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Lupine as siderat - types when to plant and other aspects reviews

Holders of dachas with acidic soil must plant lupine to neutralize the environment. Thanks to this plant, the soil is enriched with nitrogen, it is an excellent organic fertilizer. In addition, after it, a decrease in weed growth and weathering of the soil is noticed.

Externally, the lupine looks very beautiful, so it will not be a shame to dilute the flowerbed with such a sideratom or plant it under trees and shrubs. It has large palm-like leaves and cone-shaped inflorescences. Color varieties varied, which makes it possible to select or shade plants rear view. Lupins as decorative flowers are grown in mixborders, on ridges, around the perimeter of the site.

Planting lupine

The lupine planting time is the second half of May, while flowering occurs only next year, or towards the winter - the end of October.

Any suitable soil for cultivation, except loam and peat bog. Before sowing seeds, the soil is necessarily loosened, it is good in this case to use Fokin's flat-cutter. When loosening, the crust is removed from the soil, which can restrain air exchange and the nodule bacteria contained on the roots of plants cannot fully absorb nitrogen from the air and retain it inside the soil. Do not apply any fertilizer before planting!

Sowing lupine as siderata is carried out in an ordinary way, keeping the distance between the rows of 15-20 cm. The distance between the seeds is 5-10 cm. For faster and better germination of the seeds, scarify. Sowing depth 2-2.5 cm

What to do with lupine when sprouts appeared?

Once the lupine is grown as a siderata, then without regret 2 months after sowing, only when green pods and fruits appear on it, it should be mowed. It is not necessary to close up mowed plants into the soil, let it be left to lie rot in a natural way. At the end of October, before the start of frosts, the skewed green mass is buried in the soil to a depth of 7-9 cm.

If you are late and the pods on the lupine already darken, then it is better to transfer the sloping ground part to the compost pit. In case of persistently dry weather, the oblique lupine needs to be watered with EM preparations, this will allow all nutrients to be given to the soil to the full extent.

Siderat lupins are grown before planting potatoes, cabbage, strawberries, peppers. In terms of its nutrients, lupine exceeds several times the sweet clover, vetch, phacelia and other green manure plants.

Lupine, like a flower to decorate a plot

There are varieties of perennial and annual lupine. Perennial in one place live an average of 5-6 years. During this time, the roots will become bare, and the plant dies, but if you pour some earth every year, the plant life will increase by a few more years. Annual lupine is usually grown only as a siderat. Of the perennial varieties, the most famous are silver, many-leaved and nutkansky. The siderata is yellow, white and changeable lupine. Lupine changeable essentially belongs to perennial varieties, but due to intolerance of cold weather, it is grown as an annual.
Lupine blooms in the second half of June, after which the flowering inflorescences are cut off at the root, without hemp.

An adult plant reacts negatively to a transplant, so if such a need does arise, it is better to do this with young plants.

Lupins can be used to make bouquets, but you need to consider that they cost about 7 days in water.

Care and reproduction of lupine

When growing perennial varieties of lupine, in the first year after planting, the soil is loosened and weeds are removed. From the second year of life, bushes spud up and periodically inspect the basal neck of plants so that it does not become bare, if necessary, pour the earth. In a draft lupine can break off, so they are tied to a support. For re-flowering, bloomed inflorescences are removed. Watering moderate.

After 5 years of planting lupine, it is desirable to update, so as not to lose the decorativeness of the infield.

Of the pests should beware of aphids and weevils. You can fight with aphids by folk and chemical means.

Growing annual varieties of lupine, often occurs self-seeding. But it is possible to grow even seedlings. To do this, the soil is mixed with peat and sand in equal parts, so that the substrate is light and loose, seeds are planted to a depth of 2 cm. They are transplanted to a permanent place during the formation of 3-5 true leaflets at the end of May. The distance between plants is 50-60 cm. However, during seed reproduction of lupine, it must be remembered that the varietal characteristics are lost, and a blue-violet color begins to predominate in color. What can not be said with vegetative reproduction.

Cutting allows you to save the variety. In the summer, cuttings are cut from side shoots growing in the leaf axils, and planted temporarily in light, loose soil. After 3-4 weeks, put in a permanent place.

Lupine as siderat - types when to plant and other aspects + reviews

Each gardener is faced with the fact that after some time using the land, vitamin and nutritional reserves of soil begin to deplete.

It is time to restore it, and here you can resort to one of two options - to actively fertilize the beds or just sow them with green manure, so that they, in turn, feed the earth with all the necessary substances, simultaneously loosening it.

They do not expect beautiful flowering from such plants, their task is extremely simple and clear - to grow and saturate. But there is such a wonderful plant as lupine, which not only brings tangible benefits to the garden plot, but also represents a pleasant sight during flowering.

  • 1 Grades of lupine and its use as a siderata
    • 1.1 white lupine
    • 1.2 Blue or narrow-leaved
    • 1.3 Yellow
  • 2 How to plant a plant?
  • 3 Care for green manure
    • 3.1 Interaction with other cultures
    • 3.2 Possible difficulties in growing
  • 4 Reviews gardeners and gardeners

The varieties of lupine and its use as a siderata

Lupine is easy to find in the wild - large fields can overgrow with this interesting plant in a short time.

Of course, one of the first lupines comes to mind, as soon as it comes to sideratah. But not everyone is ready to choose him as an assistant.

Most likely, the reason lies in the ability of the lupine to take root perfectly in the chosen place (the roots go almost two meters deep) and its survivability.

