Author: Lisyeva Lily June 22, 2018 Category: Garden Plants
Broom (Latin Cytisus) - a genus of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs of the legume family, growing on sandy and sandy soils of Europe, Western Asia and North America. According to various sources, there are from 30 to 70 species in the genus. The scientific name of the broom is derived from the toponym of the island, where it was first found. In garden culture, about 15 species of the genus are grown. Many of them are used in landscape design, decoration, and some - to strengthen the sandy slopes.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Planting in open ground
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to care
- 4.2. Watering and feeding
- 4.3. Transfer
- 4.4. Breeding
- 4.5. Broom in winter
- 5. Pests and Diseases
- 6. Types and varieties
Planting and broom care (in brief)
- Bloom: during the month from April-May to May-June.
- Landing: planting seedlings in the garden - from April to May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: light, drained, sandy, neutral or weakly acid reaction.
- Watering: plentiful as the top coat dries.
- Top dressing: from the beginning of active growth - nitrogen fertilizers, from the middle of summer - potash-phosphate.
- Trimming: after flowering, the branches are cut to a strong side branch, without affecting the woody part.
- Reproduction: seeds, green cuttings and layering.
- Pests: moth pestryanka, moths.
- Diseases: black spot and powdery mildew.
Plant broom - description
Broomheads - shrubs or low trees with a height of half a meter to three meters. Tripleted or reduced to one lobe leaves are arranged on branches alternately and in some species are provided with stipules. Sometimes both branches and broom leaves are covered with grayish pubescence. Butterfly flowers, most often yellow, white, and sometimes pinkish, purple or bicolor, are collected at the ends of the shoots in a brush or a head. Almost all members of the genus are honey plants. The broom seeds are linear, multi-seeded beans that ripen when ripe and contain flat, reniform, shiny seeds.
When plant broom in the ground.
The shrub broom is planted in the open ground with seedlings with the onset of spring. The place for the plant should be sunny and protected from the wind, and the soil in the area should be slightly acidic (pH 6.5-7.5), well drained, light and preferably sandy loam. You can not plant broom near water bodies with fish, because the plant contains toxic substances. To fill the planting pit, you need to prepare in advance a soil mixture consisting of one part of sod land, two parts of sand and one part of humus. Full mineral fertilizer is applied to the prepared soil, for example, Kemira-universal, at the rate of 120 g per 1 m². Before planting, the nutrient soil mixture is thoroughly mixed.
How to plant a broom
If you plant several bushes, then maintain a distance of at least 30 cm between them. A hole is dug out in volume twice as large as the root bed of the seedling. If the soil in the plot is heavy, put a layer of drainage material 20 cm thick at the bottom of the pit, but if you grow a broom in sandy soil, the thickness of the drainage layer may be half the size.
The seedling is placed in the center of the pit and gradually fill in the free space with nutritious soil mixture, slightly tamping it in the process. The root neck of the seedling is left at surface level. After planting, the trunk circle is watered abundantly, and when the water is absorbed, it is mulched with a layer of organic material 3-5 cm thick.
How to care for a broom.
Planting a broom and caring for it in the open field is no more difficult than cultivating any other garden shrub. Growing a broom requires the usual for any gardener procedures and activities: watering, loosening around the bush soil, weeding and mulching the root circle, dressings, pruning and preparing for wintering. A caring gardener, in addition to carrying out the described points, will not forget about preventive treatments for broomsticks from diseases and pests.
Watering and feeding broom.
Watering the broom is carried out as the upper soil layer dries out, and it moistens the tree stem abundantly. Hybrid broomsticks are more demanding on soil moisture than species, but since this culture is generally drought tolerant, the shrub can not be watered in a season with normal rainfall, but its moisture should be regular in a dry summer. With the onset of autumn, watering is gradually reduced. Broom negatively reacts to lime in water, so water should be defended before irrigation.
After watering or rain, it is desirable to loosen the soil in the near-stem circle of each bush to a depth of 8-12 cm, at the same time removing weeds.
As for dressings, in spring the broom plant needs nitrogen, and from mid-summer it needs potassium and phosphorus. Based on this, select fertilizers for it: in the spring, apply urea under bushes at the rate of 30 g per 10 l of water, and dissolve 30 g of potassium sulphate and 60 g of superphosphate to feed with the same amount of water. If it seems to you that the broom grows not fast enough, spend the third dressing, scattering 300 g of ash under each bush.
Broom transplantation from one place to another is carried out in the same manner as the initial planting: first, you need to dig a ditch with a volume approximately two times the root system of the transplanted bush, then lay drainage on the bottom, fertile soil prepared to fill the planting pit should be mixed with fertilizers, and only after that the bush intended for transplantation is dug out, moved to the place of new planting, the root ball is lowered into the pit and the planting is completed as described in the corresponding section.
