The gooseberry is a light-loving shrub that grows well and bears fruit only when there is enough light. It does not tolerate either shading or thickening, therefore regular pruning is necessary for it, as well as air. And how to do it correctly, we will look at this article in detail.
Purpose of pruning
Pruning is the main shrub care event., as a result of which we get a properly formed and abundantly fruiting healthy plant. It helps to control the growth of young shoots, to form old ones, to remove excess ones. Condensed plants produce small yields of small berries, and even those due to their thorniness will be very difficult and traumatic to harvest.
Depending on the purpose, pruning is divided into:
- formativewhich results in a well-formed compact bush,
- sanitaryconducted for the improvement of the shrub when the diseased, broken, dry branches that hinder the normal development and growth are removed from the plant,
- rejuvenatingperformed to stimulate the growth of new shoots.
The timely cutting of the gooseberry will help protect it from most of the diseases associated with plant thickening and extend the period of its full fruiting.
Before planting shrubs to a permanent place crushed and dry shoots are removed from the plant, the rest are shortened, leaving four buds on strong shoots, and if the shoot is weak then two. Thin shoots are removed completely. Such a strong pruning pledge of good development of the bush. Gooseberry will quickly take root and recover, as it has the ability to quickly grow shoots.
The gooseberry bush is in the dawn of its strength until the age of 8, after which the fruiting is reduced, if not completely. To prolong the full life of the shrub requires its rejuvenation. From 8-10 years of age they begin to make strong pruning annually, which consists in cutting in the late part of the third part of the shoots of the whole bush for three years. This will trigger the growth of zero (growing from the ground) shoots. Growing for the year zero shoots need to cut about 1 примерно4 of their length.
Gooseberry bushes older than 20 years to rejuvenate does not make sense.
The classical scheme of pruning and the formation of gooseberry bush
This is the formation of the most ordinary bush. In the first year of life on the shoots of the current year leave 4-5 buds and choose 3-4 strong zero escape . Shoots growing horizontally, inside the bush, the sick and the weak are removed without regret. The following year, new shoots grown shortened by 1/3 , and zero is already left in the amount of the previous year up to 8 . In the third year of life a bush will have to 12 branches between the ages of one and three. Pruning is carried out according to the same principle: the branches of the current year are shortened, from the zero ones, up to 4 best ones are chosen. The bush is already fruiting. By the age of five, the period of full fruiting, the bush should consist of 20 powerful branches of different age. And from this point on every year the old branches are completely removed. They differ from other shoots in darker bark color. The further pruning principle is the same.
If this pruning technology is observed, the bush will be constantly young and abundantly fruiting.
Unusual methods for trimming and shaping
By cutting in a certain way you can form standard bush form or grow it on a trellis.
it growing shrubs in the form of trees. This bush looks very nice and takes up less space on the plot, harvesting is simplified.
Growing gooseberry on a shtambe
To form a trunk, the strongest vertically growing shoot is chosen; all the others are removed.. All side shoots are also removed to the height of the selected trunk, usually a meter height is taken. Re-growing lateral shoots on the stem should be constantly removed, to facilitate the care of the stem, it is desirable to put a tube (metal or plastic) on it and bury part of the tube in the ground. This will serve as a kind of support for the trunk, in the winter it will be easier to warm it, in order to avoid freezing. Near the bush must install a peg and produce a garter trunk to him in several places.
Further formation takes place according to the classical scheme: up to 5 strong shoots are left annually; shoots of last year are shortened by about half. Escape - the sequel is not shortened. Removed as shoots growing down and growing inside the bush. All shoots that grow from the soil at the base of the trunk are removed. As an option - the soil under the bush zamulchirovat crushed bark and beautiful and the growth will not break through it.
The disadvantages of this form of trimming shrubs is a low frost resistance, the life span of the plant is only 10-12 years, since the stem is aging and it cannot be rejuvenated. But you can arrange the rotation of the standard bushes on the site. To do this, each year to form new plants and then the replacement will be retiring constantly.
This is a bush growing on a trellis. Mandatory installation in the rows of supports and the tension between them three rows of wire at a height of 50, 80, 100 cm from the ground . Bushes in rows are planted at a distance of 70-100 cm, the distance between the rows is 1.5 m.
The bush should consist of 3-4 branches. They are placed in a fan and tied to the bottom wire trellis, their further growth lead vertically. When performing pruning achieve horizontal growth of growing shoots3-5 of the strongest are tied to the trellis, slightly shortened, the rest are removed. The following year, these branches tie up without cutting to the second wire. The central shoots are shortened more strongly, and the horizontal ones are weaker so that they do not lag behind in growth. Zero shoots, thickening bush removed. Starting from the sixth year of life, begin rejuvenating pruning bush. Cut out the old branches, replacing them in advance left young.
With this method of growing bushes are very well ventilated and illuminated.. Harvesting is a pleasure.
Pruning and rejuvenation of gooseberry in the spring, timing
Gooseberry spring wakes up very early and if the decision on spring pruning is made, you should not be late with the deadlines. As soon as you can enter the garden and become warmer - proceed. Remove the dry and blackened shoots (branches, recovering from powdery mildew).
If this is the second year of a bush's life, then weak shoots are removed, leave 3-4 strongest zero escape. And they do this for the first five years. To the beginning of full fruiting (from the fifth year of life) bush must have up to 25 strong shoots.
Clipping the bushes in summer
To increase the yield of gooseberries is recommended to make light pruning in the summer. She is consists in shortening young green shoots. No more than seven leaves are left on the shoot, and the top is cut off.
In August, also weakly developing zero shoots are removed, on the development of which food is taken from the plant.
Novice gardeners note:
Proper pruning of shoots in the fall and preparation for winter
If the main pruning was not done in the spring, then in the fall it’s time to do it and renew the bush. It should be done at the end of October and not earlier, so that during the autumn thaws the side shoots do not grow. They will not have time to become ligneous and will surely freeze out in winter.