However, if you look closely at its merits, then fears and doubts can quickly evaporate. And that's why:

  • The roots really go very deep (1.5 - 2 meters), which allows the plant to absorb monohydrogen phosphates (mineral fertilizers) and raise them higher, bringing them to the upper layers of the soil. In this case, the nutrient reserves in the sod layer remain intact, that is, the soil does not impoverish lupine.
  • Lupine perfectly loosens the soil, supplies it with oxygen, and this is a good guarantee of the healthy growth and development of vegetable and fruit crops planted after lupine.
  • The effect of growing lupine on acidic and poor soils, as well as sandy loams, is especially noticeable. Most varieties of lupine contain alkaloids, due to which the acidic soil gradually turns into alkaline.
  • Lupine is growing very fast and shows high yields (this applies to green mass). The maximum result can be obtained already one and a half months after sowing.
  • The unpretentiousness of lupine and its ability to survive in difficult conditions, not worse than many weeds, allow the plant to be used according to the “planted-mowed” principle without serious care.

    Did you know that lupine not only loosens and in all respects refreshes the soil, but also makes it healthier? All thanks to lupine, which does not give a quiet life of harmful bacterial flora and does not have to taste wireworm, hastily leaving the growing place of lupine. But it is not contained in all varieties. For cultivation, certain varieties of lupine are taken as green manure:

  • Lupine is white.
  • Lupine is blue (it is narrow-leaved).
  • Lupine yellow.

    White lupine

    White lupine is ranked among the varieties grown as green manure, although, rather, it brings great benefits as a fodder crop (for livestock). This is due to the fact that this variety does not contain alkaloids, which determine the degree of usefulness of lupine for the gardener.

    In addition, for him will have to care for much more actively than for other varieties. However, if you have a large compound containing cattle, white lupine may be the best choice. Externally, it is larger than other varieties - it can reach two meters in height, and its inflorescences extend up to 30 cm.

    The variety is very fond of heat and calmly endures drought. Among the common varieties emit Degu, Gammu and others.

    White lupine is more thermophilic than, for example, blue, but serves as a good feed for cows.

    Blue or narrow-leaved

    Lupine blue is much more unpretentious than the previous variety - it easily tolerates low temperatures and even frost, does not require care. Despite the name, the inflorescences can be not only blue, but also pink, lilac and even white. It is not as tall as the white variety, reaching a height of a maximum of one and a half meters.

    Known varieties of narrow-leaf lupine, like Crystal, Change, Nemchinovsky blue and many others. They are also suitable for growing as a fodder crop, but they are especially successful in showing themselves as siderats. And there is a variety that calls Siderat 38 that. It is known for being a living fertilizer due to special substances in the roots.

    It is blue lupine that is primarily used as siderat, because it grows very quickly, is not afraid of cold weather, takes deep roots and saturates the upper layers of soil with nitrogen, while loosening them.

    Blue Lupine is one of the most unpretentious, it perfectly performs its function as a siderata.

    The next species is yellow lupine. It is even smaller in height (maximum one meter) and, unlike white and blue lupins, is cross-pollinated rather than self-pollinated.

    Inflorescence is yellow or slightly touched orange. It is not so resistant to cold, although it can withstand light frost. It is best manifested in warm conditions. It should be planted on sandstones and sandy loams.

    Among the known varieties are Torch, Peresvet and Grodno 3.

    Yellow lupine is cross-pollinated, that is, it needs insect pollinators.

    In addition to all of the listed types of lupine, you can use a perennial variety, otherwise called still many-leaved. It is also rich in alkaloids and easily goes through the winter. Therefore, if you want to give rest to any part of your garden for a long time, multi-leafed lupine will be very useful.

    How to plant a plant?

    Lupine is quite undemanding to the composition of the soil, but still heavy loams and peatlands will not work for him. Before planting this crop, loosen the soil, remove all plant residues and start planting.

    Lupine does not require nitrogen-containing fertilizers, which will negate its beneficial properties.

    Despite the good resistance to frost of most varieties, the planting is carried out in the second half of May, when the probability of a strong drop in temperature is not as great as at the beginning of the month.

    At first, the lupine grows slowly, but then makes a sharp jerk and begins to force other weeds out of the plot.

    The lupine planting scheme is very simple - the seeds should be sown to a depth of 3 to 4 cm in narrow grooves, between which they leave 20 cm. The distance between neighboring plants is on average 10 cm. These figures are average and can increase or decrease depending on size. plants inherent in a particular variety.

    Try not to plant the seeds as close as possible to the surface - they have a very hard shell, which is much better removed when germinated from a good depth.

    If the sprout tries to break from a depth of less than 2.5 - 3 cm, then it may not shed the shell, and then the seed leaves will not develop normally.

    To facilitate plant life, slice the shell of the seed - this is called scarification.

    Find lupine seeds is easy, just contact the nursery, where they grow this plant, or find information on the Internet. The price per kilogram is usually small, so the seeding of the plot will be cheap.

    Lupine seeds have a hard shell that can be cut by simplifying the germination process.

    Care for green manure

    Actually, the care of lupine does not present any difficulties, since this plant easily develops virgin areas, the soil would be suitable. To ensure the maximum beneficial effect of growing siderata, lupine mow two months after planting.

    Usually at this time he already has time to bloom and acquires green pods. Dig the beds with lupine is not required. It is enough to mow the green mass, cut up the roots with a flat-cutter and sprinkle it all with earth. If it happens in dry weather, then watering the beds is obligatory.

    It would be appropriate to use drugs with effective microorganisms that can be replaced by herbal infusions.

    If for some reason you have delayed the cleaning of the lupine, then it is better to send the stubble stems to compost, because they will no longer decompose so well in the ground.

    The narrow-leaved lupine is often planted before the onset of autumn, in the second half of August. He has time to grow quickly, and by the end of October he can be mown and prikopat slightly. You can also leave cut lupins on the surface of the beds until the next season.

    Lupine grows to the desired state in just a couple of months, which allows it to be planted before the fall (blue lupine)

    Interaction with other cultures

    Lupine itself is valuable as a siderata, and there is no point in growing it along with other plants of a similar purpose. Otherwise, you can get a fight between the landings for better conditions at the site, and the result of your event will most likely not be as good as expected.

