Shrub aster is a decorative herbaceous perennial of the genus Symphyotrichum. Homeland of this plant is North America. Shrub aster is traditionally used to decorate personal plots, where it is an integral element of the decor.
Long flowering and a riot of colors allow these plants to maintain your mood even in the autumn bad weather, when you do not have enough sunlight.
This plant has a powerful, well-developed root system, from which numerous branching, straight shoots, with a height of about 0.5 m stretch. As a result, the bush looks magnificent, like a cushion-shaped curtain.
The leaves are numerous, single-cut, lanceolate, dark green shade. Flowers collected in corymbose inflorescences, have a diameter of 3-4 cm, their the color is quite diverseAll shades of red and blue are also found pure white.
Asters of this species are different high frost resistance and low drought tolerance. Unlike the usual, the bush can bloom in spring or autumn, depending on the species.
The main varieties. Cultivated in Russia different varieties and types of shrub astersbut it is most common in the middle lane. Many varieties are used as ornamental plants, because they do not have time to bloom before the onset of cold weather.
Among the huge diversity of the following varieties are distinguished by the earliest flowering:
- Alice Haslam (Alice Haslam). This is a miniature bush, the height of which does not exceed 30 cm. It blooms from early September to late October with lilac flowers of small size.
- Blau Lagoon. Compact bush, growing up to 50 cm in height. It has the shape of a ball with inflorescences of a blue-violet hue, up to 3 cm in size. It blooms from late August to late autumn.
- Lady in Blue. The bush is not more than 40 cm high with small flowers of blue color. It is a hybrid variety with high disease resistance.
- Jenny. Low-growing shrub with a large number of crimson-pink flowers with a yellow center. Most often used for planting on rocky areas, slides and lawns, well preserved in cut form.
- Schneekissen. A low spherical shrub growing up to 25 cm, strongly branching. Its diameter is about 0.6m. By the time of flowering, this species refers to srednepozdny. During flowering, the bush is covered with inflorescences of a small white color with a yellow center.
Shrub perennial prefers warm and bright areas with light, loose, well-drained soil. When creating favorable conditions, you can get a magnificent lush and flowering shrub.
If you plant a plant in partial shade or shade, as well as on a constantly flooded area, flowering will be quite scarce, the roots will begin to rot, which will inevitably lead to the destruction of the bush.
To preserve the pomp and shape of the hemisphere, including windy weather, aster should be placed sheltered from drafts and wind. In the absence of such an opportunity, experienced gardeners are advised to arrange a small fence for the bushes.
You can tie up in another way: pull the rope between the two pegs hammered next to the plant. The garter also need stems that have reached a height of 80 cm or more.
Although she loves moisture, especially in the dry and hot summer period, it is necessary to try while caring for the plant prevent water overflow. After watering, be sure to remove weeds and loosen the soil around the bush.
First dressing carried out before landing - fertilizers are applied to the soil prepared for planting plants. The next time Astra is fed only a year later, using complex mineral fertilizers intended for flowering crops.
In the period of budding and intensive flowering used phosphate fertilizers. In order to maintain the health of shrub asters and to prepare the plant for long-term flowering, in spring and autumn, soil liming should be carried out, which helps to reduce its acidity, which quite often causes weakening of the bush.
Primary liming is carried out before planting asters in the ground, the next - before the beginning of the flowering period and after it ends. For the procedure of preparing a mixture of 100 gr. Powder / 3-4 buckets of water. The resulting solution is introduced into the soil to a depth of planting. In addition, the colors shown three-stage feeding system:
- in the first weeks after landing,
- during budding,
- before opening the buds.
Further feeding in the spring. For the preparation of water it is necessary to mix the superphosphate, ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate in a ratio of 3: 2: 1. For maximum efficiency, this fertilizer complex is recommended to be applied in the form of a dry mixture, then pour the soil. During the dry period, only liquid feed is produced.
To grow this plant, it is necessary to choose areas that are well lit, but at the same time protected from direct sunlight.
It reproduces shrubs in the following ways: seeds, cuttings, dividing the bush, vertical layers. If you want to achieve the earliest flowering, you can use seedling method of growing.
And also you can try to grow a bush from seeds, however, it should be borne in mind that this method is quite time-consuming and lengthy, but in the end you will get a healthy plant that can soon please you with a beautiful spherical view and bright rosettes.