Old, broken, sick, weak young and branches growing deep into the bush are removed. Zero shoots shortened to the fourth part of its length.
If the end of the branch is thin, it means that the branch is weak, there will be no harvest on it and so that the apical kidney does not pull on food, it must also be shortened to the largest kid looking out.
As a result of pruning should be well clarified bush.
Bushes care after pruning, tips for beginner gardeners
Caring for the bushes after cutting is obligatory feeding with organic or mineral fertilizers, since the amount of nutrients in the soil depends on it.
Fertilization in spring helps the plant to gain strength before flowering and fruiting, after harvesting, plant fruit buds for the next year's crop and prepare for winter. Autumn feeding (necessarily phosphorus-potassium) helps the shrubs survive the cold and prepare for fruiting.
After pruning for gooseberry need feeding and abundant watering
Not extraordinary will be foliar dressing during the vegetation period, which can be both independent and combined with spraying against pests and diseases.
We must not forget about regular watering. Gooseberry drought-resistant, but watering will be grateful, especially in hot summer. To feed the earth with moisture is necessary after the autumn pruning.
A sufficient amount in the soil nutrition and moisture helps the gooseberry easier to transfer and recover faster after pruning. After all, no matter how it is useful for the plant, but it is stressful.
When doing pruning, remember the following:
- if the annual growth is small, the escape is weak and the branch should be cut to the side branch with a good growth,
- the thin end of the shoot says that the branch is weak and should be shortened to the largest kidney looking outwards,
- shortening a quarter of the length of zero shoots contributes to good branching of the bush,
- in order to avoid bush thickening, branches should always be cut above the bud on the outside of the shoot,
- cutting branches can not leave hemp, which immediately occupy pests and diseases.
Planting gooseberries on the plot, pay attention to it, not only during the harvest, but throughout the season and he will thank you for it with a delicious and healthy berry.
Why do I need to remove branches and shoots?
Pruning gooseberries is not just a necessary, but a necessary event, because this plant can grow and thicken its crown unattended, making it difficult for the sun and air to enter the center of the berry. Hence, various diseases, and suddenly appeared pests. But even if you have purchased a gooseberry variety that is resistant to all kinds of misfortunes, you just can’t breathe easier. Any variety requires periodic rejuvenation of shoots, especially in the age of 5–7 years.
There is another important point, and it concerns the process of harvesting. Most gooseberry varieties have shoots rich in studded spikes. And without pruning, the berry bush inside looks more awesome than any barbed wire. It is obvious that in this situation it is not very pleasant to pick berries. And when there are scratches on the hands (and they surely appear, no garden gloves will save them from this), the landlord will involuntarily have to think about cutting the gooseberries.
Gooseberry pruning is a necessary undertaking if you want to have a healthy bush on your land.
So, if you are among those who have scratches from thorns, or just understand the importance of pruning for gooseberries, try to talk about this aspect of caring for shrubs in as much detail as possible.
Pruning before planting
Yes, gooseberries are beginning to be cut even before it is planted in a permanent place. In this case, the shoots are shortened so that each of them has no more than four buds. This approach seems a bit cruel, but you should not worry about the plant - thanks to its ability to quickly grow shoots, the gooseberry will replenish the lost and soon will delight you with an excellent harvest.
Gooseberries are beginning to be trimmed before landing at a permanent place - this is the guarantee of its active development.
Of course, it is important to carefully examine the seedling for the presence of broken, dried or damaged branches. They will have to be removed before planting, otherwise then this can lead to trouble in the form of diseases settled on damaged areas of the bush.
In spring or autumn - when is it better?
There is no way to get an exact answer to this question, since both spring and autumn prunings have a right to exist. The difference lies in the convenience of the time chosen for this event. In the spring, pruning gooseberries is recommended to be carried out very early - as soon as the snow melts and the days will be at least a little warm. Gooseberry wakes up one of the first, and you need to have time to cut it before the leafing. Not everyone can manage to do this, given the rapidly changing weather conditions and the inability to spend time comfortably at the cottage for even a couple of hours (not all the houses are equipped with a heating system). And then the best option is the autumn pruning.
Table "Features of spring and autumn pruning"
After the snow melt
When sap flow begins
Getting rid of old and damaged shoots
Preparing the bush for the winter
Improving the quality and quantity of the crop
Stimulus to the formation of new shoots
Providing access to fresh air and sunlight to the center of the bush
Neat appearance of the bush
Pledge to increase the volume of the crop
Most gardeners agree that the main burden still lies on the spring pruning, but it must be done on time. Then the fall will only remove the old branches. If for any reason you did not have time to prune spring, autumn will be a good help, but here you must remember the important rule - August and September are not the best months for this event, because the shoots that grew before winter will be too weak to survive the cold . And this, in turn, will affect the whole plant as a whole. That is why in the fall it is recommended to cut the gooseberries after the leaves fall - it will not have time to grow new shoots and will go to hibernate with the already existing ones, and in the spring after awakening will begin to actively grow new ones in exchange for the lost ones.
A large load falls on the spring pruning, so we approach it with special care. As soon as the snow melted and the sun shone, the buds on the shoots of the bush had not yet swelled, and we are already catching time for our operation. Actions will depend on the age of the gooseberry.
If it is a sapling, then on strong shoots we leave three to four buds, and on weak shoots two. From those buds that remained, side shoots and basal shoots will grow, also called zero shoots. Often gardeners remove all weak shoots, leaving a few strong straight lines - these branches will become the basis for the future crown.
In the gooseberry growing the second year, the berries will be formed on the shoots of the second row of branching (they grow in the second year after planting). Remove weak basal shoots and leave 3-4 strong and developed - this is done to enhance the new branching. By the end of the season on the bush will grow three annual and two-year shoots, which will be growths and offshoots.
When the third year is over, the bush will have to consist of two to three dozen shoots of different ages - this will be the skeletal base of the shrub. From now on, all young shoots are disposed of.
