Freesia is a beautiful bulbous plant that attracts the attention of gardeners with its delicate, elegant appearance and special aroma, reminiscent of the delicate scent of lily of the valley. It is no coincidence that it is sometimes called the "Cape Lily of the Valley."
Homeland plants is the Cape region of South Africa. The flower grows in the shade, on the banks of rivers and lakes. The flower is grown at home, in home gardens, in greenhouses and in winter gardens. Due to the different color and shape of the inflorescences, it is possible to make various compositions.
Flower care is simple, and if you strictly follow all the rules of cultivation, you can achieve flowering, even in winter.
This is a perennial bulbous plant of the Iris family.
The root system of the flower is represented by a slightly elongated bulb covered with white or light brown scales. Once every two years, the old bulbs are replaced by a daughter.
Long linear leaves grow directly from the bulb, their length is 15−20 centimeters. The sheet plates are smooth, with a distinct central vein painted in dark green.
Flowers form on a long stalk without leaves. At the top of the peduncle has branching. On one peduncle develops from two to seven simple or double flowers. The flowers are small in size, funnel-shaped. The flowers have a variety of colors.
After flowering, a fruit develops, consisting of three chambers in which there are round seeds. The creators of cosmetics have long paid attention to the flower, making it the basis of many perfume compositions.
Types of freesia
Nowadays breeders bred a large number of varieties of this beautiful flower. With all the diversity of species, they have the following common features:
- branched stem without leaves,
- long, narrow, glossy leaves,
- funnel-shaped flower structure,
- thin delicate smell.
The following varieties of this plant are popular among gardeners:
- Armstrong. The plant is medium in size, reaching a height of 60-70 centimeters. The flowers are simple, look like bells, gathered in the panicle inflorescences and painted in bright red or pink. The leaves are long, xiphoid.
- Terry. This is a fairly large group with lush terry flowers that can be painted red, yellow, blue or purple. Currently, freesia terry is very popular among gardeners.
- Hybrid. Tall variety, plant height can reach one meter. Stem strongly branched. The flowers are large, lush, have a rich color palette.
- White or cracked. This is a dwarf form of the plant, reaching a height of 35−40 centimeters. The grade differs in plentiful blossoming. On one peduncle can form up to five flowers of white or pale yellow color. Blooms in mid-April.
Freesia can be grown in all conditions. The plant will decorate a garden plot, a winter garden or a greenhouse. Many home plant lovers grow a flower freesia at home.
Freesia: planting and care in the open field
Freesia belongs to the light-loving plants, but does not tolerate direct sunlight. For its cultivation is well suited slightly shaded area with ambient lighting.
For growing freesia in the open field is required loose, well drained soil, which will lego pass air and moisture. Stagnation of excess water can lead to bulb rotting and plant death. For the freesia flower should prepare a soil mixture, which includes garden soil, humus, peat, compost. To loosen the soil, you can add sand or vermiculite. Before planting freesia, you can make a complex fertilizer, which includes phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.
Preparation of planting material
Freesia bulbs can be purchased at specialty stores. Before you buy, make sure that there is no rot and mold on them. They should not be soft and dry. A healthy bulb must be dense and free from external damage..
Begin preparing the bulbs for planting should be in spring, in early April. They are freed from solid external flakes and soaked for several hours in a solution of a fungicidal agent. This should be done to prevent the development of fungal diseases and increase the resistance of bulbs to the formation of rot.
Then the bulbs are planted in small containers with nutrient soil, deepening them by 5 centimeters. Tanks are placed in a well-lit warm room. After the appearance of the first shoots, pots with young plants are placed on window sills with diffused illumination. Care is a timely watering. The freesia is planted in the open ground at the end of spring, after the threat of recurrent frosts disappears.
Cultivation and care at home
Cultivation of freesia is possible at home, and the plant can bloom at any time of the year. The flowering of freesia in terms of room content depends on the time of planting in pots. Typically, landing is done in late summer or early autumn.
The bulbs are recommended to be treated with fungicides to prevent the occurrence of rot and fungus.
For freesia, you will need a pot with large openings for draining excess moisture and a good drainage layer. As a drainage, you can use coarse sand, pebbles, fine gravel or expanded clay. Above it is necessary to lay a layer of crushed charcoal.
Planting freesia can be carried out in the finished soil mixture or prepare it yourself from equal parts of humus, leaf and turf soil, peat and humus. Before planting, phosphorus-potassium mineral fertilizer should be applied.
When planting bulbs are buried in the soil for 5−6 centimeters. You can plant up to five onions in one medium pot. After that, the pot is placed in a cool room with a temperature not higher than 12 degrees. After the appearance of the first leaflets, the air temperature in the room should be 20 degrees.
Growing freesia in a greenhouse
In the greenhouse, you can create favorable conditions for growing a flower. When all the rules of planting are observed, the freesia will start flowering much earlier, because in greenhouse conditions it is possible to maintain a constant level of humidity, create an optimal temperature balance, protect the plant from cold wind and drafts.
Freesia is quite demanding to the conditions of the content, so caring for it requires certain knowledge and skills.
- Watering and moisture. Watering plants should be regular and moderate, especially during the period of active growth. By the end of the flowering period, it is gradually reduced and completely stopped before digging out the bulbs. When growing freesia at home or in the garden, the plant should be sprayed once a day, preferably in the evening.