Broom grows seeds, layering and green cuttings. Broom seeds are harvested from ripe beans in August-September and sown to a depth of 5-6 mm in a substrate made up of sand and peat in equal parts, after which the crops are covered with film. Germinate seeds at a temperature of 19-21 ºC in the shade, from time to time sprinkling and airing. In the developmental stage of 1-2 true leaves, seedlings dive into a substrate consisting of two parts of turf land, one part of sand and one part of humus and spread out in pots with a diameter of 7 cm. In spring, the seedlings are transplanted into large pots - 11 cm in diameter - and pinch to strengthen branching. In the open ground, young broom growers with a height of 30-55 cm are planted in the third year.
For grafting, in the summer you need to cut semi-woody shoots with 2-3 leaves from an adult plant, shorten the leaf plates by half and plant the cuttings in a mixture of peat and sand under a transparent cap. Rooting occurs at a temperature of 18-20 ºC, while cuttings are regularly aired, and the substrate is sprayed from the sprayer. After one or one and a half months, the rooted cuttings are transplanted in pots with a diameter of 8-9 cm and grown to the age of two, after which they are transplanted to a permanent place.
For breeding broom leaves in spring, the lowest branches are selected on the bush, put them in the grooves made in the ground, pinned and covered with soil. During the season, cuttings are watered and fed at the same time as the mother bush, they are well covered for the winter from frost, and separated and deposited in the spring.
Broom in the winter.
After flowering, the broom branches are cut to strong lateral branches, and it is very important that the woody part is not affected. With the onset of cold weather, young plants that have not reached the age of three years old need to be sheltered for the winter, since the winter resistance of the broom plant is manifested only in adulthood. The bush is highly spud with dry earth or peat, then the branches of the plant gently tie, bind, gradually bend down to the ground and fix in this position. From above, the bushes are covered with dry leaves, fir paws or non-woven covering material, the edges of which are pressed to the ground with stones.
Adult plants tolerate winter without shelter.
Pests and Diseases of the Broom
Broomsticks are generally resistant to diseases and pests, but may be affected by the mottled moth and moth. At the first signs of the occupation of the plant by moth, it should be treated with a solution of Chlorophos. From the moth the shrub is treated with bacterial insecticides.
Of all the diseases, black spot and powdery mildew, covering its leaves and stems with a whitish, sloppy coating, are the most dangerous for the broom. From the powdery mildew, the broom is sprayed in early spring, before sap flow starts, with a 5% solution of copper sulphate, and in the summer, the bushes are alternately treated with colloidal sulfur, Fundazole solution and copper-soap liquid for preventive purposes and to destroy the infection. The causative agents of black spot are destroyed in early spring with copper or iron sulphate solution, and in the summer such drugs as copper oxychloride, Fundazol, Captan, Bordeaux liquid or any other fungicide of similar action can help to cope with the disease. The solution for the treatment of shrub leaves prepared in accordance with the instructions.
Coronary broom (Cytisus scoparius)
- a plant native to southern and central Europe. The bush reaches a height of 3 m, its thin green shoots are pubescent at a young age, the leaves are petioled, alternate, trifoliate. Leaf lobes obtuse, oval or oblong-lanceolate, entire. Upper leaves often consist of one leaflet. Irregular light yellow flowers that form singly or in pairs in the axils of the leaves are located on the pubescent pedicel. The fruit of the plant is a flattened long and narrow bean with seeds. In the culture of a plant for a long time. It has many decorative forms, which, unfortunately, can be grown only in regions with warm winters:
- Burkwoodii - broom with red-scarlet flowers with yellow border,
- KillineyRed - a plant with bright red flowers,
- AndreanusSplendens - shrub with flowers, painted in yellow and scarlet colors.
Broom creeping (Cytisus decumbens)
in the wild it is found in southern Europe: it descended from the light pine forests of the Dalmatian mountains. It is an outspread shrub up to 20 cm in diameter and 80 cm in diameter. It has green, pubescent five-crown shoots that root very easily and oblong-lanceolate dark green leaves with a length of up to 2 cm pubescent. Yellow flowers up to one and a half centimeters in length are arranged one by one somewhat in the leaf axils. In culture, the view from 1775. The creeping broom is winter-hardy, but it can freeze in very cold weather.