The scheme of pruning gooseberry spring in the second year
When the base and crown of the bush are formed, it will be necessary to carry out a trimming pruning every year. All branches thickening the bush are removed. Broken and frozen branches in winter are cut to the first healthy kidney or the whole. If the shoots are strongly extended, and the tips wilted, they need to be shortened to the first strong branch.
To successfully and correctly cut the gooseberries, you will need a quality sharpened and disinfected pruner and powerful garden gloves that will save you from an unpleasant meeting with spikes. I repeat, most gloves poorly protect against collisions of thorns or do not protect at all, so for cutting you need to find the most powerful and sturdy gloves.
An old gooseberry or gooseberry that has been unattended for several years needs a slightly different approach. It has several weakened shoots and at the same time a well-developed basal shoots. Typically, such a bush leaves basal shoots and strong branches. As a rule, most of the berries grow on the branches of the first, second and third order, and the branches of the fourth and fifth order do not bring any particular benefit and even weaken the plant (on bushes over seven years old). It turns out that competent spring pruning of the gooseberry helps to form the crown and gives impetus to the growth of berry shoots.
A bush over the age of eight needs a radical pruning. All weak growth is removed from it, leaving 4–5 of the strongest skeletal shoots. After such pruning, the gooseberry begins a new formation.
When radical pruning, leave at least one third of the shoots in order not to cause irreparable harm to the shrub. Too many cut branches can greatly weaken the gooseberry, and then during the season he will fight for survival, not the harvest.
After the summer season, it is much easier for an attentive grower to determine which branches will need to be cut, on which berries they grow, which growth of shoots has come out and in which direction they are pulled. The whole picture becomes completely clear. It is for this that autumn pruning is so appreciated. Тем не менее, для неё лучше отводить роль очищающей и подготовительной процедуры — радикальных изменений вноситься не должно. Куст должен уйти в состояние покоя без серьёзных потерь.
Autumn pruning is done to cleanse and rejuvenate the crown of the bush, because of which the number of berries and their quality will increase in the future.
Before pruning, the bush is examined for the presence of dry and blackened shoots. Usually these are old branches that have lived their way for seven years or more. They need to be cut at the root. The same fate will overtake the shoots that did not give fruit in the past season.
Lateral branches are cut by a quarter, the cut is located a centimeter above the kidney, looking outward. Shoots with thin ends pruned to the first large bud. Growing crosswise or in the wrong direction, cut to the point where they will no longer interfere with others. Branches with poor annual growth (up to 7 cm) are shortened to strong growth.
As a result, there will be many cuts, among which there will be large ones - they should be covered with garden pitch. After the pruning procedure, 4–5 strong shoots can remain on the bush - this is quite a normal number, and it usually makes up one third of all large and medium shoots. Next year, due to its growth rate, the bush will already have ten or more branches. His health will only get stronger from this, not to mention the amount of the crop.
Autumn pruning gooseberry is often called anti-aging
Gooseberry can be grown as a multi-bush. The base should be about 50 cm in diameter, and the number of skeletal branches of different ages should be in the range of 20–25 pieces. Such a shrub can produce excellent yield for several seasons in a row.
If you purchased a sapling in the spring, then at planting shorten it by 4-5 buds. In the autumn this procedure is best not to carry out and leave until spring.
By the autumn, the gooseberry grows basal shoots, from which 4-5 strongest shoots are selected in the fall, the rest are removed. Selected shoots mollify, and in the next year they appear second-order shoots from the lateral buds, and in addition the root growth grows. In autumn, the best 4–5 shoots from different sides of the bush are left from this growth, the rest are cut.
In the third year, the procedure is repeated, again leaving 4–5 of the tallest and strongest of basal shoots. Thus, by the end of the third year we have 20–25 branches of different ages, which will form the basis of the bush. From this point on, all new shoots are to be removed, and with them the sick, damaged and lying on the ground.
Since, at the age of 7–8 years old, the gooseberry begins to age and lose in yield, some of its obsolete branches should be replaced with young ones, formed by shoots.
It is important to remember that most of the crop ripens on the branches of 3-6 years of age, they can not be touched.
Now, for several years, it will be necessary to replace old shoots with new ones, renewing the bush and increasing the chances of a good harvest. This will last until the gooseberries no longer bear fruit and turn into an ordinary green shrub.
When pruning gooseberries, it is important to prune all low-growing and distant branches from the bush.
How to cut a multi-stem gooseberry bush, we have already figured out. And what to do with his standard form? Although it is rarely found on our sites, it nevertheless raises questions about care, including pruning.
The stem gooseberry is pruned in the fall, so we wait for the time when all the leaves will fall off and proceed. From all the shoots choose one - the strongest and largest - leave it, and cut off the rest to the ground. In the spring, this shoot is slightly shortened - this will cause the plant to grow second-order shoots. Next fall we will have plenty to choose from. Leave will need the four most conveniently growing in the upper part of the main shoot, all the rest cut to the ground. In the spring we will halve these branches so that the extreme bud is facing upwards.
The scheme of pruning gooseberry stem for two periods of the growing season
After that, the plant will begin to develop the branches of the following order on these four shoots. On each of them we leave two twigs, which should not grow deep into the bush or hang down; we cut all the rest. And now we have eight new shoots. Next spring, of course, they will also need to be halved, and in the fall, new shoots will be shortened by 10 cm, without affecting the escape-continuation.
Now every spring we will shorten the escape-continuation by half, and in the fall new shoots will be cut to 10 cm. And again after this spring, the same shoots will need to be shortened by 5 cm.
When pruning shtambovy gooseberry branches, the number of new shoots grows almost exponentially
On the trellis
Some gardeners like to grow gooseberries on a trellis - this is how easy care for the bush and harvesting are made. In the first year after planting, all the shoots of the gooseberry are shortened so that the stumps stick out just above the soil level. Over the summer, new branches have time to grow, from which 3-5 best ones are selected, the rest are removed.
