Cauliflower is a very tasty vegetable. And while useful. In order to get an early harvest, it is grown seedling way. This technology is simple, but it is necessary to follow some recommendations. Further in the article we will look at how to properly grow cauliflower seedlings at home.
Good cauliflower seedlings can be obtained in two ways: regular and pot. In the first case, the seeds are planted in boxes or in a greenhouse. In the second, special peat pots are used. A rather weak and delicate root system is what makes cauliflower different. The seedlings, the cultivation of which is not a very complicated procedure, will rise well and will be strong only when using very loose soil. Therefore, it is best to apply the second method. You can also use mixed technology. That is, the seeds are planted in boxes or a greenhouse, and the pick taken into peat pots.
45 days - the period for which can be obtained sufficiently large and strong for carrying cauliflower seedlings to the beds. Growing it usually begin in late March - early April. This is if they want to get an early harvest. More exact dates depend on the region in which the plot with the garden is located. In the southern regions of Russia, they will be earlier. In the middle lane and in Siberia, they start sowing later.
By taking away from the date of possible transfer to the open ground 45 days, you can accurately calculate the time when the cauliflower seedlings should be planted. Cultivation (it is better to use early varieties) in a greenhouse or in pots in this case will allow to get a crop at the end of summer. Of course, only subject to compliance with all technologies. The most popular varieties of early maturation are Movir 74, Gribovskaya 1355, Otechestvennaya and others.
Late cauliflower varieties are more often planted in late April - in May in a greenhouse. In this case, the harvest will be available in September - October.
Land preparation in boxes
Cauliflower seedlings, the cultivation of which must be carried out correctly, reacts very painfully to the lack of nutrients in the soil. Therefore, the soil under it should be prepared very carefully. Just great for growing strong healthy plants suitable mixture consisting of equal parts of turf land, humus and peat. It would be nice to add some phosphate fertilizer to the soil under the cabbage (for example, 20 g / m 2 double granulated superphosphate).
Be sure to also disinfect the soil, spilling it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. To prevent the disease of seedling black leg should prepare calcined sand. They poured the surface of the soil in boxes after planting seeds. Sand can be replaced with high-quality wood ash.
Planting material must first be calibrated, heated and etched. For growing seedlings should be taken large seeds. The use of such planting material allows to improve the yield by about 30%. When sowing large seeds, you get stronger cauliflower seedlings. Growing at home will be even more successful if you carry out a preliminary warming up of planting material. To do this, it is placed in a gauze bag and immersed in the last 20 minutes in very warm water (50 gr.). Next, the seeds are dried and proceed to pickling. Disinfection can be done with formalin solution (1: 300) or garlic juice (1 hour for 3 hours of water) for an hour.
The soil in the boxes carefully aligned. Then they plant the seeds of such a culture, like cauliflower. The seedlings, which are cultivated at home on sills, will germinate well and quickly when seeds are buried by about 1 cm. After embedding, the surface is powdered with calcined sand or ash. Next, the soil in the boxes should be thoroughly shed using a spray gun.
Caring for small seedlings is periodic soil moistening and weeding if necessary. Cauliflowers are planted in a greenhouse in approximately the same way. It is best to cover it with a special film, for example "Svetlitsa". Such material passes sunlight well and is hygroscopic (does not collect condensate).
Cauliflower seedlings: how to grow
Before shoots appear in the boxes, the air in the room should be heated to at least 18-20 g. The same temperature should be maintained in the greenhouse. To keep the air under the film cool in the dark, you should cover the structure with some kind of material at hand: straw mats, old blankets, etc.
After the cabbage has risen, the temperature of the ambient air can be reduced in the daytime to 6-8 grams, at night - to 5-6 grams. This will help strengthen and harden the plants. A week later, the temperature should be increased to 10-12 gr. and maintain at this level for about 10 days, right up to the pick. Such a regime will allow growing healthy, strong, not pampered seedlings.
This procedure is carried out in a week - one and a half after the cauliflower seedlings have risen. Growing and caring for her and suggest the correct transplant. Tighten the timing of the picks can not be. In more mature plants, the root system suffers greatly when transferred to other containers. As a result, they are much worse accustomed and develop in the future.
Picks are best done in peat pots. In this case, when transplanting plants into open ground, they will not damage the root system, and they will take root much faster and better. Carry out a pick so that the plants are immersed in the ground to the cotyledon leaves. At the end of this procedure, the cabbage should be mulched wood ash.
Dive better not all plants at once. A few bushes should be left in the boxes just in case. Peat pots themselves are the easiest to purchase in a specialty store. But you can make them yourself.
How to make peat pots
Subject to the above methodology, very good cauliflower seedlings can be grown. How to plant it, we found out. Now let's see how to make peat pots for seedlings. For the production will need to cook:
- Lowland peat with a pH not higher than 6.5. More sour can proizvodkovat. Conduct this procedure no earlier than two weeks before transplanting.
