Ornamental shrubs - a huge group of garden dwellers, which has found wide application in landscape design. This category of flora is very diverse - representatives differ in size, specificity of cultivation, frost resistance, decorative indicators. Of particular value for garden decoration are variegated (variegated) varieties and varieties. Their foliage is partially devoid of the usual green pigment, so the cultivation of such crops has some nuances. The most beautiful and unpretentious representatives can be easily attributed to the variegated fit and fit, which is so simple that even a novice can handle it. The article will tell about the most popular varieties of culture, features of their cultivation, reproduction and use for decorating the garden.
Dören variegated - origin, description, photo
Dören belongs to the Cornel family, the Latin name of the genus is Cornus, which means “horn”. Representatives of the genus received such a name for unusually heavy and durable wood. The second name - dogwood, comes from the Turkic language and means "red". This is the color of the branch in most cultivars.
The genus Cornus includes about 50 species, divided by morphological characters into 4 subgenera. Most of the representatives have shrub habitus, rarely there are specimens in the form of trees up to five meters high. Shrub form is widely used in landscape design, the growth of 3-4 meters.
Know! Species diversity also includes Canadian grassland, which can be grown as an alternative to classic lawn.
Most of the wild relatives are indigenous to Siberia, Mongolia, China and Japan. They are accustomed to survive in difficult environmental conditions, therefore, are distinguished by high endurance. Shrubs are not afraid of frost and heat, they are undemanding to the soil, easily tolerate a little shading, pollution and dust of city streets.
Variegated forms obtained by breeding, they are characterized by a high decorative effect. The leaves of the botanical species are large (10–12 cm long), opposite. The plate is reaped, the top is dark green, the bottom shade is lighter due to the presence of hairs. Saplings quickly turn into fluffy thick pillows, the girth of the crown reaches 3-5 meters. Most of the varieties are deciduous, but there are also evergreen representatives.
The variegated garden forms have foliage of various colors, with a border or specks of light shades. In autumn, a variegated shrub transforms by changing the color of the crown, depending on the variety, to yellow, purple, crimson, coral, pink. Flowering occurs very early, but the ensuing berries ripen only in autumn. Small white flowers are collected in an umbellate inflorescence with a diameter of up to 5 cm. In some varieties, the inflorescences are provided with four large bracts (bracts), which are enlarged leaves of the sepal.
It is interesting! Bracts are an advanced mechanism for attracting insects.
Luxurious foliage - not the only advantage, it is perfectly complemented by the bright colors of the shoots. The twigs are green, olive, yellowish, but the most common shade is red, which is what the name of the culture in Turkic says.
In cornel, ordinary fruits are edible, used for culinary purposes for making jam, jams, decoctions, but the variegated counterparts have berries that are poisonous for humans, which birds enjoy eating with pleasure. Juicy drupes contain one or two elongated oval bones. Seed germination reaches 100%, but seed reproduction is rarely used, because you can quickly produce offspring by vegetative means.
From high-strength wood, small items such as buttons, arrowheads, cane handles and weapons, and even gears for watch movements have long been made. In America, flowering varieties are symbols of individual states.
Cornel ordinary since ancient times used by people for food purposes, the history of culture has more than five thousand years. It is not surprising that in such a long time the plant has become overgrown with legends. Mention of it is found in various religions. Thus, in Christianity, they say that the cross on which Jesus was crucified was made of the very massive tree that grew in the Jerusalem neighborhood - dogwood. After the Resurrection, Christ saved the trees from evil glory, turning them into low shrubs, from which it was no longer possible to crucify. Flowers, he gave four cross-shaped petals, as a symbol of the Holy Cross.
It is interesting! According to European mythology, the shrub appeared thanks to Romulus. The founder of Rome after holding the boundaries of the future city plunged a spear into the ground. From it grew a magnificent dogwood with red berries.
Since the motherland of exot is the East, there are most legends and tales about it. Shaitanov berry - so unpleasant name gave oriental mythology dogwood. When Allah divided fruit trees among people, Shaitan also stood in line for his copy. He begged for Allah dogwood bush, hoping to eat berries first, because he blossomed very early. Guarding Shaitan harvest, but he still did not want to ripen. And now all the fruits were collected, and the fruits were colored crimson, but remained the same sour. Then Shaitan surrendered and gave shrubs to people, and in late autumn they gathered a rich harvest. In retaliation, the evil spirit doubled the harvest of the following year, stealing the heat of the sun. People were delighted at first, and then barely suffered a harsh winter. Since then, in the East, there is a sign that the richer the harvest of red berries, the colder the winter.
Popular types of turf
All variegated garden forms are derived from the following botanical species of turf:
- male (ordinary),
White drayna or svidina is a species on the basis of which a mass of variegated varieties was obtained. Its wild relatives love the area with a wet lime ground, most often grow near rivers, in marshy forests, thickets of other shrubs. Distributed throughout Russia, is found in China and Japan.
Know! Svidina refers to mesotrophs, i.e. plants growing on soils with an average level of microelements. Although she loves wet soils, she does not tolerate prolonged waterlogging.
The height of the botanical species does not exceed 3–3.5 m, cultural representatives are much more compact (up to 1.5–2 m). Thin upright shoots branch well. The color of the bark from coral to black and red. The young growth is covered with a layer of wax. The foliage is large, dark green. The lower part of the wrinkled plates is gray. The shape of the leaf is broadly ovate, the length reaches 10-12 cm. The autumn dress of svidina is beautiful - the foliage turns purple-red.
This species is highly decorative, it tends to bloom twice per season. The first time tiny white flowers, gathered in shields with a diameter of 50 mm, bloom in June. Summer bloom is very lush, lasts 10-14 days. The second wave comes at the beginning of autumn, when the first buds have already turned into bluish-white round berries. You can observe such a picture when an instance reaches the age of 2-3 years. Seed material has a 100% germination rate, but is rarely used for breeding.
The advantages of culture include: high threshold of frost resistance, drought resistance, the absence of special requirements for soil conditions, easy reproduction process, environmental stability, decorative appearance. Svidina is very plastic, it is easy to give it any shape by cutting, you can even turn it into a tree. In a culture of over 270 years.
On a note! Due to its resistance to dust and exhaust gases, svidina is widely used to create hedges.
Consider the most popular varieties svidiny:
- Argenteomarginata - silver-bordered. On the edge of the leaves there is a gentle whitish-cream border. The color of the bark on the shoots is red, the autumn outfit is crimson. The height is 3–3.5 m, it needs shading, since the sun rims on the sun.