Gooseberry berries growing on the trellis get more sunlight and ripen well, gaining their best taste
In the fall, the left shoots are tied to a wire, and in the spring they are slightly shortened. Next autumn, these same branches are tied to the second wire and not shortened in the spring. Everything that grows from the root collar is removed every year. After 6–7 years, rejuvenating pruning will be required - old shoots are replaced by annual ones.
Gooseberry grown on the trellis due to pruning does not thicken the crown and blow well with the wind
The bush is divided in order to reproduce the gooseberry. It should be noted that this is a rather categorical measure, which is required only in special cases - when it is necessary to transplant a bush to a new place. The maternal plant is destroyed with this approach. This operation is performed in September-October or April.
Gooseberries are dug and divided into several parts using a saw or pruner. Each part must have roots, shoots and buds in good condition. Young bushes are planted in a bed with loose fertile soil, where they grow during the season to the desired state. Between rooted cuttings, during planting, they maintain a distance of 40 cm. As required, they are maintained and irrigated, and in the fall they are moved to a permanent place.
Use the following tips during pruning to avoid common mistakes and eliminate all your efforts:
- Do not cut gooseberries in summer: for the winter new shoots will not have time to get stronger and freeze. All summer pruning is reduced to the removal of the apical buds in early July, so that the nutrients do not enter the tops.
- Do not remove annual growths from fruit bearing branches. They are inspected in the spring and remove the blackened and dried. The black color of the shoot is a sign of defeat by powdery mildew. If it is not covered with light dense bark before winter, it will die.
- If the bush is more than 20 years old, it can be left on the site except as a decorative ornament, such a plant will not bring fruit.
- Even if all the branches of the gooseberry have ceased to bear fruit, a third of the shoots are left with a capital pruning.
- Branches that are too low or far from the main bush can be cut without hesitation.
Timely periodic pruning of the gooseberry will help protect it from many diseases and pests, as well as significantly increase the chances of a good harvest for several years. To do this, you must always have at hand a reliable tool and strictly follow the instructions. If at some point you feel sorry for cutting off unnecessary, in your opinion, branches, remember that the gooseberry has an excellent rate of building new shoots, even in old age. So, everything that you cut, during the season will be replenished twice, and even tripled.
The importance of spring pruning
Gooseberry pruning is a technique that regulates the growth and yield of shrubs.
Not done pruning gooseberries in the spring, has the following consequences:
- the crown is very thick,
- fruit branches do not get enough light
- the harvest is sharply reduced, especially if you do not cut the bush for several years,
- increases the likelihood of infection of the bush with diseases and pests,
- reduced aesthetic appearance of the shrub.
If the gooseberry is properly cut and form a convenient bush for harvesting, there will be more fruits. In addition, the berries will be the best in quality (larger and sweeter).
Types of Gooseberry Trimming
Every year, when caring for gooseberries, such cuttings are carried out:
- Forming - the gooseberry acquires the correct form, the branches do not obscure each other,
- sanitary, conducted for the recovery of the plant.
The following types of pruning play an equally important role in the normal, efficient development of the shrub:
- Pre-plant. Its goal is a significant reduction in the aerial part of the plant. This is necessary to increase the chances of taking root in a permanent place.
- Rejuvenating Serves to restore productivity in aging bushes.
Dates for cutting gooseberry in spring
The best time for this agrotechnical procedure is the beginning of spring, before the active growing season. If you do not trim before the start of sap flow, which comes early at the gooseberry, the operation will harm the bush and significantly weaken it.
Terms of gooseberry pruning in the spring can shift, depending on the year, but mostly - the first or second decade of May. If the spring is early and the temperature is +10 degrees Celsius lasts about a week, you should start pruning the gooseberry. This is due to the fact that the shrub is extremely sensitive to heat and immediately begins to dissolve the buds.
Gooseberry Trimming Schemes
For the forming trimming, different types of schemes have been developed:
The use of one or another scheme depends on:
- aesthetic preferences gardener,
- availability of time (classical - the least time consuming),
- availability of materials (metal supports, wire, for trellis).
With this pruning gooseberry bush give a tree shape.
Forming and care of the bole:
- From the aboveground part of the shrub choose the strongest escape, growing vertically. All others are removed.
- Formed during the season side branches cut.
- "Tree" is tied to a support.
- In the following years, the shtabs are formed leaving five strong branches, and last year’s are cut to 1/2.
- Eliminate the branches that are directed down or in the center of the plant. They destroy the growth grown around the trunk (every spring).
The disadvantages of the standard trim:
- low frost resistance
- low plant life (9-14 years).
The advantages of this scheme are:
- decorative gooseberry after pruning,
- saving space on the site,
- convenience of the harvest process.
Standard Gooseberry Trimming Scheme
The secrets of gooseberry formation on a shtambe are to share the channel Natalia ProSad.
For growing gooseberry on the trellis, two supports are placed near the bush, between which three wires are stretched at a distance of 0.6, 0.7 and 1 m. Between the bushes in the rows they leave 0.7-1.2 m, the row spacing is 1 6 m.
Formation of a bush for trellis growing:
- 4-6 of the most powerful branches are shortened by 1 / 5-1 / 4 and tied to a trellis, and the rest are removed.
- Branches located in the center of the bush, shorten more than horizontally directed.
- Trim basal shoots.
Advantages of trellis pruning:
- plants developing on the trellis have good access of light and oxygen,
- better fruiting in comparison with the classical and standard scheme,
- due to the vertical structure, it is convenient to harvest.
Gooseberry bushes after pruning
In order for the shrub to regenerate quickly, the sections are cleaned and covered with the garden. pitch It has antiseptic properties - the treated wounds do not get sick and heal quickly. You can buy it, or cook it yourself.