- Top dressing. The first application of fertilizer is carried out when the first leaves appear. For this, ammonium nitrate is used. Then, once in 10–14 days, fertilizers are applied containing potassium and phosphorus. You can use ready-made mineral compositions for indoor plants, which can be purchased in specialized stores.
- Support. Most freesia varieties have very thin flower stalks, which can not stand blooming inflorescences. In order for the peduncle not to break, it is recommended to use a bamboo stick or a plastic grate as a support. On the garden plot, a large metal mesh is used as a support.
- Mulching. In order to prevent the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the soil, in the garden plot it is necessary to mulch the soil with small sawdust or straw.
- Lighting and location. Freesia is a light-loving plant. For its cultivation in open ground should pick up a well-lit area with diffused lighting and protected from direct sunlight.
In a home-grown environment, additional freesia coverage will be required. For additional lighting, fluorescent lamps or phytolamps are used.
In order for the seeds to ripen on the plant, it is necessary to plant in such a way that the flowering of the plant falls at the end of spring-beginning of summer. Pollination of the plant should be carried out artificially with a brush. At the end of the flowering period on freesia, the fruit-box with three seeds of a round brown color ripens.
Typically, this method of reproduction is used by breeders to breed new freesia varieties.
Sowing seeds in the soil is carried out in late April. Before planting, seeds are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. For planting used soil mixture consisting of leaf and sod land and humus.
The first shoots appear in 20−25 days. After the appearance of 2−3 true leaves of the plant are planted in separate containers.
Once every two years, the bulbs are replaced with new ones that are formed near the base. After rearing, they are formed into new tubers. Their landing is carried out in the ground in the new season.
In winter, it is necessary to create conditions for the preservation of bulbs. Freesia is a heat-loving plant that does not overwinter in open ground. At the end of autumn, the bulbs are dug and placed for storage in a room with high humidity and air temperature not lower than 22 degrees.
In order to create such conditions at home, it is recommended to place the bulbs in nets and hang them next to a container filled with water.
Diseases and pests
Most freesia diseases are caused by mistakes in flower care. Plants suffer from fungal diseases, scab and fusarium. Freesia can be affected by insect pests: thrips, aphids, spider mites.
If there is evidence of disease, the plant should be destroyed.
As a prophylactic before planting the bulbs are treated with fungicidal agents. Also during the growth period of the plant is treated with a solution of household soap.
What is good freesia:
Wedding bridal bouquet from freesias photo
- Freesia inflorescences will become a wonderful component of the bouquet, they are especially popular in wedding compositions,
- Flowers are used in the manufacture of luxury perfumes,
- Very popular in landscape design, also decorate the greenhouse, window sill,
- The varieties of yellow-red colors are more rapid growth.
Growing freesia from seeds at home
Freesia seeds photo
- Freesia seeds are sown in March. They are pre-soaked in warm water for 8-12 hours.
- At the bottom of the tank for seeding, place a good drainage layer of expanded clay. Then pour the nutritive soil mixture (sand, peat and humus in equal proportions) or use a universal bulbous substrate.
- Seal the seeds shallowly, up to 1 cm in depth.
- Cover the top of the container with glass or cling film, and do not forget to air it daily to get rid of condensate.
- Maintain air temperature at a level of 20-25 ° C.
- Soil moisture is maintained by irrigation from a fine sprayer.
- The first shoots will seem in about 10 days. Get rid of shelter gradually over the course of a month.
Freesia seed seedling photos
By early May, the container will be completely filled with green shoots. It is necessary to plant them. Take a spacious container, plant plants at a distance of 5 cm from each other. Be careful - the shoots are very delicate and fragile.
You can take the container to the balcony, but protect from strong gusts of wind. Return to the room as soon as the air temperature drops to 10 ° C. Throughout the time, ensure regular watering, and apply complex mineral fertilizers every 15-20 days.
Around February, expect the first flowering. In August, dig out the onions for drying, in October they can be planted for distillation.
Freesia reproduction with bulbs
Freesia bulbs photo
At the beginning of flowering, the bulbs begin to accumulate forces, at this time around them are formed onion-kids, the main bulb also reborn. To support this process, do not forget to remove wilted buds.
- After the end of flowering about 7 days, the plant should be in the ground, then dig and separate the daughter bulbs.
- Plant them to grow on the plot.
- In the first year, they will not bloom: in the fall, scoop up the bulbs before the leaves wither, rinse, pickle (hold the 2% concentration of foundationol for 30 minutes), dry and store.
In room conditions, everything happens the same way (only for rearing, land in bowls).
Growing freesia in open field
Growing freesia in open field photo in the garden
Professionals cultivate freesia year-round, growing in greenhouses or greenhouses. We will look at how to grow a flower in the open field and on a windowsill (indoor freesias bloom in winter).
Conditions for growing freesia:
- The plant requires a light day lasting 12-14 hours. From direct sunlight, shade; light partial shade is possible.
- Be sure to protect from drafts.
- Fragile peduncles may need support (especially freesia varieties broken down).
- The soil requires loose, well drained, the reaction is neutral or slightly acid. Suitable soil mixture of equal proportions of humus, sod, leaf earth.
- Small-flowered narrow-leaved plants are planted more compactly, and broadleaf and sprawling - more freely.
- To bloom was abundant and prolonged need to ensure the temperature at 22 ° C.