Early broom (Cytisus praecox)
- an unpretentious plant up to one and a half meters in height with sprawling arcuate thin branches forming a dense crown, leaves are narrow, lanceolate, light green, up to 2 cm long, the root system is superficial. Bright yellow flowers copiously covering the bush have a strong smell. This species has frost resistance. The most famous varieties:
- Olgold - broom with bright yellow flowers that open up to the leaves,
- Rakitnik Bosko Ruby - shrub up to 2 m tall with oblong-lanceolate leaves and ruby-like flowers on the outside, colored from the inside in a mauve shade.
Bladderwort (Cytisus sessilifolius)
- a plant from Western Europe up to one and a half meters in height with trifoliate leaves and bright yellow flowers up to 1.5 cm long, forming on shortened peduncles. Winter hardiness in this species is low: shoots frost up above the snow cover, so with the onset of cold weather the plant needs shelter.
When broom grows?
Usually the flowering period begins in May-June, but there are earlier specimens in which flowers appear even before the leaves. Flowering lasts a month. The buds have a characteristic spongy shape, exude a pleasant aroma. The calyx can be bell-shaped or tubular, together with the petals it is 2-3 cm long. A small column with ovaries and stamens is hidden under the petals. Flowers are collected in racemes that are located in the axils of the leaves along the entire length of the shoot. The color of the buds can be cream, white, pink, sunny yellow.
Broom - a representative of the legume family. At the end of flowering pods are formed with flattened, small beans. The ripe pod opens itself and the seeds are scattered on the surface of the soil.
Homeland broom is considered the middle lane of Europe. It is found in western Asia, northern Africa.
Fragrant bushes can be grown in gardens and enclosed areas.
Growing a broom out of seeds
Broom seeds of different types of photos
The plant can be propagated by seed and vegetative (grafting, rooting cuttings) methods.
Seed propagation is very effective. Around the bush can often be found self-seeding. Collect the ripe pods in the fall, remove the seeds and store until spring. Before planting should be held for 2 days in warm water, then sow in wet peaty-sandy soil. Some gardeners recommend cold stratification for 2 months before planting seeds - place the beans in a cloth and keep them in the vegetable section of the refrigerator.
Depth of embedding seeds in the ground should be 0.5-1 cm, keep the distance between crops 4-6 cm. Cover the container with crops with film or glass. Germinate in diffused light and air temperature 18-21 ° C. Spray regularly, ventilate.
Broom seed photo shoots
With the appearance of 2-3 leaflets on seedlings, it is necessary to swoop down and plant in pots with a diameter of 7-9 cm. Soil composition: 2 parts of sod, 1 part of humus soil with 0.5 parts of sand added.
To improve bushiness, you need to periodically pinch young plants. With the onset of spring transplant into a container with a diameter of 11-15 cm. It should be transplanted into the open ground for the 3rd year of life. Always use the earth coma transfer method, because the roots of the plant are very fragile.
Features planting and transplanting broom
Planting in the open ground spend the spring (April-May). Choose a place with diffused lighting, where the sun's rays fall only in the morning and evening hours, and at midday shading is formed. The site must be protected from drafts.
Caution: do not land near water bodies, as poisonous substances from the plant can get there and adversely affect the fauna.
Dig the soil. Soil necessary fertile, loose, with a slightly acid or neutral reaction. For example, a mixture of turf land, compost, peat and river sand. It is recommended to immediately make complex mineral fertilizers. Dig holes, arrange seedlings so that the root neck remains above the surface, keep a distance of 30-50 cm between plantings. Fill the planting hole with earth, tamp it down a little, pour it heavily. For longer preservation of moisture, increasing the air permeability of the soil and preventing the growth of weeds, mulch the soil around the seedling.
Broom roots are sensitive: during transplantation they cannot be damaged or dried out in the open air, otherwise the plant will die. After the plant reaches the age of three, it is recommended not to repot at all.
Care for the broom in the garden and indoor conditions
Broom Golden Sunlight golden sunlight photo
As for choosing a place in the garden, it was said earlier. At room cultivation adhere to the same characteristics: bright but diffused lighting, protection from drafts. Place the plant container on the east or west side of the house.
Heat-loving varieties and types of grow only in containers, for the summer can put in the garden. The air temperature for indoor plants in the spring and autumn is required at 18 to 25 ° C. All specimens love a cool wintering with air temperatures ranging from 10-15 ° C.
The plant is resistant to drought, tolerates temporary flooding of the soil. The principle of irrigation is the same for everyone: in the warm season, water it abundantly after the topsoil has dried. In the fall and winter in room conditions, water occasionally.
In the warm season, regularly spray the plant. Occasionally place on a pallet with wet clay, moss, pebbles. With the onset of cold weather spray less.
In the spring and summer, indoor specimens should be fed with complex mineral fertilizers twice a month. Garden crops will thankfully respond to organic matter: 2-3 times per season, add manure or grass humus.