Technology of cooking home garden pitch:
- Paraffin, rosin in a ratio of 6 to 3 lay in a bowl.
- After the tank boils, add 2 tsp of vegetable oil.
- Boil var for 0.5 hours and leave to cool.
Why do you need pruning gooseberry
Gooseberry is a garden shrub familiar to everyone. But not everyone knows that gooseberries need annual pruning, as well as fruit trees. Here are a few of the reasons:
- First, getting a good, ripe, sweet harvest. If you do not prune the bush on time, then gradually, in a few years, the gooseberry will turn into a tangle of thorny thickets, because the number of shoots it gives in the spring-summer period just rolls over. As a result, the shrub will not consist of strong, fruit-bearing, good branches, but of all the shoots that gave, from which the berries will no longer receive the required amount of nutrients and light that they need and will become small and sour. In addition, pricklyness greatly reduces the host’s access to berry harvesting.
- Secondly, by neglecting the pruning of the gooseberry, it is possible to provoke his illness and the attack of the pests, causing the plant to completely die.
- Third, the appearance of the bush, which should not be neglected. In addition to trimming old, unnecessary, diseased shoots, it is necessary to form a crown that will please the eye. In addition, the annual pruning of the gooseberry ensures easier care for it in subsequent years.
When can you cut pruning gooseberries?
As with all shrubs, pruning gooseberries can be done either in early spring or in autumn. Spring pruning is more useful - removing unnecessary branches occurs before the start of the ripening of the crop. But, alas, there are some problems with the early sap flow of the shrub. Gooseberry wakes up very early, and with pruning you can simply not have time. And pruning branches during this period is not very useful. Therefore, most often, this procedure is carried out in the autumn, when all the leaves have already flown around. During this period, a thorough inspection of the bush is carried out, all weak, old and broken shoots are removed, as well as the shortening of the crown.
3 methods of gooseberry formation
As a rule, the gooseberry is just a spreading shrub, but with the help of trimming the gooseberry shrub, you can give a different shape and a different principle of growth. You can choose from several types of the one that will be more like:
- The classic way of gooseberry formation. It is more common, moreover, according to experienced gardeners, the formation of this way gives the richest crop.
- Stamb method of gooseberry formation. When applying this method, the gooseberry is more like a small, sprawling tree, takes up little space, and, most importantly, has a more aesthetic appearance.
- Formation of gooseberry on the trellis. Gooseberry is well grown on the trellis, this method is very convenient for harvesting.
It is worth considering these methods in more detail.
The classic way of forming
When forming a bush in this way, the gooseberry has a familiar look, but not sprawling, but well shaped. Almost all branches and shoots are pruned, and all broken, diseased, weak branches, as well as branches that have the wrong growth direction or creeping along the ground are subject to removal. Pruning is done annually, according to the years:
- 1 year. All branches, without exception, are cut in such a way that each branch has no more than 5 buds. As for the basal shoots, almost all are cut to zero - only 3-4 branches should be left. These shoots should be chosen carefully - they should be not only the strongest in the bush, but also growing in the “right” direction, that is, strictly upwards.
- 2 year During this period, all the shoots fall under pruning - they are duped into about ⅓ of a part. With regards to the basal, the selection system operates, as in the first year of gooseberry life, but already up to 8 strong shoots are left.
- 3-4 year. These years - the beginning of fruiting shrubs. During this period, it is necessary to prune last year's branches to ⅓, and from the new shoots leave 3-4 pieces, supporting 12-15 branches of different age at the bush. And, of course, remove all the sick and growing incorrectly (see the diagram).
- 5-7 year. During this period, a full-fledged gooseberry bush should consist of approximately 20 branches of different ages. And during this period, the global pruning of the bush also begins, because in these years the peak of fruiting is near the plant, and then it will grow old. Therefore, all the old branches, whose age crosses the threshold of 5-7 years, should be removed at the root. The bush should consist only of relatively new shoots. Older branches are easy to recognize by a darker, hardened trunk.
If you adhere to such a plan of pruning, the bush for a long time will be fruitful and young.
But if the gooseberry bush is already running, but not so old to uproot it, then you can try to save it. In this case, it is necessary to cut most of it, and, under zero, leaving only strong shoots. Or go a more radical method - cut off the entire bush, leaving 15 cm above the ground, to see the young growth next year, from which to start the formation of the bush. But we will return to this topic when we deal with other methods of cutting, so do not put off the shears.
Stamb method of formation
As already described, this method will give a nice low tree. To achieve this, you do not need more labor. Главное понять принцип, где за основу крыжовникового куста берется лишь один самый сильный и прямой побег с его ответвлениями. Это будет так называемый ствол крыжовника. Все остальные побеги, которые есть и которые появляются каждую весну, необходимо удалять.
The focus is on the central shoot, which, together with its branches, is shortened to the desired height. The most common height is the meter, although it all depends on the desire of the summer resident. Anything that grows longer than a meter is subject to shortening.
Also an important point is the installation for a gooseberry support, because it is still not a tree to grow so independently. For this, any stick, board, pipe, to which the main pole is attached, will be suitable. The pruning is basically the same as in the classic version: all broken branches are removed, the branches are sick and growing in the wrong direction, last year’s branches are shortened, and of the new ones only 5 are left. Older branches that are more than 5 years old are also subject to removal.
Such pruning has both advantages and disadvantages. Of the benefits:
- Gooseberry fruits get enough light, and it is distributed more evenly.
- The process of harvesting is quite convenient.
- Save space on the summer cottage.
The bush turns out not sprawling, but molded in height.
As for the cons:
- The gooseberry bush grown by the stem method is not frost-resistant, it has little chance of surviving the winter in the north. Therefore, it is necessary to choose frost-resistant varieties for such cultivation, as well as to make shelter for the winter.
- Aging bush. Still, the main stem of the gooseberry is one, but it always grows old. Therefore, the maximum lifespan is 12 years, of course, with proper care.
