Those who seek to decorate their home fast-growing ornamental flowering plant, you can start with indoor maple. Attracts simple care for abutilon. Potted flowers and plants are mysterious, divine, loved ones. But admiration alone is not enough. After all, we, as Saint-Exupery said, are responsible for all those who have been tamed, and especially for those who depend on us. If you create comfortable conditions for flowers, they will delight our souls with their beauty. For lush flowering, almost year-round, suitable room maple - abutilon. Home care for him is simple - the plant is unpretentious. But he has features.
Abutilon: where is he from
In the Malvaceae family, where the well-known cotton belongs, the less famous hibiscus, okra, and stockrose, there is a genus called Abomina (Abutilon in Latin). In the genus of more than 200 representatives among evergreen annuals and perennial herbaceous, ornamental and decorative flowering shrubs, and even small trees.
Habitats of species of this genus are tropics and subtropics of South America, Hawaii, India, Australia, China, and Africa. Why the "cable car"? Some species are cultivated for the production of plant fiber for the manufacture of sackcloth twine ropes and ropes. To this end, in China, the Roofing Terrace of Teofrast is cultivated as a crop. In the southern European regions of Russia, this same abutilon is a malicious weed of tilled crops. For crops, he is here, "did not come out the growth."
In India, abutilon is considered a medicinal and aphrodisiac plant for men and women.
Varieties of indoor plants
For the decorativeness of cute flowers and luxurious, wedge-shaped leaves, flower gardeners from Russia liked abutilon, a room maple. Care, reproduction of indoor plants are available even for beginners.
The most common types of abutilon:
- vineyard with lilac-bluish flowers,
- hybrid - a variety of varieties of different colors,
- Darwin - bright orange and red with darker streaks,
- Thompson - upright trunk, salmon-pink terry inflorescences, on the leaves - white specks,
- megapotamy - reaches one and a half meters, with yellow petals in a red cup and purple stamens - an excellent ampelous plant of year-round flowering,
- striped or spotted - short shoots, painted leaves and flowers on long stalks, propagated only by cuttings,
- Suntense view is the best for the winter garden: it reaches 4 meters in height; lilac flowers are up to 10 cm in diameter.
Home care for abutilon is the same, regardless of the variety.
Selection in your hands
These fast-growing indoor flowers - abutilon - care at home, which succeeds in fame, are excellent materials for breeding - the creation of new varieties. Open access to stamens and pistils at the same time flowering plants promotes the successful crossing of different varieties. Seeds of future hybrids ripen in a month and a half. And a maximum of six months, you can see the flowering of new varieties created by himself. Enthusiastic breeders for the period from February to November receive 2 generations of new hybrids - this is how early abutilon. Care at home does not take much time if the cultivation of this flower will become a hobby.
Optimum humidity: abundant summer irrigation, in winter - moderate. It is necessary to maintain high humidity in the air - because it is Tropicana, it is desirable to periodically spray. With excessive dry air, the plant will shed its leaves.
Temperature: in winter, low temperature is needed - up to 10-15 degrees. The rest of the year - room temperature in the range of 20-25 degrees.
Light mode: a lover of southern windows, makes a short-term (2-3 hours per day) direct stream of sunlight, but diffused light is desirable.
Requirements for soil and fertilizing: preferred are sandy, highly humified mixtures (equal parts of sand, sod, humus and hardwood). The best fertilizer is mullein. Top dressing to make every ten days, in the winter period is enough once a month.
Reproduction: cuttings (spring and September) and seeds, preferably fresh. Cut the cuttings when pruning the plant with a sterile instrument. The formation of the root system, first in the water, then planting in loose nutrient-sandy soil. Survival rate is usually good.
Secrets of lush flowering
Features: rapid growth - up to 0.5 m per year, mandatory spring transplant. Take a new pot a little more than the previous one. In order for the plant to bloom, it needs to be entangled in an earthy clod. Brush crown should be cleaned by trimming.
In hybrids need to remove long shoots - flowering will last. Pinch the tops of stretched abuilons. The plant is suitable for balconies. He is afraid of drafts, does not tolerate neighborhoods with radiators, loves space, gets on with his "small" neighbors, letting them "into the apartment" - below under his crown.
You can achieve year-round flowering of several plants, if you are an observant and caring owner who nurtures abutilon. Care at home allows you to make love mutual. A handsome flower attracts the eyes of everyone entering and passing by the windows. So attractive looks abutilon.
Home care: growing from seed
Seeds can be bought or waited on a flower. The main thing for their successful germination is a small shelf life, maximum a year. But even with this period, not every seed will germinate, but only one of the two. Homemade seeds need to stand in the dark month. Before sowing in early spring, but you can do it in January, you need to hold them for a short time (3-4 hours) in a damp cloth. Prepare a humus-sand mixture. The soil should be moist and warm - at least 20 degrees. Sufficient lighting is required. The seeding depth is no more than 1 cm. You can cover the pot with glass to preserve moisture and heat. Do not let the soil dry out - periodically sprinkle.
The shoots in the form of two leaves will appear at the end of the second week or the beginning of the third. Grow quickly and need a transplant 2-3 times before flowering at the 4-5th month. To get your seeds, wait for flowering and on the third day, armed with a soft watercolor brush, remove the pollen from one flower and transfer to another. A seed box will soon appear. When it turns black (about a month later), open and see the seeds.