    On the other hand, planting lupine in between the rows when growing vegetables is a very good decision. In this case, all three types of lupine are also used, but the best among them is white. Do not forget to water it at least once a week.

    If you plant rye in front of a lupine, it will relieve the gardener from the problem of weeds competing with him

    In the place where the lupine was grown, there is a great place to eat slopes (tomatoes, potatoes), pepper, cruciferous (various types of cabbage, radishes, turnips), pink (strawberries, garden strawberries, strawberries). You should not plant legumes here, because belonging to the same family determines the presence of common pests and diseases.

    Possible difficulties in growing

    It would seem that it can be easier than to grow a weed on your plot, which in the wild nature feels great and breeds with high speed? However, often in the garden and the garden, he suddenly can stall and not meet the expectations. But everything has its own reasons.

    First of all, make sure you grow lupine on acidic or at least neutral soil. It will not grow on alkaline, so be sure to measure the acidity level of the soil in your area, and then it will become clear whether it is worth using lupine as a siderat.

    Before planting lupine, make sure that your soil is acidic and not alkaline.

    In the first days and weeks of growth, lupins develop slowly and begin to sink in weeds. However, do not rush to get upset, because as soon as he goes to growth, no weeds will no longer interfere with him. It is a good idea to plant lupine after winter rye or wheat, which are known as plants that inhibit weeds.

    Reviews gardeners and gardeners

    The best siderat on clay and loamy soils is the variety of narrow-leaved lupine. Siderat 38 of the selection of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Lupine. For a couple of planting-plowing seasons, the clay soil turns black. In addition, it is not as high as other varieties.

    yri

    http://forum.prihoz.ru/viewtopic.php?t=2795

    Yes, we have the same all the fields lupine sucked! BEAUTIFUL! And how he funny shoots his seeds away from himself, halves of the pods when opened, coil into a spiral instantly and the seeds fly apart in different directions, and this is how it captures territories. I collected the seeds and tried to sow like a siderat in the garden — it grows very slowly and badly, the weeds are twirled much faster, so I threw this idea with a lupine.

    Buttercup

    http://dacha.wcb.ru/index.php?showtopic=10155

    We have lupins growing near the gate, my wife does not like them because of their aggressiveness, but I, on the contrary, like them, bloom beautifully, rarely get sick, from early spring to late autumn they are green, now they are very similar to mini-palm trees, such as ikebana .
    And from their aggressiveness it is possible to fight, after the fruit ovary, to cut off the inflorescences, in a week the flowers will appear again, which after the fruit ovary, again, etc. Thus, lupins bloom is prolonged for at least a month.

    SAD

    http://dacha.wcb.ru/index.php?showtopic=10155

    Lupine as a siderat has long established itself at its best. И не бойтесь рассказов о его способности плодиться и распространяться стремительно и бесповоротно.

    Безусловно, многолетний люпин способен на это, но взяв к себе «на службу» однолетние сорта, вы сможете избежать этой проблемы и дать своей земле возможность отдохнуть и восполнить запас питательных веществ.

    А заодно и полюбоваться на красивое цветение люпина.

    published on according to the materials

    Lupine (one-year, long-term) as siderat: advantages and disadvantages, when and how to sow

    Siderats are plants grown to improve soil structure. One of these green fertilizers, of course, is lupine (both annual and perennial). After all, the legume family, to which it belongs, is in some sense unique in its properties.

    What do green fertilizers do for the land:

    Important!Greening in the fall protects the ground from erosion, blowing, helps the earth to freeze in winter less, holds the snow so that in the spring it is thoroughly saturated with moisture.

    Lupine as a siderata: advantages and disadvantages

    There are practically no flaws in this plant. But the advantages are many:

    1. The roots penetrate deeply, taking the most nutritious of the earth.
    2. It gives a huge yield of green mass - 45-60 tons per hectare.
    3. It gets its maximum soon enough - literally 50 days after seeding.
    4. It gives a lot of nutrients.
    5. Special alkaloid varieties suppress bad bacteria.
    6. Drought and cold resistance (depending on the variety).
    7. Not particularly picky about the land.

    Its disadvantage is only the presence of toxic alkaloids, which impair the taste of the feed. By the way, yellow and white lupins are less alkaloid, and blue is almost never used for food.

    Which lupins are used as siderats

    Naturally, not all species are used as siderat. For this good white lupine, yellow, blue (narrow-leaved).

    Important!In addition to them, they use a perennial variety of lupine, called the many-leaved. It is also saturated with alkaloids, it endures cold without problems.

    But the variety of varieties is numerous. Most Popular:

    • White: “Desnyansky”, “Gamma”, “Degas”.
    • Yellow: "Siderat 892", "Torch", "Prestige", "Motive 369", "Peresvet".
    • Blue: "Siderat 38", "Vityaz", "Uzkolistny 109", "Change", "Hope".

    When and how to sow

    Siderat recommend planting from early spring until autumn. Lupine is not particularly picky in terms of land, but heavy loam and peatlands will still not work. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers are not required here, as they only destroy the usefulness of the siderat.

    Loosen the soil before planting, tidy up plant residues. Seeds are planted with a depth of 3-4 cm in narrow grooves with an interval of 20 cm. Between the plants is left about 10 cm gap.

    Such recommendations are average and vary depending on the size of the plants.

    Did you know?To enrich the soil lupine was used in Greece more than two thousand years ago.

    The principle of the sideratov

    Under green manure, it is commonly understood as additional crops that, after cultivation, are mowed or embedded in the soil, enriching the land with organic matter and various minerals. Let us tell you more about how to use lupine annual.

    The principle of operation of such auxiliary crops is extremely simple. After full maturity, the green mass is not removed, but mown and buried in the soil. The leaves and stems of these plants contain nitrogen and other trace elements, which, once in the surface layer of the soil, rot, and subsequently enrich the earth essential for the growth of vegetables and fruits minerals.

