roots completely fill the pot.
When myrtle seeds multiply, flowering occurs in about 5 years.
Diseases and pests
Myrtle can be affected by aphids and shields, and with dry air and insufficient moisture, the spider mite.
Shchitka at an early stage is almost not noticeable, but it multiplies rapidly, covering the stems and leaves of the plant with dark spots. The shield is removed with a wet swab, but you still need to treat the entire plant with insecticide or soapy water.
Aphid often settles on the underside of the leaf and feeds on the sap of the plant, which leads to drying and folding of the leaves. Destroy aphids insecticides.
A spider mite appears on the underside of the leaves and envelops them with thin white spider webs. Destroyed by spraying and washing the leaves, especially on the underside, with water or a weak tobacco extract. Also myrtle can be treated with ready-made universal insecticides.
Medicinal properties of myrtle
In conclusion, it can be said that myrtle is an amazing plant. Apart from the fact that the myrtle blooms, and the flowers are fragrant, it also has healing properties. Even the smallest tree can protect against diseases and viruses in the house. As is known, myrtle oil is very much appreciated by the people and has many indications for use.
Tincture of myrtle tree gives energy to man and vigor, the effect is almost like coffee. The leaves of myrtle are boiled and used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Even in cooking, the myrtle has found its use. Very often the leaves or even the shoots of the myrtle themselves are used in the manufacture of fish or poultry dishes. If you throw a sprig of myrtle on the embers, then the kebab will turn out just gorgeous: the flavor will simply not be comparable to anything else. Even the bay leaf is not so popular in this area.
In several nations, the myrtle is considered almost a cult tree. From it make wreaths and bouquets. A gift from myrtle is given to brides, so the plant was given the name “Bride's Tree”. Another myrtle tree called - "The tree of family well-being and happiness," which personifies a friendly and strong family.
Издавна мирт ценится за свои лекарственные свойства – цветы и листва содержат эфирные масла, а если высушить листья и плоды, то их можно использовать в качестве специй (пряности). For example, carnation is a product derived from one type of myrtle.
In the cold season, for the prevention, they use essential oils, spreading their smell around the room, or simply putting the plant on a window sill, for example, in a children's room. Also, research has shown that myrtle can reduce allergic reactions in children.
Myrtle plants also include such valuable plants as tea tree, eucalyptus and allspice.
Types and varieties
Myrtle ordinary (Myrtus communis) or else it is called "communis"(He is"room") - the most common form in home gardening. This species is characterized by a short well-branched trunk, which is covered with flaking bark of a reddish-brown color.
The leaves are green, oval, shiny and have a pleasant aroma. The flowers are white (sometimes there is a rather weak pink shade) with stamens protruding outside. It blooms in the summer season. The fruits are black with a reddish tint berries.
This species of myrtle bred many varieties:
- Myrt Tarentina - compact shrub with many fruits, smaller in size than the parent.
- Sort myrtle of the Alhambra - has white fruits, berries and dense foliage.
- Mirth Variégata (Variegata) stands out among other variegated foliage.
- Myrtle "La Clape" - has purple berries.
- Among them is a dwarf form - myrtle "Microphylla".
This is a miniature copy of a tree, a very popular plant, it is of great value among gardeners, its leaves contain essential oils used in medicine and cosmetology. The price of such a tree is not small.
The shape of such a tree can be varied, the trunk twists and bends in the process of growth, and thanks to periodic pruning of the shoots, it is possible to form the shape of the crown at will.
Myrtle Magnificent - it can be either in the form of a bush or in the form of a tree with brown flaking bark. The leaves are dull, dark green, white flowers blooming in July or August. Fruits are dark red - edible.
Myrt Heckwen (Myrtus chequen) - a tree with glossy leaves and slightly wrinkled edges.
Myrt Ralph (Myrtus ralfii) - this bush is distinguished by pink flowers and red edible berries. The leaves have a white or cream edging.
Myrtle Boetica (Boetica)
Large-leaved species, leaves are larger than in other species (6-7 cm, while the standard is 1-2 cm), with a pointed end. This myrtle grows very slowly. The barrel has an interesting feature - it twists, in the process of growth interesting shapes are formed. The flowers are white and large, and the berries are oblong, black.