Features of culture
Abutilon is a gardener's dream plant. It combines ease of care, fast growth and beautiful long bloom. In their homeland, in Brazil, in Hawaii, in China or in India, an abutilon can reach 2–3 m. In a European climate, a hotpot is grown as a pot crop, since harsh winters are destructive for it. This high he does not reach.
Home maple is represented by a variety of species and varieties that differ in the shape of the leaves and the color of the inflorescences. Abutilones may have double flowers or simple ones. And their color can vary from white to cream, from yellow to deep orange, from pink to purple, from lavender to purple.
Abutilon: care and needs
Even a beginner grower can grow a home maple. A native of Brazil has a flexible temper and does not require special conditions. At the same time he is able to bloom all year round, if you know about some things. What nuances should be taken into account and how to care for abutilon in order to enjoy the beautiful flowering all year round?
Abutilium is a great lover of light. It needs lighting all year round. Only in such conditions can it develop. If the Brazilian feels the lack of light, then he often does not bloom. Use the following guidelines to provide adequate illumination for the abutilon.
- The choice of location. Place the plant near light sources. It can even be placed on the south windows. Abutilon is able to withstand direct sunlight, but only in small quantities. Therefore, in the summer, in extreme heat, indoor maple is desirable pritenyat.
- Winter lighting. In winter, handsome abutilon in European conditions do not have enough daylight. If you want to achieve constant flowering, provide him the backlight.
- Fresh air . In the summer of home maple can be taken out on the terrace or on the balcony. Abutilon will gladly take in the fresh warm air. But it should not be exposed to direct sunlight.
Abutilica develops better in cool conditions. Therefore, the plant is most often grown on a glazed balcony or in a winter garden. Some botanists claim that the abutilon is able to withstand a short-term drop in temperature to 0 ° C. But it is better not to create such shock conditions. Room maple suit such conditions:
- in the summer - the abutilon will easily withstand the temperature of +20 ° C ... + 25 ° C,
- in winter - a significant decrease to +12 ° С… + 15 ° С is required.
Abutilon is a big water lover. Provide him with sufficient watering, and the handsome cable car will delight with its flowering all year round. But an excess of moisture, as well as a deficiency, can destroy the plant. Abutilon will "liking" such conditions.
- Watering In the summer the plant is watered abundantly, but not poured. The soil should always be slightly wet. In winter, if the plant does not bloom, a slight drying out of the soil is permissible.
- Spraying. Bathing is not considered mandatory. Maple is able to completely dispense with spraying. But a plant that receives regular irrigation grows healthy and stronger. Especially the abutilon needs to be sprayed during the winter period, when the air is dry with heating devices.
Abutilon grows very quickly and spends a lot of energy on its active development. Therefore, he needs feedings. Although able to do without additional power. Florists give two tips.
- Regularity feeding. Fertilizers begin to make in the spring and continue until late autumn. This procedure is repeated every 14-15 days.
- Correct fertilizer. Mineral fertilizers suitable for flowering crops are suitable for Abutilon. For example, “Pokon”, “Agricola”, “Emerald”, “Rainbow”, “Master”. Before flowering, it is recommended to pamper your green pet with organic fertilizer - diluted bird droppings.
Abutilon needs regular transplants. Such a procedure is started in early spring, in the first days of March. Experts advise to transplant room maple before the appearance of new leaves. Proper transplantation consists of the following six steps.
- Preparing the pot. In order for culture to grow and grow, it is necessary to take a larger pot. It is enough that the diameter of the pot was 2-3 cm larger than the previous one.
- Soil preparation. The Brazilian guest needs nutritious soil enriched with humus. To prepare the soil it is necessary to mix the leaf soil, turf, peat, sand and humus. All components are combined in equal proportions. If you do not want to prepare the soil yourself, then stock up for your pet with universal primer.
- Preparing the plant. Carefully remove the abutilon from the old pot. If possible, shake the soil, but do not damage the root system.
- Drainage system. At the bottom of the new pot, put small pieces of foam, pebbles or expanded clay.
- Planting a plant. Plant the plant very carefully and carefully straighten the roots. This will allow the abutilon to settle down much faster and easier in a new pot. Liberally water the plant.
- Aftercare. The question always arises: how to care for abutilone (room maple) after transplantation? Florists claim that there are no features in the care of the transplanted plant. Provide him with lighting, watering and periodic feeding.
Maple grows very quickly and is able to turn into a tree in a year. To provide him with a beautiful appearance and form a crown, flower growers are advised to do pruning. This procedure is carried out twice a year, in spring, before the beginning of the growing season, and in the fall, before “hibernation”. Cut abutilon (room maple) is recommended as follows.
- Autumn pruning. When the plant is preparing for a rest period, around November, it is necessary to prune all the branches, forming a beautiful crown. If you do not do this, your pet will quickly fill most of the room.
- Spring pruning. During the winter, some branches can strongly stretch out of the common crown. To return the Brazilian compactness, it is recommended to prune such shoots.
- Formation of the crown. In the spring, it is necessary not only to cut long shoots, but also to pinch the abutilon correctly. This is the only way to form a beautiful crown. Outline what size plant I would like to receive, and carefully cut off all that was higher. Trim the side branches, forming a tree-trunks. And if you want to enjoy the bush, then the side shoots should not be removed.
The process of breeding abutilon simple. To grow a new plant, flower growers root cuttings or plant seeds. The choice of method depends not only on personal preferences, but also on the characteristics of the Brazilian. Experts say that indoor maple with green foliage, can be propagated in any way. And variegated varieties are able to take root only by grafting.