Astra shrub: reproduction by layering
This method of breeding asters involves the use of adult and necessarily healthy plants that were grown on fertilized, well-groomed soil under appropriate conditions.
At the end of the growing season, all shoots are removed from the aster, leaving a bush about 10 cm high. In the spring of his spud so that the plant was completely covered with soil. The procedure is carried out before the bush reaches a height of 25 cm, after which the standard methods of plant care are used.
Before the onset of cold weather (late autumn) plant excavated and separated from him formed otvodki with a spine, which are then planted in a permanent place. With the onset of spring, the operations of hilling and further care are repeated. Asters grown in this way begin flowering no earlier than two years after transplantation.
Landing in the ground
The flower prefers to grow on fertile soils with good illumination. Land for landing is prepared in the fall. To do this, you must carefully dig up the ground, make compost or humus at the rate of 2-3 kg / 1 m2.
With the onset of spring, the prepared area is cleaned, leveled with a rake and watered. Seedlings planted bushes at a distance of 35–40 cm from each other. Planting is recommended in the evening, which will allow plants to adapt and lift themselves in the morning.
Shrub Astra: care
Despite the fact that the aster shrub is considered an unpretentious plant, there are still certain rules that must be followed when caring for the plant.
- Astra needs periodic weeding and loosening the soil, which is desirable to be carried out after watering or rain.
- Before the branching of the stems begins, they should be riddled, which helps to accelerate the process of growth and development of the roots.
- Follow the rules of watering. Astra has a detrimental effect on both waterlogging and lack of moisture, so a gardener needs to choose an irrigation regime in which the plants feel comfortable.
- To ensure long flowering, it is recommended to regularly remove ottsvetye inflorescences.
Astra is shrub perfect for decoration any garden plots. Later flowering allows you to use aster for drawing up landscape compositions. The flower is characterized by brightness, beautiful appearance, unpretentiousness, unique aroma and can be grown in almost any climatic conditions.
This many-sided aster: varieties
The perennial aster plays with bright colors, which gives the autumn flower garden a special charm and appeal. It’s like a farewell greeting from the summer before the long, cold winter. The bush forms are diverse: there are undersized and tall varieties from 35 to 150 cm.
Regardless of the height, the bush is a powerful, spherical shape, able to grow rapidly. The plant with lanceolate leaves at the top is covered with flowers with a basket inflorescence of 2 to 8 cm in diameter. They form simple and terry forms. Colors differ in an enviable variety: from white to bright red and blue, and with different shades.
Garden varieties are divided by a number of signs. Consider the most popular with gardeners species with different flowering period:
- Alpine aster is light-requiring and frost-resistant. Forms large single baskets 6-8 cm in diameter. Flowering begins in the second year. Early flowering time: the end of May - mid-June.
- Novobelgiyskaya Astra (virginskaya) is from North America. Interesting flowers of blue and burgundy shades. Large flowers remain open in the evening and in cloudy weather. If the place is sunny, then flowering continues until frost. Despite its large size, looks great in flowerbeds. It can be placed in the center, and on the edge as a frame to plant low-growing crops. Inflorescences-shields form beautiful bouquets that can be combined with dahlias, herbs and autumn leaves.
- Star aster refers to the plant to the summer period of flowering.
- Popular variety - Italian aster is a medium-height shrub with an average size of flowers of the most diverse colors. Flowering begins in July and continues until the end of August.
- Shrub Astra is a creeping variety of different sizes: from dwarf to tall. He feels well in cool, sunny areas, but does not like drought and heat. It grows in one place up to 6 years.
- New England aster is large in size (up to 150cm). Flowers terry and numerous. The whole plant is covered with them and stands out against a green background as a bright sunspot. The variety of colors: red, pink, purple and dark blue colors. Because of this, it is easy to create a unique flower arrangement.
- Golden Astra in the last month of summer will please with its yellow flowers. Inflorescences have pineal shape and are located on strong shoots.
- Astra bokotsvetnaya differs in the form of shoots resembling a vine grape. Small inflorescences at first have a white or slightly pink color, and by the end of flowering they turn purple.
- Astra heather is a meter compact bushes. Small inflorescences open at the end of September.
Low-growing asters are used for rockeries or borders.
If you plant them on the lawn, you get an interesting composition of "flower balls". Well combined with cereals or low coniferous.
