What can a single cozy and comfortable home do without? Of course, without indoor plants! These flower gardeners they can turn any dwelling into a real oasis, where there is a lot of greenery and heavenly beauty of flowers.
It is also important that green friends enrich the air in the apartment with oxygen, as well as clean it from harmful impurities. And for indoor plants to settle in your home for a long time, it would be nice to understand the most important principles of caring for them.
Indoor flowers are silent creations. They will not complain if they are poorly and irregularly looked after, and simply die.
Of course, there are plants that can survive in truly extreme conditions. For example, an adult nolina can do without watering for a year due to the water accumulated in the barrel-bottle. But this exception to the rule, basically, all indoor plants require more or less regular attention.
A beginner florist should prepare for the fact that for the opportunity to enjoy the presence of "green friends" in the house you will have to pay with your own time and energy. However, everything is not so scary - you just have to start, getting a pair of three unpretentious plants and learning to care for them, and everything will go like clockwork.
Experienced flower growers, containing a lot of indoor plants in the apartment, argue that remember to leave for their pets is not at all difficult. In addition, with their appearance and behavior at one time or another, many plants resemble a florist that it is time to replant them, fertilize, cut out long sprouts, or send them to a dark and cool place during a dormant period.
Also for the first time a novice florist can make himself maintenance schedule for plants.
The most important condition for the prosperity of all plants, without exception, is a sufficient amount of sunlight. It is necessary to have your pets in the apartment according to the following principle:
- The most light-loving species (flowering, cacti, spotty, tropical and plants with lush leaves) - closer to the windows and glass doors, on the windowsills and balconies, but with shading during the hot hours.
- The most daring light-loving typesnot afraid of direct sunlight (geranium, begonia ever flowering, cyclamen, bilbergia, amaryllis and lily) - can be placed on the southern windows without shading.
- Able to grow in partial shade (Dieffenbachia, Philodendron, Aralia, Sansevieria, Ficus, Potos, and Cissus) - can be placed not far from the window or opposite it.
- Preferring shadow rather than light (Calathea, Royal Begonia, Tradescantia, arrowroot and ferns) - can be put on the desktop or bookshelf.
- Circulated by very little light (Anthurium, Azalea, Cirrus Asparagus, Saintpaulia, High Aspidistra and Aglaonema) - can be placed in places with low light.
General rules for the care of indoor plants see the video:
Watering and humidity
All variety of indoor plants requires regular watering.
However, some of them need to water every day, and someone - once a month.
But still exist general rulesthat reduce or increase the need for irrigation depending on the season:
- The most abundantly watered plants need to spring timewhen the growth of new shoots is activated.
- Summer watering should be moderate, rising on hot days.
- Beginning with the fall, watering must be gradually reduced to reach the winter minimum.
- In winter Many plants fall into a dormant period, when they need to be watered very rarely, and some do without watering.
Read about the ways and features of Gloxinia breeding in our material.
How to grow basil at home will tell our article.
Many plants of tropical origin or lush and lush foliage, prefer high humiditywhile the more patient to assemble them are able to live indoors with dry air. In any case, moisture lovers should be regularly sprayed or wiped with a damp cloth.
There are also plants that need to be in a pallet with wet pebbles that do not touch the ground in a pot for moistening. In addition, it should be remembered that there are plants, for example, with pubescent leaves, which are sprayed categorically impossible.
Secrets of watering and spraying indoor plants, see the video below:
Temperature and feeding
The most comfortable summer temperature for most plants is from 18 ° C, and winter - from 10 ° C. Some species, such as ivy, are not afraid of drafts, whereas for most plants temperature drops are very dangerous.
It is necessary to fertilize indoor flowers from spring to autumn, that is, during the period when they are the most growing rapidlyt and develop.
For tips on fertilizing and fertilizing indoor plants, see the video below:
Transplant and pruning
Change the land to a new one, and the pot to a larger majority of plants. prefers spring. At this time, they have already resumed active growth, but have not yet formed a new root system.
Some species that grow slowly enough need a transplant every 2 to 3 years.
Rules of transplanting domestic plants, see the video:
How to choose a land mix, see the video below:
Many plants need them unnecessarily. extended shoots pruned. Some “green friends” look and feel best if you shape their shape with pruning, be it a compact bush or a real indoor tree.
The probability of infection by pests of indoor plants highest in the summer months. However, you should regularly inspect your home garden all year round.
At the first sign of infection It should isolate the plant from its fellows and remove pests from it. Separate care and treatment with special products continue until full recovery.
Methods of protection of indoor plants from pests, see the video:
If the plant loses leaves and refuses to bloom, you should pay close attention to it and figure out what the reason. There are many specific diseases of indoor plants and problems specific to certain plants.
Many plants are poisonous to some degree - someone is more, someone is less. However, this does not prevent them from gaining popularity among gardeners. The most important rule here - carefully study the vending plant, reading tips on caring for it.
More often poisonous plants the florist doesn’t cause major problems - you just need to repot the flower and carry out maintenance work with gloves on it, and you should also put it away from children and pets.