If you decide to practice the cultivation of seed from seeds at home, then planting material can be purchased at a flower shop. If there is already an indoor maple, then it is better to wait until the flowering has ended and fruits similar to boxes appear. From them carefully remove the seeds. Mature planting material turns black. Seeds should “cure” in a dark place for one month. After that they can be planted. The seed propagation procedure includes the following points.
- Seed preparation. The seeds are wrapped in a tissue and moistened with water. To improve germination, you can add a growth stimulator. Fitosporin.
- Features germination. Soaking lasts at least 12 hours. You can leave the seeds until long roots and green cotyledons appear. The better the seeds germinate, the more effectively they will take root.
- Planting seeds. Planted future trees in a well-moistened soil in the same mixture as for adult culture, to a depth of 5-6 mm.
- Pet care. Capacity covered with glass or film. The soil is regularly ventilated and moistened to prevent drying. Pets must be provided with + 20 ° С and sufficient lighting. To improve the germination of abutilons, it is recommended to water them with the Energen solution. At 14-25 days you can admire the first shoots.
- Dive shoots. When the plants appear on three leaves, they can dive, transplanted into separate pots. During transplantation, pay attention to the root. If it has a small number of side branches, then it is necessary to pinch off half of the main rod in order to ensure proper development.
- Preparing for “adult life”. Young plants again covered with a film. But from time to time it is removed, gradually accustoming abutilony to fresh air.
It is much easier to propagate this Brazilian cuttings. Planting material remains after trimming and crown formation. From such shoots it is necessary to choose strong branches that will later give healthy plants. The procedure for breeding abutilona cuttings is quite simple.
- Preparation of cuttings. To prevent rotting of future plants, all lower leaves of the selected branches are removed. It is recommended to cut the tops with flowers or buds in order not to expose the cuttings to additional exhaustion. It is enough to leave three or four internodes.
- Formation of the roots. Prepared cuttings immersed in a jar of water. After some time, roots will appear on the shoots. To speed up this process, you can pour in the growth accelerator and cover the cuttings with a film, providing them with the greenhouse effect.
- Planting plants. When the root system is formed, the cuttings are planted in the ground. Planting process is exactly the same as transplanting an adult plant.
Pests and possible diseases
Indoor Maple can be safely ranked as a hardy plant. He is able for a long time to put up with some errors in the care and is rarely attacked by pests. But sometimes even he is afflicted with diseases, and is attacked by insect parasites. And in this case, the Brazilian needs timely and proper assistance. The table contains the basic rules for responding to changes in the state of the plant.
Varieties and types of abutilona
Abutilon vine bush with a height of up to two and a half meters. Stems soft, slightly pubescent. Листья больших размеров, оттенок темный оливковый слегка волосистые с виду напоминающие кленовый лист и длина их около 16 см. соцветия собраны в букеты по 4-5 штук, оттенок у цветков фиолетово – голубоватый с редкими темными полосками. Цветение приходится на первый весенний месяц.
Абутилон гибридный этот вид имеет американские корни его второе название абутилон пестролистный. У этого вида есть много различных сортов. The height of the bush is about one and a half meters, the shade of the bark is brownish. Foliage trimmed with an olive tinge, leaf shape is similar to maple, leaf length is about 13 cm.
Inflorescences, in shape, in the form of bells, their length is up to 6 cm. The hue of the petals depends on the variety, there is a bright yellow, scarlet, burgundy, white.
Abutilon Darwin rare view. Stems, pubescent about a meter in height with large leaves, like lobes, about 20 cm long and 10 cm wide. Bottom leaves have more blades somewhere 7 pieces, and the top only three. Inflorescences bright sunny with scarlet stripes, in the form of a bell. In diameter, the inflorescence is about 5 cm. Flowering occurs from spring to autumn.
Abutilon Megapotamsky or Amazonian in height the plant reaches about one and a half meters, stems thin, pubescent. The foliage is oval - oblong. Leaves maple-like dark green shade about 8 cm in length. Single inflorescences, bell-shaped with a scarlet tinge of the corolla and sunny petals.
Abutilon spotted or striped. The stems of this species are small, soft, foliage in the shape of a heart on the elongated legs of 6 lobes, smooth with an olive tinge and light patches on the edge. The shape of the flower is a bell, a shade of orange with scarlet stripes. It blooms in the fall.
Abutilon Sello this species is slightly branched. The height of the bush is about two meters. Stems pubescent. Foliage is similar to maple in shape. Peach colored inflorescences with light pinkish veins. It blooms from mid-summer to winter.
Abutilon variegated This species of ampel is grown in hanging pots. The brightest representative of a kind.
Abutilon Bella A new species, the difference with others, is a multitude of flowers about 8 cm in diameter. Shrub branching. The leaves are olive shade, smooth, oval - oblong.
Terry Abutilon its birthplace is considered to be South America. Prefers a warm climate. The shape of the leaf is maple-like. Flowering occurs from spring to autumn, sometimes all year. Prefers pruning shoots to form a beautiful shape.
Abutilon "Tiger's Eye" large shrub with multiple flowering. The orange hue of the flowers is intense with warm veins like a lantern. Foliage like maple leaves, glossy, green.
Abutilon "Organza" This is a bright view with green smooth leaves in the shape of a maple with a multicolored hue inflorescences in the shape of a bell.