- Kern. This garden form is covered with golden dots.
- Siberia (Siberian). Low bushes have an extensive crown, consisting of bright red branches. Gentle green foliage changes its color to a brick shade by autumn.
- Kesselring. Height 3 meters, shoots black and red with purple tint. Autumn caftan bright purple-red.
- Aurea. Growth 1.5-2 m, red twigs. The plate is broad, ovoid. The brownish foliage is littered with dirty pink spots, gradually turns yellow, and by the autumn becomes reddish. Needs good lighting.
- Benshi Compact cultivar growth 1.5-2 m. Young shoots covered with reddish bark. The foliage is small, covered with cream and pink specks.
- Elegancema Lush growth reaches a height of 3 m. Young growths are covered with bright scarlet bark. Leaves are greyish-green in color with white edging. This variety also has the form of Aurea with yellow-motley leaves.
- Cream cracker The undersized cultivar is 100-150 cm high. The shoots are cast with the color of wine, the foliage is in golden edging.
- Ivory. Compact cultivar growth of 1-1.5 m has a spherical crown. The branches are red, green foliage with a wide white edging.
- Siberian variegata. Two-meter shrub has coral-red twigs. A thin snow-white rim runs along the edge of the green leaves. Autumn outfit purple-pink.
- Gauchoulty. Height 2-2.5 m, the bark shade is rich red. Leaves gracefully droop. The plate is bordered with yellow edging, the surface is dotted with yellow, white and pink specks.
- Sleep. Height up to two meters. The leaves are edged with a wide yellow border, in some plates the surface is completely golden.
Know! These varieties tolerate frost well, but at a young age they require the organization of a winter shelter.
Dören koza is otherwise called Japanese, because its wild relatives come from Japan and China. The natural species is a tree or shrub up to 9 m. In culture, it is a shrub 5-6 m high, which does not tolerate the overmoistening of the soil, loves acidic substrates and slight shading. The leaves are oval dark green, the bottom of the plate is cast a blue tint. In the autumn, the crown becomes yellow or bright red. The flowers are equipped with large bracts up to 5 cm long. The average winter hardiness makes frost up to 30 degrees. Flowering at the end of May, fastens many juicy edible fruits 2-3 cm long, resembling raspberry berry only with a tart taste.
The most popular varieties: Gold Star with white bracts and leaves covered with a golden pattern, Milky Way with cream bracts and Schmetterling with white and pink bracts. The height of the cultivars 5-7 m.
Svidina red (pictured) distributed in the European part of Russia, grows near water bodies, along with other shrubs. It reaches a height of 4 m, has a lush branchy crown with hanging branches. Shoots are covered with bark of various shades from green to red-violet. The elliptic leaflets are bright green above, slightly pubescent, glaucous or silver below from the thick edge of the forest. Autumn dress bright scarlet. Flowering occurs in mid-June, lasts 2-3 weeks. Tiny flowers are collected in shields of 50-70 pieces, 7 cm inflorescence in diameter. Ties a lot of black berries, similar to peas.
Attention! The winter hardiness of the red svidina is not good enough, it needs a shelter organization. Svidina feels good in the urban environment, is not afraid of the shadow, drought-resistant, undemanding to soil resources.
Among the decorative variegated forms are especially good:
- Svidina Mitcha with leaves covered with small golden specks and branches of yellow shade.
- Variegata form, having yellow-speckled leaflets. At Variegata young twigs are green, as they grow older they become dark maroon.
About cornel, you already know that it has long been used by people to collect useful berries. Wild relatives grow in the forests, on the edges. Bush prefers fertilized soil with a large proportion of limestone, likes good lighting. Natural species are tall trees with a height of 7-8 m, but often bush-shaped individuals. The bark is covered with cracks, in young twigs yellow, in mature brown. The leaves are large, shiny above, pubescent below.
It blooms from the end of April 15-17 days, the buds open before the leaves. The flowers are small with yellowish bracts, 15-20 pieces in dense shields. The shape, color, taste, size of berries depend on the variety. Very frost-resistant, shade-tolerant, drought-resistant. It prefers clay soils containing limestone. This species is a real long-liver; some trees are 250 years old.
Know! Some varieties are bred just for picking fruit, have high yields.
Among the garden forms with motley leaves are popular:
- Aurea - variegated variety with yellow leaves,
- Elegantissima - cream plates are dotted with white spots, gradually acquire a reddish tint,
- Variyegata - a white edging runs along the edge of the plate,
- Aureauvariegata and Argentevovariegata - the leaves are covered with stripes of golden or white color, the border is wide, torn.
Also of interest are garden forms with different types of crown, for example, pyramidalis and fruits of a different color - snow-white, yellowish.
The showy variety comes from North America. Small bushes growing up to 2.5 m grow in sunny forests with high humidity, near water bodies and even climb into the mountains. They give a large number of root suckers, red arched branches easily root, in contact with the soil. The leaves are bright green, the flowers are gathered in shields with a diameter of 5 cm. It blooms in May, bluish-white berries ripen in autumn. The culture is winter-hardy, has varieties with variegated leaves - Albo-marginata with a white border, white gold with gray-green leaves with a white edging.
Attention! Culture requires a radical pruning every few years. So it is possible to achieve greater pomp and better flowering.
This species is not able to tolerate drought, wind-resistant, winter-hardy, undemanding to the soil, easily tolerates short-term flooding. The compact variety Kelsey is ideal as a 50-75 cm high border, sometimes used as a ground cover, needs shelter.
Blossoming trees from North America are very similar to their Japanese counterpart. The species has a tree habit of 4-6 meters in height. Flowers with large bracts bloom before the leaves. He likes moderate shading, acidic moist substrates, winter-hardy. Autumn outfit crimson. Popular varieties Cherokee Chef, Rubra and Cherokee Princesses are distinguished by the color of bracts. They are pink-red at the first cultivar, Rubras are red, and Princess white.
Dören variegated outdoor planting
Despite the frost resistance of most varieties, gardeners prefer to engage in planting in the spring, so that the summer bushes are stronger and easier to endure wintering. During the autumn disembarkation, it is necessary to choose the right time so that the eastern guest can fully take root. It is necessary to plant 4-5 weeks before frosts, they plant it in spring when the earth melts, but the buds are still closed. Terms of planting depend on the region, because the establishment of warm weather and the onset of the first frost in each region occurs at different times.