Shpaler way of formation
When applying this method, the name of which speaks for itself, it is necessary to make a trellis. Therefore, in the first stage of creating a trellis gooseberry, you have to work hard. Also, for the cultivation of gooseberry by this method, not all of its varieties will be suitable, because for its successful growth you will need a lot of strong shoots. So, the varieties need to choose vigorous. A place on the summer cottage, of course, does not save this way, but it will streamline the planting of the gooseberry, and also make the harvest more comfortable and “clean”.
The principle of gooseberry planting with the trellis method of formation: 0.5 meters between the bushes, and about 1.5 meters between the rows. In each row, at the same distance, it is necessary to establish supports for the future trellis. For this fit pipes, boards, stakes, which will meet the desired height. Then, between them stretches a thread, a rope, and best of all, a wire, to which the shoots of the gooseberry are tied. Tensioning the wire in a horizontal direction like a grape trellis, but a little more often - as a rule, these are 50, 80 and 100 cm.
Binding of branches occurs in a certain way. The strongest and longest branches on a bush are selected - from 3 to 5 pieces. Binding occurs at each of the four heights, and a distance of at least 15 cm is maintained between the branches. As for all remaining branches, they are shortened by half each year, and 3-4 pieces are left, as in the classic version, of new shoots. Radical shoots to be removed. In the case of the trellis method, the thickening of the shrub should not be allowed, and effective pruning should be done every year, preferably in spring and autumn.
Crop of old gooseberry
In general, if you figured out the gooseberry shaping schemes, pruning the old gooseberry will not be difficult. Just dress properly and grab some good gloves. Schematically pruning running gooseberry looks like this:
If it is impossible to approach the bush at all, and it clearly requires rejuvenation, then a radical pruning of the gooseberry is used - the bush is cut off along the ground level, which is called “stump”, and the shoots grow back. And already young growth is formed according to any of the proposed schemes.
Here, perhaps, all you need to know novice gardeners for proper pruning gooseberry. If you go through the garden with the proposed pruning schemes, the gooseberry will no longer be an obstinate hedgehog for you, and you will be able to form a comfortable shrub or tree from it. We are sure that the above recommendations for cutting gooseberries will be useful for beginners. Good luck!
Spring Gooseberry Pruning
To get good harvests every year, you need to take care of shrubs and trees. This also applies to gooseberries, a bush which annually needs pruning.
Every year the bush has many new pagons that make the bush thicker than necessary. If they are not cut, then over time it will be impossible to reach the berries because of the thorny thorns and numerous branches. Due to poor air circulation and due to the fact that all the useful substances go to the development of new, young shoots, the fruits of the gooseberry become smaller, and the bush weakens. During such a period, pests and various diseases can affect it.
When is it best to prune?
It is impossible to answer this question unequivocally, since the bush can be pruned both in spring and in autumn. The time for pruning is chosen by the gardener himself. If you perform the procedure in the spring, it should be done very early, as soon as the snow melts, and the days will be a little warmer. Shrub wakes up quite early, so you need to have time to do the procedure before the first leaves. Not many gardeners can afford to be at this time on their site due to the often changing weather. Here in this case, the best option is the autumn pruning of the bush.
Ways of gooseberry formation
Since the plant is a shrub, then its branches grow sprawling. With the help of trimming, the bush can be given a different shape and a different principle of growth. From the methods proposed below, you can choose the one that will be closer to your soul:
- Classical. This method is considered the most common, and, according to experienced gardeners - the most productive.
- Stambov. A shrub formed in this way looks more like a spreading tree that takes up little space on the plot. It looks more aesthetic, besides, it is much easier to care for it.
- Shpaler way. Harvesting the bushes formed in this way is more convenient. This method is not suitable for all varieties of gooseberry, but only for tall ones. Harvesting on such shrubs is very easy, and it will be much easier to cut, because every twig can be seen very well.
How to cut gooseberries in the spring
In the spring, the procedure must be taken responsibly. As soon as the snow melts and will burn the first sun, you need to choose the most suitable time. Do not delay the procedure "For later," because you can not have time to do everything on time. Depending on the age of the shrub, the whole trimming process will depend.
- If you need to cut a sapling, then on its strong shoots leave 3-4 buds, and on the weak - two. The buds that are left will give side shoots in season. Experienced gardeners recommend to get rid of weak shoots, and keep strong, as they will serve as the basis for future crown.
- If the shrub grows on the site for the second year, then the berries will grow on the shoots of the second row of branching. Need to get rid of the weak basal shoots, and the strong need to be left. Thus, it is possible to strengthen the new branching. By autumn, the bushes will have 3 annual and two-year shoots that will give new growths and branches.
- By the end of the third year, the base of the shrub is 2–3 dozen branches, the age of which is different. From now on, all new shoots can be cut.
It is much easier to trim a shrub whose crown is already formed. Under the pruning shears branches that grow deep into the bush, making it thicker than necessary. Branches that froze in the winter are cut: in full or before the first healthy kidney. If the branches are strongly stretched, and their tips become weak, then they should also be cut to the strong part of the shoot.
To do the job well, you need a well-sharpened and disinfected pruner or lopper. Dense, powerful gloves are needed to protect your hands from sharp spikes, which are scattered bushes. Gloves made of thin fabric will not help here, the best cloth for gloves would be tarpaulin. After the procedure, the instrument must be cleaned and processed.
If a bush has not been cut for several years, then a completely different approach is needed. It has a developed crown, but there are also weak branches. In the process of cutting, you need to leave the root growth and strong branches. Berries, mainly grow on the branches of the first, second and third order. The branches that grew later only weaken the shrub and do not bring any benefit. It is here that we need a competent pruning, which forms the crown and gives the opportunity to grow new berry shoots.
If the shrub grows on the site for more than eight years, then it should be cut off radically. First of all, you need to trim all new, young pagony. Behind them all the old branches are cut, but a few of them, stronger ones, should be left. They will serve as the basis for the formation of a new bush. During pruning gooseberries, it is worth remembering that if you remove more than a third of the shrub, the plant will simply die.