- Sawdust. The day before the manufacture of the pots, they need to add a little ammonium nitrate (1 kg per 1 m 3). It is made in order to prevent the depletion of the soil mixture. The fact is that the bacteria processing sawdust absorbs a lot of nitrogen from the environment (in this case peat mixture).
- Fresh mullein, diluted with water 1x1.
Three parts of peat take 1 part of sawdust and 0.2 parts of sand. Only a little mullein (5% of the total amount) is needed - only for gluing the mixture. Otherwise, the walls of the pots will be very dense and rigid, and the roots will not be able to break through them. To the mixture of sawdust, peat and sand you need to add a little mineral fertilizer (ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride) and lime. It is best to make pots on the same day when the picking will be carried out.
How to grow cauliflower seedlings in peat tablets
This is a fairly new technology that allows you to get very strong plants. Bought peat tablets just need to put in plastic cups and pour with warm water. After some time, they swell and are converted into a nutrient mixture. In each cup put one or two seeds.
Cultivation without picking
This method has recently become increasingly popular among domestic gardeners. When using it, very good cauliflower seedlings can also be obtained. Growing in this case is done from the first day in peat pots. However, this method is best used to obtain late seedlings. That is, when it is supposed to be transported to the ground in the summer.
Without picking, you can grow late seedlings and right on the garden. In this case, the seeds are sown quite rarely (according to the 10x56 cm scheme). They take care of plants in the same way as when grown in boxes, pots and greenhouses. To protect the seedlings from frost, arcs are set and a film is placed on them. Usually a small cabbage takes up only a small part of the bed space. After four sheets grow on it, it is distributed over the whole area.
Preparation of this kind allows you to get the most resistant to frost plants. Begin hardening about 12 days before planting in open ground. To do this, in the daytime, seedlings are carried out on the balcony or placed in a greenhouse at an air temperature of about 5 grams. At night, pots must be returned to a warm room. Five days before disembarking, seedlings can be moved from a room to a greenhouse. In warm weather, the film is periodically removed from it, gradually increasing the interval of plants in the open air.
How to move to open ground
Using the technologies described above, very good cauliflower seedlings can actually be obtained. Growing it in open ground is also carried out according to certain methods.
Under the seedlings make small holes with a depth slightly higher than the height of the pots. Place the cabbage in rows at a sufficiently large distance. The free space between the bushes should be at least 25 cm. The rows should be placed at a distance of 70 cm from each other. Such a planting scheme is suitable for early varieties of cabbage. For later, both distances should be increased by about 10 cm.
The pots are lowered into the ground and instilled in such a way that the plant is recessed to the first leaflets. In the final stage, grown seedlings should be carefully watered.
Well, now you know how good cauliflower seedlings can be obtained. Growing it at home, as well as carrying it in open ground - the procedures are simple, but require precise adherence to certain technologies. The main thing is to observe the planting dates, prepare a good soil mixture and do not forget to water the plants.
Basic requirements and conditions
Cauliflower demanding sunlight
Temperature. For ripening and achieving technical ripeness of a cauliflower crop, it is necessary to have at least 120-160 warm days, depending on the variety. It would seem that the summer period of the middle band is quite enough for this. But the complexity of growing this type of cabbage lies in the fact that it is very sensitive to temperature fluctuations, so much effort is required to protect the landings during cold snaps and the shading of the beds from the scorching sun.
Place of landing. Cauliflower is demanding of sunlight. Good, dense heads are tied only when grown in open, highly lighted areas. Even close proximity to tall garden crops can negatively affect the quality of the crop.
Tip! Towards the middle of summer, when the inflorescences begin to form and ripen, break the upper leaves of the head and “tuck” the head with them - so it will remain white, will not turn yellow and will not crumble.
The best cauliflower precursors: potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, beets, as well as peas and other legumes. Do not plant it after “related” crops, such as radishes, turnips, radish and other types of cabbage, after which pathogenic bacteria and fungal spores may remain in the soil.
The soil. Heavy, clay or poor soils for growing cauliflower are not suitable. These plantings yield a crop on sandy garden soil drained sufficiently with good circulation of moisture and air. To improve the nutritional value of cabbage beds, it is better to use organic fertilizers: rotted manure or mullein, humus, compost mass, non-acidic peat.Roller growing tips
Humidity. Regular watering cauliflower planting is necessary, especially in the early stages of cultivation. But at the same time, the stagnation of water in the soil is often the main cause of the development of fungal diseases, so the frequency and volume of irrigation are determined depending on weather conditions and the amount of precipitation. As a rule, in the second half of the summer, when the ripening of the crop takes place, the cabbage is no longer watered.
Features dressings cauliflower
Cauliflower plantings for full development and high-quality ripening of the crop requires regular feeding. A rather long growing season gradually depletes the soil, and the culture at different stages requires additional micro-macroelements.
If you doubt the nutritional value of the soil, it will not be superfluous to feed the cauliflower a third time.