But sometimes there are instances that are dangerous for people with allergies or people with sensitive skin. In this case, of course, you need to be very serious and responsible in deciding whether to start such a plant in your home.
Love and attention
The best way to keep a plant in the best shape - regularly care for him, doing it carefully and with love.
Some little thingssuch as removing wilted flowers that take away power from a plant, or removing dried leaves will prolong flowering and protect the plant from rotting and mold, respectively. Scissors for such purposes should always be sharp and clean.
Loving florist tries to learn as much as possible about each of his plants and to care for him as best as possible.
Of course, it is very important to follow the general rules for the care of "green friends". However, if you take care of all plants equally, for some of them it will end very badly.
The first thing to do when a new plant appears in a house is to familiarize yourself with its features and rules care for him.
Summing up, we can say that the proper care of indoor plants is a guarantee of their health, thanks to which they will delight you for many years with lush greenery and magnificent flowering.
I am not a competent gardener, but I can share my experience. I have two plants - comedy and monstera. Monster finally ruined cat. Kodium she tyrannutsya less and I stuck all the soil in the pot with chopsticks. Now the cat cannot climb into the pot at all, despite the constant desire to get there. Sticks look ugly, but the plant is alive and well feeling.
I would like to add that in the autumn and winter periods the plants should be watered in the morning, and in the spring and summer periods - in the evening. Spraying is also best done either in the morning or in the evening. And so that the leaves of the plants look juicy and brighter it is recommended to spray them with water with the addition of camphor alcohol (3 liters of alcohol for 1 liter of water).
In winter, it is recommended to feed the plants with sugar (1 tbsp of water - 1 tsp. Of sugar).
Care for indoor plants, the basic rules
- Heat. Temperature control is an important rule for a healthy flower. Properly chosen temperature is the key to a healthy and strong plant. Which in time will please with abundant flowering or beautiful foliage. There are thermophilic and cold-resistant plants, this must be considered when buying.
- Shine. Light mode plays an important role in the growth of indoor flowers. Before acquiring a plant, it is necessary to establish precisely on which side in the house or apartment windows go. If you put a light-loving flower on the north window, where there is little light, it will just wither. A shade-tolerant in the south window will burn leaves and may completely die. In winter, artificial light is used for some plants.
- Watering. Another important factor in the main rules is how to care for indoor plants. With proper watering, homemade flowers will delight emerald and lush foliage, abundant and long flowering. It is with water that plants get all the necessary nutrients for life, growth and reproduction.
Observing these simple tips, you can find an approach to any flower, and to unpretentious and capricious. Among the abundance of indoor flowers, you should pay attention to the sweetie, or money tree, undemanding to watering, light and air temperature. Ideal for novice florist.
Money tree (indoor plant): how to care
Crassula, Crassula, or the more familiar money tree, belongs to the family of Crassulaceae, a kind of succulent. It has about 350 species, from dwarfs a few centimeters to huge trees.
Homeland - South Africa. And this suggests that the plant is very unpretentious, for the proper care will give the grower a lush crown of fleshy leaves and small white flowers.
Basic rules for the care of the money tree
Temperature: The plant perfectly adapts to the temperature drops in the apartment. In winter, it suffers dry air from batteries, cold from windows, in summer it easily tolerates heat, and in the fall - dampness and lack of sunlight.
In the summer it is necessary to take out the Crassoul on the balcony, loggia, veranda or garden. Temperature drops during the day have a positive effect on the growth of fatty meat. It hardens, builds up fleshy leaves, acquires strong immunity.
In winter, the money tree prefers a cool temperature, +7. +12 degrees. It is advisable not to put it near the battery. From hot air, the plant sheds leaves. In addition, they shrink, losing its appeal.
Watering: in the winter time to minimize. Water once every 10 days. If Crassula remains to winter on a warm balcony, watering is stopped altogether. If you do not follow this rule, the stem and roots will rot, which will lead to the death of the whole plant.
In summer, water as the soil dries. After drying the top layer, you can wait another 4-5 days and only then water. The fat woman has a tendency to accumulate moisture in fleshy leaves, so it is absolutely not at all underfilled.
Shine: likes light, but not direct sunlight. From the bright sun leaves get burned, brown spots appear on them. In the summer, plant pritenyat curtains or rearrange in a little shaded.
Although the fat woman tolerates a lack of light, he still prefers bright and spacious windows. This rule is desirable to observe at any time of the year. From a lack of light, the money tree is drawn out, losing the pomp of the crown.
Zamioculkas, dollar tree (indoor plant): how to care
Another representative of Africa is the zamiokulkas, or dollar tree. This is an evergreen and perennial plant of the aroid family. Flower growers love it for its beautiful fleshy leaves and unpretentiousness. Caring for a plant is very simple, if you follow these simple rules, the question of how to care for indoor plants, will seem very easy.
Basic care for a dollar tree
Temperature: preferably +20. +25 In winter, prefers cool air: +15. +17. In summer it grows well in the fresh air. But drafts can not tolerate, can get sick.