After flowering, the shoots should be cut to the lateral woody branches, to stimulate the growth of young shoots.
Wintering broom in the open field
Do I need shelter for the winter for the broom? For the young (first year) and rooting layers, a shelter for the winter is necessary. Cover the undersized varieties with spruce leaves. Bend tall shrubs to the surface of the ground and fasten with special brackets, mulch with natural materials (dry leaves, grass, branches). Adult copies do not need to cover.
Diseases and pests
Изредка цитиус может повреждаться мучнистой росой – белесый налет на листьях и стеблях – необходимо обработать раствором медного купороса.
Чаще всего появляются такие вредители, как тля, паутинный клещ. Remove pests mechanically: moisten a cotton pad with soapy water and wipe the leaves. In extreme cases, treat with insecticide. Rare moth appears rarely on the leaves, save the broom by treatment with chlorophos solution.
Broom Russian Cytisus ruthenicus
Broom Russian Cytisus ruthenicus photos in bloom
The shrub has upright shoots reaching a height of 1.5 m. The leaves are small, triplicate, lobed or oval-shaped, and have a gray-green color. Leaves with thorns. In the axils of the leaves appear inflorescences, consisting of 3-5 flowers of yellow color.
Broomstick Golden rain anagarolist Laburnum anagyroides
Broom Golden shower photo
A shrub or low, with a small number of twigs, a tree growing to 20 years. It blooms from early May to June. It is poisonous to humans, causes disturbances in the work of the nervous system. Propagated by seeds. Read more about this form will tell this article.
Coronet broom Cytisus scoparius
Coronet broomstick Cytisus scoparius photo
Shrub with thin, flexible shoots, height is 3 m. The bark on the shoots is reddish with slight pubescence. The color of the flowers is light yellow. Deciduous species, frost-resistant (can withstand frosts down to -20 ° C).
- Burkudi broom - flowers of scarlet shade have a border in the form of a narrow flat yellow color.
- Andreanus Splendens Broom - Yellow-red stains on the petals.
- Lena broom - scarlet petals are decorated with longitudinal stripes of dark-golden hue.
Cytisus decumbens broom
Cytisus decumbens broom creeping photo
Shoots about 20 cm long creep along the surface of the earth. Stems ribbed, green, have pubescence. The leaves are oval or lanceolate colored in dark green color, the lower part of the leaf plate is covered with thick fibers. In the axils of the leaves are panicled inflorescences, consisting of small flowers of yellow color.
Early broom Cytisus praecox
Cytisus Praecox Early Broom photo in bloom
Spread bush reaches a height of 1-1.5 m. The shoots are arched, densely covered with leaves and flowers of bright yellow color.
Ruby's boscope - different color petals: the inner part is painted in a pink-purple hue, the outer - in ruby.
Allgold - bright yellow flowers appear before the leaves.
Blackening broom Cytisus nigricans
Blackening broom Cytisus nigricans photo
When drying the leaves turn black. In the natural environment lives in forest-steppe, loves soil moisture above average. The bush grows up to 1 m. Shoots are covered with a short nap. Yellow-golden flowers are collected in racemes 15-30 pcs.
Broom Red variety Bosko Ruby Cytisus Boskoop Ruby
Broom boscope Ruby photo growing and care
Up to two meters high, with a beautiful flowering ruby-red color. It requires sanitary and formative pruning, timely watering. Frost-resistant variety, with early flowering, starting from the first decade of May.
Broom Wart Andreanus Cytisus Andreanus
Growing a broom and Andreus photos and description
Reaches a height of 1.5 m, color in May-June thick buds of yellow-scarlet flowers. excellent honey plant, grows on any soil, including stony and poor in nutrients. It prefers open, lighted areas.
Decorative effect and useful properties of the broom
Broom can decorate the rooms and gardens. On the site they are beautiful in solo and group plantings. Planted in a row of bushes will create a hedge. Near the thickets of the broom, large boulders look organically. Coniferous trees, lilies of the valley, lavender, antenaria will be good neighbors.
Zarnovets paniculata is an excellent honey plant, has healing properties. Preparation of infusion: 1 tsp. chopped broom, paniculata, pour 0.5 l of cold boiled water and leave for 1 hour in a warm place. Then strain. Take after meals for 1 tsp. twice a day. Indications: tuberculosis, jaundice, liver disease, heart and headache, pain in the sacral, coughing. Before treatment, be sure to consult with your doctor. Do not take if you are hypersensitive, during menstruation or pregnancy.