The first feeding is carried out about ten days after the transplanting, or by the time when there are 5-6 real leaves on the sockets. To do this, use liquid organics - infusion of mullein, bird droppings or herbal infusion added to the water for irrigation in appropriate dosages.
Two weeks later, a second feeding is carried out, already with the addition of mineral fertilizers: an infusion of wood ash, bone meal or a finished complex preparation - nitroammophoska.
If you doubt the nutritional value of the soil, it will not be superfluous to feed the cauliflower a third time, at the beginning of the formation of the head.Video about cabbage planting and care
Growing most varieties of cauliflower is often complicated by the fact that the quality of the future crop is negatively affected by temperature fluctuations. It is bad for her and possible cold snaps below 10 ° C, and hot weather, when the air warms up above 26-28 ° C. During such periods, the growth and development of planting is inhibited, the density and taste of the forming heads deteriorate.
Sowing seeds for seedlings spend about a month before the expected planting dates
Based on this, as well as taking into account the weather characteristics of a particular region, various methods of growing cauliflower are used - through seedlings, sowing in open ground or planting under temporary shelter. Consider the advantages and difficulties of each.
Sowing of seeds for seedlings is carried out about a month before the expected planting dates, usually from the end of March to mid-April. Seeds are sown in loose, moist and nutritious soil in individual cups or in a common container, deepening them by about 1-1.5 cm. Crops are covered with a piece of glass or film and put in a warm place for germination. After the emergence of shoots shelter is removed, and the capacity is transferred to the window sill, providing sockets with maximum illumination. Care of the growing seedlings is timely watering and spraying, and a week before planting it begins to harden.
When sockets form 4-6 true leaves and a positive average daily temperature is established not lower than 12 ° C, the cabbage is planted in open ground according to the scheme 70 cm between the rows and about 30 cm between the holes.
This method of growing cauliflower, though rather troublesome, is very effective. There is no other way how to grow cauliflower and get a good harvest in temperate weather. But in the southern regions, where the summer heat comes already at the beginning of May, there is no need for seedlings and cabbage is sown immediately on the beds.Video clip about planting and growing
- Sowing seeds in open ground
The advantages of this method, compared with the seedlings, are obvious:
- it is less labor intensive
- the plants immediately get enough sunlight and do not stretch out,
- sockets do not need a transplant, which for some period inhibits their growth and development.
As soon as the weather sets in and the blowjob threat of return frost, start sowing cauliflower. The most rational placement pattern is double rows of landings with wide aisles for ease of maintenance. Between plants leave 25 cm for early and early ripening varieties and 40 cm for the heads of late maturity. Usually, 2-3 seeds are sown in each well, and after germination one of the most powerful and promising plants is left. Further care for planting the same - watering, feeding and timely removal of weeds.
Which grade to choose?
The following varieties are suitable for cultivation in climatic conditions, for example, near Moscow, and in the territories of Siberia and the Urals. For convenience, we classify varieties in accordance with the rates of their growth and maturation.
- Early ripening Movir 74, Early Gribovskaya 1355.
Important note! Cauliflower does not feel well at temperatures above +25 degrees. Residents of hot regions are encouraged to give preference to Coleman and Ameising, they normally tolerate such conditions.
Амейзинг F1, гибрид голландской селекции, с головками массой до 1,8 кг, высокоурожайный
Где садить цветную капусту?
Выбираем теплый и солнечный участок – в тени мы получим лишь множество листьев без полноценно сформированной головки. Капусте нравится влажные почва и воздух. Лучший вариант – супесчаный и суглинистый грунт с нейтральным pH (в пределах 6,8-7,2) и богатым содержанием перегноя.
Определяем лучший тип почвы для высадки цветной капусты
Cauliflower can be planted in areas that were previously used for growing legumes, cucumbers, carrots, as well as cereals, onions and potatoes. Territories where previously turnips and radishes, tomatoes, radishes, beets, and cabbage were grown can be used to grow cauliflower only 4 years after the last harvest of the above crops.
Recommendations for preliminary preparation
Both seeds and soil need preliminary preparation.
Seeds are first lowered into the water heated to about 50 degrees and kept there for 15 minutes. After that, send them in cool water for about 1.5 minutes. Next, we will need to keep the seeds in a solution containing microelements for 12 hours (we buy at a specialty store), then rinse them thoroughly with water and send them for about a day in the refrigerator.
On the photo - sowing cauliflower seeds for seedlings
The plot in the garden is starting to prepare for the future planting of cauliflower from the autumn months, by introducing calcareous substances. In the spring we make organic fertilizer in the amount of 1 bucket per square meter. To each prepared well we add a mixture of a pair of large spoons of superphosphate, a small spoon of urea and a pair of glasses of wood ash.
Growing home seedlings
Seedlings will grow in a mixture consisting of equal shares of sand, peat and sod land. Components such as humus and garden land are not suitable - the risk of infection of plants with a black leg is high.