WateringA: in summer and spring moderate, once every 10 days. Ensure that the potted soil dries out completely. Otherwise, the roots rot, and the plant may die. In winter, watering is minimized. Enough once a month to water the plant, you can periodically spray.
Shine: Prefers diffused lighting, but not dark. In order for the dollar tree to grow sturdy and beautiful, it needs a bright room, but you need to avoid exposure to sunlight. They leave burns on the leaves.
Dishes. Houseplants are grown in pots or tubs, in which the top is wider than the bottom, sometimes they are grown in wide bowls, i.e., low pots. This form allows you to easily knock out plants from the dishes during transplantation.
Flower dishes have a certain ratio between width and height. For most indoor plants use dishes, in which the width of the upper part is about 5/4 height. Plants such as palm trees, roses, lilies, it is preferable to grow in a deeper dish, in which the width of the upper part is equal to or slightly less than the height of the dish. Other plants, for example, cyclamen and bulbous ones, are better to be kept in lower pots or bowls in which the width of the upper part is 1 1/2 - 2 times the height.
They take pots and bowls earthenware, well-burned, with drain holes in the bottom: in pots with one, in flat dishes with three. Earthenware, glazed and metal dishes, as well as those painted with oil paint, are not suitable for growing indoor plants, since the walls of such dishes do not allow air to pass through.
New pots before planting them in the plants are well soaked, and the old thoroughly washed in hot water and dried on the fire. Pots in which plants are grown should be washed 3-4 times a year outside with hot water and soap with a stiff brush, then rinsed with clean water.
Tubs consumed pine or oak, as more durable. Instead of tubs sometimes use boxes. For a better flow of excess water during watering and for air access, the tubs are made with legs, and drawers with slats, there should be several drain holes in the bottom.
Transfer. Potted plants periodically roll over to improve nutritional conditions. Suspension in growth, yellowing of leaves or the loss of dark green color, the formation of underdeveloped shoots and leaves, as well as very small flowers, premature flowering, a sharp reduction in growth, shortening of the flowering period, early shedding of flowers, pulling out of a pot of earth, appearance on the surface after watering earthworms - all this suggests the need to transplant plants.
The appearance of the plant does not always correspond to the state of the earthen coma and the root system. Therefore, to determine the need for transplanting a plant with a clod of earth is removed from the dish and inspected. The lump is removed from the pot, tilting the plant and tapping the edge of the pot on the feet or striking the bottom of the pot with a palm. Strong coagulation of the earth with a layer of roots always indicates the need for transplantation.
All young plants need annual transplantation. Adult and large tub plants are transplanted after 5-6 years or less. The necessity of their transplantation is judged by the condition of the tub, and often transplanted only after its rotting. Frequent transplants of such plants weaken their growth.
Evergreens are transplanted with a clod of earth. Adult deciduous plants transplanting without a clod of earth is also risky, since the system damaged by transplanting uprooted the system does not ensure the full flow of water to the plants that have begun to grow. In this case, a strong pruning of the branches of the crown is necessary.
The best time for transplanting evergreens is from the second half of February to May, and deciduous ones are at rest (spring or autumn). If necessary, it is possible to replant without damaging the coma at any time of the year. Flowering plants are transplanted after flowering, deciduous bulbous - after yellowing leaves.
When transplanting with an increase in the amount of land, pots are chosen larger than the previous ones in diameter by 2-3 centimeters, tubs - depending on the type of plant and the power of its development - by 4-6 centimeters or more.When transplanting plants with a poorly developed or diseased, rotten root system, the dishes are left unchanged, and with a strong pruning of the roots, leading to a significant reduction in coma, the size of the dishes decreases by 2-3 centimeters.
When planting, a clod of earth is freed from small, fibrous, interlaced by the root, cutting them off over the surface of the coma. Thick and weakly branched roots do not disturb, and in case of their rotting, cut to a healthy place. Cuts of thick roots are covered with coal powder. The upper, leached layer of earth is removed from the coma, a lump in the sides is loosened with a pointed wooden peg, the shard with the old drainage is removed, and the soured smell is released from the soured earth, if it turns out.
On the drain hole at the bottom of the pot or tub put a shard with the convex side up and then pour a layer of drainage from coarse sand and pieces of turf. The drainage drainage is done, depending on the size of the dishes, from 0.5 (in pots) to 3-5 centimeters (in tubs).
The composition and amount of land for transplanting are taken in accordance with the requirements of the plant. The ground is filled with a small cone for drainage, after which the prepared lump of the transplanted plant is lowered in such a way that the root neck (the former subfloodal knee, the place of transition of the root to the stem) is somewhat below the edges of the pot. When planting, you need to ensure that the root neck is not deeply buried in the ground or raised above it, as this makes it difficult for normal digs and the development of a young plant. The left hand holding the plant at the root of the neck, and the right spish ground. The space between the clod and the walls of the dishes is gradually filled with earth and compacted with a wand. For a more uniform filling of the space with earth, from time to time a pot or a tub will tap the bottom of the table.