- If the weather is too hot / cold, the flowers are deformed, empty buds grow.
- Cutting of the inflorescences can be carried out when at least 2 buds have blossomed.
- Cut the buds as soon as they begin to wither, so that the plant does not spend power on their food.
- Maintain high humidity. When spraying, avoid water droplets on buds and flowers. It is better to carry out the procedure in the evening.
When to land a freesia in spring
Bulbs are planted in open ground with the establishment of real heat, when the threat of returning night frosts (approximately 10 May numbers) is bypassed. Make holes, deepen the bulbs by 3-6 cm. Between individual plants, keep a distance of 3 cm for small bulbs and 5 cm for larger ones. Between rows, a distance of about 15 cm is required.
After planting, level the surface of the soil and cover with a layer of mulch (peat, coniferous earth) to protect the bulbs from overheating.
How to feed
The plant needs timely and regular feeding. When sprouts seem to be applied, apply a solution of ammonium nitrate (2 g of fertilizer per liter of water). Then, every 15 days, feed with superphosphate and potassium salt (4 g and 2 g, respectively, per 1 l of water).
Loosen the soil regularly (be very careful not to damage the onions), remove the weeds. Especially these procedures are important at the beginning of the growing season.
How to water
How to water a freesia
Observe a particular watering regime. During the period of active growth watering abundantly, keep the soil in a slightly damp state. After flowering, watering is reduced each time; by the time the bulbs are dug out (early October), it should be stopped completely.
Also, the plant needs spraying shoots and leaf plates. The procedure is carried out in the evening, but the moisture should be absorbed before sunset.
Freesia growing and care in the home
Distillation of freesia at home photo
Under room conditions, Freesia is grown for flowering in winter and early spring: during this dreary time, the inflorescences look especially impressive, solemn.
To bloom began in January, planting of the bulbs is carried out around October. You can plant a freesia in the pot and in the spring, you will get flowering 3 months after planting. Process the planting material in azotobacterin solution (0.5 g of substance per 1 l of water), immerse it for about 30 minutes. In addition, they are treated with a growth stimulator (epin, root).
Planting a spring freesia in a pot
For planting, you will need pots with a diameter of at least 15 cm. At the bottom, be sure to lay a good drainage layer (expanded clay, pebbles, clay shards), put charcoal on top. Soil mixture: 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of sand and humus soil, mixed in a portion of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. Up to 6 bulbs are planted in one such container, deepening by 5-6 cm. After planting, place under ambient lighting, maintain the air temperature in the range of 10-15 ° C, do not need to be watered - wait for the appearance of leaf plates. After this, watering is started, the air temperature should be raised to 20-22 ° C.
Growing freesia in room conditions is easier than in open ground, and even in greenhouse conditions.
Flowering freesia in a pot photo
It is necessary to create optimal conditions:
- In autumn and winter, the length of daylight hours is short, and the plant needs light for 12 hours a day. Place the container with the plant on the windows of the east or west orientation, use artificial lighting (fluorescent lamps).
- Under the weight of lush inflorescences stems can be injured - in time tie to the support.
- Water as the topsoil dries. During flowering, water more abundant. Используйте умягченную воду (талую, дождевую, отфильтрованную или обычную водопроводную, которую отстаивают хотя бы на протяжении суток).
- Во время работы отопительных систем воздух в помещении пересушен. Regular spraying of leaves and shoots will be required. When placed in a cooler room (loggia, glazed balcony) this measure is not needed.
- Feed twice a month with complex mineral fertilizers (continue until the leaf plates die off).
When grown at home:
- After the end of flowering corm continue to water for another 1-1.5 months.
- Then dig up, cut off the leaves and stems, treat the bulbs with a solution of potassium permanganate or another fungicidal agent, dry in a warm room (25-28 ° C) for several days.
- Sort (get rid of damaged and rotten bulbs) and store for storage.
When grown in open ground:
When to dig a freesia and how to store the bulbs
Flowering ends in late September and early October. Dig out when the yellowed sheet plates wilted. Further actions are similar to those described above.
If your regions have mild winters, you can not dig out the bulbs - just cover them with dry leaves and spruce branches.
It is best to store corms in a grid in limbo. Air temperature should be 20-25 ° C, humidity - 70-80%. To maintain the required level of moisture under the grid place a container with water. Every 4 weeks, inspect the bulbs, discarding the sick and rotted. A month before planting, transfer the bulbs to a cooler place - 10-15 ° C.
It is possible to store the bulbs in dry peat.
Freesia Armstrongii Freesia Armstrongii
Plant height is 65-70 cm. The inflorescence consists of 3-5 bell-shaped flowers of red, scarlet or pink color.
The most remarkable variety of this species is the Cardinal (Freesia armstrongii Kardinal) - one onion gives 3 peduncles about 35 cm in height, each ending in a paniculate inflorescence (9-11 ribbons). The color of the petals is dark red, the core is marked with a yellow speck, the stamens are also yellow, the pistil is blue, the anthers are purple.
Freesia hybrid Freesia hybrida
A well-branched shrub with a height of 1 m. The colors can be monochromatic: yellow, crimson, violet, or combine several shades.
Freesia hybrid Ballerina Freesia hybrida Balerina
Ballerina. (Freesia hybrida Balerina) - corrugated petals, snow-white, at the base of the corolla there is a light yellow speck. The top of the peduncle 25-30 cm tall is crowned with about 12 flowers.