For sowing early varieties choose the day between March 5 and 10, late - 10-20 March. If you wish, you can sow the seeds directly into the ground under the film - this is done in April.
Sowing Cabbage Seeds in Ground
We propose to increase the chances of getting a healthy and strong crop, after growing the seedlings in boxes, and then transferring it to the ground.
The procedure for growing seedlings
Traditionally used boxes with a height of about 100 mm, a width of about 300 mm and a half-meter length. For convenience, the longitudinal wall of the box make detachable.
Wooden box for seedlings
Along the bottom of the box lay out the stones of small size to ensure drainage.
Claydite can be used for drainage
Fill the tank with a soil mixture. Align it, slightly moisturize and slightly compacted. We mark on the surface of the ground grooves with a depth of about 5 mm, maintaining a 3-centimeter step between them. In the row between the seeds, we provide about 10 mm distance. We fill up the seeds with a soil mixture and compact it a little.
Sowing seeds in seedlings
After sowing, we maintain in the room with future seedlings about + 20-25 degrees temperature. When shoots appear, reduce the temperature to approximately +10 degrees. After a week of this mode, during the day we keep the temperature at + 15-17 degrees, at night - + 9-10 degrees. Warmer is not necessary - the heads will form too soon.
Water moderately. Excessive moisture will cause the development of black legs, too little watering will lead to the formation of dwarf heads.
The two-week-old seedling passes the picking stage, i.e. seating in individual tanks. Sometimes they do it already on the 9-10 day, transferring the seedlings into cups with dimensions about 8x8 cm.
The recommended depth of seedlings is up to cotyledon leaves. Within 3 days after the picking, we maintain the temperature at about + 19-20 degrees, then reduce it to + 16-17 degrees during the day and about + 9-10 degrees at night.
Early varieties are transplanted into the garden in the first days of May, and later ones - within 2-3 weeks of the same month. Approximately 2 weeks before transplantation, seedlings begin to be gradually accustomed to temperature differences, wind and sun, i.e. hardened.
Home Care Seed Care Tips
The standard scheme is as follows.
- During the first 4-5 days after sowing (i.e. before the emergence of the first shoots), the soil is sprayed with water. It is very convenient to do this with a spray gun. The container with the future seedlings during this period is in a room with a temperature of + 18-20 degrees.
Example of planting seedlings in separate cups
Feeding seedlings. Leaf spraying
Water the seedlings at the root
Preparing for planting cauliflower: get acquainted with the features of the plant, its varieties and prepare the soil and seeds
As for the cauliflower, you should pay attention to its useful properties. As noted by gastroenterologists, eating cauliflower is much better reflected in the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, since it contains much more nutrients than protein, and does not lead to bloating of the stomach.
Thus, it is recommended for both children and people suffering from gastritis, ulcers and reflux. All these facts once again confirm the need to grow such a valuable and tasty vegetable in their own garden.
Features of the cultivation of cauliflower in their own garden
The conditions of agrotechnical cauliflower are much more demanding than white cabbage, because it needs more light and heat, and also it has a weaker root system.
In particular, the temperature conditions for growing such cabbage should be between +15 and + 18ºС, since at lower temperatures the heads form very small, lose their taste qualities.
If the seedlings are stabbing, then in the open ground the plant able to tolerate frosts even down to -5 ºС, but still the danger to him remains quite high.
Also, the danger for cauliflowers are high temperatures, which are combined with high humidity. Even at + 25ºС, the heads of the plant may stall in growth, and may grow loose over time.
It is necessary to plant cauliflower seedlings only on open and sunlit areas. Although protection from the winds is also important, but when shaded (or very dense planting), the seedlings of this type of cabbage will stretch out and become less resistant to diseases.
Another feature is that with a long daylight, the heads, although they are formed much faster, but their inflorescences also break up into parts faster. With a shorter period of illumination, the head will be formed more dense, but at the same time, this process will be rather delayed in time.
More demanding this type of cabbage and the characteristics of the soil. In particular, it is best to plant this crop in light soils rich in humus and with neutral acidity. Ate the acid reaction is quite high, since the fall the soil is worth producing.
But in any case, fertilizers (organic and mineral) will have to be applied to the soil and independently, immediately with the arrival of spring time.
Preparation of soil and beds: what do cauliflowers need?
As already mentioned, cauliflower requires a large amount of nutrients, without which its growth will be impossible. For this reason, when preparing the soil, that is, digging it, humus is immediately introduced into it.
On 1m2 you can make up to 2 buckets. From mineral fertilizers it is recommended to use nitrophoska, about 2 tablespoons on the same area. To make very wide beds is not worth it, because they can cause an overabundance of moisture. However, even with very narrow beds, a weak root system of cauliflower may not be enough.
For sowing cauliflower seeds a mixture is used consisting of equal amounts of garden soil, peat and hardened humus. With the maintenance of normal humidity in such a soil, seedlings will appear very quickly.