Abutilon home care
The lighting plant prefers diffuse, but also easily be exposed to direct sunlight. Afraid of drafts and temperature extremes. In winter, it is necessary to additionally provide artificial light.
The air temperature in summer should correspond to 25 degrees, and in the cold season about 16, otherwise the shrub will throw off the foliage.
Watering the plant should be regular and constant spraying of the leaves in the summer period on an ongoing basis. In the cold season it is better to reduce watering and spraying at intervals to dry the soil.
Fertilizer plant requires a period of growth, once every 14 days. For this suitable mineral and organic fertilizers.
How to cut abutilon
The formation of the crown helps to provide the necessary and beautiful shape of the plant, suitable for your design. You need to cut dry and weak branches, cut through thick shoots. Proper pruning will allow the plant to grow well and bloom profusely. It is better to pinch the tops of the stretched shoots. In hybrid varieties, it is necessary to cut large stems to slightly increase flowering.
The soil of the plant prefers light and acidic or neutral. You can buy a ready-made substrate or prepare it yourself; such soil should include humus, sheet soil, turf soil and sand, all in equal quantities.
How to transplant abutilon
Young plants are better to replant each year, and adults once every three years. Capacity flower prefers cramped and with a good perforated bottom, otherwise the plant in a large capacity can not bloom for a long time.
Abutilon from seeds at home
Seeds are sown in the soil of peat and sand to a depth of half a centimeter in the spring. Covering with a film, periodically sprayed and ventilated. Shoots begin to appear in a month, sometimes earlier. The optimum temperature for growing seed from seed is the limit of 19 to 20 degrees. Variegated varieties are not recommended to be grown with seed, since the generic characteristics are lost.
Reproduction by cuttings
The cuttings are cut off about 9 cm long and planted out of peat and coarse sand into wet soil and transplanted into separate containers after rooting. The temperature for rooting should correspond to 23 degrees.
Diseases and pests
- The leaves turn yellow and fall - the cause of temperature drops or improper watering.
- Why leaves turn abutilon - the reason for the lack of light, can also speak about this pallor of foliage. It is necessary to provide sufficient light with an artificial lamp.
- Plant pests are aphids, scutes, and spider mites; for their destruction it is necessary to treat them with insecticides.
- Why does not bloom abutilon - the reason may be a lack of light, fertilizer, lack of pruning. If you do not neglect these tips on the care of the plant will delight you with constant flowering.
- Abutilon hung up the leaves, and the ends began to dry up, which means that it is necessary for the plant to increase the conditions for moistening the air, and to increase spraying.
- If the plant starts dropping the lower leaflets, this is the reason for the lack of fertilizer.
Abutilon is a perennial shrub with large, up to 20 cm bright green leaves with carved edges. At home, the bush reaches two meters in height, branchy and leafy, the plant stems are often red-brown in color.
The shrub blooms in May and blooms through October. Depending on the variety of flowers, bells can be golden, orange, pink and red shades. The most common types are:
- Abutilon sellovianum - two meters high, inflorescences are large orange in color with burgundy streaks,
- Abutilon hybridum - its subspecies bloom yellow, pink, purple, burgundy and red flowers with thin veins,
- Abutilon Thompsonii - with pale pink inflorescences interspersed with white.
Lighting and temperature
For a plant, diffused lighting is preferable, direct sunlight can burn the leaves, and a lack of light will affect the development of green mass. The best option would be a place at the south-west or southeast window. During the winter period, a light day is short, so it is desirable to provide the maple with several hours of additional lighting.
The most comfortable temperature for maple is the range from 18 to 25 degrees heat. At the end of spring you can take the plant to the loggia or veranda, but in this case there should be no drafts. In winter, the temperature of the content drops to 15 ° C.
Pot and soil type for home maple
For the first year there will be enough a pot with a liter volume. The indoor abutilon has one feature: as long as its roots do not overlap the entire lump of soil in the pot, it will not bloom. Next, select the pot, focusing on the drainage holes at the bottom, if you can see the roots in them, it's time to transplant. At the bottom of the pot to drain water must be holes.
If possible Prepare the soil yourself, there are two options to choose from:
- coarse sand, peat and leaf earth in equal parts,
- coarse sand, humus, sheet and sod land in proportions 0.5: 1: 1: 2.
If this is not possible, use a universal primer, adding sand to it.
The natural conditions of the shrub are subtropical and tropical climates, but at home, care has some subtleties:
- it is not desirable to allow neither drying out nor over-moistening of the soil in the pot,
- correctly dispense top dressings and timely conduct trimming of the bush.
Home summer maple abutilon in the summer period needs regular abundant moisture, it is necessary to ensure that the soil in the pot is constantly moist. By winter, watering is gradually reduced, bringing to a minimum. There are no special requirements for air humidity in the plant, but spraying will not harm it. Watering in the summer - twice a week, in the winter - once every ten days.
As a fertilizer for shrubs, it is better to purchase a complex for flowering plants in the store, it is desirable to alternate between mineral and organic compounds. The plant needs additional feeding from spring to October with an interval of ten days.
After spring pruning to build foliage better suited compositions with a large amount of nitrogen. During the formation of buds it is better to use phosphorus-potassium compounds, they will favorably affect the flowering splendor. In winter, fertilize once a month if the shrub continues to bloom.