Freesia hybrid grade Bruce Frye
Rose Marie (Freesia hybrida Rose Mary) - flower stalk height 20-25 cm. In one inflorescence about 7 corolla rich crimson shade.
Pimperin (Freesia hybrida Pimpernel) - peduncle length reaches 20 cm. The inflorescence consists of 7 corolla. The petals are red with the edge of a darker shade, slightly corrugated, the lower part of the corolla is decorated with the shirkha of a yellow shade.
Freesia Hybrid Single Pink Single Pink Photo
Orange Favorite (Freesia hybrida Favorite) - plant height is 40-50 cm. The flowers are bright orange with a contrast (darker) throat.
Freesia hybrid Hot Pink Hot Pink
Helsinki (Freesia hybrida Helsinky) has an interesting coloring. The perianth has a purple hue, turning into a lilac tone. The lower lobe of the petal is decorated with a yellow speck, and the mouth of the petal is decorated with strokes of similar color.
Freesia Royal Blue Freesia hybrida Royale Blue
Royal Blue (Freesia hybrida Royale Blue) - tall peduncle (up to 70 cm) is swirled with large corollas of a blue shade.
Freesia white freesia refracta
Freesia white freesia refracta
A miniature plant not exceeding 40 cm in height. The flowering stems are thin and spreading. The inflorescence consists of 2-5 rims of white or yellow-orange hue.
Freesia Alba Freesia refracta var. alba photo
Alba (Freesia refracta var. Alba) is a snow-white flower with a yellow throat and violet-colored strokes.
Fragrant (Freesia refracta odorata) - the inflorescence consists of 3-7 yellow-colored corolla, the base of the corolla is decorated with an orange spot. The aroma is pronounced.
A place for planting freesia at the site should be chosen based on the fact that, although it is considered to be quite a heat-loving culture, it does not tolerate exposure to direct sunlight. Therefore, a place with a very light openwork shading is ideal for her.
After choosing a suitable landing site, you can do the preparation of the soil on it. If the freesia grows as a tapeworm, then you need to dig a suitable hole of 40 cm in depth and add the soil mixture to it.
If it is planted in a row, a trench with the same depth and width of 40 cm is dug out and filled with the earth mixture. The soil should be loose, so it is recommended to make an earthen mixture by connecting peat, humus, compost and the top layer of garden soil in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 1, respectively.
Also for loosening, you can make vermiculite or river sand. The freesia does not like sour soils, therefore the area with sour soil needs to be pre-deoxidized by liming. Mineral fertilizers are also introduced into the prepared earthen mixture: nitrogenous and phosphorus-potassium.
Selection of planting material
Freesia is no longer an exotic flower for Russia, whose bulbs are hard to find on the shelves of horticultural stores. When purchasing planting material, before buying you need to carefully inspect the bulbs for the absence of rot and mold. Also, they should be tight and firm, there should not be dry and soft parts.
If it was decided to grow a freesia from seeds, which is a more labor-intensive process, then when purchasing planting material one should probe the packaging for the presence of seeds, check its integrity and shelf life.
It is recommended to start planting freesia in the middle - end of May, when the probability of the return of frost tends to zero.
- Bulbs or seedlings are planted in a prepared trench or pit at a distance of 3 ... 5 cm from each other.
- If there are inter-rows, it is necessary to keep a distance of 15 cm.
- Freesia bulbs are buried by 3 ... 6 cm depending on their size.
Freesia reproduction by seeds
To obtain the best quality seeds, the planting of a freesia should be adjusted so that its flowering occurs in April-May. The result is a fruit - seed box, in which there are about three seeds. In order for it to appear, it is necessary to conduct pollination during the flowering of freesias using a brush. You can instead resort to the help of bees. The shelf life of the collected seeds is three years. Their best germination comes after one year of storage. Seed material should be collected only from healthy plants.
Features of growing freesia in open ground
Freesia from the African continent loves light, heat, needs loose soil and regular watering. Stable development and flowering can be expected:
- with a daylight of at least 12–14 hours,
- in the presence of protection from direct sunlight and wind,
- at air temperature within 18–22 ºC.
Violations of light and temperature conditions, long periods of heat and drought, lead to the formation of empty, unopened buds on a freesia, or a complete rejection of flowering.
Place for planting is chosen so that the fragile stems of the plant did not suffer from the wind, and delicate flowers did not burn the summer sun. Already at air temperature above +22 ºC, the biological rhythm of the plant is disturbed, and this is reflected in the quality of flowering.
When grown in open field, freesia is better acclimated in soil with neutral or weakly acid reactions. In areas with heavy, dense soil, it is deoxidized and mixed with sand and peat. Poor organic soil and minerals necessarily fertilize.
Plants are not hardy. In Russia, they are necessarily dug up for the winter, and they are put into the ground when the threat of recurrent cold and frost on the soil is over. If planting in the ground occurs in May or early June, the flowering of the freesia begins from the second half of July to the end of August. However, this is valid only for the middle band. To see freesia flowers during planting and care in Siberia, it’s not the bulbs that are transplanted into the ground, but the plants grown in the room or greenhouse.
Preparing a place for planting freesia in the open ground in spring
Plot for planting freesia choose in partial shade or under protection, planted on the south side of tall shrubs or trees. Such a natural barrier will save flowers from the wind and the midday sun.