Choosing a landing site
Variegated plant varieties prefer to grow in well-lit areas, because their leaf blades are partially devoid of chlorophyll.
Important! When choosing a place, it is necessary to rely on the characteristics of an individual variety. So, Aurea has a beautiful golden color only in the sun, while Argenteomarginata fading in the sun and the hybrid loses its decorative effect.
Most cultivars do not care where to grow - they are lighted areas and tracery penumbra. Despite the love of moisture, it is important to protect the root system from groundwater. For this, a drainage layer of broken brick is laid in the landing hole. It is also important to take into account the parameters of adult specimens, because they tend to grow rapidly. It is undesirable to grow dogwood near fruit bushes, tall coniferous trees. This feature is associated with the close bedding of the root system to the soil surface, the plants will conflict for territory, soil resources and life-giving moisture. Therefore, it is important that each individual be located from neighbors and buildings at a distance of 3-5 m.
Representatives of the genus Cornus develop well on fertile nutrient grounds with high water-holding capacity. Suitable loam, land with a lot of sand. It is important to tidy the acidity of the soil. For species that prefer a sour soil, peat, crushed coniferous bark is added. Varieties needing lime soils, make lime-powder and dolomite flour on the site. Dig the site, remove the weeds.
On a note! These activities can not be carried out, because the oriental guest is very unpretentious and will suffer any hardships.
Инструкция по посадке:
- подбирайте посадочный материал возрастом 2—3 года, он легче приживается на новом месте,
- if the sapling root system has dried out a bit, put it for a few hours in a bucket with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate,
- prepare the wells with a depth of 70–80 cm in diameter, the spacing between the specimens is at least 3-4 m, in order to plant a hedge the distance is reduced to one meter,
- mix the soil out of the hole with organic matter (humus, compost), add a complete mineral complex,
- form a slide from the soil mixture, hammer in a support stake 10 cm from the center of the slide. Place a sapling on it, spread the roots, gradually fill the pit with the remnants of the substrate,
- during planting, make sure that the root neck is 3 cm above the soil level, after watering it will take the correct position, equaling the surface of the hole,
- pour 2-3 buckets of water under the bush, tie up to the support and grumble the surface of the hole with humus.
Tip! Want to admire the beautiful berries of dogwood? Then plant at least two individuals with a step of 3-5 meters from each other.
Care for variegated bolls after planting
The ornamental shrub is so unpretentious that care for it contains only two components - regular irrigation and pruning. Fertilization, though not related to the required items, will help support immunity, increase decorative effect. In the spring, they usually bring in a full mineral complex at the rate of 200 g for each specimen, and in the summer they are fed with compost or infusion of a smoker. Potash fertilizers, an infusion of wood ash are also required. From midsummer, fertilizing is not done so that the culture can prepare for winter.
Young plants landed in spring should be irrigated daily, but fairly moderately. Adult specimens need 20 liters of water twice a week. Watch the level of natural precipitation, if necessary, water less frequently so that the earth can dry out, otherwise the risk of fungal infection increases. From September, transfer the bushes to moderate irrigation. And do not forget to mulch the soil so that the moisture does not evaporate too quickly.
The optimum temperature is 18–20⁰C. If the droughty hot weather is long standing, water the green pet more often. Frost resistance of most varieties allows you to grow them without shelter for the winter in the zone of Central Russia. If the description of the cultivar indicates that he needs shelter, be sure to follow this requirement. Protection requires a shallow root system. For the winter, lay a layer of humus in the bristle space with a height of 20-25 cm.
Important! If you grow less frost-resistant species in Siberia or in the Urals, build an air-dry shelter.
Regular pruning is a guarantee of health and decorativeness of variegated dogwoods. Culture is prone to rapid growth and without pruning turns into a sloppy pillow. With this procedure, it is easy to give the bush the desired shape. In adult individuals, shoots are pruned more strongly, removing old and dry branches, damaged by cold, pests, and disrupting the shape of the crown. The procedure is performed every spring and during the summer as needed.
For variegated specimens, there is a rule - mercilessly cut branches with simple foliage. Since variegated cultivars are chimeras, they constantly strive to regain their former appearance. If the branches with the usual leaves are not cut, in a few years the individuals will completely reborn and become green.
Adult plant transplant
Some gardeners, having decided to correct the design of the garden, ruthlessly dig up adult bushes to move them to a new place. Such stress even our unpretentious oriental guest can not survive. Therefore, for transplantation of an adult individual there can be only good reasons:
- wrong plot,
- incorrectly composed soil mixture,
- bad choice of neighbors.
Remember! Because of the listed items, the culture loses its decorativeness, suffers, often gets sick, struggles for survival, resources and space.
Features transplant bush
Adult specimens are best transplanted in the fall after the end of leaf fall. Spring transplantation is carried out strictly until the culture is out of dormancy. The root system of adult individuals is located within the crown. To transplant a bush, dig around the bush a little further than the perimeter of the crown projection. Carefully remove the earthen room and put it on the film. Wrap the film in to protect it from damage. With the help of cars transport to the place of transplantation. Land in prepared pits, having crossed an earthy bed and filled up the gaps with a prepared substrate. Condense the soil, pour heavily. After absorbing moisture, mulch the pustvolny space with dry humus.
The hedge is moved to a new place in the trench. The depth and width of the trench should be 1.5-2 times the size of the earthy coma. The bottom of the excavated trench is equipped with drainage, lined with a layer of nutritious soil mixture.
Breeding trash variegated
Culture can be propagated by seed and vegetative means - divide the bush, root cuttings or cuttings.
Seed propagation is more often used for growing large quantities of planting material. Despite the high germination of seeds, which tends to 100%, gardeners prefer to propagate the crop vegetatively.
Important! Seed propagation rarely manages to preserve the varietal qualities completely.
The shrub is actively fruiting from the age of 3-4 years. Sowing material is usually collected in the fall and sown immediately in the ground so that the seeds go through the process of natural stratification. If sowing is planned only in spring, dried seeds are sown 8-10 weeks before planting in open ground. Prepare a loose fertile substrate that absorbs water well. Sand or sawdust will do. Some people prefer to put sphagnum in crushed moss. Place the seed in layers with the substrate and place it in the basement or cellar, where the temperature is constantly maintained at 5⁰C. It is permissible to put the container in the refrigerator.