    Growing on the site sideratny cultures due to a developed root system, mineral substances are obtained from the earth, which are located at a depth of one and a half to two meters and are often inaccessible for vegetables and fruits grown in garden beds..

    The soil when grown on the site of these plants becomes structured and loose. Improved water regime at the ground and its aeration. All this has a positive effect on yields, while the gardener is spared the need to use mineral fertilizers, and, consequently, the grown crop of vegetables and fruits is environmentally friendly and has excellent taste characteristics.

    Lupine description

    This plant belongs to the legume family, it is characterized by rapid growth and allows supplying the soil after the rotting of the roots and the green part with various microelements and organic matter. Today, there are numerous varieties of it, of which varieties are used as green manures: annual and narrow-leaved. Currently, the following varieties of this plant are used as siderats:

    • Narrow-leaved
    • Annual.
    • White.
    • Yellow.

    Attention. Siderat lupine is especially good for sandy soils where other types of such ancillary crops hardly grow.

    The advantages of using lupine as siderata

    The popularity of using lupine as a siderata is due to the numerous advantages of growing this secondary culture. These benefits include:

    • This culture has a branched strong root system capable of penetrating to a depth of 2 meters, thanks to which it removes nutrients from the lower soil layer and subsequently such organic matter appears on the surface itself and is used by vegetables and fruits already grown in the beds.
    • Alkaloid lupine allows to enrich even the soil poor in organic and trace elements.
    • This is a fast-growing plant, the development period of which from sowing to processing usually does not exceed 50 days.
    • Lupine after processing enriches the earth with a large amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other trace elements.
    • The soil is improving, as this green manure destroys pathogenic bacteria, suppresses various diseases, including scab and root rot.
    • It is undemanding in the care of green manure, which will require a minimum of attention from the gardener.

    Landing lupine on the site

    First of all, you need to decide what type of such siderat you will use on the site. We recommend you to pay attention to narrow-leaved species and annual lupine. These are unpretentious cultures that do not require any care and at the same time are able to withstand a significant decrease in temperature.

    Important. Annual lupine grows poorly on peatlands and heavy loams, therefore a narrow-leaved variety should be used for such soil..

    Lupins can be planted on the site as a siderata in spring and summer. Many gardeners practice planting this crop after harvesting vegetables and fruits. Due to the rapid growth of this crop from the moment of its planting to the processing of the soil and the incorporation of green mass into the ground, no more than 2 months pass.

    In the event that the siderats are planted at the end of summer and at the beginning of autumn, we recommend using a variety of narrow-leaved lupine, which is distinguished by its rapid growth, which makes it possible to grow such an auxiliary culture and process it before the onset of cold weather.

    Landing lupine as a siderat is performed as follows. Between rows, the distance between the seeds is 5 centimeters, and the interrow distance is 15 centimeters. Lupine seeds should be embedded to a depth of no more than 4 centimeters.

    Care of planting sideratov does not pose any difficulty. It is only necessary to weed the soil and destroy the weeds. More than any additional care, including irrigation or additional fertilizer is not required.

    Processing of soil after planting sideratov

    It is necessary to close the lupine into the ground 8 weeks after it is planted. Usually by this time the plants form powerful buds, but they have not yet acquired the characteristic light yellow color. Experienced gardeners recommend embedding such a siderata into the soil as soon as the green pods appear on this plant, in which the beans have already formed.

    Important. Do not hesitate with sideratov processing, as the lupine stems quickly become thick and subsequently decompose slowly in the ground.

    It is easiest to close up lupine into the soil with the help of motorized equipment, which allows in the shortest possible time to process even large areas of household plots. Usually, the green mass without mowing is buried in the ground to a depth of 10-15 centimeters. Such processing allows to improve the characteristics of the soil, providing it with essential trace elements and valuable organic matter, and all such micro and macro elements are in an easily digestible form.

    Experienced gardeners recommend doing such work in rainy weather. If embedding the siderats in the ground is carried out in sunny, dry weather, then it is recommended to irrigate the ground abundantly, which will allow the plants to quickly fade in the soil, significantly improving its structure.

    Conclusion

    Growing sideratov on the plot will enrich the land with various trace elements, including organic matter and minerals that are necessary for the growth of vegetables and fruits. As such an auxiliary culture, we can recommend you to use lupine, which is characterized by rapid growth rates, enriches the earth with nitrogen, phosphorus and other trace elements, and this plant is not demanding to care. In this article, we told you how to plant and how to process lupine, which will allow you to improve the yields of the backyard plot, while the gardener will be spared the need to use organic and mineral fertilizers in his beds.

    And a little about the secrets.

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    What is good for soil lupine?

    In addition to preserving biomass, when plowing or digging, improving the structure of the soil, turning it from coarser into more loose, lupine, among other things, collects in the soil ideal nitrogen in terms of accessibility, and in such quantities that sometimes not required. Given these highly positive properties for the soil, lupine is very often considered and grown precisely as a sideral, improving the structure of the soil culture.

    The genus itself Lupineor wolf bean (Lupinus) incorporates herbaceous plants, it is both annuals and perennials, as well as shrubs and dwarf shrubs. Lupine has a rather powerful and highly developed root system, therefore it can absorb a large amount of nutrients from its depths into its biomass and grows well without watering on almost any type of soil. Just think: the central root of a grassy plant can penetrate to a depth of two meters. The nodules themselves, which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria, are located higher, they only do that they take away the air of nitrogen and transform it into related forms.

    Nodules of nitrogen-fixing bacteria at the root of lupine

    Annual lupins are used as green fertilizers, or siderats, which sounds more scientific. Why? Much depends on the speed of their development, they grow, accumulating nodule bacteria in the soil and increasing the vegetative mass very quickly. In addition, perennial lupins in just a few seasons can turn into very real weeds, only heavy machinery can save the lot, which is not the case with annual lupins.