In Celtic culture, plant is associated with well-being at all levels: spiritual, physical. At the end of the Celtic year, the broomstick month falls, at this time it is necessary to carry out general cleaning of the home, also to get rid of the “moral junk” - bad habits, bad thoughts.
Broom plant: description
The willow bush is a plant up to three meters high, the branches of which are covered with alternate trifoliate leaves with very small stipules. In the second half of spring, shoots form elongated inflorescences in the form of a head or a brush. They consist of moth flowers of pink, yellow or white color. Broom buds have a non-standard structure. They have a double-lipped tubular cup with a boat, wings and a sail. Flowering bushes continues until Julythen, instead of wilted flowers, fruits are formed and ripen in the form of beans, in which small reniform flat seeds are located.
After planting in open ground willow bush blooms in three years.
Broom species for the Moscow region and central Russia are characterized by a long vegetative period in which the ornamental appearance of the plant lasts until late autumn. The most popular of them are:
- Russian broom. The plant is up to two meters in height adapted to the Russian climatic conditions. It is distinguished by arcuate or straight lightly pubescent gray shoots and spike-racemose inflorescences, consisting of a small number of yellow buds. Flowering begins in May and lasts until July.
- Creeping broom. A small shrub up to twenty centimeters in height has a slightly pubescent sprawling shape. Numerous yellow flowers blooming on it thickly cover the whole plant, giving it a spectacular look. Creeping shrub differs cold resistance and simplicity in care.
- Twisted Broom. A dwarf plant up to fifty centimeters in height may have a crown diameter of up to one meter. Vivid yellow flowers bloom in summer and adorn the garden until autumn. The shrub grows quickly and requires planting in well-lit areas.
- Early broom. The plant with a height of one to one and a half meters is different arcuate and sprawling shoots, which form a dense, dense crown. The branches are covered with narrow, elongated, light green leaves that make the bush decorative throughout the season. In May, fiery-yellow flowers bloom on the shrub, which have a specific sharp aroma. This type of plant can be used in group plantings, for strengthening sandy slopes and for gardening the garden plot. It differs in frost resistance and unpretentiousness in leaving.
- Crown. Deciduous shrub up to three meters has green leaves that fall in autumn. Depending on the type of plant, the flowers may be bright red or two-colored. It is widely used in culture and is able to withstand temperatures down to -20 degrees. Looks beautiful in a group planting with conifers and in large rock gardens.
- Monpeli broom. The plant is up to three meters tall and has pubescent branches, leaf plates with three leaves, tassels with leaves and yellow flowers. It blooms for three months from April to June.
- Madeirah Broom. Shrub or tree in height grows to two meters. It has bare top and bottom leafy pubescent, which consist of three ovate leaflets from two to five centimeters long. At the ends of the shoots are formed brushes with yellow fragrant flowers. Buds bloom in late spring and bloom until early summer.
- Cranberry broom. Two-meter-long plants with pubescent shoots are distinguished by pointed, at the top, elongated-ovate leaves up to one and a half centimeters long. Each leaf plate consists of three such pubescent leaves. Throughout the spring, the shrub blooms with yellow flowers, which are collected in several pieces in a brush.
Planting broom in the open ground
Rakita bushes love well lit, windless areas with neutral or slightly acidic, sandy light soil. Planting seedlings or seedlings in the garden are engaged in April and May. In this case, you should know that the plant is poisonous, so it is not recommended to plant it near water.
Plant area should be prepared in advance. Soil for breeches should consist of humus, sand and earth (1: 2: 1). Mineral fertilizers are added to poor soils.
The pits for planting seedlings are dug out with a distance of thirty centimeters or more from each other. It all depends on what kind of plant is planted in the garden. Before planting, the bottom of the pit is filled with pebbles, broken bricks or other drainage, which is filled with prepared soil nutrient mixture, after which the seedling is placed into it. The roots of the plant primer are poured so that the root neck of the seedling is at ground level.
A planted bush is watered, and the soil around it is covered with mulch, which prevents the growth of weeds and retains moisture.
Peculiarities of care
Rocket shrubs unpretentioustherefore, taking care of them for a whole vegetative season does not take much time. In warm and dry weather, water the plants should be abundant, but not often. If it rains regularly during the season, no watering is required.
After rain or watering several times a month, weeds are removed around the bushes and the soil is loosened. In order not to damage the roots, loosening should be carried out to a depth of ten centimeters. If the soil is covered with a mulch layer of five centimeters, then it can not loosen.
The plants feed several times a season.That improves their development and growth. In the spring, urea or another nitrogen-containing fertilizer is used as a top dressing. In the summer, shrubs are fed with phosphate and potash mixtures. Wood ash can be applied to the soil, which can stimulate the growth of shrubs.