The prepared seeds are planted to a depth of 5 cm. It is best to place 5-10 individuals per square meter of the bed. Care consists of weeding, regular irrigation, mineral and organic fertilizing. In the winter, be sure to cover seedlings or move to the basement. The seedling will become an adult only in 5-7 years.
Flexible twigs are very easy to bend down to the ground to get cuttings. Do it in early spring by sprinkling the soil with a sprout or by sinking it into a shallow groove. For a year, roots will sprout in places of contact between nodes with soils. Next spring, cut off the twig from the mother liquor and divide into several parts. Land on a permanent place. Flowering occurs in 3 years.
Cuttings are cut in early spring in the process of annual pruning. You need healthy twigs containing 3-4 nodes. Mix the humus with the ground and plant the cuttings into the ground, deepening 3 cm. Put the container with the cuttings in the greenhouse or cover with transparent material on top to create a greenhouse effect. Irrigate the cuttings regularly, feed them with organic matter and minerals once. By the autumn a strong root system will develop and the young individual will be able to land on a new place.
Know! Cornels have a high degree of rooting of cuttings, additional treatment with growth stimulants is not necessary.
An adult specimen can be divided into several parts, but this method is used less frequently, since it is a transplant that is highly stressed and weakens the immune system.
The bush is dug as for transplanting in early spring. Release the roots from the ground, using a knife, cut the mother liquor into several parts so that each has several shoots and a strong root lobe. Process the slices with crushed coal and land on a permanent place.
Nuances of planting and caring for variegated dören in the Moscow region
Unpretentious culture grows well even in the harsh climate of the Moscow region. It should be planted in 2-3 decade of September or in early spring (in April). Planting and care is no different from the technology described above. It is only important to pay attention to the preparation of young shoots for the winter. Pull the twigs and wrap lutrasilom, burlap. Pristvolnoe space highly grumble humus. Mulching is also necessary for adults, because their root system lies in the upper soil horizons. In the spring, simply prune the frost-damaged branches.
Dören white: planting and care in the open field, photo
Svidina white described a little higher, this highly ornamental and sustainable plant obeys all the rules of planting and care, which have already been described. The most important part of care is pruning, once every 2–3 years, completely remove the shoots to stimulate decoration, lush flowering. Then the culture will decorate your garden with bright colors for a long time.
On a note! Do not worry, the bush will quickly recover from such a cardinal haircut.
Diseases and pests shit variegated
Dogwood health is excellent. Almost all pests bypass the Eastern guest side, and fungal diseases, characterized by various spots and the presence of rotting sites, appear from the wrong care. Among the pests, only aphids are noted, occasionally snails and slugs attack the crown. Aphi exterminate systemic insecticides or folk methods - soap solution, infusion of garlic, bitter pepper, dandelion. If caustic materials are used as mulch, snails will not be able to get close to the green pet. Also a simple way is to collect them manually, set traps or use special preparations for destruction.
On a note! Slugs fear the smell of bleach. Pour the “Whiteness” into a small container and place it next to the oriental guest.
In case of a fungal disease, adjust the irrigation regime. Wait for the soil to dry before the next watering. Cut off the damaged branches, process the infected specimen with a fungicide - Fitosporin, Fundazol.
Dören variegated in landscape design
Variegated cultivars are highly valued by landscape designers, because even in cloudy weather and after flowering, they retain an elegant appearance. Gardeners especially like the fact that the culture changes the autumn outfit, decorating the emptying garden with bright colors.
Due to the high decorativeness and plasticity of the woods, it can be used to create bright groups, composing different varieties or creating a composition with barberry, dogrose, short growing junipers. Viburnum Buldenezh will be an excellent neighbor; a combination of bright clusters of viburnum and bluish-white berries of a cornel will decorate the autumn garden. By trimming, you can create a neat pillow or garden figure on the lawn, arrange a hedge.
Dören variegated will help in creating bright spots of garden design, decorate the autumn garden, in return asking only for a properly executed planting and compliance with the rules of care. Do not forget to carry out pruning so that the luxurious motley leaves continue to appear again and again, and the bush does not become wild thickets.
Description and popular varieties
The leaves of the tree are 5−6 cm. They are opposite in type, elliptical in shape. Veins are visible on the surface. On top of the leaves have a dark green color, bottom - gray. The flowers of the shrub are small, they are collected in compact inflorescences. Derain white variegated blooms 2 times: in June and September. The shrub also has fruits - blue drupes resembling berries.
Garden culture begins to bear fruit from the age of three. White Dören is valued for its decorativeness and shade tolerance. The plant tolerates cold. Derain grows well when planted in fertile soil. Shrub unpretentious care.
In gardening cultivated several varieties of plants. Most requested:
- Derain white argenteo-marginata. The bark of this plant is red, the leaves - rich green with a light rim. Argenteo-marginat changes color in autumn. Foliage becomes dark.
- Elegancema If you do not adjust this shrub, it will reach a height of 3 m. The plant has beautiful broad branches, its leaves are green with a cream border and characteristic spots.
- Siberia. This shrub is undersized. It has red shoots and light green foliage. Variety of Variegata grows by 1.7 m. The border at the leaves is beige with characteristic strokes. In autumn, the foliage takes on a purple color.
- Derain white Aurea. The plant is distinguished by yellowish leaves. His shoots are red, the flowers are cream.
- Derain white Shpet. Garden culture has brown-red shoots. The border of the leaves is original, uneven.
Derain is variegated, varieties of which differ in leaf color, are planted separately. The plant looks great as a hedge.
This shrub has the shape of a ballreaching a height and width of at least 3 meters. It is very easy to tolerate pruning, but some gardeners, on the contrary, like their hanging branches. The color combination of branches and foliage gives this plant an attractive appearance when decorating a garden plot. Depending on the type of this shrub, the leaves have a green color with different edging.
It begins to bloom in late spring or early summer. White flowers, collected in buds, reach up to 5 centimeters in diameter. In the autumn, after the end of flowering, inedible berries appear on the variegated tree. Since this plant is frost resistantIt is used in the north in the design of garden designs.
Famous shrub species
- White dören. Fluffy shrub with beautiful motley leaves with white border. If you look at it from afar, the plant will seem completely white. Perfectly transfers the shadow side. Autumn becomes red-purple.