The degree of compaction of the soil with a habit has a significant effect on the growth and flowering of plants, therefore, for better growth, the plant is planted friable, and for good flowering - denser.
Large woody plants (palm trees, privet and other evergreens) are planted very tightly.
Transplanted plants are watered and placed for rooting in a warm place and slightly shaded. Transplants usually cause a rather long (until rooting) stunting.
Transshipment It differs from transplants in that the earthen room does not break and the root system is almost not disturbed. Plants roll over one or two times at a young age, sometimes more, during one growing season. Pass only with the purpose of increasing the amount of land. The need for it is determined by the presence of a large braid of a coma of earth with its roots.
At each transshipment, the upper leached layer of the earth is removed, drainage is removed from the bottom and the size of the dishes is increased by 2-3 centimeters.
The transshipped plant is kept under the same conditions as before the transshipment, and only in the presence of bright sunlight is it slightly shaded, and the watering in the first days after the transshipment is reduced.
During transshipment, the growth is almost not suspended, but further increases, but the plant development slows down, flowering is postponed to a later date. By transshipment, to a certain extent, it is possible to regulate the time of flowering of plants, pushing it away with a large number of transshipments and accelerating it by reducing the number of transshipments. A large number of transshipments makes it possible to get a more powerful, abundantly flowering plant.
HANDLING AND SPRAYING.
The need for water varies depending on the species, variety, phase of plant development. During the period of enhanced growth, plants contain and require more water than during the rest period.
Water is part of the plant body, it dissolves mineral salts that enter the plant through the root system. Due to the evaporation of water through the leaves, the temperature of the plants decreases, which is especially important in the case of overheating on hot summer days.
Often in summer, hot sunny days, evaporation reaches such proportions that the root system cannot fill the flow of water. Sometimes even enhanced watering does not save. In such cases, along with watering, you have to resort to spraying plants and shading from direct sunlight.
Most flower plants grow well when soil moisture is high, but it blooms better at lower humidity. With a decrease in potted land, the plant needs more water.
The lack of moisture and its excess affect the vital activity of plants equally negatively. Plants best grows and develops with full satisfaction of its water, which is not always easy to determine.
Good water conditions for plants reach not only the supply of a certain amount of moisture, but also the correct selection of a mixture of soil that can retain water well and provide plants with it, a device for good outflow of excess water, etc. Under these conditions, even excessive watering does not create excessive moisture.
Practically, when determining the need for watering potted plants, the following instructions are used: the walls of a pot with a damp earth make a deaf sound when struck with a click, and with a dry sound - a ringing sound. A pot with dry soil is easier to raise than with a wet one, the ground when wet is darker, and when dry it takes on a grayish tint. The humidity of the earth in the pot is determined by touch.
The appearance of small green moss and lichen on the surface of the earth in pots and tubs indicates prolonged waterlogging and lack of light.
The earth in poor physical properties (silt, compacted) and with poor drainage with a dry upper layer can have raw layers wet and vice versa.
The moisture required for the plant is maintained by watering an earthy coma and spraying the plant. Watering the plant is not difficult, and to maintain the necessary humidity of the air is often impossible, since the humidity necessary for the plant considerably exceeds the sanitary and hygienic standards of the living room. Nevertheless, abundant watering, water in saucers, and in hot weather spraying of plants significantly improves growth conditions. Sharp transitions from excessive wetting of a coma to overdrying it are unacceptable, as this often leads to dropping of leaves and flower buds.
In summer, almost all plants must be watered abundantly, in winter - less. Potted plants are watered so that the water soaks the entire lump and a slight excess of it flows through the drain hole.
In spring and summer, plants can be watered at any time of the day, in autumn and winter - only in the morning. In summer, when watering in the morning, you can leave water in the saucers. In autumn and winter, the water collected in the saucer after watering should be drained. Most of the lush indoor plants (cacti, aloe, etc.) are watered daily in the summer, in the fall and in the winter only as the earthen coma dries, depending on the temperature and humidity of the room two or three times a week, more often with central heating and less often with the stove.
Watering of plants during the transition from autumn to winter (September, October), during the end of plant growth and their transition to a state of rest, is very responsible. Excessive watering at this time often leads to the death of plants. From the beginning of October, and in some cases from the second half of September, watering should be drastically reduced. In this, the most wet season (when the central heating is still on, watering is even less than in winter. With the start of the heating season (central heating), watering should be increased.
In no case should not overdry a clod of earth. In overdried plants, the land hardly perceives water. In such cases, a clog lags behind the walls of the dish, water during watering runs down the slots and flows out through the drain hole without wetting the coma. Therefore, dried plants are immersed with dishes up to the root collar in water for one to two hours until the coma is completely soaked.
All tropical plants, as well as plants in a delicate root system (ferns, orchids, cacti), suffer greatly from watering with cold water, and often the root system rots them.