In the fall, the soil for planting freesia was dug up on a full bayonet, carefully choosing perennial rhizomatous weeds. At the same time organic fertilizers are applied to ridges or flower beds. In the spring, they dig up the soil again, breaking up clods. Planting pits or trenches under the bulbs make a depth and width of about 30–40 cm. Although the planting depth is much less, filled with loose, consisting of equal parts of garden soil, peat, humus and sand, the hole will allow the root system and the whole plant to actively develop.
Preparation of freesia bulbs for cultivation in the open field
Acquired or stored after autumn digging bulbs begin to prepare for planting in early April. They remove a hard surface peel, and then for half an hour immersed in a solution of phytosporin or another fungicide. This precaution will protect the bulbs from rotting bacteria and fungi in the soil.
30–45 days before the time of planting the freesia in the open ground in spring approaches, the bulbs are placed in deep peat pots filled with nutritious ground. The seeding depth is 5 cm, the substrate is lightly tamped down and then watered. With increased humidity, freesia soon wake up and form the first shoots. Now it's time to transfer the bulbs to the light.
It is important that the sprouts do not stretch before entering the ground, they are dense and healthy. Therefore, if necessary, plants provide additional coverage.
Planting freesia seeds
Like many related species, freesia can be propagated by seed. From the moment of sowing to the appearance of the first buds, at least 8–9 months should pass. If you plant a freesia in the ground in the fall, in the spring the plants that have already gained strength will be brought to the garden.
Sowing is carried out with seeds pretreated with potassium permanganate or phytosporin to a depth of 3–4 mm. The best results can be achieved in the home greenhouse, where it is easier to maintain the increased humidity of the soil and air. Until shoots appear, moisten the soil with a spray bottle. Then accurate watering and irreplaceable during the autumn and winter period illumination is possible. Planting freesia in open ground and caring for them do not differ from caring for plants from adult bulbs.
Landing at home
In a deep pot (diameter up to 20 cm, volume about 3 liters) before planting you need to pour a layer of drainage. In such a capacity planted up to 6 corms.
If you plant them in September, in January the freesia will dismiss the buds.
Corms before planting are soaked in azotobacterin solution (0.5 g are taken for 10 l of water) or treated with growth stimulants. Moisten the soil substrate, planting material planted to a depth of 2-3 cm. Transfer the pot to a well-lit, but cool room. Before the emergence of germs to water the soil is not necessary. As soon as shoots appear, the pot is transferred to a warm place and watered regularly.
Planting in open ground
Before planting freesia in open ground planting material needs to be slightly grown. In March, corms need to be cleaned of flakes and placed for 30 minutes in a solution of fungicide (for the prevention of fungal diseases). Then you need to land in a peat pot to a depth of 5 cm in a fertile loose soil substrate and transfer to a well-lit place before germination and their subsequent planting.
It is possible to plant corms immediately in open ground in the second decade of May.
The depth of the pits should be 4-6 cm, corms from each other are placed at a distance of 5-7 cm, the distance between adjacent rows is 15 cm. The soil is leveled and mulched with peat. In August, the plants will form 2-3 peduncles, flowering continues until October.
It is necessary to fertilize a freesia with liquid fertilizers with a high content of nitrogen, as well as macro- and microelements 3-4 times during the active growing season.
When plants are grown in open ground, after emergence of shoots it is necessary to carry out their feeding with ammonium nitrate (10 g is dissolved in 15 l of water). Later, every 14 days, the freesia is fed with a solution of superphosphate and potassium salt (40 g and 20 g each, respectively, dissolved in 15 liters of water).
The optimum air temperature for plant growth and development is +20 ... + 25 degrees. To bloom was abundant, in the period of planting in the soil and the formation of leaves it is necessary to ensure the air temperature up to +15 degrees.
The plant needs lighting for 12 hours a day, at home you need to use fitolampa. The flowerpot is placed near the window overlooking the south side, protected from direct sunlight.
Irrigation mode - intensive and regular. After planting, the soil should be watered well; for the first 2 weeks, the soil should not dry out. During the formation of buds plants need to be watered abundantly.
Freesia transplanted annually, for which use a wide and deep pot. For transplantation use lumbery corms. A plant grown outdoors should keep warm before transplanting.
Seeds for a day pour water at room temperature, then mixed with moistened sand, spread a thin layer and hold for 14 days. Then, the seeds that are hatching are sown to a depth of 1 cm. The air temperature in the room should be in the range of + 20 ... + 22 degrees, humidity around 70%. This can be achieved by covering the box with glass or plastic film.
Plants daily moisturize and air.
After sprouts appear (in 20-30 days), the container is transferred to a well-lit place. Plants should receive coverage of at least 12 hours a day, it is possible to use phytolamp for growing. The air temperature should be reduced to + 12 ... + 14 degrees. Subsequently, to stimulate the branching of shoots and active flowering, the temperature is reduced to + 8 ... + 10 degrees. When the height of the plant reaches 10 cm, it must be tied up. After 9 months from the moment of sowing, flowering begins.