- Duren Kowza. Possesses at the top of dark green foliage, rolling down with a bluish tinge. During flowering on the bushes appear beautiful green-yellow flowers. In autumn, the shrub becomes bright yellow. Edible berries appear after flowering.
- Dören red. Very tall shrub, sometimes reaching a height of 4 meters. The leaves of the plant are rounded in a bright green color. In autumn, the leaves turn red, hence the name. During flowering small white flowers appear. After flowering, small black berries appear on the bushes.
Landing shit variegated
Any landing begins with a choice of a place on the site taking into account landscaping. Since the variegated grass grows well, it grows well on the sunny side as well as in the shade, which makes it easier to choose a landing site. Taking into account that the shrub will eventually grow, you should not plant it near tall trees and other shrubs. The soil, it is desirable to be loose sandy, rather than clay.
After waiting for the land to warm up sufficiently in spring, you can start planting a young plant. This will help the wood to quickly adapt to a new place. When planting must take into account some secrets.
- Compost or humus must be added to the prepared pit. You can add and mineral fertilizers.
- If the soil is too wet, it is necessary to drain.
- Sapling must be chosen by age up to 4 years.
- If the seedling has dry roots, it should be placed in a bucket of water for a while.
When all the nuances are taken into account, you can start planting. It is not necessary to lower the sapling too deeply, only for the ground to cover the root system. Planted bush should be poured abundantly and the earth to burst. Then, around the bush should be sprinkled with mulch.
Shrub Breeding Types
Reproduction by seeds gives a good result. For planting seeds are taken from plants not younger than 3 years. Seeds are planted in the ground in spring, but you can plant them in the winter. For this, a mixture of sand, sawdust and moss is prepared. Seeds are planted in an amount of from 5 to 15 per square meter. This method is rarely used by gardeners, as it is very long. Shrubs reach normal size only after a few years.
Much faster reproduction cuttings. In spring, when pruning the bushes, the material for breeding is chosen. On cuttings must be 7-9 buds. Saplings from cuttings are prepared all season, and in the fall they are planted in the ground according to the landscape design.
Gardeners most often use layering. This is a very simple and low-cost way. It is usually held in spring. Next to the selected bushes need to make small grooves. Long stems, descending from the bush, put in these grooves and fix something. Cover the stem with earth and water it abundantly. During the season, the layers will take root and can be transplanted next spring.
Another method of reproduction is the division of the bush. In the spring, a part of the root system with spikes is separated from the dug bush. Then young specimens are planted on the site, without disturbing the landscape design.
Derenga bushes care
In general, this plant is considered unpretentious and all care will consist in regular watering, pruning and feeding. Young bushes should be watered daily with a small amount of water. Older shrubs are watered only during the dry season 2 times a week. Two buckets of water will be enough for each bush. The care of the shrubs includes loosening the land around the plants. Его всегда надо проводить после полива и дождя, давая возможность кислороду поступать к корневой системе растения.
Главной частью ухода за кустами является их обрезка. Во время обрезки кустам можно придавать формы, вписывающиеся в ландшафтный дизайн. В это же время удаляются засохшие и больные стебли. Для того чтобы кустарник лучше развивался, его надо подкармливать. Подкармливать можно растворами навоза и куриного помёта. In the spring it is necessary to add mineral fertilizers to the dressing.
Fight against diseases and pests
Dören variegated very resistant to diseases. With proper care, he can grow over the years in one place, without being ill. But still, if a plant is damaged by a fungal disease, it is necessary to cut off the diseased branches, and treat the bush with a solution of “Fundazol”. Young bushes can also svidinovoy gall midge. You can determine the swelling on the stems. These stems must be cut and burned.
Among the insects that can harm the plant, aphid. It mainly affects young bushes.. If the aphid has appeared, then all planting of the grass should be treated with “Decis” to prevent the spread of the pest. In the dry season may appear spider mite. During this period, the bushes should be sprayed with water, and the affected plants treated with a solution of any insecticide.
To plant white turf, you do not need to have any special skills. The plant is planted in March or late autumn. More often practiced autumn planting. In the spring, seedlings that have undergone wintering can actively grow, which is not very good. Garden culture is placed in the penumbra. You can plant it near the trees.
Teren is used in landscape design. It makes a magnificent hedge. Shrubs planted along fences. If a variegated variety is chosen, it should be placed in the sun, otherwise it will lose its decorative effect.
The shrub is variegated and does not make high demands on the composition of the soil, but prefers a light sandy soil. The plant takes root in loam. It is recommended to plant it in soil with a neutral level of acidity. Ideal for planting plant, which turned 3 years old. It quickly takes root in the open field and gives a large number of shoots that can be used for reproduction.
Before placing the seedling in the open ground, it is necessary to hold it in water for 4 hours. Thus, the roots will become stronger. If the seedling has a closed root system, it is not necessary to place it in water. For planting dig a trench, it should be 1/3 more earthen coma.
If the plant is planted in marshland, it is necessary to ensure high-quality drainage.. For its preparation use:
Components, taken in equal proportions, are placed on the bottom of the trench. The optimum layer thickness is 15 cm. If the groundwater does not lie nearby, you can do without drainage or lay one sand. In order for the shrub to grow well in open ground, it is necessary to prepare a soil mixture from compost and humus. After planting, the soil is compacted and water is applied. It will be necessary to perform mulching using peat. The root collar is placed 1 cm above the ground.
Shrub requires attention. So that he quickly grew and pleased with his beauty, need to make water in time, loosen the soil and remove weeds. If properly care for the plant, it will not overtake the disease and harmful insects. Young seedlings are watered once a week, adults - as needed. If the weather is dry, water should be added more often. One adult plant requires 20 liters.
After watering, you need to perform loosening, removing weeds. If the plant is planted in fertile soil, the gardener does not need to feed. However, to enhance the decorative qualities should use mineral compounds. Requires 100 grams per 1 bush. In the middle of summer it is recommended to fertilize with humus. On one bush spend 5 kg.
Young cultures are not pruned, the haircut is shown to plants that have reached the age of 3 years. It is recommended to thin out the shoots. Only strong branches are left on the plant.. The hedge is adjusted in the middle of summerafter shoots grow back. Plants with bright bark, pruned every 3 years. Cutting should be done in the spring before bud break.
It is necessary to shorten the turf by 20 cm. Thanks to the adjustment, the plant forms a large number of shoots and looks very beautiful. You can form bushes in the form of a cube, hemisphere. There is another option - to maintain the natural form. If there is no desire to carry out formative pruning, you should perform sanitary cleaning, that is, cut unnecessary branches.