Water for watering flowers stand for at least 24 hours in the room so that it warms up. Do not water the flowers with cold water from a tap and boiled water.
Indoor plants are recommended to be watered with water at a temperature of 2-3 degrees above the ambient temperature. Observations show that in the period of enhanced growth and abundant flowering, it is generally useful to water with water warmer than the surrounding air. It is harmful to water with water warmer than the surrounding air, plants that are at rest, especially deciduous.
Plants are watered from a bottle or mugs. Crops of small seeds and some plants, for example, cyclamen, gloxinia, it is better to water from the saucer.
Spraying (spraying) plants is especially necessary in the spring-summer period, in dry and warm rooms with central heating, it is useful to spray evergreen plants in the winter.
REGULATION OF LIGHTING AND HEAT
Not all plants in spring and summer can withstand direct sunlight. Some on them, such as many ferns, tropical shady plants with delicate leaves, burn leaves and die.
Most of the succulent plants, primarily cacti (with the exception of the articular cactus), prefer to grow in full sunlight and withstand considerable overheating.
All variegated plants are very demanding to the light, when shaded, they lose the brightness of the leaves.
Almost all tropical plants during the period of growth require diffused light, why they have to be shaded from the direct rays of the sun. Young developing leaves are particularly affected by direct sunlight in the spring. Pritenyat plants, dropping a loose curtain on the window. They need shading only in the daytime, at 1O-11 hours to 16-17 hours. In the autumn-winter period, although plants require less light, they lack it under room conditions; therefore, windows should not be curtained during this period.
Due to the one-sided illumination from the shackles, the plant has to be turned by different sides towards the window, otherwise the most light-loving plants grow one-sided and twisted. Light-loving plants (geranium, aralia, hydrangea, aralia) are most strongly attracted to light. Woody shade-tolerant plants (palms, laurels) are less susceptible to this, but they should also be turned from time to time by different sides of the light.
The fluctuation of temperature in rooms has a significant impact on the vital activity of plants. The usual temperature of residential premises in winter is from 15-16 to 20-22 degrees. It should be borne in mind that in different parts of the room the temperature is different: higher at the heating source and lower at the window, in rooms with stove heating this difference reaches 5-6 degrees.
Plants should not be placed in close proximity to the heating sources, but with water or steam heating there is no other way out, since the batteries are usually placed in wall pane niches or, even worse, suspended from the flat walls under the windows. As a result, the clod and the surrounding air are quickly dried out, leading to drying and the death of the roots and leaves.
To prevent the harmful effects of heated dry air in the way of its movement, it puts screens reflecting heat and directing it to the side. On window sills, it is advisable to protect pots from warm, rising air from batteries, using glass, cardboard silts with plywood shields, and from sun overheating in summer time - with cardboard or plywood shields.
Sharp temperature fluctuations adversely affect the digging of plants, so they should be avoided in all cases (during heating, ventilation, movement of plants). Only cacti and some other plants can withstand such temperature variations.
The temperature in the room is regulated by heating and ventilation. Plants in spring and summer protect against overheating by shading from the sun, spraying and enhanced watering, and in winter in rooms with central heating only by watering. The required air purity is maintained by airing the room. When airing it is impossible to allow drafts: the majority of houseplants do not maintain them. When the window is open, the plant must be protected from cold air flow or transferred to a protected place, especially on frosty days.
Plants most need an inflow of fresh air during growth - in spring and summer. Particles of dust and tobacco smoke from polluted air are deposited on the leaves of plants, resulting in deterioration of their livelihoods. Therefore, along with air clarification, the plant should occasionally wipe dust from it with flannel rags, special ovens and brushes, or wash it with water.
ROOM PLANTS IN OPEN GROUND
Houseplants originating from subtropical and temperate countries, and some tropical plants (palm trees — fan-shaped, low hamerops, southern coconut, agave, thuja, and others) can be put in the open ground for summer, which is possible only with home gardens, verandas, balconies and terraces. Before moving to the open ground, indoor plants gradually accustom themselves to the outside air, intensively airing the rooms and moving them closer to the open windows.
In open ground plants are placed under light pritenkoy, especially in the first two weeks. During the summer, they are systematically watered, sprayed, weeded, and loosened the ground in pots, monitor the occurrence of pests and diseases and fight with them, protect them from drying out by the earthen coma, especially in plants not dug in the ground on open balconies and verandas.
Pots and tubs, it is advisable to dig into the soil open ground. In order to better drainage under the pots and tubs, they make holes that are filled with broken bricks. To reduce the possibility of decay, wooden tubs and boxes are isolated from the soil, putting moss on all sides or wrapping it with roofing paper. When plants are installed without digging into the soil on balconies, terraces and other premises, pots and tubs should be completely covered with moss, peat chips, or sawdust, leaving only the ground open for irrigation.
In open ground, plants are watered abundantly early in the morning or in the evening and twice a day, in the morning and in the afternoon, sprayed, and transplanted and insufficiently ingrained sprayed every two vats. At this time, the plant is particularly responsive to fertilization. In the open ground, in addition to the application of mineral fertilizers, it is advisable to feed the plant weekly with organic fertilizers - infusion of cow manure or bird droppings, the norms and methods of which have been mentioned earlier.