Planting material before planting should be stored at a temperature of + 20 ... + 30 degrees and high humidity. This breeding method includes the following steps:
- landing - the formation of inflorescence rudiments. Lasts 1.5 months. Culberries are planted when the air temperature corresponds to the range of + 18 ... + 22 degrees. They sprout in 2-3 weeks,
- the formation of a new bud of renewal occurs at the base of the peduncle. The temperature is lowered to + 10 ... + 15 degrees. When the budding phase comes, the temperature is raised to + 15 ... + 17 degrees,
- children and replacing corms are actively growing and developing. The air temperature should correspond to + 15 ... + 25 degrees, watering the plants is reduced, 14 days before their digging, watering is stopped.
Most often such problems arise:
- corm does not germinate, forms affiliated corms. Freesia should be at rest for 3 months at high humidity and temperature. Then the corm will accumulate enough nutrients and she has enough strength to grow,
- if the plant does not bloom - the reason is in improper temperature conditions. Corms freesia before planting in open ground need to warm at room temperature, because, most often, the sellers store them in refrigerators,
- leaves fall down - very high air temperature is to blame,
- the tips of the leaves dry up or turn yellow - the cause of this phenomenon is excessive or insufficient amount of moisture.
How to store freesia bulbs in winter
This should be done in a room with high humidity and a temperature in the range of + 20 ... + 25 degrees. You can put corms in the net and hang over a container with water. In a region with a warm and mild climate, planting material is left in the soil, covered with fallen leaves.
Planting and care for freesia (in brief)
- Landing: in open ground from the second decade of May. On distillation by January - at the end of August in the pot.
- Digging: October.
- Storage: a month after digging at a temperature of 25 ˚C, then before planting at 10 ˚C.
- Bloom: in the garden - August-September.
- Lighting: light partial shade
- The soil: loose, well drained, neutral or slightly acid.
- Watering: during growth and flowering - plentiful and regular, then watering is gradually reduced.
- Top dressing: in the garden: on shoots - with nitrogen fertilizers, then twice a month with phosphate and potash fertilizers.
- Reproduction: seed and vegetative (corms).
- Pests: thrips, spider mites, aphid.
- Diseases: fusarium, scab, gray, dry, penicillous, hard and sclerocial rot.
Freesia flower - features
- - is a decoration of any bouquet, it is especially attractive for brides,
- - long does not fade, does not lose freshness,
- - due to its aroma, it became interesting to manufacturers of luxury perfumes,
- - takes a worthy place in landscape design,
- - grown both in open field (in the greenhouse and garden), and on window sills,
- - red-yellow color grows faster than other varieties.
The freesia hybrid reaches meter height, has the naked, strongly branched stalk covered with thin brownish scales of a corm. Листья тонкие, с центральной жилкой, длиной 15-20 см и шириной 1-1,5 см. Душистые цветки 3-5 см длиной собраны в слабые односторонние соцветия. Окраска цветков может быть любой – белой, красной, оранжевой, голубой, фиолетовой, желтой, кремовой, розовой.Often the pharynx of the flower has a contrasting shade to the petals. The fruit of the freesia is a box.
Types and types of freesia
Freesia hybrid (Freesia hybrida) is most commonly used in floriculture, obtained by crossing species such as freesia refracted or fractured (Freesia refracta) and Armstrong freesia (Freesia armstrongii). These types of freesia gave rise to many varieties, which we will tell you.
Armstrong Freesia (Freesia armstrongii)
- a plant reaching a height of 65-70 cm. The flowers (scarlet, pink or red) are bell-shaped, fragrant, gathered in panicles of 3-5 pieces. The tube is white with yellow spots. Leaves are sword-shaped, long. Varieties of this freesia bloom from May to June.
One of the most beautiful freesia varieties of Armstrong - Cardinal. This freesia is red, non-double, high (70 cm). One bulb gives three peduncles 35 cm long, the number of flowers in the panicle is from 9 to 11, the length of the inflorescence is 9 cm. The flowers are dark red with a yellow spot, the stamens are yellow, the pistil is blue, the anthers are purple.
Freesia hybrid (Freesia hybrida)
combines the best qualities of its ancestors. Its bush is high (up to 1 m) and strongly branched, the brushes consist of large (5-7 cm in diameter) fragrant flowers of purple, raspberry, yellow and other shades, both monochromatic and two-colored.
- grade Ballerina - freesia white with yellowness at the base, corrugated petals. Zev is also white, with a yellow stripe. In the inflorescence up to 12 flowers measuring 5.5 x6.5 cm. Peduncles 25-30 cm high. It has a delicate aroma,
- grade Rose Marie - peduncles 20–25 cm high, in the inflorescence up to 7 flowers 4.5x4.5 cm in bright crimson color, in the lower part of the flower - white with a crimson risk,
- grade Pimperina - flower stalks are low (15-20 cm), in an inflorescence up to 7 flowers 6x5.5 cm, petals slightly corrugated, red in color with dark red edges. The bottom of the petals is yellow with red strokes. Aroma inexpressive.
Freesia white, or refracted, or cracked (Freesia refracta)
different miniature forms (no higher than 40 cm). Stems thin, sprawling, inflorescence - paniculate ear, in which 2-5 flowers of white or yellow-orange color. Blossoms in April.
- freesia Alba (Freesia refracta var. Alba) - white large flowers with purple strokes on a yellow background inside the throat,
- freesia fragrant (Freesia refracta odorata) - freesia yellow, in the inflorescence of 3-7 flowers with an orange spot at the base. Sensible smell of lily of the valley.