White Dören is propagated in different ways. Gardeners use:
Seeds sprout slowly. It is recommended to sow them in the fall, immediately after harvest. Seed material retains its germination for 4 years. If spring planting is planned, it is necessary to stratify, that is, to hold planting material on the shelf of the refrigerator. On one square meter is placed 5−10 seeds. They are buried by 4 cm. Shoots appear after 2 years. Full shrub appears 5 years after planting seeds in the ground.
For breeding also use cuttings. In early summer, you should cut branches. Each should have 8 buds. Planting material is planted in a container filled with fertile substrate. If possible, rooting cuttings should be rooted in the greenhouse. It is necessary to moisten the soil and make mineral mixtures. In the fall the grown cuttings will form the roots, at this time the planting is carried out.
Derain variegated: varieties and varieties for planting in the garden
The name of the plant is translated as “horn”, which is associated with very heavy and durable wood of the plant. In culture, deren grows in the northern regions of our planet, but is found in the wild in the center of the African continent. In total, about 50 species are known, which include deciduous and evergreen varieties, in the photo you can see different plant species.
Derain variegated usually grows no higher than 3 meters, has the form of a sprawling shrub, but can grow to the size of a low tree. The plant looks very decorative - the bark is painted in bright brown-red tones, has a brilliant surface. The leaves of the plant are green, or bordered with a yellow or white border, which, in combination with unusual branches, looks very decorative.
Derain is a variegated bloom in the period from May to June with white flowers that reach almost 5 cm in diameter; in the fall, white-bluish berries are formed. Berries cannot be eaten, they are inedible.
The culture is quite unpretentious, Deren perfectly tolerates formative pruning, thanks to which it is very popular for decorating parks and squares and is often used in landscape design for creating colorful compositions. Excellent resistance to freezing allows you to use the variegated planting in the landscaping of the northern regions.
In botany, the following types of derens are distinguished from the genus:
Photos of various plant species convey the unspeakable charm and uniqueness of leaf color.
Planting the plant in compliance with agrotechnical requirements
Planting plants should be timed to the warm season, it is best to carry out planting work in the spring. This allows the plant to grow stronger and grow over the summer and prepared to go for the winter.
To stimulate growth in the first year of cultivation, the plant is fed with complex fertilizers, root and foliar supplements alternate. The first wintering of a young plant should be soft, for this it is useful to shelter a bush from frost. Shelter should not be excessive, as otherwise, during thaws, the plant can vypryat.
Council The place for planting a desert can be shady or sunny, it is only important not to approach the planting to tall trees. Planted shrub should have enough free space for the development of branches.
Shrub care and reproduction
Shrub care does not contain special recommendations. Watering culture requires uniform without overflows. If necessary, the bushes should be treated for pests, if any. A hedge of turf requires a periodic haircut, sometimes it needs to be repeated several times per season.
It is very easy to propagate the variegated turf, one has only to cut the cuttings from the adult plant, which quickly root in the greenhouse or greenhouse. Plants obtained from cuttings fully preserve the maternal characteristics: the color of the leaves, the shape and height of the bush, the timing of flowering. After three years of cultivation, the turf forms berries that contain seeds.
Propagation by seeds is also possible; for this, seeds should be sown in loose soil, and grown in a greenhouse for about a year. Planting on a permanent place young seedlings held in the spring. Between plants leave significant distances, as the Derain is characterized by violent growth.
In the first year of life, deren are often fed up using complex fertilizers. In the following years of life, the plant is fertilized several times per season, with fertilizer applied under each shrub. The last feeding of the shrub is carried out in the first decade of September.
Derain: diseases and pests
Derain is a fairly disease-resistant culture, but aphids and fungal diseases can cause severe damage to the plant. The fight against aphids is reduced to the destruction of the pest mechanically - it is washed off from the branches with a stream of water from a hose.
Fungal diseases develop on the plant with improper care, especially when there are overflows. You can prevent the development of fungal infections by observing the irrigation regime. In case of extensive lesions with fungal infections, diseased bushes are treated with basezol, topaz or other preparations against fungal infections.
Description fuck variegated
Variegated Dören - a spreading shrub reaching a height of three meters, with shoots of brown-red shades, bordered with variegated leaves. There is a border color white and yellow. The long flowering period distinguishes it from the traditional look. The first bloom occurs in late May - early June, and the second time the drenches bloom in September.
The family of dogwoods is sometimes combined with the genera of dogwood and svirid, the common name is bedrock or dogwood. Homeland - Siberian forests. It is found in China, Japan. Three plant species are distributed in North America, Europe and the Far East, forming thickets on edges, clearings and meadows. It got its name because of its solid wood. Dören translates - horn, i.e. heavy, durable. All types of plants are extremely decorative, so it is often used in urban landscape compositions, in summer cottages, homestead territories and in cottage settlements.
Varieties of variegated shit
Varieties of pooch variegated are very different among themselves, they are deciduous and evergreen. In the “elegantistyssy” leaves are concave with a white border, branches of a bright red shade. "Siberian variegata" is distinguished by its regular smooth leaves, the edging is white. Attracts the attention of a large "gauchaulta" with a yellow edging of leaves, turning into pink shades in the sun.
The graceful, rushing upward crown “cracker cream” attracts with yellow-green foliage, which in the fall becomes creamy. Shpeta has a yellow border. In autumn, the foliage is stained purple. It is distinguished by the height of white "grass" with a white border on the leaves.
Preparing for landing
Planting and caring for variegated bear is not difficult. But in order to grow a shrub with excellent decorative qualities, several factors are taken into account:
- choosing a suitable landing site
- soil preparation
- selection of seedlings.
Rapid adaptation of the turf occurs after landing in the spring or in June. The soil and the air at this time warm enough. In the summer the bush will get stronger, strong roots will grow, which will serve as a successful wintering. In the first winter, the bush is wrapped in a warming material, and the trunk circle is protected with straw, fallen leaves, sawdust.
Choosing a place on the site
Dören grows well anywhere. It is worth avoiding except swampy areas. Shrubs with motley foliage will retain their attractiveness in the sun, in shaded places they will become an ordinary green color.
When choosing, it is necessary to take into account the rapid growth of bushes, which makes it undesirable to plant near tall trees, especially conifers, due to poor portability of such a neighborhood. Choose a spacious free area for ease of care and access during the inspection.