To stimulate the formation and growth of new shoots after flowering, the branches of the shrub are pruned to lateral lignified strong branches. Shaping pruning willow shrubs are not required.
Many broom species are hardy and do not need shelter for the winter. It is recommended to cover young bushes in the fall with dry foliage or spruce branches, having previously tilted and pressed the branches to the ground with the help of special clips.
Reproduction by layering
Having chosen a strong and healthy lower shoot in the spring, it should be bent down and secured with a stud to a groove dug in advance near the bush. A branch sprinkled with earth and moistened.
During the season it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture and water it regularly. After rooting, the layers are separated from the main bush and planted in a permanent place.
Reproduction by cuttings
After flowering on the shrub, not too young shoots are selected that need to be cut into cuttings with three leafy nodes. The lower part of the segment is treated with a root or a drug to stimulate the formation of roots.
After that, the cuttings are planted in separate pots and covered with a transparent cap. Rooting should occur at a temperature within +20 degrees. When cuttings take root, the shelter can be removed. In the open ground grown plants are planted in the spring.
Blackened Broom (Cytisus nigricans = Lembotropis nigricans)
grows in Belarus, Ukraine, the European part of Russia and in Western Europe. The plant received this name, because when drying its leaves turn black. The shrub grows in height to 1 m, its shoots are covered with short pressed hairs. Golden yellow flowers are formed by 15-30 pieces in a vertical spike inflorescence at the ends of the shoots. Blackening broom is very attractive during flowering period.
Zinger broom (Cytisus zingerii)
inhabits mixed forests in the upper reaches of the Dnieper. It reaches a height of 1 m, on young shoots there are golden pubescence and light green trifoliate leaves, and during the flowering period, when yellow flowers appear from each sinus, the shoots become similar to golden ears. Unfortunately, this species is rarely found in culture.
Known to gardeners are also bracts oblong (or elongated), protruding light (or krazevetskovy, or floating) and Kyus.
Representatives of the clan Rakitnichek (Chamaecytisus), which can often be found in gardens, are also called breeders.
Russian broom (Chamaecytisus ruthenicus = Cytisus ruthenicus)
- deciduous shrub up to one and a half meters with bent branches covered with gray bark. The shoots of the plant are covered with silky nap, trifoliate leaves, consisting of lanceolate-elliptical leaves up to 2 cm long with a spike on top. From above leaves are greyish-green, from below they are covered with dense pubescence. The flowers of the Russian broom-plant are yellow, up to 3 cm long, they form in the leaf axils of 3-5 pieces and bloom for about four weeks. The species is distinguished by unpretentious care and drought tolerance.
Purple Broom (Chamaecytisus purpureus = Cytisus purpureus)
descended from the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. This is a creeping plant up to 60 cm in height with a spreading crown and ascending branches, densely covered with trifoliate leaves with broadly elliptical lobes. Differs kind of fast growth. In winter, it is very cold, but it recovers well. The purple broom has a highly decorative variety:
- Atropurpurea - sprawling shrub with purple-pink flowers. The Golden Rain hybrid broom, which is also called Adam's broom, is also popular.
The following varieties of purple broom are in demand:
- broom Albus - shrub up to 45 cm with white flowers. Variety bred in 1838,
- Rozeus - a plant with pink flowers,
- Albo carneus - a variety with pale pink flowers,
- Amzatikus - broom with purple-blue flowers,
- Eloganthus - a variety with hanging sprouts and purple-red flowers,
- Captivity - broom with terry flowers,
- Depressed - dwarf variety up to 20 cm high with very small leaves and fruits.
Regensburg broom (Chamaecytisus ratisbonensis = Cytisus ratisbonensis)
in nature found in the basin of the Dnieper. This is a prostrate plant up to 30 cm in height with trifoliate leaves and shoots silvery from pubescence. The flowers of the Regensburg broom are bright yellow. Popular garden form of the form:
- Biflorus - a plant with silver-pubescent leaves at a young age. In general, the species is resistant to drought and frost, therefore it is found in gardens from the middle lane all the way to Novosibirsk. The species was introduced into culture in 1800.
In addition to the described species, such broom clans of the Rakitnichek genus are popular: Roshal, Podolsky, recumbent, naked and Blotsky. And the plant, familiar to readers as a golden broom, doesn’t apply to breeches: it is anagirovidny, or anagiroline, or Golden rain - a type of Bobovnik.
Broom species and varieties
Russian broom - densely growing shrub, found in forest-steppes and steppes of Russia, in the west of Siberia and the Caucasus. Loves light, short in height (not more than 150 cm in height) with pubescent stems and straight or winding branches of a grayish color. The hairs are present both on the bottom of the leaves, and on the top they are of a pure gray-green color. The flowering of large yellow flowers lasts for 25 days.