Abutilon is characterized by rapid growth and the formation of new shoots, because it needs a formative pruning. In early spring, while growth is not active, shoots are pruned to a third of their length. Such a cardinal pruning will form a beautiful crown shape and stimulate abundant flowering.
When the plant ottsvetet, remove all withered buds, dry branches, carry out the adjustment of the crown for the winter. In order to form a mini-tree, all side shoots should be cut, leaving at least the length and untouched central stem.
Reproduction of culture
Reproduction home maple possible cuttings and seed method.
Sowing of seeds is carried out in March in a moist soil (peat and sand in the same proportions), to a depth of about 1.5 cm.
The box is covered with film and placed on a warm, well-lit window sill. Recommended temperature for germination is 20 ° C. Within twenty days, the first shoots appear. Due to the rapid growth over the summer, they are transplanted about three times.
The cuttings are cut from the upper shoots up to 12 cm long. The lower leaves are removed, the bottom of the shoot is treated with a root formation stimulator and deepened into the nutrient soil. For the best rooting for cuttings construct a mini-greenhouse, regularly airing it. After a few weeks, the shelter is removed and the top is pinched. Subsequently, a young abutilon receives the same care as an adult plant.
Diseases, pests and possible difficulties in growing
Fight insects insecticide preparations and some measures will help:
- Mite appears in case of great dryness. Having treated the plant acaricide, you need to increase the humidity of the air by spraying, wiping the foliage with a damp cloth.
- You can remove aphids from the leaves using a soap solution, rinse them under running water.
- A mealybug is removed with a cotton pad moistened with alcohol.
Effective preparations against insects: "Decis", "Pyrethrum", "Aktellik".
Powdery mildew is a common plant disease. To notice the symptoms of the disease is not difficult - the leaves are covered with a sticky coating and brown growths. To get rid of maple from the disease, you can use the drug "Aktara" and washing the leaves with soapy water.
Another common problem is root rot. You can help the plant if you immediately notice the symptoms (withering and falling leaves) and transplant. Root-affected roots should be cut and crushed with crushed coal.
As a preventive measure against diseases, you can use a solution of iron chelate according to the instructions.
Problems with cultivation are mainly due to errors in care. Blooming buds, yellowing foliage, wilting and twisting is Signals for the following care gaps:
- temperature drops (draft),
- waterlogging or, conversely, lack of moisture,
- excessive air dryness
- lack of trace elements,
- strong crown thickening.
Botanical characteristic of abutilona
This plant of the Malvaceae family is an evergreen tree or shrub whose leaves resemble maple in size and shape. This gave Abutilon another popular name - indoor maple. In their natural habitat, these plants live in the tropical zone of Africa, South Asia and South America, so the flower loves a large amount of light and heat.
With the right content, it reaches a height of 1.5-2 meters and branches abundantly. The leaflets are located on the petioles and are 10–20 cm long, the leaf blade is oval or heart-shaped, with soft and sparse hairs. Usually the leaves have a green color, but there are varieties with a golden-motley or scarlet color.
Flowers, similar in shape to the bell, differ in brightness and variety of shades from white to red. Flowering is different in duration. It occurs from early spring to late autumn. In India, coarse abutilon fiber is used to create burlap, rope, and rope, so the plant has another name - a rope.
Types of Abutilona
This shrub has more than 100 varieties and hybrids. Consider the most suitable for home growing species with photos.
- Abutilon Bell is a newly bred variety that is distinguished by the presence of voluminous bright pink or golden flowers (about 8 cm in diameter) and large branching. It grows to about 40 cm and blooms beautifully throughout the year. Doesn’t need pruning and pinching
- Juliet is a very unpretentious species, the cultivation of which does not require abundant lighting and frequent watering. The plant reaches half a meter in height and gives bright large flowers six months after sowing seeds,
- Organza is a branchy shrub up to a meter in height with smooth green foliage and large bright flowers, located singly. Requires frequent trimming to maintain shape,
- Bellevue - a hybrid blend that has flowers with a color under all the colors of the rainbow. It is a magnificent beautiful bush, which has a height of up to two meters under the right conditions of care and constant pruning,
- Bella mix is another hybrid with large flowers (diameter up to 8 cm) of delicate tones: yellow, apricot, pink,
- Sello - this variety is distinguished by light branching and inflorescences of peach tones with pinkish veins. Flowering occurs from July to December,
- The tiger's eye is a large shrub with orange-colored flowers and red veins. It looks very nice and resembles a lantern.
Abutilon from seeds is grown in a mixture of peat, light soil and sand (in a ratio of 2: 2: 1, respectively).
- It is recommended to sift the soil before sowing so that it acquires looseness and better retains moisture. Also it needs to be disinfected with potassium permanganate from fungi and bacteria,
- Seed material is soaked in warm water for 12 hours,
- Seeds are planted in a pot at a shallow depth - about 5 mm, tightened with a film to create a "greenhouse" and placed in a warm sunny place. Shoots begin to appear after about 20 days,
- When the first leaves appear, seedlings should be planted in small cups with a diameter of about 7 cm. Now you only need to properly care for the abutilon, creating the desired level of humidity, light and temperature (see below), and within six months the plant will begin to bloom.
Of course, you can buy an already grown-up blooming specimen in a flower shop, but the price of seeds is much cheaper, and growing a “green friend” on your own is much more pleasant and interesting. The cost of packing seeds on average is 20 rubles, and a young plant will cost about 500 rubles.