    Usually, as a sidereal culture, it is probably cultivated more familiar to many white lupine, and narrow-leaved lupins and of course yellow lupine.

    Lupine breeds seed, seeds usually ripen in beans, they are fancifully different in shape, color, size. Thanks to the work of our scientists, the world has learned that there is a direct connection between the color of the lupine flower and the color of the seed skin. After this was found out, it became easier to select the lupine for sowing: after all, white seeds come from flowers with white petals, and blue and purple petals come from plants whose seeds are dark in color. In size, lupine seeds are no larger than the usual pea.

    The benefits of using lupine as a siderata

    We have so far only briefly mentioned the benefits of lupine as siderata, and now we will tell about it in more detail. At its core, it is almost the cheapest and one of the most effective ways to change the structure of the soil for the better. On top of that, the lupine plant itself, which has many positive properties and qualities, also brings benefits. For example, the most powerful root system, which we have already mentioned, is able to literally dissolve monohydrogen phosphates and thus raise them to higher soil layers accessible to other plants. Lupine, with its powerful and wide root system, even loosens the heavily compacted soil and literally feeds it with nitrogen.

    It is believed that lupine is just an ideal green manure culture for soils that are poor in nutrients that have high acidity (although not every lupine will grow normally on these), and for sandy, i.e., excessively friable and empty soils. Alkaloids contained in the biomass of lupine, after it is plowed up and stored in the soil, though not very briskly and not so actively, but still contribute to the deoxidation of soil, and during long-term cultivation the substrate often takes on even an alkaline form.

    These same alkaloids present in lupine suppress the activity of the wireworm in the soil, and when it is grown in a fixed place, the wireworm, together with the harmful microflora, can disappear altogether.

    Due to the fact that after growing lupine, all its green mass is embedded in the soil and, rotting, turns into a beautiful green fertilizer, while also enriching the soil with nitrogen, in areas where crops are grown after green manure, the yield is noticeably increased. And the most interesting thing is that, thanks to the active growth of annual siderats, the result can already be obtained in just over a month after they are sown. If we take into account all this, that lupine crops practically do not need to be cared for, then it turns out that this is just a fairy tale and not a plant.

    A field planted with annual side-lupines. © Fraunhofer IVV

    Types and varieties of lupine annual

    Lupine one-year, as we have already mentioned, is successfully used both in fodder and sideral cultures. There are about 20 varieties of lupine in the State Register now, so there is exactly what to choose from.

    Scientists have found that with its growth, lupine for its own protection produces a significant amount of alkaloids, that is, nitrogen-containing substances that protect their host (plant), and these, in turn, quite effectively inhibit and even suppress the development of various pathogenic bacteria, kill the nematode , get rid of root rot.

    Angustifolia (Lupinus angustifolius)

    It is also a plant that does not require pollination, but a lower one and a half meters for it is the limit. Despite the fact that it is called blue, the inflorescences of this lupine may well be pink, pale white, and of course, purple and actually blue. Seeds are often round, but if barrel-shaped seeds are sold to you, then do not be alarmed, they are also so, which is perfectly normal. The main thing is to look closely at the seeds, they should be something resembling a marble pattern. Lupine narrow-leaved as a green manure culture is often used, it is surprisingly unpretentious and winter-hardy, it grows quickly and does not require additional nutrition.

    Most often, both siderats use its varieties: Siderat 38, Benyakonsky 334, Pink 399, Benyakonsky 484, Nemchinovsky blue, Vityaz, Crystal, Turn snow, Rainbow, Belozerny 110, Hope, Change, Narrow-leaved 109 other. Often these varieties are used as green manure and feed agricultural animals because of their high nutritional value. The only exception is the variety. Siderat 38. The fact is that when it was cultivated, an interesting fact was found: it contains ethyl alcohol derivatives in the roots and, for obvious reasons, such plants do not go to cattle feed. However, when grown as a green manure, this variety simply has no equal, it is actively growing, and it is noticeably rapidly increasing both the above-ground mass and the root system. If we compare yellow lupine and this variety, we can distinguish clear advantages in comparison with resistance to cold, including in the late spring periods. It can grow on strongly acidified soil types, gradually, neutralizing them year after year.

    It is also interesting and very valuable that this type of lupine takes more nutrients from the lower layers of the soil, therefore, in fact, you do not need to wait for the complete decomposition of the vegetative mass after plowing;

    Yellow Lupine (Lupinus luteus)

    This plant is a typical "crosshair", low, usually not more than a meter in height. Its inflorescence resembles a spikelet, yellow or light orange in color. In fully matured beans, sometimes there are up to five seeds of beige color, less often with a small speck, which many mistakenly take for a disease.

    Если сравнивать этот люпин и люпин узколистный, то можно сказать, что желтый существенно более теплолюбив, так даже для того чтобы появились его всходы, ему нужно не менее 12 градусов тепла, хотя возвратные заморозки он перенести может, выдержав от четырех до шести градусов мороза. Этому люпину нужен еще и полив, хотя бы раз за сезон в объёме пары ведер на квадратный метр почвы, да и расти лучше будет люпин на песчаниках и супесях, улучшая именно их. Most often we grow exactly these varieties of such lupine - Gorodnensky, Siderat 892, Academic 1, Pastry, Motive 369, Torch, Prestige and Relight.

    White Lupine (Lupinus albus) Angustifolia (Lupinus angustifolius). © Ghislain118 Yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus). © marce

    Growing lupine annual

    So, we have already told enough about lupine as a culture, we turn to the rules of its cultivation and use.

    The most diverse, but on very heavy clay consisting of them alone, and on sour peat bogs, lupins will not grow anyway.