Myrt Hamedafna (Cassandra or marsh myrtle) - an evergreen shrub that grows exclusively in swamps, from which it got its name. In height reaches one meter. Young shoots and leaves contain poison that is dangerous for animals (for goats and sheep).
Lemon Myrtle if you bruise a sheet of such a plant, you will feel a pronounced lemon scent. In some countries, such leaves are used as seasoning. Leaf size: length 10 cm, and width 1-4 cm. It blooms first with white flowers, and then darkens to a cream and slightly yellow shade.
Myrtle care at home
Myrtle is a plant that needs to create a climate with high humidity, so spraying is a prerequisite for healthy and lush growth. In no case do not forget about watering, but do not flood, the plant is very sensitive and can get sick. Water only with soft, settled water.
But the myrtle is not afraid of drafts, so it can be safely left on the windowsill, where the window for airing is constantly open. With the flow of air through the apartment will be distributed useful volatile, destroying disease-causing microbes.
The temperature must be controlled within 18-24 ° C. In the summer, it is advisable to expose the myrtle to the street or balcony and a little pritenit, so that the rays of a particularly scorching sun do not fall.
As for pruning, the myrtle tolerates it well, not to mention the fact that because of this, you can give a different desired shape to the crown, creating different compositions. Pruning and transplantation is carried out in the spring season, no more than once every two years.
When transplanting using the transshipment method, while choosing a pot a little more than the previous one. The soil for myrtle fit simple, with good drainage. The substrate is prepared from equal parts of turf land, peat and sand.
It will be helpful to add some charcoal and organic compost. Any varieties undercut must be additionally fed, for this purpose any fertilizers will be suitable for indoor plants (complex mineral), without chlorine in the composition. The young plant begins to bloom only in the fourth or fifth year after planting.
Description of plant culture
Myrtle is an evergreen woody plantwhich belongs to the Myrta family. Under natural conditions it grows freely on the territory of the Mediterranean, the Azores and North Africa. The name of the representative of the subtropics is of Greek origin and means "incense", "balm". It is associated with a unique pleasant aroma of the essential oil contained in the plant, which favorably affects the human condition.
In the world there are about 100 species of evergreen plants. Under natural conditions, the tree reaches 3 m in height. Indoor flower grows up to a maximum of 1 meter, if all the norms of cultivation and care for it were observed. The average growth of homemade myrtle is 40-60 cm. The shoots are covered with leathery leaves, which are located opposite.
Sheet plates are characterized by an elongated shape and pointed tips. Flowers can be double or single, single or gathered in a brush. The fruits are presented in the form of walnut.
Myrtle is commonly grown at home. ordinaryor myrtle communis. The short branched trunk is covered with red-brown scales. Oval-lanceolate green leafy plates have a glossy surface and a pleasant smell. The flowers can be white, cream or pale pink color. The abundance of thin and long stamens gives the flower a fluffy look, lightness and incredible tenderness. The blooming of common myrtle lasts from June until August, but it can be achieved only in the fifth year of the plant's life. Its varieties differ in height, color, leaf shape and fruit color. Among the popular varieties of indoor myrtle flower should be noted:
- Alhambra. It is characterized by dense leaves and white fruits.
- Boetics. Differs in slow growth and ornateness of shoots. The barrel has a beautiful rich color.
- Variegata. The leaves differ in large size and elongated shape. The edges of the plates are white and variegated.
- La clape. The lush tree is different purple fruits.
- La Clape Blanc. After flowering on the plant white berries are formed.
- Microfill. It is a dwarf small-leaved variety.
- Tarentina. The plant is characterized by rapid growth and abundant flowering. The leaves reach a length of 1.5-2 cm.
- Tarentina Granada. The variety has the same characteristics as Tarentin, but brings white-colored berries.
- Flora pleno. It has a fluffy terry bloom.
Conditions for growing myrtle
Any variety of common myrtle needs the same growing conditions and rules of care.
For a native of the subtropics, an environment should be created that is as close as possible to the natural habitats of the tree.
The temperature in the summer should be within + 22-25 degrees. By winter, this figure is lowered to + 7-9 degrees.