At the end of the summer, before the onset of matinees, the plants are transferred to the room. As a result of summer stays in the open air, the plants become stronger, stronger.
Trimming and planting of plants.
Pruning pursues such goals: the formation of the crown of plants, increased flowering, rejuvenation and preservation of the correspondence between the crown and the root system during plant transplants.
In order to get the best crown, the primer, laurel trees, and other plants are pruned annually, leaving 3-5 centimeters of growth from last year. The crown is cut with a knife or scissors.
To improve the penetration of air and light into the plant crown from time to time, cutting out dry, dying, excess branches and leaves. Thicker shoots and branches cut to, i.e., flush with the trunk or thicker branch.
Houseplants are tied to pegs in the event that they are bent or cannot stand vertically. Tie up the branches of bushes, when they diverge too widely ().
Garter pegs take round, peeled from the bark, pointed at the bottom. For hydrangea, fuchsia and other low plants pegs are usually used pine, length from 25 to 75 centimeters and in the little finger thickness.
Plants with shtambikami are tied up by a figure eight in two or three places with a soft bast, not tight and not weak, the bush ones - in one or two places, seizing all the main shoots.
The normal development of the plant is supported by changing the land during transplants and systematically feeding during the period of growth with mineral or organic fertilizers in the form of fertilizer irrigation.
Of mineral fertilizers for fertilizer irrigation, mainly ammonium or potassium nitrate, potassium salt and superphosphate are used. These fertilizers are best given in a mixture. In the early stages of growth, more nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium and potassium nitrate) are introduced. Before flowering and in the second half of the growth period, the proportion of phosphate and potash fertilizers increases. In its pure form, ammonium nitrate is used at the rate of one teaspoon (4-5 grams) per 3 liters (15 cups) of water, potassium salt - one and a half, and superphosphate - two or three teaspoons for the same amount of water.
Смесь минеральных удобрений в период роста составляют на двух с половиной чайных ложек аммиачной селитры, одной ложки суперфосфата и полуложки калийной соли, которые растворяют в 10 литрах воды, перед цветением и во время цветении — из полутора чайных ложек аммиачной селитры, двух с половиной ложек суперфосфата и одной ложки калийной соли, которые растворяют в 10-12 литрах воды.
Многими опытами доказано, что растении нуждаются и в таких элементах, как бор, марганец, цинк. При отсутствию их в почве растения плохо растут и развиваются. Например, при недостатке бора у растений отмирают верхние точки роста. The introduction of negligible amounts of these elements into the soil immediately corrects the matter, so these fertilizers are called micronutrients. Boron made in the form of borax. The salts of these elements are taken at the tip of a penknife and dissolved in a bucket of water, which is poured over pot and tub plants, as is the usual fertilizer.
Fertilizer watering is applied after the plant has taken root after planting or transplanting and has begun to grow, and watering is repeated after one to two weeks depending on the state of the plant.
The amount of solution applied to one plant is determined by its state, mainly the power of the root system. In the initial phases of growth, less fertilizer is required than in subsequent phases. It is impossible to water fertilizers just transplanted plants, sick and dormant. Friendly family, Tradescantia, indoor grapes and papyrus can be fed throughout the year.
In potted plants, fertilizer irrigation should permeate the whole lump, but not drain on the saucer. Two hours before fertilizing the plant with the dried earth, it is poured with clean water.
When watering with a fertilizer solution, it is necessary to ensure that it does not get on the leaves and other plant organs; in case of solution the plant is sprayed with water.
The stores sell ready-made fertilizer mixtures indicating what group of plants they are designed for and in what quantities they should be applied.
Plant fertilizing with organic fertilizers gives good results, but for sanitary and hygienic reasons not all types of these fertilizers can be applied in rooms. Of organic fertilizers, you can widely use only horn chips or horn flour, from which the infusion is prepared, and water from washing fresh meat. This is a very good and strong fertilizer for all houseplants, promoting excellent growth.
Infusion of fresh cow dung or bird droppings should be prepared outside the dwelling. For this purpose, one-liter jar of manure or litter is diluted with a bucket of water and stirred daily for one to two weeks with a stick. Fertilizer is considered ready when no gas bubbles are released from it. Before watering the plants, the infusion of bird droppings is diluted with a double or triple amount of water, and the manure is not diluted with water.
Care for flowers at home
But to engage in floriculture is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. Enough to carefully study the basic rules of care, to assess their financial capabilities and make sure that you are ready to allocate some amount of time for some activities.
You should also consult with experienced growers and adopt the basic basics of caring for greenery for a room greenhouse. In an era where everything is controlled by high-tech tools, finding any information is easy. The main thing is desire, and a beautiful flower can please you in a short period of time.