Varieties of cauliflower and oh differences: briefly about the most famous
In general, cauliflower varieties, as well as white cabbage, are divided into 3 groups, the varieties of which we will call you. The difference between the ripening of each group is not more than 14 days.
- Early ripening varieties of cauliflower, the heads of which ripen in 85-100 days after sowing seeds. Seed collection for further propagation of cabbage is made only after 170-205 days.
The most famous varieties of this group are "Guarantee", "Early Gribovskaya 1355", "Movir 44". Very productive early cauliflower hybrids are "Snowball F1", "Baldo F1", "Alabaster F1". But, it is worth noting that hybrids are more demanding at the move, although they bear fruit much better. Mid-season cauliflower is represented by such varieties as "Parisian", "Ondine", "Patriotic", "Dachnitsa".
Very good and hybrids presented cabbage "Classic F1" and "Chambord F1". The heads of such cabbage are usually formed already after 120-130 days from the moment of sowing the seeds. Seeds reach maturity only after 205 or more days. Late-ripening cauliflower varieties also exist quite a lot. However, it should be immediately noted that their cultivation is possible only in the southern regions of Ukraine and Russia, otherwise they will give a very bad harvest or they can leave you without it at all.
The fact is that the ripening of late cabbage occurs more than 130 days after the beginning of the growing season. And the seeds ripen even longer - up to 220 days.
The cauliflower of this group is represented mainly by hybrids, among which the Cortes F1, Skywalker F1 and Fortrose F1 should be noted. All of them were produced abroad, but with warm conditions they give good results with us.
However, regardless of the group, the safety of cauliflower does not increase at all, as it happens with white cabbage. However, medium ripening varieties usually have much higher yields.
Cauliflower seeds and their preparation for planting
Preparation of cauliflower seeds for sowing for further cultivation of seedlings is carried out as follows:
- Initially, to determine the ability to germinate all the seeds, it is recommended to take about 10 pieces and try to germinate on wet tissue with constant maintenance of heat. If after 5 days these seeds do not germinate, the preparation for planting the rest can be avoided.
- To increase stability, seeds need to soak for 10-15 minutes in hot water (water temperature not higher than 50 ºС). After that, they are immediately cooled in cold water.
- During the day, the seeds must be held in a nutrient solution, which is prepared from any mineral fertilizers (you can use nitrophoska, but in small quantities).
- After removing the seeds from the solution, they must be rinsed, dried a little and sent to a cool place, with a temperature level of 1-2 ºС. It is necessary for the hardening of seeds, greatly helps to increase their resistance to various diseases.
After such procedures, the seeds are fully prepared for sowing in the ground. You shouldn’t sow them in open ground, because in the conditions of the climate of Ukraine and Russia, cauliflower is planted exclusively with the help of seedlings.
How and when to plant cauliflower: a detailed description of the features of the process
We will acquaint you with two stages of planting cauliflower: sowing seeds and direct planting of seedlings in open ground. Without taking into account the main instructions, you will risk very much, because the adaptability of cauliflower is not so high.
Having lost a little time with the planting dates or thickened your plantings, you can forget about the full harvest.
Terms for planting cauliflower: what should you consider?
Sowing cauliflower seeds can be started already from March 5-10. Early varieties can be sown at this time. Later seeds are sown in the region of March 10-20.
In April, they can sow right into the ground, but be sure to cover the film. In any case, keep in mind that cauliflower seeds germinate at a temperature not lower than + 2-5 ºС.
After the seeds have already been sent to the ground, they are kept at a temperature of + 20-25 ºС, and after germination - a week kept at +10 ºС. In the future, it is very important not to allow the temperature to rise above 20 ºС, which may cause a premature start of the formation of the heads.
On the 14th day after germination, a picking can be carried out, but in order not to affect the growth of the seedlings, the temperature can be raised to +21 ºС for 1-2 days, then lowered back to +17 ºС.
To sow cauliflower is recommended not on one day, but at intervals of 2-3 days. This will allow a little time to stretch the ripening of its harvest, so that you can feast on fresh cabbage heads that only ripen for a longer time.
Planting cauliflower seedlings in the open ground is carried out from the beginning of May. Early varieties are planted in the first days, and from 10-20 it is possible to begin planting later varieties. But, excessive rush to plant seedlings can lead to very bad results. Therefore, even if the calendar is on May 15th, and only +15 ºС on the street - it’s better to hold off and leave the seedlings in the house or under the film.
If you plant it in such a cold, then the probability is very high that after 30 days the plant can start an arrow with seeds, without having formed a full-fledged head.
Discussing the scheme of planting cabbage seedlings
If we are talking about sowing cauliflower seeds, they need to be sown in rows. At first, at a distance of 3 centimeters from each other, shallow grooves are made. They need to spread cabbage seeds, leaving between them a distance of 1 centimeter.