Required temperature and lighting for indoor maple
Homemade maple abutilon is a flower that too needs light. A room with an abundance of daylight is well suited for it, but the plant does not like very bright lighting. In the summer, it should be taken out to fresh air, a veranda or a balcony, placed in a shaded area. But the "green pet" can not bloom in case of insufficient light.
In the summer in the room where abutilon is contained, the optimum temperature level should be + 20-25 degrees, not lower. In winter, the temperature can be reduced to + 10-15 degrees, but it should be borne in mind that if the shrub is in a room with a temperature of + 10 degrees for a long time, it will begin to dry out.
Watering a tin
When the plant begins active growth (in the warm period), it must be regularly and abundantly watered. This process when flowering home maple can not be reduced. Excess water, which is collected in the pan about two hours after watering, pours. Somewhere in November, it is necessary to water less shrubs and this rule should be followed until February.
If the soil is subject to drying out or waterlogging, the maple can lose flowers and a thick crown.
House Maple Fertilizer
Abutilon needs fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers regularly once a week. With the active growth of the shrub when it is gaining green mass, which occurs in the springtime, it is desirable to introduce nitrogen. Home maple before flowering fertilized with potassium and phosphorus, but in the winter the feeding process is not needed at all.
Abutilon needs to be trimmed in a timely manner so that the bush has the right size and height, because it has the ability to grow quickly.
While the “green friend” has not started active growth, his shoots are cut to 1/3 (or 2/3) of the length. Такое укорачивание стимулирует пышное цветение, формирует красивую крону. На молодых кустарниках прищипывают верхушки, и потом растение переносят в теплую комнату, хорошо подкармливают и поливают.
Пересадка домашнего клена
Такую процедуру делают ежегодно. Tara does not have to be much larger than the previous one. Abutilon begins flowering when the soil is completely wrapped with its roots. It is best to buy soil for planting in flower shops, because it is already decontaminated from parasites and rich in beneficial properties.
Species, varieties and hybrids
This plant has a lot of subspecies, and all thanks to breeders who work tirelessly on a variety of abutilon. Most often in apartments and offices found abutilon hybrid, which appeared due to the crossing of several wild species. The plant is valued for beautiful flowers, bells, which may have different colors - from yellowish-orange to red-pink, they often have a contrasting color veins. There are even white buds. The size of the flowers indoor abutilona - about 4-5 cm.
The size of the hybrid abutilon is small, but it is well bushy, it can have lobed or heart-shaped leaves. Growing fast.
There is also a variety called abutilon hybrid "Bellevue blend". The name "Abutilon Bellevue" can be translated from French as "a beautiful view of a flowering maple." It arose at a time when French was an international language and was often used by nobles. As a rule, abutilon Bellevue is called those types of home maple, which give quite large (up to 5 cm in diameter) flowers.
Abutilon Bella is also a hybrid variety. It blooms for a long time and has a fairly large flowers from 5 to 10 cm in diameter, pleasant and smooth to the touch. In shape, they are somewhat different from the usual bells of abutilon - more open and more like a skirt around the corolla than the usual flower. The color of the petals is usually red, bright orange, peach or white. There may be hybrids that give pink or salmon. Bella has a small size - bushes rarely stretch more than 50 cm in height and therefore do not require pinching and the formation of the crown. The leaves are bright green, have an ovoid shape.
From Brazil in the collection of gardeners came abutilon megapotamy. It grows quickly and looks great in hanging baskets or garden vases, has leaves with yellowish spots or strokes. Blossoms single lantern-shaped flowers. Usually grown in the garden, but when the air temperature drops to +15 degrees, the plant is immediately brought into the room. In the winter time, it is contained as an ordinary hybrid maple. The plant is also called the Amazonian maple.
Also in demand are varieties such as abutilon organza or abutilon Juliet. They are ideal for growing in bright rooms, unpretentious and literally 4-5 months after planting are already beginning to bloom. Juliet can reach a height of 150 cm, moreover, the annual growth is about 50 cm. And so that the plant's shape remains beautiful, it is recommended to cut the upper shoot every spring, shortening it by 2 times.
For those who want to grow abundantly flowering plants, suitable seeds abutilona Amelie. It is lush, easily forms the desired shape with a beautiful crown, has large flowers with pressed tea leaves. Over time, they brighten to cream, and in the central part they become fuchsia.
Do not forget that the flower abutilon is thermophilic, but it does not like excessively high temperatures. The best option, if in the summer, it is kept at a temperature of +24 degrees, in winter, the best mode is with the temperature reading + 14 ... + 17 degrees.
In the warm season, the abutilon is often taken out on the street, but in this case it is recommended to closely monitor the weather forecast. If they promised to freeze or the temperature suddenly drops to + 12 ... + 15 degrees, the plant must be brought into a warm room.
The minimum temperature of air which the abutilon withstands is +10 degrees. At an excessively low rate, the flower will begin to lose leaves and may become ill. But at too high a temperature, it is likely to stop blooming.
Maple abutilon - light-loving plant. It needs a large amount of diffused light for abundant flowering, and it feels best on windowsills located in the south, southeast, or southwest side of the apartment. In some amount of shade, the abutilona bush needs only very hot days, because if the sun is too bright, the pattern on the sheet plate will fade.
In winter, the plant may suffer from a lack of light - it is recommended to supplement it with additional fluorescent light.