Tall varieties are great for creating a background composition, forming a garden screen of bright "stars".
The lower tier can serve as stunted perennials: autumn gelenium, Korean chrysanthemum, thick-leaved tree or Siebold's host.
Astra perennial, whose varieties are so diverse, provides an opportunity to fantasize and create a beautiful floral design that will decorate your site and delight the surrounding summer people.
How to plant a crop?
Begin by choosing a landing site. For the culture to feel good, grow and bloom profusely, the place must be warm and sunny, and the soil must be light, fertile and permeable.
Astra perennial breeds seeds, cuttings, dividing the bush. It is the latter method that is the most convenient and simple. The plant takes root well in the new place and the next year begins to bloom.
When dividing a bush, the rhizome is taken apart, each of which must contain a bud and several roots. Planting is carried out in the spring, when the soil and the air is warm enough, because the culture is thermophilic.
In low light, the stem is pulled out, you need to tie it up. The plant will be weakened, and flowering - not abundant. In addition, asters do not fit acidic or alkaline soil and stagnant water. If the soil is waterproof, then drainage should be done or coarse sand added.
The soil is prepared in advance: digging and fertilizing. From organic fertilizers they bring humus, compost and peat, and from mineral fertilizers - superphosphates and potash fertilizers. If the plot is well fertilized, then the asters will delight in lush flowering.
Phased planting process:
- The planting scheme depends on the size of the bush and its features: low-growing varieties are planted according to the pattern of 20 × 30 cm, sredneroslye - 30 × 50, tall - 50 × 80. Planting less often, dense planting will not allow the plant to grow well.
- Astra is planted in a permanent place and watered twice: in the hole and on top of the compacted earth.
- To lower the plant in the hole should be carefully, without damaging the root system.
Astra grows in one place for 4-6 years, after which the bush should be divided and planted on a new site. How to implement the landing and care of asters of many years, see the video:
Astra perennial does not require special care. All activities to create favorable conditions for culture are simple and traditional. These include:
- watering as the soil dries up and more abundant when the bushes enter a period of active growth,
- soil mulching and careful loosening, as it is possible to touch the root system,
- top dressing with organic decomposition and phosphate fertilizers,
- liming the soil if it is acidic,
- as needed, treatment from gray mold and powdery mildew.
Thickened and growing in the shade tall varieties require garters. They need support - pegs or hedge, along which they are landed. For the bush to bloom for a long time and look decorative, you need to periodically remove the inflorescences that have faded. And pinching the tops increases the number of colors.
Perennial asters complete the vegetative season with abundant flowering. They look bright spots with general decay and paint the autumn landscape with all the colors of the rainbow. This plant will decorate your flower garden, and will always look great.
Choosing a place on the site
Perennial Astra loves sunny places. Bushes will be lush and blooming profusely if they get enough sunlight. In dry weather, the plant must be watered in time. Asters can not stand the accumulation of water, so it is best to plant them on elevated areas. In the penumbra, where there is no light, the plant will not bloom. And even if the buds are released, they will be dull and rare.
Under the planting it is desirable to select loose soil, which is better to pre-fertilize. Light, fertile, permeable soil will help the culture to feel in its place.
Choosing the right place depends on the type and type of asters.
When planting several types of asters in one area, you need to take into account the height of the plant and the flowering time. First we plant a tall variety, in front of it are stunted perennials.
For planting perennials, we fertilize soil with humus or make compost. You can add superphosphate in small quantities: 30 g per 1 square. m. To reduce the acidity, pour dolomite flour into the soil: 200 g per 1 sq. m. m
In order to avoid stagnation of water and the land allowed water to flow through, additional drainage from fine gravel is needed in the soil.
Before planting flowers, it is advisable to bring river sand into the ground. It will help improve the structure of the soil. It is also necessary to get rid of the weed in the area, and then the ground should be well leveled and loosened. Land for planting asters should start cooking in the fall.
Blooming flower beds and lawns will delight their elegant look, if we choose the right type of aster. For rapid reproduction, seed should be treated with a growth stimulator. Next, you need to sow the seeds in the grooves made in the ground planting box to a depth of about two centimeters. Fall asleep with hot sand and water.
Boxes for disembarking must be no higher than 10 cm. To make the shoots be friendly, they are covered with glass or plastic film. Thus create greenhouse conditions for germination. In the room where the seedlings are located, the temperature should be 20 ° C. When the seedlings germinate, remove the glass or film and produce watering.