So that the seeds are not stuck to the hands, they should be slightly dried. After sowing, the furrows are filled with soil and compacted slightly. At observance of the above described temperatures, shoots will appear over the soil in a week. With a strong proliferation of seedlings it should be thinned or transplanted from the boxes into separate cups.
When planting cabbage seedlings, the distance between plants should be made wider so that they do not interfere with each other and they have enough nutrients.
The most optimal scheme for planting cauliflower seedlings is 25 centimeters between plants in one row and 50 centimeters in the space between the rows. However, such a scheme is average for all groups of cauliflower varieties, and the distance between the two plants should be made appropriate to the size of their heads during the full aging period.
Cauliflower pests and diseases: how to prevent and combat?
There are a lot of pests and diseases of cauliflower. Among them, the most common are peronosporosis, black leg, cabbage fly, various snails and slugs, as well as the cabbage scoop and whitefish.
However, the big advantage of cabbage is that it is often quite possible to fight with its pests and diseases with the help of folk remedies: dusting plants with wood ash or tobacco.
Also, you can prepare a special solution for spraying from the stems of tomatoes, burdocks and even onion peel. All this is very effective against insects and slugs. Also, it is possible to fight against such pests by collecting the larvae and the eggs laid by them.
Dealing with diseases is more difficult. It is very important to select a clean soil, in which there are no traces of the diseases of previous plants. In the event that such diseases have already appeared, it will be more efficient to use special chemicals for spraying plants.
Watering the cauliflower beds: what regularity and volume of water is required?
Cauliflower beds should be constantly moistened, but not in excess. Immediately after planting, seedlings at a permanent place of growth should be watered 2 times a week, using at least 6-8 liters of water per m2.
Over time, the amount of water applied for one watering to the soil increases by 2-3 liters, but the irrigation itself should be started to be made more rare - only once a week.
Watering always need to focus on weather conditions. If the precipitation is regular and the soil is well-moistened, you can do without the additional application of moisture, but with strong droughts, watering should be done even more regularly and abundant.
So that the moisture does not evaporate so much from the plants, it is recommended to cover the heads with their upper leaves. After each watering, the soil should be loosened by about 8 centimeters, to prevent the formation of a crust on its surface.
Plant nutrition and soil fertilizer with cauliflower
Top dressings of cabbage are usually carried out 3-4 times per season. The first should be carried out already on the 20th day after planting the seedlings to a permanent place.
It is best suited for this solution from mullein. In particular, 0.5 liters of fertilizer should be diluted with 10 liters of water and each plant should be watered, spending 0.5 liters of solution.
Repeated feeding is carried out after 10 days. The whole procedure remains the same, only in the solution it is worth adding a tablespoon of crystal stalin and using about 1 liter of fertilizer per plant.
Another feeding can be done at the end of June, using a solution of 10 liters of water and 2 tablespoons of nitrophobia. This time around 6-8 liters of fertilizer will be spent on an area of 1m2.
How to properly conduct hardening of seedlings and why do it?
Cauliflower hardening is carried out at the seedling stage. This is done in order to increase the resistance of plants to low temperatures and bright sunlight. In order, 12-14 days before planting the seedlings in the open ground, boxes with it are brought out into the street for the daytime (if the weather permits).
Если же капуста выращивается под пленкой, то ее также нужно на некоторое время поднимать.
Урожаи цветной капусты и особенности их сбора
Уборку следует проводить в соответствии с дозреванием головок.
У каждого сорта эти сроки будут разными, но обычно цветная капуста полностью вызревает до конца августа.
Срезать ее нужно острым ножом, оставляя при этом несколько придатковых листьев.
You can save the presentation of cabbage for 2-3 months if you store it in boxes covered with plastic in rooms with a temperature of 0 ° C and humidity of 90-95%.
Calendar planting time seedlings
Early varieties of material previously prepared for planting begin to be planted in open soil in early May, usually before the 15th. Mid-season varieties are planted after May 20 to June 20. As for the late varieties that have risen in the seedlings, they should be planted 30-40 days after sowing. Seven days before planting in the soil, it is necessary to feed the seedling, for this it is necessary to make a solution, adding three grams of fertilizer superphosphate and potassium chloride to 1 liter of water. Such a homemade solution improves cold resistance and hardens seedlings to future habitat. Cauliflower seedlings so less sick.
Soil preparation and cultivation
It is advisable to replant seedlings in the ground in overcast and warm weather.. A place for future cabbage is sunny, with a good indicator of land, close to the soil acidity of 6.2-7.2 pH. Favorable influence of the soil on yield is exerted by legumes and grain crops, garlic and carrots that grew a year earlier. Adverse effects of the earth are possible after cabbage, beet, radish and radish. Planted and grown on this soil is allowed in 3-4 years. It will not be superfluous to look in the table of compatibility of garden crops.