In addition to decorative purposes, green friends play an important role in enriching flat air with valuable oxygen. They also serve as an effective filter that can clean the air of harmful impurities. But for the cultivation of indoor plants to be successful, and the different stages of their growth and development do not give you a lot of problems and troubles, it is important to deal with all content features. Today we will talk about the care of indoor plants and consider the basic subtleties of this occupation.
Care for indoor flowers
Caring for indoor plants at home can depend on many factors, because there are varieties that take root in the new environment, while remaining unpretentious, while others require difficult handling. Some specimens can do without water for a whole year, however, in most cases this is a rare exception to the rule. All other plants need proper care.
A beginner florist should know that the content of beautiful exotic greenery is a demanding and complex task. To grow truly elegant vegetation one has to sacrifice one’s own strength and time. However, after the first flowers appear in your house and you start caring for them, everything will be much simpler and go “like clockwork” in the future.
More experienced owners of "green friends" argue that remembering the basic features of caring for your favorite plants is not as difficult as it may seem initially. Most varieties are able to notify the owner of the need for transplanting, feeding, pruning or additional irrigation with their appearance, so the care is greatly simplified. And today a novice grower can find a lot of schedules and schemes for the care of a plant.
How to care for indoor flowers. Optimal lighting
An important condition for proper care of plants at home is providing comfortable lighting. It is important to understand that the lack of light, as well as its surplus, differently affect certain types of green space. Choosing the location of flowers in the room The following principles should be followed:
- The most light-loving plants. These include cacti, spotty, flowering plants, plants with succulent leaves and others. For the normal cultivation of such flowers should install them on window sills and balconies. However, in the heat of the day it is better to hide the plants from direct exposure to aggressive ultraviolet rays,
- The most daring species that are not afraid of exposure to sunlight. Among such: geranium, begonia, cyclamen, bilbergia, lily and others. When leaving, it is advisable to put them on the southern windowsill, without using shading,
- Species that can grow in partial shade. The following plants are in this group: Aralia, Sansevieria, Ficus, Potos, Cissus. For normal growth it is recommended to place the plants near the window or opposite it,
- Shadows over light. In the list of shade-loving colors dieffenbachia, tradescantia, arrowroot and different types of ferns. Such green spaces grow great on your desktop or bookshelf,
- Able to germinate in limited light conditions. Here it is necessary to distinguish antarium, azalea, asparagus cirrus, saintpaulia and a number of other plants. Species quietly survive in low light, developing fully and efficiently,
How to care for indoor plants. Watering
Virtually all types of indoor plants require regular watering. And if some need daily contact with water, others calmly survive watering once a month. Despite this, flower growers distinguish a number of basic recommendations and rules that should be followed when caring for plants at home. Such tips will be relevant for different varieties and varieties:
- If speak about spring period, then at this time it is better to provide flowers with abundant watering, which is explained by the rapid growth of new shoots and the activation of growth,
- In summer time watering becomes moderate and increases as the average daily temperature rises,
- Already in the autumn irrigation intensity is reduced, which is necessary to achieve a winter minimum,
- In winter time in many plant species, a so-called rest period begins, when watering is extremely rare. In addition, some varieties quietly do without watering throughout the winter season,
Representatives of tropical plants or owners of especially lush and lush foliage need high humidity. In turn, more patient species live well in rooms with dry air. In any case, regular spraying and wiping with a damp cloth is indispensable.
You should also select a number of plants that can fully grow only in trays with wet pebbles, which do not touch the ground in a pot. If the variety has leafy leaves, it is strictly forbidden to carry out the spraying procedure. Given these recommendations, you can avoid many problems with growing beautiful greens at home.
Temperature, transplanting and cropping
Most well-known indoor plants live and develop freely at a temperature of 18 degrees Celsius in summer and 10 degrees in winter. For example, plants such as ivy are not at all afraid of drafts or sudden changes in temperature, while everyone else may die if the air temperature in the room decreases rapidly.
Replace the old ground with a new one and increase the size of the pot it is necessary in those cases if the flower grows intensively and does not fit in the previous capacity. Also, transplantation is best done with the resumption of active growth, but the absence of formed roots. Some species need to be transplanted once every 2−3 years. Experts advise not to touch the old plants that have managed to grow to impressive size. In this case, it is enough to replace the top layer of the earth with a new, fresh soil. Transplanting such old flowers may be the last for them.
Some indoor plants need regular pruning of stretched shoots.. In addition, trimming activities will be an indispensable solution if you want to give the flower a decorative shape.
And this blooming handsome man can only be grown by experienced flower growers. The flower is bright, festive, striking in a riot of colors and malachite greens. In order for cyclamen to enjoy its flowering in winter, special conditions are required.
What care require tuberous indoor plants (cyclamen)? How to care for them in winter to please their lush and so short flowering?
Temperature: the main parameter of a healthy plant. In winter, daytime temperatures are +13. +15 at night +5. +10. Such drops provide bloom for a month. At higher temperatures, the flower ceases to bloom. It may even reset the foliage, "deciding" that it is time to rest.