All three cultivated species are presented as varieties of simple form, and terry. Freesia idle time has one row of petals, freesia terry - two or more. In the flower shop you can buy not only a certain kind of freesia, but also a mixture of varieties in the set - the freesia mix will give you the opportunity to grow an entire placer of beautiful freesias of various shapes and shades on your site.
How to grow a freesia.
Before planting a freesia in open ground, it is better to grow a little freesia bulbs. In March-April, clean the corms of flakes and, in order to prevent fungal diseases, hold them for half an hour in a 0.2% solution of foundationol. Then place them in fertile, loose soil in peat pots to a depth of 5 cm and hold on a well-lit window-sill or on a warm loggia before disembarking. Some experienced growers practice growing freesia from seedsand although this process is tedious and unreliable, we will tell you how it is done. Moisten the prepared soil and gently spread the seeds, pour in a two-centimeter layer of the seed mixture, cover with a film or glass and keep in a bright place. Twenty days later shoots will appear. When they grow up to 2-3 cm, remove the glass and thin them well. Land in the ground in mid-May.
Planting freesia in the open ground is carried out in the spring, after the last frost has passed (sometime after May 9). We prepare the wells in such a way that the planting depth is about 3-6 cm. Large tubers are planted at a distance of 5 cm, shallow ones - at a distance of 3 cm. The distance between the rows is 15 cm. Sweep the soil and grind it with coniferous earth or peat to protect her, and along with the roots of freesia, from overheating. By August, your freesia will release 1-3 flower stalks, and they will bloom until early October.
How to plant freesia.
Growing freesia at home is carried out mainly for its winter and spring flowering. Imagine: there is winter in the yard, there is snow in the garden, and a garden on your windowsill. In order to get a flowering freesia in January, the freesia bulbs need to be planted in the ground before the beginning of September, soaking them for half an hour in azotobacterin solution at the rate of 0.5 g per 10 l of water. It is possible to treat corms with growth stimulants — Appin or Corneum. Put a drainage mixture and charcoal on the bottom of a 15 cm diameter pot, then pour suitable soil (sand, sod and humus soil 1: 2: 1) with a small amount of potassium phosphate fertilizers and place 5-6 bulbs in it. 6 cm. The pot with a freesia is placed in a cool (10-15 ºC) bright room and is kept without watering, but as soon as the leaves appear, the plant is transferred to heat (20-22 ºC) and begin to be watered.
As soon as your freesia fades, the leaves and stem are cut, and the bulb continues to be watered for another month and a half so that new bulbs form on it. Then the corm is removed from the ground, disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate, dried for several days in a warm place and sent to storage.
In late September or early October, when the freesia ottsvetet, and the leaves turn yellow, but not yet dry, the corms are removed from the ground, cut off the stem with leaves, clean the bulbs from soil, roots and old scales, incubated for 30 minutes in a weak disinfectant solution of sodium permanganate or any fungicide (maxim, phytosporin, foundationol) and dried for several days at a temperature of 25-28 ºC in a ventilated room. Then the bulbs are sorted, removing damaged or rotted, and sent to storage.
History of origin
Homeland freesia can be considered South Africa. It continues to grow today along the banks of the rivers of Africa. Under natural conditions, this shrub reaches a height of one and a half meters and forms dense impassable thickets. The flower is a direct relative of the iris. The open plant was a German physician and botanist Friedrich Vries. Currently, the plant can be found everywhere.
Freesia has gained popularity with many gardeners all over the world. This plant stands out from the order of bulbous and bulbous flowers due to its inherent qualities:
- Exquisite and festive appearance.
- Excellent combination on a bed with other annual and perennial flowers.
- Allows you to create chic and elegant bouquets. They are often used to create wedding bouquets for brides.
- Long keeps freshness in cut form. Flowers bloom gradually and do not fade for a long time.
- It has a unique flavor.
- Used by landscape designers when decorating a garden.
- Can grow on a plot in open ground or in a pot at home.
Conditions for growing on the windowsill
To grow a plant at home is required to comply with the necessary conditions for growth and development. The room should be illuminated during the winter period in addition, since the flower is light-requiring. It is also necessary to observe the temperature regime, irrigation conditions, air humidity, and as necessary it is necessary to carry out pruning and transplanting a flower.
For abundant flowering in winter, it is recommended to give preference to white freesia. White freesia will bloom magnificently even in the cold season. For the formation of buds should choose a suitable pot.
Watering and humidity
Abundant and uniform watering of the soil is necessary during flowering and bud formation. A very dry land can ruin the florets, but abundant watering is no less harmful, than insufficient, because with excessive moisture, the roots of the flower may rot, and in this case it will not be possible to restore the plant.
The flower requires an increased level of humidity, which is difficult to ensure at home. Some flower growers spray the water next to the flower. Direct spraying of leaves is extremely undesirable for a plant, since it can cause its death.
Every year, the plant should be transplanted into a new soil. Pre-planting material is subjected to heat treatment. The bulbs are recommended to be carefully examined. The stiffened bulbs will not sprouttherefore, they can be eliminated.
Landing will require a mixture of soil from leaf and sod land, as well as sand. Alternatively, you can use ready-made soil for bulbous crops. At the end of October, healthy bulbs are placed in a substrate, the container with them is kept at a temperature of + 25 degrees and maintains high humidity in the room.