Prepare the soil for planting should be in the fall. Usually shovel shovel to the depth of the bayonet, adding lime in the acid reaction of the soil. In the spring, planting holes are made in advance in the beds, in which compost is placed with the addition of wood ash and superphosphate. Then everything is thoroughly mixed with the soil, thereby making it fertile.
How to plant cauliflower seedlings (methods and proper fit)
The gap between seedlings is usually kept at 35 cm, but this may also depend on the variety of planted cabbage. In order to properly grow this crop, the distance between the beds in width is usually left at least half a meter. The stalks of the seedlings are carefully placed in the soil up to the first leaves, then gently press the soil around the stalk with a hand and pour on a little water. If the street is still quite cool, then for the first time of cultivation it is necessary to cover all the seedlings with a transparent film. This will protect the seedlings from night frost and possible pests, such as cruciferous flea.
Caring for the culture when growing
You should know that this cabbage is very unsuccessfully adapted to the conditions of the climate of the middle zone, and the amount of high-quality yield will depend on caring for it.. Caring for it is almost identical to caring for the usual white cabbage. All the same: weeding, loosening the soil, feeding, spraying from harmful insects and possible diseases. Care must be conscientious. When loosening the soil in the garden it is necessary to remove weeds. It is better to do this after rain or watering, until the earth is dry and remains sufficiently moist.
Moistening or watering when grown
For growing requires a sufficient amount of moisture, it is necessary to regularly carry out its watering. It is plentiful enough to be watered once a week, however initially sown seedlings need to be watered twice. Approximate water consumption is 7-8 liters per square meter. As cabbage grows, water consumption will increase. But do not go too far with moisture, so as not to provoke the development of fungal diseases. It is necessary to navigate according to weather conditions, because of the heavy rains irrigation can be avoided, as the soil is deeply saturated with moisture. You can save moisture in plants a little longer and avoid dark spots on the heads of the inflorescence by covering them with your own leaves, for this you need to fold a few leaves upwards.
Over the entire growth period of the vegetable, cabbage dressing is carried out 3-4 times, the first dressing is done at the end of the third week, after the seedlings are planted on open ground. Mullein solution is considered the best fertilizer that any cabbage loves. 0.5 liters of mullein is added to a volume of 10 liters of water. On one plant consumed 0.5 liters of the finished solution.
Ten days later, the dressing is repeated, adding a tablespoon of Christine's fertilizer to the solution, increasing the portion to 1 liter for one future head of cabbage. Carrying out the third dressing, you can apply mineral fertilizers, for example by adding a couple of tablespoons of nitrophoska per 10 liters of water, at a rate of 7-8 liters per square meter.
Pests and diseases
This type of cabbage is highly susceptible to diseases and attacks of pests, therefore, it must be protected in various ways. It is precisely this type of culture that does not have to use pesticides to control pests. The most reliable and proven option for protection against insects and slugs is to spray wood ash or tobacco on the plant. An effective solution is that infused with onion peel or burdock. But to avoid diseases without drugs is possible only with strict observance of the culture of agricultural technology, but it is impossible to predict guaranteed success.
Cleaning and storage
Cleaning can be started upon reaching the maturity of the heads by determining by some visual observations:
- head circumference reaches from 8 to 12 cm,
- approximate weight of head from 350 to 1250 g
When grown, the early variety ripens between 60 and 100 days, the average variety must be harvested after reaching 100 to 135 days, the late variety will reach maturity no earlier than 4.5 months. Over-heating, vegetables can finally lose their taste and useful vitamins. It is necessary to harvest the cabbage carefully, leaving 3-4 leaves on the head. At the head of cabbage, side shoots can be formed; if left, they will bloom again. It is not permissible to keep cut heads under the rays of the sun, this contributes to their yellowing and the impossibility of ingestion.
Container in the form of plywood or plastic boxes, as well as a cool dry room, such as a cellar, is necessary for the storage of cabbage. In such a room safety will last 2-3 months. In the absence of such conditions as the basement and the cellar, it is possible to wash the inflorescences under running water before dividing the heads, then dry and send to the freezer. In this form, safety reaches about 1 year.
There is a method of storage in a suspended state, it is usually applied to white cabbage. Having dug head off the beds, it is not worth cutting off the inflorescences, you only need to trim the roots. Then, removing the upper leaves, you can tie a rope for the stalk and hang. This method will ensure safety during the month.
It happens late varieties lack the growing season, and in front of the gardener gets the need to grow vegetables at home. Rather, in the cellar or basement. And in this case, two functions work: ripening and storage. For this, it is necessary to provide premises with boxes of soil. Before this, the cabbage beds are poured abundantly with water and left for two days. After a couple of days, the cabbage is dug out and, together with the soil on the roots, transplanted into prepared crates and sent to the storage room.
It is important to observe the temperature regime of the storage, it should be from 0º C to + 5º C, with a moisture content of air 90-50%. Subject to all the parameters of the basement storage, cabbage will delight the owners in the winter.