Does not tolerate stuffy rooms and stale air. Therefore, it is necessary to air the room more often, but avoid drafts. Cyclamen does not like them.
Watering: flower demanding careful watering. Do not pour water into the middle of the outlet. Water, falling on a tuber, leads to its rotting. Water strictly on the edge of the pot, ensuring that the top layer of soil dries well.
In summer, watering should be reduced, but not completely stopped. The plant continues to grow and build up the root system. In order not to be mistaken with watering in the summer, you should pay attention to the condition of the sheet. As soon as the leaves lose their elasticity, it is necessary to water the plant abundantly.
Cyclamen is undemanding to water hardness. The main thing is that the water was separated and had a temperature of 1-2 degrees below room temperature. In winter it is good to spray a flower, but before the appearance of flowers. Buds do not tolerate such manipulations. They instantly showered, and if left, the flowers will be in brown spots.
Shine: bright, but diffused. Cyclamen feels good on the eastern and western windows. In the summer should pritenyat plant from sunlight. Cyclamen - a flower of a short day, does not need light exposure.
Following all of the above, knowing how to properly care for indoor plants, a novice in indoor floriculture will avoid many mistakes and troubles.
Children and indoor flowers
A young child is very kind to the surrounding nature. He will be happy to water, loosen and spray the flower. The main thing - to know how to care for indoor plants. Children need to tell and explain in detail what a particular room dweller likes.
A good idea is to give the child the flower you like, it will belong only to him. And the baby will be tenderly and with great love will take care of your pet.
A young plant will grow with its little owner. An invisible connection appears between them. The child becomes more responsible, he understands that without his attention, the fragile plant will simply die.
And the plant, feeling the care of the little owner, begins to grow actively, delighting those around with lush greenery. And if it is a flowering plant, it will delight the baby and his parents with abundant and beautiful flowering.
The relationship between the child and his indoor plant will last for many years. And this relationship has a beneficial effect on the baby and, of course, on his favorite flower. The main thing - to successfully pick the right plant for the baby.
That's all the simple rules of how to care for indoor plants.
What pests and dangers threaten indoor plants?
Care for indoor plants in the home can not be complete without providing reliable protection against diseases and pests. The high intensity of infection is seen in the summerwhen plants are exposed to different pests. Nevertheless, a regular inspection of the home greenhouse will not be superfluous at any other time of the year.
If you notice that the appearance of “green friends” has deteriorated a lot, some strange objects have appeared on the leaves, flowering shoots or stalks you need to quickly isolate the flower from others and carry out a series of procedures for cleaning up dangerous pests.
Flower treatment is carried out until the problem is completely eliminated. If you do not take prompt and radical measures, the plant may simply die.
Noticing a sharp decline in growth activity and intense leaf fall, you should evaluate the condition of the plant and determine the cause of such troubles. Today, there are many specific diseases and problems that are characteristic of specific varieties and species. To maintain flowers in good condition, it is important to regularly take some measures and monitor the health of the home greenhouse.
It should be remembered that some plants may contain poisonous juicewhile others are completely harmless. In any case, the care of such plantations at home should be subject to certain safety rules. The main thing is to carefully study the vending plant, read the tips and properly care for him.
In most cases, poisonous juice does not cause the florist any difficulties. It is enough to carry out all care activities in gloves and prevent contact of the flower with children or pets. However, some species are particularly dangerous for people with sensitive skin and allergies. When choosing such a variety, you need to carefully consider whether it makes sense to start a dangerous plant at home.
Some recommendations for the care of indoor plants at home
The main feature of the successful cultivation of indoor plants - regular care with love and attention.
- There are a number of, at first glance, minor details, includinggiving withered flowers or removing dried leaveswhich can improve the growth activity of the “green friend” and protect it from additional problems.
- A loving florist should carefully study specific varieties of indoor plants, monitor their condition and consult with professionals about a particular case,
- It is important to understand that general rules of care and maintenance may not be relevant for specific varieties. and varieties of indoor plants. It is equally impossible to care for different colors. For some of them, such an attitude can become very dangerous and lead to death. Therefore, in order to avoid such consequences, it is advisable to assess in advance your potential and read the description of the variety. Also, consultation with experienced flower growers will not interfere. They will tell you how to grow a healthy and luxurious plant that will turn your home into something special, stylish, cozy and warm.
Do not forget that any information of interest can be found in the public domain at various floricultural resources and portals for florists. The Internet is a huge base of very different content, and tips on caring for houseplants are no exception. Try to explore your favorite topic as much as possible. Chat with friends who have a lot of tropical flowers growing in the apartment. Try asking questions on the forums on the web. The main thing - never despair.
The effort, time and sometimes financial savings will surely turn you into a pleasant result in the form of a brightly flowering plant with unique buds, a rare form and other features. In fact, caring for indoor plants is a productive activity and you will never regret that you decided to do this. Beautiful flowers will be able to transform the dull interior of your room beyond recognition, making it truly elegant, creative and presentable. Successes in self-care for indoor plants.