    Before planting the seeds of lupine, the soil must be dug up onto a full spade of a shovel and leveled. As for fertilizers, at the initial stage, even if the soils are very poor, I would not advise to apply either nitrogenous fertilizers or organic matter. The fact is that the nitrogen-fixing bacteria immediately after the start of plant growth themselves begin to develop, but the excess nitrogen, even in the form of organic matter, will not only help this process, but, on the contrary, inhibit it.

    Sowing of sideral crops, in particular, lupine, is usually started in late spring, often this is the second half of May, when the soil is already warm enough and there will be no risk of significant return frost.

    Planting technology, more precisely, sowing, is quite simple: all you need is to dig up well, level the soil, make grooves (three centimeters deep), with a distance of about 20 cm between them, and try to place seeds in them so that between each distance equal to 9-12 cm (depending on the strength of plant growth). The standard consumption of lupine seeds per weave of land in a standard garden is about three kilograms, although if the seeds are small, it may be smaller.

    If the seeds were stored for a long time (a year or more) or you do not know the exact period of their storage, then in order for them to sprout together quickly, it is better to scarify them, that is, slightly damage the shell of each seed. Do not think that in fact everything is so simple, the lupine seed shell is quite tough, probably, you have often seen how the shoots that have reached the surface cannot get rid of the cotyledons, so you need to be careful and not get hurt yourself. Usually a pair of neat cuts with a stationery knife or holding a seed on emery paper, the smallest paper, is enough to speed up their germination.

    Shoots of lupine. © floodedsoils

    Using lupine one-year as a siderata

    After sowing lupine, it is important to remember that this culture is sidereal, that is, it is aimed at improving the soil structure of your plot, and not your plot itself, therefore, you need to take care of it accordingly. Usually a couple of months after the start of growth (not later), the plants are mown and carefully dug up with the turnover of the reservoir. It is not always possible to make a shovel or scythe. Often, the motoblock is resorted to for this, first cutting the roots with a flat cutter, and then digging up the soil, mixing the green mass with it.

    Further, the site for a couple of months should be left alone, so that the green mass is rotten and ready to plant other plants on it. In the event that the weather is dry, then once a week you can irrigate the site, spending a couple of buckets of water per square meter, or use an infusion of regular herbs or any of the EM preparations.

    If with the transformation of lupine into the green manure fertilizer to be late and the pods full of beans turn dark, then it is easier to mow the whole green mass with a conventional mower and lay it in a compost pile. Why? Yes, just in a more mature age, the lupine stalks become so dense that they will decompose in the soil for a long time.

    Lupine blue before planting into the soil from sowing requires only 55-60 days, taking this into account, it is perfectly possible to sow it in autumn, followed by planting it in the soil in autumn. Blue lupines are sown immediately after harvesting the main crop from the garden, which usually falls on the second decade of August, and already at the very end of October, preferably before the start of frosts, this sidereal culture can be mowed.

    At the same time, of course, it is not necessary to embed the green mass to a great depth; it will be enough just to mix it with the soil. Those gardeners who do not have the ability to mix grass with the soil, mowed in the autumn, can simply be mowed and left on the soil surface until the beginning of the spring period.

    What grows after sideratov best?

    On the field, which was under green manures, potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers, strawberries and cabbage grow best, representatives of the legume family grow the worst, mainly due to the presence of other common pests.

    Council According to his own observations, it is better to keep the aisles of the garden not under the black steam, as often happens, but under the lupine, that is, also under sodding. White or blue lupine is best for this purpose, but do not forget about additional irrigation and remember that after cutting the siderats between the rows of the garden they do not need to be buried in the soil, it is better to just cover the ground with them, creating something like a mulching layer.

    Sown as a siderat, narrow-leaved lupine. © Krzysztof Ziarnek

    Why does lupine grow poorly?

    In conclusion, I want to answer one of the most frequently asked questions - why does the lupine on the site by no means want to grow? The answer is that the first reason is usually the acidity of the soil, as we have already written, not all lupins develop well on acidic soil, and blue lupine generally does not want to grow on alkaline.

    Advice - to suffer a little: at the initial stage of its development, lupins grow rather slowly, for example, large industrial farms use this, sowing it for oats, winter crops, annual grasses, and after mowing their green mass, lupins also begin to actively develop. So you can get a couple of crops on the same field.

    And in order not to conquer the lupine from the cereals, try to plant it after the cereals of winter crops, so they just slow the growth of weeds thoroughly!

    Any questions? - waiting for them in the comments!

    How to care for lupine

    After 3-4 days from sowing, the land is harrowed with a rake or light harrow (on soils with low sand content they are harrowed after the plants have 4-5 leaves). It is advised to do this after dinner, when the stems are more flexible.

    The second loosening is carried out when the seedlings have grown to 12-15 cm, the third - a week after the second.

    Lupine as a siderat: when to sow, where and how - sowing norms and terms

    Now there are a lot of soil-improving plants on sale, and beginner naturalists can not immediately figure out when to sow lupine as a siderat.

    Indeed, many green manure cultures have the properties of insecticides and fungicides, destroying the parasites present in the earth (white mustard, marigolds).

    And some of them contribute to alkalization of the soil and the transformation of areas unsuitable for the garden and vegetable garden into quite nutritious land. Let's see what is good one-year-old lupine.

    Lupine as a siderat: when to sow and in front of which cultures

    Fans of organic farming are actively using green manure plants to improve the physical and chemical indicators of the soil on their plots.

    Planting them on free sites with the purpose of subsequent plowing of the biological mass contributes to the improvement of the soil, increasing aeration and moisture permeability, saturation with biohumus and all the nutrients necessary for plant cultivation.

    One of these plants is Lupine, an annual of the Legumes family, high-yielding and unpretentious. It should be noted that lupine can be many years. Such varieties of flowering plants are grown in flower gardens and front gardens.