Selection and preparation of planting material
As a planting material, it is desirable to use saplings grown from cuttings, preserving the characteristics and properties of the parent plant.
A sapling up to four years old is chosen, a healthy specimen with bright leaves, without external defects. A bush with weathered roots is kept for several hours in a container with water, so that they are saturated with moisture.
Detailed description of the landing process
The top layer of soil is removed from the surface selected for planting, mixed with humus, sand (1: 1: 0.5) and added complex mineral fertilizer in granules (100 g per 1 sq. M). For the free growth of the roots of the planting pit dig large. In the case of swampy soil or close groundwater, drainage is made (broken ceramic bricks, small stones). At the bottom pour out a part of the prepared mixture, pour 5-6 liters of water.
The dören is placed in a hole, after straightening the roots, and covered with the remaining mixture so that the root collar is flush with the ground. With a high location of the root collar, a lot of weak shoots appear, in-depth planting leads to the death of the seedling. Soil tamped. Pristvolny circle abundantly watered, the surface is mulched. Group planting assumes a distance between the pits of 1.5 m. For a single planting, tied up trees are attached to a support for stability.
Care for variegated wood in the open field
Dören is an undemanding representative of the green world, it easily tolerates winter frosts, summer drought and other unpleasant weather changes. Planting and caring for variegated bark in the open field are available even to novice gardeners. Plant at home, in the country and grow under the force of each. Dehren is distinguished by its unpretentiousness to the quality of the soil, the climate, the ecological environment and even to the high pollution of the urban air. The plant requires periodic fertilizing.
To maintain the shape of the crown and decorative spend pruning. Hedge trimmed several times a season. When pests appear, they need to be treated with insecticides.
Rules and terms for making dressings
Adult trees fed twice. In the spring (in April) - mineral fertilizers (200 g per bush), in the summer (in August) - organic (5 g of compost or chicken manure). To increase growth, the bush of the first year of cultivation is often fed with complex fertilizers, alternating between foliar and root applications. Subsequently, the trees are fertilized during the season, fertilizing each bush. The last feeding season is held in early September. For abundant flowering and bright color of the leaves to the roots sprinkled rotted foliage.
15-20 ° C is considered a sufficient temperature for normal growth of the shrub, which makes it possible to use trees in the greening of cities, even in the northern part of Russia. Midsummer weather suffers normally with an increased rate of watering. Frost-resistant It carries an icy wind, small snow cover, easily recovers from damage by a solid snow crust.
Time and ways to trim
Bullshit pruning is carried out regularly twice a year: at the beginning and end of summer. Otherwise, the lower branches are exposed, and the bush view deteriorates. Constantly monitor the emergence of branches with a single foliage, which should be cut in time. Regular trap pruning is a major part of care.
Forming pruning is needed for bushes that serve as hedges, to preserve its unchanged shape, and when creating the contour of the crown of ornamental bushes and trees. Sanitary pruning remove sick, old, injured, crooked branches. In winter, the plant is not pruned.
Causes and methods of transplantation
Replant adult shrub should be in extreme cases, it is stress for the fuck. Good reasons:
- initial choice of an unsuitable place (if a shadow is lost, decorativeness),
- improperly selected soil (poor soils mean cessation of growth, loss of attractiveness),
- inappropriate neighborhood (he ousts, ousts him).
Preferred autumn transplant after dropping the leaves: the plant will receive less stress, adapt to the environment.
In the spring transplant is carried out before the kidneys swell. They dig a plant, taking into account that the volume of the roots corresponds approximately to the size of the crown, avoiding damage as much as possible. Bush with a clod of land wrapped with a film (sacking) and gently transferred to the landing site. The transplanted bush is watered, the surface is mulched with humus.
Preparing for the winter
The frost tolerance of turf allows not to cover adult plants for the winter in the Moscow region, in the northern regions and in Siberia. A young bush is covered in winter by wrapping it with a sacking so as to avoid blooming during the onset of thaws.
Distinctive features of a variegated sod
This plant was bred artificially. Кустарник имеет раскидистые ветви и большую по диаметру крону. Взрослые побеги приобретают красный цвет.
Не стоит бояться пересаживать дерен, поскольку к любым условиям произрастания он адаптируется очень быстро.
Листья кустарника отличаются зеленым оттенком, который может иметь светлый или темный отлив. Верхняя часть пластин покрыта рисунком желтого, золотистого и белого тона.
The flowering of variegated sod is long and colorful. During the year, it can be observed twice - in early summer and in September.
Derain variegated: features of planting and caring for shrubs
Best shrub develops in the penumbra. The plant feels good near low trees. Almost any soil will do, but a slightly acid soil with lime is better suited.
Before disembarking, preparatory activities are held. In the ground will need to add humus or compost. In areas where groundwater is very close, a good drainage layer should be laid.
Since the root system of the turf is well developed, it is necessary to plant a young plant in a deep and wide hole.
To place the plant in the ground along the root neck and not deeper, otherwise the turf will not take root and dries. If you plant a bush too high to the surface of the earth, then you risk getting a lot of weak shoots. Planting ends with a thorough watering and loosening the top layer.
The main stages of care:
The hedge is pruned twice a year. After the plant has ottsvelo, you can remove branches that do not fit into the general view. For this fit the middle of summer and the end of August.
If you plan to plant one bush of a horseman, then it is tied up to a stick so that the thin trunk does not deform.
Derain feels good in cold and frost, but this applies only to an adult plant. Young saplings are afraid of low temperatures, so the bushes should be well covered for the winter. For this, you can use both special agrofibre and regular bags. It is necessary to wrap up plants qualitatively, fixing material at the basis.
Derain grows well in any conditions, and therefore the list of options for its use in landscape design is quite extensive. For example, it is often possible to see the desert as a background for a bright flowerbed, the flowers in which will look more interesting.
Also, shrubs are planted under trees, the branches of which begin very high. In this case, the bush adorns the trunk, and also protects it from the winds.
The bush is often used as a design for large mixborders to create a living wall. As we said earlier, a hedge from Deren is a great solution. Also, the plant can be planted on the ground in the form of terraces. It should only regularly cut the bushes so that they have a presentable appearance.