- Snowdrift - a variety ripens up to 100 days, has snow-white dense inflorescences and weighs 1200 g, does not lose its taste when frozen,
- Snowbol 23 - has the same qualities and ripening terms as Snowdrift. The difference is only in weight, which reaches 1000 g,
- Amethyst - the time of ripening is 80 days from transplanting into the soil, its inflorescences of purple hue, of equal size, reach 1000 g,
- Maliba - able to adapt to different climatic conditions, will please with a harvest on the 55th day, after landing on the soil. The inflorescences of the heads are dense, white in color, and if it is properly grown, the head reaches a mass of 5 kg,
- Fortados is a stress-resistant variety; it takes two months to mature. Heads in white, reaching a mass of 2 kg.
- Lilac ball - the variety is not devoid of high yield properties, it is experiencing autumn frosts, the inflorescences are purple, unpretentious to storage, reaches a mass of 1.5 kg,
- Domestic - a variety with a stable yield, sprouting occurs in the period from 100 to 120 days. White inflorescences, the weight of the head is possible from 700 g to 800 g,
- Asterix F1 is a hybrid species with small white inflorescences. It is resistant to poor climate, gains weight up to 1000 g,
- Yako - strikes with high yield with a relatively short ripening period, has the ability to grow in autumn, and reaches a weight of 850 g.
- Flora Blanca - variety bred by Polish breeders, characterized by high yield and winter resistance. White-yellow heads have excellent taste and are well stored. Ripens in the period of 110 days from the moment of planting in the soil of seedlings and reaches a weight of 1200 g.
- The Cortes F1 is a demanding white hybrid that has a high yield and prefers fertile soil. It easily tolerates frosts, as it has its own covering leaves. Reaches 3 kg,
- Amerigo F1 - has a high yield, is not afraid of hot days and night frosts, is a hybrid variety with white heads, the average head weight is 2.5 kg,
- Consist is probably the latest variety, frost is not terrible, heads of inflorescences are dense and large, up to 800 g reaches the mass of the fruit,
- Autumn giant - the vegetation period of this vegetable is 200-220 days. Possesses heads of white color, big density and weighing up to 2,5 kg,
- Regent - has the same properties as Consist, but gains less weight from 530 g to 800 g.
Landing in the ground
The optimal timing of home planting seedlings in the ground was mentioned earlier, but some owners do it much earlier - in the first weeks of April. During this period, at night, the air temperature can still fall below 0. To ensure the protection of seedlings, it is covered with pieces of plastic film laid on small arcs.
For 1 plant of early varieties, a plot with dimensions of 0.4x0.5 m is needed, mid-ripening - 0.5x0.5 m, late ones - 0.6x0.6 m. The seedling is deepened to the level of the first true leaves. During the first 2-3 days after disembarkation, home seedlings should be carefully shaded.
Rules for planting cabbage in the ground
We water every 5-7 days, moderately. Watering is best done by sprinkling. To reduce the frequency of irrigation, planting should be promulgated with organic fertilizer in accordance with the instructions.
After irrigation, loose soil about 7-8 cm in depth. The first hilling is carried out 3 weeks after the cabbage is planted. The second - after another 10 days. Some owners spend the first hilling after 2 weeks after transplanting, the second - after the same time. As practice shows, both methods give equally good results.
After 3 weeks after disembarkation, we apply top dressing in the form of liquid mullein or other suitable composition (we specify in a specialized shop in accordance with the variety of cultivated cabbage). For dusting the soil and cabbage, you can use wood ash in the amount of one cup per square meter. Such treatment will get rid of pests and at the same time act as a feed.
Growing cauliflower in a greenhouse
Cauliflower pests and control
Regularly inspect cabbage stalks for the presence of small white cabbage eggs. Collect those and destroy. If many stems are affected, spend 1-3 watering with insecticide. The solution flows under the root, there is no need to treat the whole plant.
Young cabbage leaves may be affected by cabbage moth eggs. The caterpillars hatching soon from them will pose a great danger to the entire crop. The situation is saved only by treating the whole plant with insecticides in accordance with the instructions for the chosen remedy.
Important! Chemical processing is not carried out if heads have already begun to be tied.
For the treatment of cabbage are suitable not only chemical poisons, but also products based on vegetable components.
Milkweed infusion works well against caterpillars of moths, moths and scoops. Pour a kilogram of its roots and leaves with about 4 liters of water, set it on low heat, bring to a boil and boil for about 3 hours. Then we filter the broth and add water to it in such quantity that the total volume will increase about 3 times. Use for irrigation of affected plants.
Against the same pests helps burdock. Fill the bucket with a mug about a third of the height and fill it with water to the edges of the container. Leave for 3 days. Strain the infusion and use it for weekly spraying of plants.
Use burdock leaves to control pests
And lastly, a useful note: do not waste time and effort trying to grow cabbage on sour soil - nothing good will come of it. Lime the soil and work on normalizing its pH values.