    The use of lupine for the garden

    As a siderata, one-year-old lupine is most often used: white, yellow and narrow-leaved. Its core root system, penetrating into the lower horizons of the soil to a depth of 2 meters, is “equipped” with nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which, absorbing nitrogen from the air, saturate the soil with them.

    Lupine roots absorb the subsurface soil layers, pulling from the lower layers of hard-to-reach forms of nutrients, and turning them into easily digestible, for example, phosphorus from poorly soluble phosphates.

    According to reviews of experienced vegetable growers, naturalists, strawberries planted after lupine, and solanaceous and cereal crops yield a crop that is twice as high as usual.

    We do not recommend using lupine as a precursor of all leguminous crops (peas, beans, peanuts, etc.), as they have common pests and diseases that accumulate in the soil.

    And not only this is the reason for the need to change crops in the beds — colins accumulate in the soil after the roots die off, which inhibit the growth of plants of the same species.

    That is why crop rotation and mixed planting are so productive for organic beds.

    Lupine can not only loosen the soil, but also reduce its acidity due to the presence of alkaloids, which have the property of alkalizing. The same substances frighten the wireworms, cleaning the infected areas from the larvae of the parasite, which causes serious damage to the roots. Lupine contributes to the inhibition of pathogens that cause diseases such as scab and root rot.

    Siderat is ideal for poor and depleted soils, sandstones, sandy loams, non-cultivated lands. It is not recommended to sow all types of lupine on peat bogs and heavy clay areas.

    It is believed that the most useful for the garden lupine brings when sowing in the fall. For example, if you plan to grow potatoes in a garden next season, then lupine should be planted in September, after the harvest of the previous crop.

    Features of lupine as siderata

    The plant belongs to the early ripening and gaining the full volume of green mass in 50-55 days. At this time, mowing of green mass is carried out, which can either be immediately buried in the soil, or left on the site until spring, after plowing after the snow has melted. Plowing, of course, is optional - you can leave the greens on the surface, and microbes and earthworms will process it very well.

    According to studies, lupine produces about 60t / ha of green mass. This amount of greens when decomposed in the soil enriches it with biohumus in an amount up to 3 tons. The root system left in the ground after cutting the upper part of the plants decomposes and saturates it with valuable substances.

    Lupine seeds are sown in rows plowed wet land (the distance between them is from 15 to 30 cm) or thickly randomly. The embedment depth should not exceed 2.5-3.5 cm. The consumption rate of planting material is from one and a half to three kg / weaving.

    If there is sandy soil in your area, from which almost all the nutrients are washed out, or the yield of solanaceous crops has significantly decreased due to soil depletion, then try to increase fertility by sowing lupine before winter. Of course, it will also enrich other soils with nitrogen. So feel free to start planting in September, and then for your plot, select the optimal time when sowing lupine as a siderat — it not only enriches, but also structures the soil.

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    Siderats: choosing the best for the garden, when to sow and when to bury + photo

    It is possible to increase fertility of the earth on the garden site without special expenses. This will help us sideraty - plants grown for the sake of green mass. Especially among gardeners, crops that are capable of increasing a lot of greenery, having developed roots and harmful to pests are valued in a short time.

    Plants - green manages in the country

    For sideral cultures to be beneficial, they need to be properly used:

    • We plant in early spring or autumn after harvest.
    • The seeds of the green manure in spring are sown in the soil 2 months before planting the main garden crop.
    • We mow plants in the period of appearance of buds, when the content of trace elements in their tissues is maximum. It will take about 2 weeks to rot the biomass.
    • When planting in the autumn siderata can not mow.
    • We do not dig the soil where the siderats were planted. Large roots can be cut down with a flat-cutter, long roots will rot and improve the structure of the soil.
    • Green mass close up to a depth of 5 cm, if the weather is dry, water the beds.
    • Thickly planted siderata, growing, drowning weeds.
    • It is useful to plant next to different types of siderats.

    As a green fertilizer is usually grown:

    • Legumes (lupine, vetch, peas, beans, sweet clover, soy).
    • Cruciferous (mustard, rape, Pancake week radish).
    • Cereals (rye, oats, barley).
    • Buckwheat (buckwheat).

    Legumes enrich the soil with nitrogen and phosphorus. On their roots in nodules live specific bacteria that can absorb nitrogen from the air and convert it into a bound state. Beans loosen the soil and clean it from nematodes.

    Cruciferous siderats during the growing season emit essential substances that have a detrimental effect on pathogens and pests.

    Plants can be buried in the ground at any stage of the growing season, they grow quickly, forming a lush green mass. These siderats do not tolerate acidic soils.

    It is recommended to plant crucifers along with legumes; they convert phosphorus into a readily available compound for plants.

    Buckwheat siderata useful to plant in depleted soil. They will introduce phosphorus, potassium and organic matter into it.

    The list of sideratov is complemented by individual representatives of the plant world - phacelia and marigold. They form an easily decomposable green mass and long thin roots.

    The most common sidereal cultures

    Of the variety of plants that can be used as a green fertilizer, we offer the most commonly used in garden plots. Their seeds can be easily purchased at the store, growing will not be a hassle.

    Blue lupine contains lupine alkaloid, which helps rid the soil of harmful microorganisms. Its powerful roots can reach a depth of 2 meters and extract useful elements from the deep soil layers (potassium, phosphorus).

    Lupine is useful to sow before planting Solanaceous (potatoes and tomatoes), cruciferous (cabbage, radishes, turnips, radishes), Rosaceae (strawberries, strawberries). Preference should be given to annual lupins, they are developing rapidly.

    Lupine prefers slightly acidic and neutral soils. Sow seeds in the spring at the rate of 20 g per 1 sq. Km. m. Mown stalks when the plant begins to lay buds. The root is cut flat. Lupine fights nematodes, potato scab and root rot.