Pruning gooseberry in autumn
A gardener who is seriously interested in harvesting from his plot will simply determine which branch the berries grew on. In addition, visible new shoots and the direction of their growth. Because of this, autumn pruning is very much appreciated, but radical changes to the bush are not recommended. The plant should overwinter without serious losses.
Autumn pruning is carried out in order to rejuvenate and purify the crown of the shrub, so that the size and number of berries increases. It should be cut dry and eventually blackened shoots, as well as those that this season did not please any ripe berries, old branches, which are more than seven years old. The latter are cut off at the root.
If after cutting the bush has only 4–5 strong branches, do not be discouraged, this is quite normal for him. At the end of next year, after pruning, the bush will already have 7–8 large branches. He will still be healthy, and will delight you with an excellent harvest.
Pruning to rejuvenate shrubs
It is clear to any person that the better care for the plant, the greater and better the harvest will be. If for some time to distract, the yield will decrease. To avoid this, you should:
- regularly thin out a bush, replacing old branches with new ones,
- if the shrub does not grow new pagon for replacement, then when it reaches maturity, it is required to cut it in half and feed it very well with fertilizers,
- to feed correctly, you need to dig a groove under the bush in the summer, the depth of which will be 20 cm - and fertilizer is added to it,
- Adult bushes are recommended to be tied up in order to prevent branches from lying down on the ground and rooting uncontrollably.
Tying branches is a mandatory procedure.. It should be noted its advantages:
- the branches do not root themselves,
- a bush cannot catch the fungal disease
- minimize the risk of parasite attack,
- the ripening of berries becomes uniform, as the sun's rays fall on all the branches equally,
- the berries are clean and can be clearly seen
- To remove fruits from the tied-up bush much safer and easier.
It is possible to get a good harvest from a bush of a gooseberry within 10 years. For this purpose it is required to do pruning annually, and every 6 years to make rejuvenating (radical) pruning. This means that you need to cut almost all the branches, leaving only one - control branch.
To make the garden less springtime, you need to tune in and trim the bushes in the fall. Then in the spring it will only be necessary to trim the tips of the weakened shoots, shorten the frost-damaged branches to healthy wood.
So that the branches do not create unnecessary thickening, they must be promptly removed. Broken and frost-damaged branches are also deleted.
In no case can not produce pruning shrubs in the summer, because before the winter he does not have time to fully get stronger and can freeze.
On the branches that bear fruit, it is not necessary to trim the gains - the same age in the fall. The best time for circumcision is spring. And remove them only if they are dead.
The bush, which is more than 15 years old, can serve on the site only as an ornamental plant, since it will no longer bear fruit.
Without any regret, you need to delete very grown and useless branches. They just take all the nutrients and water.
Why and how to cut gooseberries
Pruning is an affordable and effective way to care for many trees and shrubs, with which you can solve a large number of problems - ranging from low yields and ending with the formation of the crown for decorative purposes. For the gooseberry, taking into account the peculiarities of its structure, regular pruning is a prerequisite for proper development and maintenance of life. Do not neglect this event if you want to grow a healthy, viable plant and get a quality crop.
With proper care from one gooseberry bush you can get up to 20 kg of berries
Reasons for pruning
The reasons why gardeners resort to pruning gooseberries can be as follows:
- Rejuvenation landings. A gooseberry bush that has reached the age of 8 is considered old. To extend its life and maintain fruiting, gardeners often resort to rejuvenating pruning. The fact is that the root system of the bush and its above-ground parts are in proportional relationship. Removing part of the shoots or shortening them stimulates a strong influx of energy from the roots to the branches, which, in turn, form new stems that have a dense leafy cover and are capable of abundant flowering.
- Yield increase. Gooseberry has the ability to form a large number of new shoots in a relatively short time. If they are not thinned, the crown will become too thick, which will negatively affect the pollination and ovary of the fruit. Removing gooseberries from unnecessary branches and creating a well-ventilated crown will make pollination more accessible and effective.
- Preventive measures. Gooseberry, like other garden crops, is prone to various diseases, many of which are caused by excessive thickening of the shrub (especially fungal diseases). Pruning will provide all shoots with good airing, a sufficient amount of sunlight and help to avoid or reduce the contact of healthy branches with diseased ones.
- Formation of the crown. Pruning for this purpose is carried out in several stages and is a necessary measure to ensure the favorable development of the shrub.
For pruning gooseberry, you will need a pruner and pruner. It is better to carry out work in cotton work gloves in order to protect against spikes or to accidentally cut yourself against a tool.
- Pruner. With its help, you can easily remove small branches on the surface, but it cannot cope with thick branches.
Secateurs are convenient to cut branches of small thickness located on the edge of the bush
The lopper is similar to a secateur, but has longer handles, which allows it to work with heavy loads and in hard-to-reach places.
Try to use tools that meet the following requirements:
- Quality and strength. The tool should not break during the application of large forces (for example, when cutting thick boughs).
- High-quality sharpening. The blade of the tool must be sharp and free from chipping and other defects.
- Low weight. Working with such a tool is much more convenient than with a heavy one. This will allow you to do a lot of work and save energy.
- Comfortable handle. In addition to a suitable form, the handle should also have special rubber inserts, thanks to which the hands will not slide.
If possible, try to buy a tool of red or orange color - it will be clearly visible on the ground and will not be lost in the green bush.
The gooseberry forms a perennial shrub, reaching a height of 1.5 m. The crown of approximately the same diameter is formed from uneven branches and basal shoots. The latter grow from those buds of the stem, which are located at the base of the bush. Root neck is the part of the trunk, immersed in the soil. As a rule, it has a length of about 30 cm and a diameter of about 5 cm.
By autumn, the green radical shoots will be covered with bark and become full-fledged branches.