The light-loving tree should be placed on the windowsills of the eastern or western windows. On the southern side, the plant can get burns from the scorching rays of the sun, so in this place it will often have to curtain. Light and heat rarely enter the room from the north side, which will lead to the absence of flowering near the myrtle.
An excellent location for a flower in the summer will be a glassed-in balcony or loggia, where it will receive enough fresh air. If the myrtle is left in the house, then it will be necessary to regularly conduct airing of the room.
You should also monitor the level of humidity in the room. Overdried air adversely affects the moisture-loving plant. This usually occurs in the winter season from heated batteries. Until spring, the pot with trees can be left in the kitchen, where there is a higher degree of humidity.
The myrtle plant quickly adapts to new conditions with the right composition of soil in which it will be planted after purchase. The soil can be purchased ready or made independently. For a subtropical flower take turf, peat soil, humus and river sand.
Flowering myrtle tree occurs with good lighting and regular airing of the room.
Myrtle ordinary: care at home
Care for myrtle at home consists of the following procedures:
- regular watering
- timely feeding,
During warm periods, myrtle requires abundant and frequent watering. Water taken filtered or defended. It must be free of chlorine and hardness salts. The next procedure is performed after complete drying of the upper layer of the substrate. It is necessary to ensure that the soil does not dry out completely, otherwise the tree will start dropping foliage due to lack of water. Excess moisture also adversely affects the condition of the plant, so the pot must be equipped with good drainage, and the remaining water from the pan must be drained after 20-30 minutes after watering. By winter, the flower begins to be watered less often, but in dry climates it is fed to the same extent as in summer.
In the hot season, the myrtle tree should be sprayed to refresh its brilliant crown. In winter, in a dry room, this procedure is also required.
From the beginning of spring to the end of the summer, the plant is fed. To achieve flowering trees, you should make special fertilizers for flowering crops 2-3 times a month. The phosphoric salt contained in them contributes to the frequent appearance of new buds. If it is decided to grow a simple tree with a green crown or a bonsai tree, then you should use complex fertilizers for deciduous species.
Trimming myrtle make to give it a crown of an attractive appearance and compactness. The method of the procedure is chosen depending on the desired shape for the flower. Many grow a plant like a stem tree, which has a neat and compact look. If you want to form a bonsai tree, then you have to work hard to get a quality result. But a strong passion for pruning can lead to improper development of the myrtle. The procedure in moderation leads to the rapid growth of shoots and easy restoration of decorative culture. Pruning should be done before or after flowering. Without this procedure, the myrtle will grow in an unappealing shrub.
The rest period of the myrtle tree falls on the winter season. By December, watering is reduced to once a week. Top dressing bring once a month. If the air in the room becomes too dry due to heating, then the plant continues to be watered and sprayed abundantly so as not to overdry the soil.
It is advisable to move the home flower to a cooler place with good lighting. The temperature is set within + 7-9 degrees. If the indicator is too high, the tree may shed its leaves, but even with the loss of the main part of the crown, you should not worry, because by next spring the myrtle, having regained strength, will grow a new and more magnificent crown.
Fans of myrtle tree often want to decorate the room with several plants to create a kind of oasis in the interior. Propagate myrtle in the winter or in the middle of summer.
To save the species and varietal characteristics of the method used cuttings. This method is effective, since the cuttings tend to root quickly. For breeding in mature trees use sprigs of the current year.
- Cuttings pruned length of 7-10 cm from lateral shoots.
- The lower sections are treated with a solution of Heteroauxin or Cornevin.
- For cuttings prepared peat and peat and coarse sand.
- The resulting substrate is poured into a low and wide container and sprigs are planted there. Capacity cover with a film or glass.
- Rooted cuttings for 3-4 weeks in a darkened room at a temperature of + 18-20 degrees. Periodically, the container should be ventilated so that the soil is not acidic.
- With the root system formed, the cuttings are transplanted into separate pots with a diameter of 6-8 cm. The composition of the soil is used the same.
A year later, young specimens are transplanted into pots with a diameter of 10 cm and perform the care characteristic of an adult myrtle.
Seed breeding method is quite long. This method is rarely used, because the future of a tree does not inherit maternal characteristics. Seed by way of breeding the plant in the spring:
- Sand-peat soil is prepared for seeds.