The best time for sowing seeds and breeding perennial asters is spring.
It is possible to propagate a plant not only from seeds, but also with the help of the division of a bush, as well as by cuttings.
Watering and feeding
In dry weather, do not forget to water the flowers. With the active growth of the green mass of the plant, the amount of moisture introduced can be increased. Tall stems need enough liquid to form luxurious buds.
Also do not forget to make mineral fertilizers in the soil. Phosphate-potassium mixtures are suitable for feeding. To make the bushes lush and make more buds, the plant should be fed, adding a little humus to the soil.
Nitrogen fertilizers need to be applied not only in the spring, but also during the flowering period of the bushes.
Частота внесения удобрений зависит от состава и содержания питательных веществ в почве. During the rainy summer, top dressing should be done more often than during the dry season.
Loosening and mulching
A plant can grow in one place for several years. This does not mean that you can forget about it at all. Asters like airy and loose soil. Therefore, each season must be removed under the bushes all the weeds and loosen the ground.
It is also necessary to produce mulching of the soil, using small sawdust, peat or wood bark. This measure will reduce the growth of weeds around the bushes of asters and will allow them to water less often. Soil mulching will retain moisture, slow down the drying process of the top layer of soil.
Trimming and Garter
To form a beautiful crown, shrub varieties require pruning. With its help, you can create a beautiful hedge of the desired shape. Bushes will be compact, and it will be easier to care for them. High stalks without support will lie on the ground. To avoid this, you need to make a garter, using pegs or a nearby fence. Flowers that have already bloomed should be removed periodically.
Pruning the tops of the stems will increase the number of inflorescences.
Preparing for the winter
At the first frost it is necessary to cut off the flower stalks above the ground. In winter, young bushes should be well covered with foliage, sawdust. By this we will preserve the immature root system of the young plant. Old perennials can be sprinkled with foliage. Garden Astra tolerates persistent frosts. Therefore, in winter, it does not require special care.
This is the fastest method of reproduction, which allows you to quickly get from one plant several flowering bushes. Although aster and grows in one place to 5-6 years, gardeners begin to divide them earlier, not waiting for this time - the bushes grow strongly, lose their attractive appearance.
High asters are planted at a distance of 90 cm from each other. Stunted - at a distance of 50 cm.
The rule of separation of the bush:
- dig the whole bush and gently pull it out of the ground, shake off the excess earth from the bush,
- with a shovel or knife, cut a bush into parts; on each piece cut off there must be at least 5 strong shoots,
- then it is necessary to make holes in advance: add the missing mineral and potash fertilizers to the soil and pour some water into the hole,
- then gently lower the plant to the bottom of the fossa, sprinkle it with earth, and then slightly compact the soil, sprinkle with sawdust on top so that the top layer of earth does not dry quickly,
- water the plant with water heated in the sun.
For later varieties, the division of the bush begins in early spring, when strong shoots appear. Over the summer before the winter period, they will take root well. If you divide in the fall, the root system will not have time to take root. The plant may freeze. Autumn bush transplanting is also possible.
Pests and diseases
The most frequent diseases of perennial aster are gray rot and powdery mildew.
- cloudy rainy weather
- lack of proper care
- plant location in the shade or lowland.
You can get rid of aphids and onion bugs by dissolving the Iskra tablet in a bucket of water and sprinkling the sore bush with this solution. As a preventive measure against diseases for spraying the affected plants, use a soap solution. Treat the diseased plant immediately after the onset of symptoms.
Types and varieties
This perennial never ceases to amaze with a variety of species and varieties. Each variety, species has its own characteristics:
- different flowering times
- different height of the bush,
- individual color and shape of the flower.
There are garden asters on the height of the bushes:
- undersized perennial asters - up to 35 cm,
- tall varieties of asters reach one and a half meters.
According to the timing of the beginning of flowering, asters are divided into groups:
- the early variety of asters begins to bloom in early May and ends in June,
- summer species bloom from July to August
- Autumn, late varieties of asters, bloom from September to October.
Consider the most popular types of flowers.
Stunted Alpine Astra. The most common plant, stretched to a height of 30 cm. It is an early variety. Thanks to bright colors, it finds a place for tracks and decorates the edges of flower beds.