In the first year of life, basal shoots are characterized by intensive growth, by the middle of summer they change from green to reddish or brown. By the fall, the young stems will become woody, and in the second year of their life processes will appear on them. This is how the branches that form the base of the shrub are formed. Each year they receive growth, reaching a length of 8 to 30 cm. Over the summer, it will acquire bark, woody and become a full-fledged branch of the second order. It will also appear new shoots, which later turn into third-order stems, etc.
As a rule, the branches of the first, second and third order are the most fruiting, as they are the most developed and strong. Thanks to regular pruning, it is possible to ensure constant renewal of such shoots, and therefore, to maintain their vitality and yield.
Обрезая крыжовник, необходимо стараться полностью убирать малоурожайные ветки 4-го и 5-го порядка, чтобы стимулировать развитие урожайных веток 1-го, 2-го и 3-го порядка
Имейте в виду, что из-за особого строения корневой системы крыжовник образует горизонтальную (прикорневую) поросль, которую также необходимо регулярно удалять.
Начинать обрезку нужно с момента посадки саженца крыжовника в грунт. In this case, the fruit buds can not cause any damage, so make cuts at an angle of 50 about 5 mm above it.
- Inspect the seedling and prune all weak and damaged stems.
- Tame the remaining shoots to the third or fourth bud (you need to read from the level of the soil).
Do not be afraid to carry out the pruning procedure on a young sapling: one of the features of the gooseberry is the rapid growth of new shoots. Over the summer, your shrub will not only get stronger and form the root system, but will also acquire a large number of stems again.
By early autumn, your shrub should have about 3 biennial branches and as many annuals. To do this, trim as follows:
- Choose no more than seven of the most viable and conveniently located shoots growing from the ground (basal necks), and try to cut them so that they reach about 30 cm in height.
- Cut the remaining branches so that their length does not exceed 20 cm.
- Horizontal shoots and shoots that are not 20 cm long at the time of pruning should be completely removed so that they do not pull off the nutrients necessary for the development of stronger branches.
In the third year after planting, there should be about 12–18 uneven-aged branches on the gooseberry, which form the basis of the shrub. To achieve this, conduct the following activities:
- Again, completely remove all horizontal shoots, as well as unviable weak shoots.
- Cut the remaining branches by 12–15 cm, counting from the top, especially if there is poor growth and slow development of the plant.
In the first year after planting, branches are cut by about 1/2, in the second - by 1/3, in the third - tops are shortened and horizontal shoots are cut
Fourth and subsequent years
In the fourth year after planting, the gooseberry bush becomes an adult and begins to bring the maximum amount of harvest, so you should not neglect the procedure of formation during this period. Trimming activities should include the timely removal of twisted and non-viable branches. It is also necessary to cut the young shoots, including those started from the root collar, to prevent the growth of horizontal shoots, because the gooseberry branches should be raised above the ground.
Shrub should consist of 15-20 stems of different ages. Branches older than 5 years should be removed, and 3-5 root shoots should be left from the root shoots.
An adult gooseberry bush should have 15–20 branches not older than 5 years
Do not forget to feed the plants after pruning. To do this, dig a trench about 30 cm deep and fertilize it, then bury.
- In the spring, feed gooseberries with nitrogen fertilizers (dosage of 50–70 g per bush).
- In the fall, fertilize the bite zone (it covers a distance of about half a meter along the circumference of the bush) with peat crumb or compost.
Trimming a running bush
Sometimes gardeners throw care of gooseberries, for example, because of its large age, or simply do not pay attention to the shrub. This leads to the thickening of the berry, and therefore to a decrease in its yield. In addition, this plant is subject to various diseases and can easily infect other cultures. Pruning will help prevent this situation.
Keep in mind that it will take from two to four years to fully restore a neglected shrub.
- First thin the shrub. To do this, cut to the bottom of all the old blackened branches, as well as broken, curved shoots and horizontal shoots.
- Of the vertical shoots, leave the 5 most viable. From the fruitful branches, cut off the dried tops to the first strong side branch.
- In the future, regularly trim your gooseberries according to the general rules in order to maintain the shape of the crown and to prevent re-thickening of the shrub.
Seasonal pruning bush
Pruning is carried out twice a year - in the spring and autumn periods. It is impossible to carry out the procedure in the summer, because the gooseberry quickly forms a large number of new branches, so the event will be useless.
Spring pruning of the gooseberry is carried out even before the buds bloom on the shrub. The gooseberry awakens very early - as a rule, in the second half of March buds begin to swell on it, and at the end of March - beginning of April the first leaves appear. If you want to prune it in the spring, it is important to have time to do it before the start of sap flow in the trunk - if possible in the first decade of March. It is not recommended to injure the shoots with open leaves - this will significantly weaken the plant, and thus reduce its yield.
- Remove old branches (as a rule, they are almost black) and horizontal growth.
- Thin the shrub: cut unviable and defective (crooked, broken) stems. Well clean the center of the shrub from the young weak shoots and lean vigorous branches.
- Zamachite place large cuts. For this purpose, use a garden pitch.
Video: Spring Gooseberry Pruning
If you are not able to cut the gooseberries in the spring, then you can do it in the fall. It is not recommended to carry out pruning pruning in early autumn: this may affect the growth of new shoots that do not have time to woody before the onset of cold weather and will die. Therefore, the autumn pruning is carried out in the period starting after harvest and leaf fall and continuing until the onset of cold weather.
- Inspect the shrub and completely remove all blackened shoots.
- Thin the shrub: remove unviable and defective branches (crooked, diseased, broken), as well as inconveniently located (for example, strongly protruding from the common bush or low hanging over the ground). Try as much as possible to clean the middle of the shrub to get rid of the newly formed shoots and low-yielding vigorous branches.
- Be sure to use the garden bar to cover up the places of large cuts.
Remember that the maximum number of cut branches should not exceed 1/3 of their total number.