Derain variegated and features of its reproduction
Reproduction by seeds. The plant blooms in late spring - early summer. In place of the loose buds formed balls with seeds. The collection of planting material should be carried out in the spring when the boxes turn brown. As for their planting, this can be done both before the frosts and in the spring. If you decide to sow in May, it is recommended to store the grain in a cool place with a temperature of not more than +5 0 C.
Storing seeds at low temperatures increases the percentage of germination.
Cutting turf variegated. For harvesting cuttings best suited the beginning of summer. It is necessary to cut not young, but last year’s branches with dense wood. It is important to ensure that each cutting has at least three pairs of buds.
Leave on the handle should be only the upper leaves, and the lower need to be removed. After this, the workpiece will need to be dipped in water. Keep in the liquid should be until they appear roots.
The cuttings are planted in rows in an inclined manner into a previously made greenhouse. It is necessary to water copies regularly, but not strongly. In the case of dry air in the room or excess sunlight, the branches should be sprayed with water.
If everything is done correctly, then closer to the fall, full roots will grow in the cuttings.
In the spring of young bushes can be planted in a permanent place in the open ground. To get a large adult plant, you need to wait two years.
Often shrubs planted as a hedge. Adult specimens are trimmed to give them the desired shape and size. The variegated Derain in landscape design perfectly combines with barberry, juniper or rose bushes.
Photo and description
Derain is variegated (Cornus alba) - a very decorative deciduous shrub, preferring a sunny position or partial shade. Shrub cultivation is possible on most soils with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction, provided adequate moisture conditions are provided. Popular varieties “Elegantissima” tolerate occasional floods and alkaline soils. The plant tolerates air pollution, works great in landscape and urban environments as a bright accent. The shrub grows up to 3 m tall and reaches 3 m wide. If necessary, the turf can be cut, pruning tolerates well. The most beautiful parts of white turf:
- smooth stems
- large, ovate-elliptic leaves with pronounced veins.
Derain variegated photo
The shape of the bush - sprawling due to root processes that grow directly from the ground.
The leaves are usually green in color, different varieties have different leaf color:
Colored stems look extremely decorative in the winter, especially they are painted from January to March. At this time, the stems represent a strong color accent in the winter garden.
The shrub blossoms in spring (May-June), small cream-colored flowers appear in the ends of the stems, gathered in small inflorescences. Flower inflorescences do not have a large decorative value. In the fall, the flowers turn into small, round, white, cream-colored fruits. The fruits are inedible, although birds of different species eat them willingly.
In gardens, pure varieties of deren are rarely found, numerous variations are much more decorative. The most interesting are the following:
- Aurea (Aurea) - a variety with beautiful, large leaves in a yellow edging, in autumn the leaf turns red. The bush grows up to 2 m in height, grows quite quickly.
- Elegantissima - found under the name Argenteomarginata (Argenteomarginata), has decorative, green leaves with a clear, wide, irregular, white border. Height - 2 m.
- Siberia Variegata (Sibirica Variegata) - the variety is similar to the previous one, but the shoots are intensely red, leaves turn red-pink in autumn.
- Gouchalchi (Gouchaultii) - an interesting variety with green leaves with a wide yellow rim, in the spring the leaf is tinted in pink. Grows to a height of 3 m.
- Kesselren (Kesselringii) - slightly twisted leaves are dark green or brownish-green, growing to a height of 2 m.
- Siberian Pearls (Siberian Pearls) - a plant with dark green leaves that change color in autumn in mono-red, contrasting beautifully with white fruits. It grows up to 2-3 meters.
- Bayhalo (Bailhalo) - the variety is similar to Elegentissima, but grows up to 1-1.5 m, reaches the same width.
- Hessei is one of the most original, rare varieties, with green, twisted, wavy and wrinkled leaves that change color in the fall to a maroon, grows up to 2.5-3 m.
Planting and breeding
It is almost as easy to propagate deden as it is to grow. There are 2 ways of reproduction:
- Saplings Plants are often produced by planting saplings of green and semi-woody (in August, September) and woody (spring) or cuttings.
- Seeds. Rarely turf multiplied by sowing seeds. Good seed germination requires certain procedures and almost 6 months of stratification.
Purchased seedlings can be planted in the ground throughout the season, although the best periods are spring, autumn. Most deren reach large sizes, so before buying you need to carefully select the landing site. Seedlings are planted rather shallowly, covering the root with a thin layer of soil so that oxygen can flow to the roots.
Reproduction using cuttings consists in cutting the cuttings from the tops of the shoots 8-12 cm long. Cuttings are cut in July-August. Seedlings are soaked with rooting accelerator (IBA) and planted in a mixture of sand and peat, in a 1: 1 ratio. When breeding derin cuttings maintain a temperature of 15-18 ° C. After the rooting of the cuttings, the seedlings are transplanted into pots with a diameter of 7 cm, left to spend the winter in a cool room (10-12 ° C). In the spring the plants are transplanted to a permanent place.
If we want to plant the turf by dropping (layering), we need to carefully bend the young shoots to the ground, bury them in the grooves to a depth of 10 cm, removing the leaves. We condense the soil, we water. Side shoots are cut at a distance of 2 cm from the root. Weak shoots that grow from the base of the mother plant are completely removed.
The location must always be kept wet. At the end of autumn, rooted plants are carefully dug out, cut into seedlings and planted. This method of reproduction is based on rooting of shoots, without separation from the parent plant. This is a fairly simple and natural form of breeding that is used by novices and inexperienced gardening enthusiasts.
Use in landscape design
Shrub extremely versatile. Planted in different ways:
- one by one
- in large, single-species groups,
- in combination with other types of turf,
- suitable for hedges trimmed into interesting shapes or unshaped,
- looks good in a small garden (especially low-grade varieties) and in a large natural park.
High resistance to low temperatures allows planting turf in different regions without protecting plants from frost.
Cornus alba is a very attractive, widespread ornamental shrub. Derain grows easily, he will thank minimal attention and care with beautiful flowers. A huge advantage of a unique plant is its decorative look throughout the year. It stands out in the garden before the appearance of oval leaves, and thanks to the red shoots it attracts attention all winter.
The leaves look very beautiful - rounded at the base, ovate or slightly more elliptical, densely sprouted shoots. Often the upper part of the leaf is yellow or yellow-green, which represents an interesting accent in the garden. The underside of the leaf eventually turns blue-green, enhancing the unique visual effect. In the fall, the leaves become discolored, fall off, revealing dark red and dark red shoots. For this reason, the plant is readily propagated and each gardener should find a suitable area for him.