    Vika, peas, often grows on sites like a wild plant. This legume plant is a good siderat. The plant has a long root, it is capable of extracting nutrients from a great depth.

    The height of the peas can grow up to 2 meters. Flowers appear in June, in the fall on the wild vetch can collect seeds.

    Spring vetch sown on the bed before planting tomatoes and peppers. Close it up into the soil a month after sowing, when the plant grows to 15 cm.

    This plant is one of the best sideratov. The essential oils in mustard leaves scare away pests:

    The plant fights against pathogens:

    • late blight,
    • root rot,
    • scab potatoes

    Mustard seeds are sown in early spring or autumn, after harvest. On 1 square. m will need 3 g of seeds.

    Frost-resistant plant is planted in late August - early September. Shoots will have time to appear before the start of frost, and in the spring the plant will continue to grow and drown out the weeds.

    Mowing greens for 3 weeks before planting vegetables. In the roots of rye contains a special substance that repels nematodes, it is useful to plant after potatoes.

    Oats saturates the earth with potassium and phosphorus. Its roots loosen dense soil and are able to protect light soils from leaching. The plant is planted on soils of all types.

    The plant does not tolerate frost and is sensitive to lack of moisture. The best time for sowing is early spring, when the snow melts, and early autumn, the first half of September. Grains are embedded in the ground at 3 - 4 cm, per 1 square. m will need 10 g.

    Oat roots contain a substance - a fungicide that copes well with pathogens of fungal and bacterial diseases. Oats - a good predecessor of tomatoes, eggplants, strawberries.

    Buckwheat is able to extract beneficial elements from the poorest soil due to its ability to excrete particular acids by its roots. The root system of the plant grows rapidly and inhibits the growth of weeds.

    Sow the seeds need to warm land. Buckwheat is often planted between the rows in the summer.

    After buckwheat, all crops can be planted, except for representatives of the buckwheat family. This siderat will help get rid of the wheat grass. Substances secreted by the roots of buckwheat inhibit the growth of malicious weed.

    It grows well on all types of soil, clay, peat, sandy, rocky. It is unpretentious, grows quickly, tolerates drought and cold well.

    Sow phacelia in early spring, when the snow melts. Planting density - 2 g of seeds per 1 square. m. Pre-winter landing will protect the ground from freezing.

    Phacelia normalizes the acidic soil, frightens the wireworm, fights fungal diseases. After this siderata any garden plants grow well.

    Ноготки, или календулу, чаще выращивают ради их красивых цветов, но эти неприхотливые растения – хорошие сидераты, их полезно сажать перед посадкой моркови, свеклы, картофеля, огурцов, томатов, тыквы, баклажанов, лука и чеснока.

    Ее запаха боятся колорадский жук, проволочник, гусеницы и нематоды. Ноготки очищают землю от вредных микроорганизмов, вызывающих фитофтороз и фузариозное увядание.

    В качестве сидерата календулу сеют летом. За полтора месяца растения вырастут на 15 см, их скашивают и зеленую массу закапывают в землю. During the winter, it will have time to decompose and create favorable conditions for earthworms.

    Advantages and disadvantages of planting a lupine - table

    • soil enrichment with useful substances (nitrogen and phosphorus),
    • soil loosening
    • pest control (wireworm and nematode) and pathogenic bacteria,
    • undemanding care
    • the formation of a large amount of green mass.
    • demanding of the soil. Lupine grows poorly in heavy clay soil and peat, as well as in areas with alkaline soil. If you want to sow lupine in such a place, then in the end of April, add sulfur to the soil for digging (5–10 g / m 2).
    • late landing. Start sowing lupine usually begin in the second half of May. Given that it grows long enough, planting a one-year crop on a busy plot this season will not work.
    • high consumption of seeds. For one weave you need 2-3 kg of seed.

    To improve the soil, it is advisable to use one-year nondecorative species of lupine - narrow-leaved, yellow or white.

    Nondecorative annual species of lupine are used as green manure.

    Lupine planting rules

    For lupine, areas in the sun with light (sandy or loamy) acidic or neutral soils are well suited. It is also advisable to follow the rules of crop rotation and not sow lupine where formerly leguminous (beans, beans, peas) or cruciferous (cabbage, radish, rape) crops grew.

    1. Dig a shallow or burn the selected area. If you choose the second option, then you can use a cultivator or a flat cutter.
    2. Make in the ground grooves 2.5–3 cm deep at a distance of 20–30 cm. Moisten slightly.
    3. Sow the seeds in the prepared depressions at a distance of 10–15 cm. Note that before sowing the seeds must be scarified to facilitate their germination. To do this, slightly cut each bean with a stationery knife (you can use a blade) or wipe it 4-5 times with emery paper. Also, some gardeners use for this purpose a spreader. After scarification, seeds can be left for a day on a damp cloth - to improve germination.

    For better germination of lupine seeds it is necessary to scarify them.

    With the help of lupine you can improve the soil in large areas.

    Care for growing lupine is simple and consists of timely watering and weeding. Lupine can be harvested 2 months after sowing, when it has faded and begins to form soft green pods. You don’t need to dig up the plot, you just need to heal the roots of the plant with a flat-cutter or mow low the tops. Sprinkle the grass mass lightly with earth and pour water or a solution of the EM preparation (Baikal EM-1, Shine, Vostok EM-1, etc.) for better rotting. Try to clean up on time, otherwise the stalks of lupine will grow dry and will not be able to decompose quickly. In this case, it is better not to leave the greens on the plot, but to send them to the compost.

    On the site where lupine was previously grown, it is possible to plant almost any crop except cruciferous and legumes.

    Video: features of lupine as siderata

    As you can see, it is not difficult to sow lupine, and even those who perform the procedure for the first time will cope with this. Follow all these rules and carry out work on time, and you can easily improve the soil on the site, and therefore, ensure yourself a good harvest.