- Planting material is planted in the soil and covered with a thin layer of earth.
- The container is covered with a glass jar or film material and transferred to a room with diffused light and a temperature of +20 degrees.
- Sprouts usually appear after 7-10 days. With the advent of several leaves, seedlings dive into separate containers.
In order for the crown to form correctly, the shoots must be pinched.
Insect parasites and diseases
Myrtle flower is rarely sick, because caring for it does not cause difficulties. But negative environmental conditions can trigger the onset of diseases or pests. Therefore, it is necessary to inspect the plant daily for possible defects in its appearance. Among the frequent problems in growing myrtle tree are:
- Yellowing and twisting of the leaves. Insufficient illumination provokes the stretching of the stems and the appearance of small, pale leaves. Excessive light causes yellowing, loss of shine and curl of the leaf plates.
- Dropping foliage. This is due to the high temperature in the room. This problem occurs when the soil dries. In this case, it is necessary to establish the correct temperature and humidity in the room, as well as to increase the degree of irrigation and spraying.
- Withering tree. This symptom refers to a fungal disease called root rot. With this disease, the plant rots in the main stem, which leads to the death of the flower. Sick myrtle should be thrown away with pot and earth.
Whitefly, aphid, spider mite and scale scale should be distinguished among the frequent pests of myrtle trees. Insects usually appear at elevated temperatures. It is possible to get rid of them with the help of insecticides.
To care for a heat-loving plant is quite simple. Growing myrtle will bring great pleasure even to a novice florist. A tree with a beautifully decorated crown will be the main property of the interior.
Myrtle care in winter
In winter, the myrtle has a dormant period, while watering is reduced (only the soil is moistened slightly, preventing drying) and the plant is rearranged to a cooler (8-10 ° C), but a bright place.
If this is not done, then dropping the leaves is observed. Although this is not a big danger, as new, young leaves begin to appear in the spring.
Myrtle seed at home
Seed method is less effective, but it is also used. In early spring, the prepared substrate (one part of peat and one part of sand) is poured into boxes (soil thickness 8-10 cm), sown with myrtle seeds, sprinkled with the same mixture of soil (3-4 cm thick), moistened and covered with glass. Temperature control in the region of 20 ° С is controlled.
Periodically, the glass opens to ventilate and moisten the soil, as needed. Glass can be flipped or wiped away from excess condensate.
After a couple of weeks, the first seedlings will begin to appear, when there are too many of them - they are thinning, and after appearing at least three leaves on the shoots, they are transplanted into separate pots with the same composition substrate. After a month, the young plants are fed with a weak concentration of nitrogen fertilizer.
Why does myrtle shed its leaves?
In winter, during the operation of heating systems, the air becomes warm and overdried - this may cause the leaves of the myrtle to fall. You should not despair, continue to moderately water the plant and by spring it will be green again. Myrtle, who endured a warm winter, most likely will not bloom. In the summer of myrtle can be taken out into the open air.
For successful growth and good development room myrtle need to be fed. Once every two weeks apply organic mineral fertilizers. During wintering, top dressing is not needed.
How to cut and shape the crown of myrtle
In indoor conditions, myrtle is usually grown. He tolerates pruning. Even if the myrtle does not bloom, the formation of the crown will allow you to grow a beautiful tree by the type of bonsai. Do not bar the barrel much, because it is not very durable. Leave as many side shoots as possible. However, if you want the tree to bloom, you should not get carried away with pruning, otherwise flower buds will not form.
Growing seed myrtle
Seeds of myrtle photo
Reproduction by seeds and shanks is possible. При семенном размножении могут теряться сортовые признаки, если семена взяты от гибридных кустов. Хорошо всхожи только свежие семена. Промойте семена без околоплодников в слабом растворе марганцовки, просушите.
Высаживайте в плошки с использованием легкой земли. Глубина заделки семян составляет 0,5 см. Накройте пленкой или стеклом для образования парникового эффекта. Поместите в теплое освещенное место, избегая попадания прямых солнечных лучей.