Ripening occurs in September. Fruits are legumes, inside they contain oval seeds of yellowish or greenish color. The species has good winter hardiness and drought resistance, while it is unpretentious in maintenance and is an excellent honey plant. It is recommended to use it in single and group plantings, as well as in strengthening and decorating slopes.
Creeping broom from southern Europe it is very low (up to 20 cm tall), but in diameter it can extend up to 80 cm. Its greenish stems and dark green foliage below are also pubescent (the same goes for fruits).
The shade of flowers - from bright to dark yellow. At length they are 1.5 cm and bloom so luxuriantly that other dwarf warriors simply can not be compared with them. It blooms in May and June, is relatively resistant to frost (may slightly freeze during the harsh winter), is used in group plantings and on rocky hills.
Broom landing and care in the suburbs
To perform broom planting effectively, you need to choose for him an open and warm area. One of the important aspects here is also protection from winds. Planting in the ground is recommended in April-May at a mutual distance between seedlings of about 30 cm.
It is worth noting the fact that the broom contains many toxic compounds that can harm the environment when the plant is located near water.
Watering should be abundant, but not frequent, due to the fact that the plant is resistant to drought. It is necessary to control the level of soil moisture, avoiding stagnation of water, completely excluding watering when frequent precipitations fall.
Kizilnik planting and care in the open field, feeding, reproduction and much more can be found in this article.
The optimum soil for the broom is a composition consisting of sand, earth and humus. It is important to periodically loosen the soil in the bush and weed, but the first procedure should be carried out with caution - not going deep (enough 10 cm), so as not to harm the roots. Более того, вместо рыхления можно использовать мульчирование торфом на глубину не больше 5-ти см.
Пересадку растения производят только по необходимости. Для этого подготавливают грунтовую смесь, состоящую из дерновой земли, перегноя и песка.
Удобрение для ракитника
Top dressing needs to be brought in the spring and in the summer. In the first case, fertilizers are urea or any other, including nitrogen, and in the second, substances based on phosphorus and potassium.
You can stimulate plant growth by using wood ash. Feed up every 14 days.
The broom does not need crown-pruning. It is desirable only in summer, after flowering, then, in order to form a larger number of young stems with inflorescences.
After the broom is fading, some shoots are trimmed to strong lateral branches.
Broom breeding cuttings
Propagation by cuttings begins with cutting the adult stem at the end of the flowering period. Escape must contain at least 3 leaves. The cuttings are seated in containers and covered with glass, then systematically aired and moistened.
The soil mixture needs to be selected similarly to the one used in the seed method described above. Planting cuttings after rooting in open ground is made in the spring.
Description, types and varieties
Broom - a genus of shrubs and low trees of the legume family. The triple green leaves are oval in shape; there are varieties with prickles. White, pink, yellow, red, white-yellow or purple inflorescences appear in May or June. They decorate the plant for about a month, cool weather contributes to longer flowering. Flowers of the original form, similar to moths, many species have a specific aroma. After flowering, flat fruit-beans are tied, which, when ripe, crack and release shiny bud-shaped seeds at will.
The extensive family includes about 50 species of plants, among which there are deciduous and evergreen representatives with different winter hardiness.
- Russian broom is a beautiful small shrub with slightly curved or erect branches. On the shoots oval gray-green leaves, there are thorns. Yellow flowers are large, arranged in 3-5 pieces. in the axils of the leaves.
- Coronet broom - beautiful deciduous shrub with thin shoots of green up to 3 m. Leafs oblong or oval in shape alternately. Light yellow flowers are arranged one by one or in pairs in the leaf axils, their diameter is about 2 cm. After flowering, the fruit-bean is tied with several seeds. It is widely cultivated in the regions of Europe with a mild climate, can withstand temperatures down to -20 degrees.
- Early broom - shrub height of more than a meter, with a dense crown. The leaves are a light green color, in May, bright yellow flowers appear with a pungent smell. The roots are close to the ground. Frost resistance is high.
- Kyussky broom is a dwarf species popular in Europe with trifoliate leaves and yellowish-white flowers. It is 0.3 m high, 2 m wide. Due to its small size, it is easier to cover with the arrival of frost, so it can be grown in an average climatic zone.
Cristae broom is mainly grown as a houseplant, often used in winter gardens and greenhouses. The length of gray-green leaves - about 2 cm, golden-yellow flowers are collected in the brush. The plant needs abundant watering during flowering and bright lighting.