Italian shrub aster. Summer flower resembling a daisy. It grows up to 60 cm. It is planted with bushes along the hedge.
New Belgian Tall Aster. Blue, maroon flowers remain open in the evening and cloudy days. Use as a hedge.
Groundcover heather aster. This plant is decorated with parks and gardens. It grows in southern and eastern North America.
Perennials delight to the frost with their graceful various colors. Asters paint autumn landscapes in all colors of the rainbow. They will decorate any flower bed, lawn and garden area with their unique colors. Planting asters of many years and care for her are not as difficult as it seems at first glance.
The description of the techniques and problems given in this article will help you not to make mistakes when growing and breeding this beautiful flower.
It must be remembered that the preparation for this process begins in the fall.
- Seeds for half an hour put in a strong solution of potassium permanganate to disinfect them. The planting material treated in this way is placed in pre-prepared shallow grooves, keeping a distance of 10 cm between the seeds. After sprinkled with loosened soil or peat.
- Next, the flower bed is well watered, covered with a film on top to achieve the greenhouse effect.
- When the first shoots appear on the soil surface, the shoots should be hardened. To do this, the film is removed every day for a certain amount of time: in the first days it will be enough to open the seedlings for 2 hours, then slowly, but constantly, the period is increased.
- When there are 6–7 leaves on the sprouts, the covering material is removed, the beds are thinned. Extra shoots can be transferred to another bed, and not throw them away.
To her start in late October.
During this period, the soil is digged, enriched with mineral fertilizer. Form grooves with a depth of 20 mm, cover them with a film.
With the arrival of the first frosts, in November, the seeds are sown in non-wetted soil and sprinkled with earth or peat. Cover with a film, not watering, and do not touch until spring.
At one place the bush of a perennial plant can be a maximum of 5 years, after it must be moved. To do this, use the method of division.
You can carry out the procedure in spring or autumn - it is optimal to do this with the onset of cold weather for early varieties, and you can replant the late flowering plants with the arrival of the first warm days.
The plant is dug out and thoroughly clean the roots from clods of soil. Using the pruning shears, young roots with shoots are cut off from the old part of the plant. Old parts are thrown away - they are not suitable for transplantation.
The division has a beneficial effect on perennial asters. With age, the plant grows, the bush becomes thick, which is why the central part of it grows out, and the conditions for the development of fungal diseases are created inside. Transplanting a divided bush solves this problem, rejuvenates the plant.
Care of asters
All that is required of the grower further is regular watering, periodic plant nutrition and loosening the soil.
Loosening is recommended after each watering.
- ammonium nitrate is applied to the soil during bud formation,
- a complex of fertilizers, which contain superphosphate and potassium salt, is used during budding,
- feed the plant with potassium phosphate fertilizers during the flowering period.
Interesting facts about perennial asters
Curious information about these plants:
- Tatar and shaggy varieties of asters are considered by geologists to be peculiar natural indicators of minerals - these bushes change their color in nickel-rich soils.
- Virginia aster is used to strengthen the banks of reservoirs.
- Some varieties of asters have leaves that are comparable in size to the human palm.
- Tatar and Altai varieties are used in traditional Tibetan medicine.
- Some varieties of plants are able to reach a height of 2 m.
Application in landscape design
Astra shrub valued flower growers and landscape designers for the ability to add bright colors in the autumn garden. Lush and flowering perennial bushes harmoniously blend with a variety of plants, they also look spectacular, surrounded by other varieties of asters or singly.
- Shrubs can be planted along the path in the garden, as a vibrant and brightly blooming hedge or border flower beds.
- Especially beautifully flowering aster looks in combination with coniferous trees and evergreen shrubs. It also harmonizes with chrysanthemums, wrinkled goldenrod and aconite.
- In the role of the companion of asters, decorative cereals can also act: reed grass, miscanthus and others.
Astra shrub has a powerful, well-developed rhizome, from which grow numerous straight, branching stems about 50 cm in height. As a result, the bush looks lush, in the form of a cushion-shaped curtain.
The leaves on the stems are numerous, dark green, lanceolate, entire. Flowers 3-4 cm in diameter, gathered in corymbose inflorescences, flowers are all shades of blue and red, sometimes white. The plant is characterized by low drought resistance and high frost resistance.
Bush aster, in contrast to the common aster, depending on the species, blooms in spring or autumn.