Humidity for indoor flower abutilona is also one of the main factors of its prosperous existence. The plant prefers high values of this indicator, therefore it is recommended to spray the foliage regularly (about once every 2-3 days), and also put a container with water near the bush. It is especially important to irrigate abutilon often on hot days, but the procedure is carried out only in the morning or in the evening.
Home abutilon is not a succulent and it does not accumulate water, which means it needs to be watered quite often. The procedure is carried out with warm distilled water so that the earthen room does not dry out. Watering in summer is made more often than in winter.
Experienced florists advise diluted ordinary water from the aqueduct before boiling with boiled water. The optimum temperature of the liquid for irrigation is +30 degrees. In order for it to become somewhat acidic, you can add a little lemon juice to it - just a few drops are enough.
In the spring, abutilon begins a period of active growth, and at this time it is recommended to feed it with nitrogenous fertilizers. You can buy those that are sold in stores and are suitable for indoor ornamental deciduous crops. During the formation of buds, phosphorus-containing and potassium compounds will become the best feeding. Fertilizer application interval - 10 days. In the autumn and winter period of the year, the abutilon does not need any additional feeding - there is a period of rest.
Home abutilon needs periodic pruning of shoots, as it grows quite rapidly, especially if it is contained indoors. Pruning is done only after the end of flowering plants or in early spring, until the beginning of the period of active growth.
Each shoot is cut to about a third of the length. In this case, the crown of the bush will learn to be neat, and it will bloom more abundantly, since flowers are formed quite rarely on old sprigs. For the first time it is necessary to cut abutilon only when it reaches a height of 20 cm.
This method is used in the spring, when the plant enters the stage of active vegetation. Abutilon propagates by cuttings very well - it is enough to cut off young shoots 10-12 cm long and remove extra leaves (only the top 2-3 pieces remain). It is recommended to dip the place of the cut into the root growth stimulator, and then plant the ready cuttings in the soil prepared from peat and sand in a 1: 1 ratio. The plant is covered with a film or placed in a small greenhouse. Rooting by cuttings lasts about a month, after which the abutilons are planted in separate pots.
It takes a little more time to grow an abutilon from seeds. Planting seed in spring is carried out (in March) in a wet soil. However, before you start to grow small abuilones from seeds at home, the seed passes certain training. It is thoroughly washed, then soaked in a growth stimulator and scarification is carried out. For the latter procedure, you can use sandpaper, which are processed seeds. If they have passed this training at work, then this item can be skipped.
Abutilon seed is grown in a mixture of peat and sand. Planting material is placed in the ground to a depth of about 1 cm. Tara with future seedlings is covered with a film, placed in a well-lit and warm place (about +20 degrees) in the house. It is very good to germinate abutilona in peat tablets. In any case, it is important to monitor the indicators of lighting and temperature.
The soil is irrigated with water from a spray bottle every day, and the container where the seeds of abutilone are sitting is ventilated. Sprouts will appear in about 20 days. Shoots can be planted in individual pots no earlier than they will have 2-3 leaves.
It is impossible to multiply the abutilon of hybrid varieties with seeds collected independently, since the qualities and characteristics of the mother plant are not inherited in this case.
If you are just engaged in the cultivation of abutilona, then the first shoots are planted in pots of about 1 liter. It'll be enough. If the capacity is too large, then the plant will not bloom - until the bush is woven over the whole earthen cluster with roots, you should not wait for flowers. Further, abutilons are regularly transplanted into pots, which are 2-4 cm in diameter in excess of those previously used.
Home maple loves loose subacid substrate, the pH of which should be in the range of 5-5.7. Soil for abutilona is recommended to be prepared from coarse sand, peat and sheet earth (all components are taken in equal parts) or sand, sheet and sod land, and also humus mixed in a ratio of 0.5: 1: 2: 1. Also as a soil for home maple and coconut substrate suitable.
At the bottom of the pot must be placed drainage. This may be expanded clay, broken brick, clay shards.
Abutilona transplantation begins around February-March. To start preparing new pots of larger diameter. They are washed, they are poured on the bottom of the drainage and a little fresh soil (2-3 cm thick) with the addition of coal. As a moisture buffer, a piece of sphagnum can be laid on top of the drainage. Next, the abutilon is carefully removed from its old pot (to simplify the procedure, the soil can be shed well), the old soil is gently shaken off the roots. The stubs after that can be gently straightened and powdered with “Kornevin”.
After that, the plant is transplanted into a prepared pot. The free space between the walls of the pot is filled with fresh soil. Also ground sprinkled and root neck. For the first 3-4 days, transplanted abutilons cover with a plastic bag. Watering is first performed only after the substrate dries.
Possible difficulties in growing
Difficulties in care and cultivation, as a rule, consist only in providing special conditions for the plant. If it is too dry, grown with a lack of light, too wet or improperly fed, then it is likely to die.
In the case of overdrying of the soil, the leaves begin to curl, wither. If they are pressed against the trunk, the plant lacks nutrients. With a shortage of minerals, the leaves near abutilon begin to turn yellow, and leaves are possible. If the bush is in a draft, then the leaves may dry out at the edges.
Description of domestic maple
Abutilon is a perennial plant whose stem forms a branchy shrub with green and large leaves that have an unusual shape with jagged edges. In nature, many species resemble the maple tree in its size and shape of leaves. With proper care at home, room maple grows quickly and can reach up to two meters in height.