Another view for indoor floriculture is the Canarian broom. Because of its rapid growth, the flower needs a shape: pinching in spring and radical pruning after flowering.
How to plant a broom?
When buying a hybrid form of a plant, it is preferable to take grown bushes of 3-4 years with a closed root system. The most favorable time for planting a broom is April or May. Drainage from pebbles or broken bricks is placed in the pit. Its height varies from 10 cm on light sandy soils to 20 cm on heavy ground. When planting, the interval between adjacent specimens on average is about 40 cm, depending on the species. The root neck is located at ground level. The plant is placed in the hole and covered with earth. The soil in the near-circle wheel is compacted and irrigated. After work, the trunk circle is mulched with peat or 4 cm high ground.
Replanting a plant older than 3 years is not recommended. Adult specimens do not tolerate such a procedure and may die.
Under simple conditions, you can admire a beautiful plant for many years.
Broomhead prefers light areas with shading from direct sunlight in the strong midday heat and protection from cold winds.
The soil needs light, with high moisture permeability. In heavy soil, it is desirable to add sand and rotted sheet earth. The plant will like low or neutral acidity of the soil. The main elements of the soil: earth, sand and humus in a ratio of 1: 2: 1.
The broom does not tolerate stagnant water and waterlogging; therefore, with regular precipitation, it is not additionally watered.
In the warm season, the bush will appreciate the high humidity, it is desirable to spray. Do it in the evening or morning time, preventing water from falling on the leaves in hot sunny weather. In the autumn and winter, spraying and watering in open ground is not performed.
Weeds are regularly removed in the area with broom. Loosening is carried out to a depth of no more than 10-12 cm, so as not to damage the root system. A good alternative to such a traumatic procedure will be the mulching of tree trunks with a layer of peat 5 cm thick.
Growth in a broom is moderate. Pinching the tips of the young shoots in the spring will help him to form a magnificent crown and avoid stripping. After flowering, branches shortened by half. When pruning old wood is not removed, this procedure weakens the plant.
At the beginning of the growing season, urea is applied (about 25 g per 10 liters of water), during the period of active summer growth they are fed with complex mineral fertilizer and wood ash (200 g per bush).
- Low temperature protection.
In young specimens (up to the age of three) and hybrid plant forms, winter resistance is low. When severe frosts can completely freeze the ground part to the root collar. Prevent the loss of plants will help cover of spruce branches or dry leaves in late autumn, before the cold. Large branches at the same time pressed to the ground with slats or secured in another way.
Growing in a container
Thermophilic varieties and broom species are grown in indoor floriculture. Small copies are placed in flower pots of the appropriate size. For large plants use wooden tubs and large containers.
In the summer, it is useful to take indoor broomsticks outside, protecting them from drafts and gusts of strong wind. They are placed near the eastern or western parts of the room, regularly watered and sprayed. From November to the end of February, the flower needs a distinct period of rest with a gradual decrease in temperature to 8-10 degrees Celsius. Without compliance with this condition, the plant is sick. Watering in the autumn-winter period is carried out very rarely, spraying stopped.
During the period of active growth, fertilization of room willows with complex mineral fertilizer is carried out. After flowering shoots are shortened. Transplant is performed if the roots of the plant are completely filled with a flower pot. A layer of expanded clay is placed on the bottom, and a little lime is added to the soil from the turf land, humus and sand (4: 2: 1 ratio).
In nature, an unpretentious broom grows on poor rocky soils and forest edges. In landscape design, it looks great as a single plant, and in group plantings it is in harmony with the representatives of coniferous species, ground-cover perennials, heather, and juniper. The plant feels good on different slopes, in rocky gardens and in large containers.
Broom is considered a symbol of spiritual and physical well-being and purification. The flower is able to revive the area with its modest beauty and bright flowers with minimal care.
In the garden most often you can find varieties of such species.
Broom creeping - rocky groundcover with shoots creeping on the ground, sensitive to severe frosts. Perfect for alpine slides and rock arias.
Crown wreath is a tall shrub that is distinguished by good winter hardiness, shoots are slightly pubescent.
Early broom, blooming in early spring with fragrant flowers.
"Moonlight" with bright yellow flowers, dark orange "Firefly", lemon yellow "Royal Gold". Charming compact cultivar "Hollandia" with red-cream flowers. Dwarf yellow-flowered breeze variety “Phebus” with pineapple flavor. Snow-white and unpretentious "Albus". The luxurious variety of the early broom, Boskoop Rubin, is crimson or crimson on the outside and is purple in the middle. Numerous pink and cream flowers are covered with Zeelandia variety. Varietal form "Lena" - lush compact bush with golden yellow flowers.