Ventilate the seedlings regularly, moisten the soil, but do not pour it. Expect seedlings in 1.5-2 months, with their appearance, the film must be removed. When the seedlings grow, they dive into separate pots. When reaching a height of 15-20 cm, you need to pinch the young shoots, stimulating the growth of new ones. Grown from the seeds of myrtle, give flowering to the 5th year of life.
Myrtus Myrtus communis
Myrtus Myrtus communis photo
The Russian interpretation of the Latin name —Mirth Communis — an evergreen tree, reaches a height of 50 cm to a meter in room conditions. The leaves are small, glossy, leathery, oblong, arranged oppositely.
Variety Myrtle Myrtus Variegata
Myrtle ordinary variegated photo
The foliage is variegated, the edges of the leaves are covered with dots and stripes of amber color. The flowers are miniature, beige-white with golden stamens, exude a pleasant aroma. Suitable for indoor cultivation. This species is revered as a symbol of fertility.
Variety Mirta Hymen - the name is given in honor of the God of the Marriage Union, people call it the happiness of the bride. We honor as a symbol of youth and beauty. This is an evergreen shrub, reaching a height of 3-5 m in a natural environment, about 1 meter in a room. The leaves are miniature, lanceolate, emerald color. White flowers with a large number of golden stamens, with a diameter of 1.5-2 cm. At the end of flowering, blue-black berries are formed, with an intense pleasant aroma.
It has a powerful antibacterial effect, eliminating pathogenic bacteria, sticks. It helps in the fight against influenza, sore throat, sinusitis, in the prevention of treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, prostatitis.
The plant reaches a height of 3-4 m. Tetrahedral stems are covered with large leaves (up to 5 cm in length). The leaves are glossy, with sharp edges, arranged oppositely. Flower pyatilepestkovy white color with symmetrical golden stamens.
Myrtus Alhambra Myrtus Alhambra
Myrtus Alhambra Myrtus Alhambra photo
The fine ornamental plant suitable for cultivation in wild and house conditions. Leaves compacted, with a high content of essential oils. The flowers are small, white, fragrant. Bloom in late spring. After flowering white fragrant fruits are formed.
Myrtus Tarentina Myrtus Tarentina
Myrtus Tarentina Myrtus Tarentina Photos
Dwarf form of an ordinary subspecies. Small white flowers abundantly cover the plant. The leaves are elongated, reach 1.5 cm, the edges are serrated, pointed, painted in emerald color, fastened on shorter petioles. The plant has a fast growth rate. In nature, it grows about 5 m tall, in room conditions - up to 1 meter.
Lemon Myrtle Myrtus lemon
Lemon Myrtle Myrtus lemon photo
Exudes a pleasant lemon scent. Originally from the tropics of Australia. Widely used in cooking. Used for the manufacture of essential oils, various sauces, dressings, syrups and lemon drinks. Dry leaflets are used as seasoning.
Myrtle fine-leaved Myrtus communis microphylla
Myrtle small-leaved Myrtus communis microphylla photo
The small-leaved form of myrtle ordinary conquers with its unique elegance with many small, densely planted dense leaves, completely covering the crown of the tree. Along with abundant flowering, it turns the myrtle tree into a festive decoration of any room.
How to make tincture of myrtle leaves?
To do it yourself is quite simple. Take a liter jar, put there about 100 g of leaves and pour 500 g of 60-70% alcohol or vodka. For two weeks, you need to insist the mixture in a dark place. It is advisable to shake the jar daily. Then filter the infusion. For the prevention of diseases 30 minutes before a meal, you need to take 20 drops of infusion 3 times a day.
To benefit from the plant, you can simply put it in the room: it will clean the air from various viruses and germs. In the bedroom, putting myrtle is not recommended. You will surely enjoy the aroma of the tree. Myrtle is ideal for both home and office.
Myrtle is a symbol of a strong, happy, friendly family. It will be a great gift for newlyweds and already “experienced” families.