When forming leaves, the flower needs artificial lighting. Under all conditions, the first inflorescences can be expected by the end of February or the beginning of March. During the formation of buds should reduce the length of the day by 3 hours. It is recommended to feed the flowers every week in half the dose indicated in the instructions.
Fading inflorescences are removed to stimulate re-flowering. This procedure should be carried out before the ovule formation, only then all the forces will go to the development of new buds. To clean the plant, you should perform all actions in the following sequence:
- Carefully pinch part of the stem and make a side cut with a sterile blade.
- Scissors or pruners are not recommended. If the tool does not fit the size, the plant may be damaged.
- It is not recommended to delete the entire shoot. It is enough to cut half a centimeter of the stem under the flower.
- Leaves should not be removed. They are left on the plant after flowering. Only damaged, yellowed or dried leaf areas are allowed to be removed.
- In the event of a disease, cut leaves are destroyed and healthy compost is prepared.
Planting and maintenance in the open field
Freesia is growing not only at home on the windowsill. But cultivation and care in the open field is somewhat different from the home method. More than two months, you can admire the abundant flowering of crops in the garden. Grow outdoors flower may frost. For the resumption of the formation of buds on the secondary stems is recommended to remove faded flowers.
When grown in flower beds, the flowers are fed with potassium salt and superphosphates. Fertilizer laid no more than twice a month. It is recommended to replenish the soil moisture as it dries, but it is important not to overdo it. t. To. From excess moisture from the plant can rot the roots. In case of detection of the first signs of excess water in the soil, the freesia flower is treated with a weak solution of foundationol or potassium permanganate.
To prevent breakage of shoots, you should install supports near the bases of flowers. It is not excluded the defeat of harmful insects when grown in the garden. For the prevention of plants treated with soapy water twice a month. Such a measure helps to destroy aphids and spider mites.
For planting, you can buy ready-made mixture. At the bottom of the pot lay out the drainage layer. It can be foam, expanded clay or gravel. The pot should have a sufficient number of holes so that irrigation water does not stagnate at the bottom of the tank. For better flower development, wood ash can be added to the soil.
At the base of the freesia, it is necessary to make a protective layer of about 5 cm. The rotted compost or dry leaves can be used as mulch - this is necessary to preserve the required amount of moisture and prevent the occurrence of weeds.
During active growth, during the production of buds and abundant flowering, fertilizing is required. Ideal for freesia drug "Kemira-Lux". A solution of potassium and phosphorus contribute twice a month. Means are prepared in the ratio of 3 g of chemicals per 1 liter of water. Top dressing is stopped in preparation for the winter period.
Division plants kids
The division of children is more accessible and easier way. After the end of the flowering period, you can proceed to the procedure of reproduction. To properly divide the bulb, you must adhere to the following recommendations:
- Carefully dig a tuber.
- Remove residual soil from it.
- Separate small onions from large.
- Before the growing season, place the children in a cool place. It is preferable to use for this bag, filled with peat substrate.
- With the onset of spring, you can plant the finished material immediately into the soil. Babies are pre-placed in a container for seedlings.
This method is less popular and requires a lot of time and effort. To get seedlings from seed, you will need to perform the following manipulations:
- Stimulate material germination 24 hours before sowing. To this end, the seeds are placed in a jar of water at room temperature.
- An alternative method is soaking in a solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes. After the seeds are washed in distilled water and laid out to dry on a paper towel. For the next 24 hours, the seeds are dipped in a glass of boiled water. A day later, the material is taken out of the water, mixed with wet coarse sand and left as it is for 15 days. Then you can sow the freesia in the soil and cover with glass. The air temperature in the room should be at least +22 degrees.
- For planting, you can take the soil from the greenhouse or use compost.
- Seeds spread out evenly over the soil surface. They will sprout about a month. For early germination, it is recommended to cover the pot with film or glass.
- Sprouts swoop down on separate containers after the formation of two strong leaves.
- Small seedlings permissible to put on a warm glazed balcony away from direct sunlight. It is necessary to monitor the level of soil moisture..
- After about six months, you can expect the appearance of the first buds.
The flower can be sick of diseases peculiar to all onion plants. Frequent guests in this case are ticks, thrips or aphids.
Fungal lesions with bacterial infections will not be an exception. Most often, you can observe the appearance of scab, fusarium or various types of rotting.
In order to prevent many growers periodically remove the affected parts of the plant. To protect against insects, stems and leaves are treated with pesticides. Bulbs after digging process in a solution of potassium permanganate, after removing all contaminants.
The reasons for the lack of inflorescences
When growing flowers you want to enjoy their wonderful aroma and beauty, but in some cases, the buds on the plants do not appear in due time. Inflorescences can be absent for several reasons:
- If before planting in the ground the bulbs have not passed a long stage of heating.
- In case of insufficient air humidity in the room, which causes the tubers to dry out. In this case, the inflorescences are not formed. The material can be landed to form new babies. In the fall, the bulbs are stored in a well-ventilated area to be planted in the spring again.
- When buying sick tubers. In this case, after planting, the tubers will rot.
- Buds may not be formed due to the impact of strong negative or positive temperatures after landing in the ground.
To avoid all sorts of problems and purchase quality planting material, you should choose a trusted supplier. Identify by visual inspection of fungal and viral diseases in most cases impossible.