Legends, beliefs about myrtle, its healing and other useful properties
An ancient legend has it that the myrtle brought Adam from Paradise. The ancient Greeks considered myrtle sacred. The same myrtle was worshiped by the Romans, Egyptians, and Jews. Mirt was credited with the ability to return youth to the aging skin of the face, and he gave strength and vigor to travelers. In Catholics, the myrtle is the personification of the spirit of the Virgin Mary, so the peoples of Northern Europe consider him a talisman for a woman. With the birth of a daughter, a myrtle tree was grown, and at her wedding a veil, a bride's bridal outfit, and a bridal bouquet were decorated with sprigs of myrtle. That is why sometimes called myrtle non-tree.
Myrtle means "balm" translated from Greek. Its flowers and leathery leaves emit phytoncides - useful substances that can not only protect the plant from diseases, but also purify the air around it, relieve fatigue, create a positive attitude.
Essential oil of myrtle is widely used in medicine and perfumery. Tincture of myrtle wipe the face, which refreshes the skin better than any lotion. Myrtle tincture or decoction of the bark and leaves is used in the treatment of diseases of the throat and respiratory tract, diseases of the urogenital system and gastrointestinal tract, various suppurations and poorly healing wounds are treated.
In antiquity, the fruits of myrtle insisted in wine, considering it to be a good tonic, a real elixir of health.
Be careful with folk remedies, be sure to consult a doctor. Care should be taken to treat myrtle people in the elderly and pregnant women.
Dried fruits and leaves are used as spice. When roasting, smoking, grilling meat or fish, adding a sprig of myrtle will give them a special flavor. Remove the leaves after cooking. By the way, spice of a carnation is a product of one of types of a myrtle tree.
Features of growing myrtle
Homeland plants are subtropics with a humid climate. Such conditions need to create indoor myrtle and home. It grows well on the southern windows in the apartment, feels good on the western and eastern, and in winter you can keep on the north side.
Loves heat and high humidity. In addition to abundant watering, the plant should be sprayed with settled water at least 1 time a day, more often, up to 2-3 times. To create high humidity, the flower pot is placed in a tray with wet gravel poured into it. You can also place water tanks next to it.
Attention! Myrtle negatively reacts to short-term drying of the soil. From drying it drops the leaves and may even die.
In order for this plant to feel comfortable, it is provided, in addition to high humidity, the following conditions:
- good lighting - in poor light the myrtle begins to wither and does not bloom, but from the direct sun on the south side it is better to shade it, in order to avoid leaf browning and burns,
- fresh air - the plant needs airing, it is not afraid of even drafts. And in the summer, the flower can be placed on the balcony or landed with a pot on a country site,
- rest period - in winter, the myrtle should rest, it should be placed in a cool place with a temperature of about 10 degrees. Water and spray it at this time less often, but without complete drying of the soil. In a cool place, the rest period lasts about 3 months, while in the warmth it is shorter and makes up half of this period.
Young plants are best transplanted annually. It is not recommended to immediately plant myrtle in a large pot with a margin; it is better to increase its size gradually. To prepare the soil take 30% of turf and peat land, 20% of humus and sand. You can take to plant plants purchased soil.
Be sure to use drainage. And for better survival, the roots of a flower can be treated with a stimulant. After transplanting, pour plenty of water until water seeps out of the pot. It is then removed from the pallet. Adult flowers annual transplanting is no longer needed. In one substrate, they can grow up to 3-4 years.
Tip In order not to unnecessarily injure the roots of the myrtle during transplantation, it is better to use the method of transferring the plant together with an old clod of earth into a prepared pot of larger size.
Many prefer to independently engage in the reproduction of indoor plants. To reproduce myrtle, you can use one of two ways:
Cutting is a popular and easy way to get a new plant. You can spend it in the winter, early spring or in the middle of summer. Take a stalk the size of 6-8 cm, but not with a flowering branch, process a slice in the stimulator, then planted in the ground, covering the top with glass or transparent film. Rooting will take about 2-3 weeks, after which the plants can be planted separately.
Used and seed method, but it takes much more time. Only it should be borne in mind that the germination of myrtle seeds persists only for about a year. In addition, the signs of the variety with this method can be lost, and the myrtle will begin to bloom much later than during grafting.
Myrtle ordinary is a beautiful and fragrant plant that creates a special microclimate indoors. Of course, there are some nuances in its cultivation, which may scare off newcomers to home gardening. But caring for myrtle is not as difficult as it seems at first glance, to give up such an amazing flower.