The stalks of the bush are red-brown in color and very strong, therefore some types of Abutilon are used for the production of raw materials from which the ropes are subsequently manufactured. In this regard, the plant has another name - "cord".
Abutilon bloom looks amazing. Most often it lasts from April to November, and with sufficient light, the bush can bloom for a year. If the conditions for comfortable existence are not quite suitable for domestic maple, it also buds are blooming, but the flowering period will be very short.
The inflorescences of the plant are quite large, of the most diverse hues: red, yellow, pink, orange, golden, purple. The corollas of flowers consist of five petals, which are connected at the base, their diameter can reach from 5 to 7 cm. In form, they are very similar to fairy-tale bells or bright lanterns.
Popular types of Abutilon
In nature, there are more than 100 species of Abutilon, but only a few of them are used for home gardening, as well as crossed forms bred by breeders. They are not as large as wild maple trees, they have a longer flowering period and these plants do not need special care. Pcreating favorable conditions, certain species can grow up to 4 meters in height.
The most common varieties of Abutilon:
- Vineyard. This plant can reach a length of more than two meters, its shrub is large and branched. The leaves are large, bright green, about 20 cm long, have three or five blades. Green shoots are covered with velvet fuzz. Inflorescences are arranged in groups, their shade varies from blue to lilac with dark veins on the petals. Vine leaves bloom in late May.
- Striped. Such Abutilon has a motley color of foliage. Its stems are rather short and thin, on them are six-lobed leaves of green color, with white impregnations along the edges. Flowers are located separately from each other, in form they look like bells, have a yellow tint and a long corolla of red color. This unusual plant can be a wonderful decoration for the garden. Blossom it starts in August.
- Sello. This species belongs to the hybrid and is a type of striped Abutilon. With proper care at home, it can grow to a height of two meters. The shoots are branched and straight, slightly covered with fuzz, the leaves are smooth, green in color, consist of three lobes and have a pointed shape. Flowering begins in early summer and continues until the end of autumn.
- Megapotamsky (Brazilian, Amazonian, Chinese lantern). The plant has a rather small size up to 1.5 meters in height. Its distinguishing feature is strongly drooping shoots, leaves of elongated shape, green with notches on the edges. Inflorescences of light yellow color are in the sinuses and are located one by one. When you create suitable conditions of detention and proper care, Abutilon megopotamsky can bloom all year round.
- Hybrid. The plant was obtained by crossing different species. Abutilon Hybrid is a perennial and evergreen shrub up to 1.5 meters high, with leaves that have three to five blades, covered with a light down. Flower stalks about 12 cm long. The color of buds can be very different: white, red, pink, burgundy, yellow, orange. Flowers are bell-shaped, petals are often riddled with dark or light streaks.
- Darwin. Despite the beautiful flowering, this species is not very popular for breeding at home. The plant has long petioles and shoots, its leaves are velvet, three-lobed, dark green. On the bush are quite large flowers about 5 cm in diameter, bright orange color with red veins. Inflorescences are usually located in one sinus for several pieces. The bloom of Abutilon Darwin begins in mid-April.
- Sutense. It belongs to the tallest plants of all species and can reach a height of 4 meters. The flowers have a lilac color, their diameter is from 10 to 12 cm. Such Abutilon is usually grown in greenhouses, winter gardens and city parks.
Abutilon - home care
Care for indoor maple at home is quite simple. The plant is very unpretentious and for good health and abundant flowering it is necessary to comply with only a few conditions for its maintenance and care. Abutilon grows fast and already for a year From a small seedling you can grow a small bush or a tree on which the first buds will bloom.
Choosing a place for plants and lighting
The room maple needs good lighting to form green foliage. However, you can not place the plant in direct sunlight, as they can burn the leaves, therefore, it is preferable to provide Abutilon diffused lighting. In room conditions, you can put a pot with a flower near the window, facing south-east or south-west. In winter it will be necessary to install additional lighting. And also worth consideringthat the most comfortable plant will feel at a temperature of 17 to 25 degrees.
In the spring and summer, indoor maple can be placed on an open balcony or veranda, fresh air will be very useful for its growth and flowering. It is only necessary to take care that the plant is not exposed to cold drafts, as well as to protect it from rain and strong gusts of wind.
Watering and humidity
In the summer of Abutilon should be watered quite abundantly and ensure that the earth always remains a little wet. But it is impossible to allow a very strong soil moistening, this will lead to drying of the leaves and the loss of full-blown buds.
In late autumn, watering should be reduced, but make sure that the soil does not dry out, since the lack of moisture can adversely affect the health of the plant. During this period it is recommended to water it once in 10 days.
Room air humidity не имеет особого значения для домашнего клёна, но в зимнее время, при сухом воздухе в помещении Абутилон можно иногда опрыскивать.
Внесение удобрений и пересадка
Пересадка Абутилона, уход в домашних условиях за ним в дальнейшем не предоставит особого труда даже начинающему цветоводу. A new flower pot should be chosen only slightly larger than the previous one, because until the roots completely entwine the whole soil in it, the plant will not bloom. To understand when to replace Abutilon, it is necessary to pay attention to the condition of the soil during watering. If you notice that moisture is absorbed very quickly, it means that the plant does not have enough space for growth and it is time to transplant it into a large container.
It is best to choose the soil for homemade maple, consisting of the following components that need to be taken in the same proportions:
It is necessary to replant a young plant every year in the spring, and an adult Abutilon once every 3 years. The capacity for this is recommended to pick up by 2–3 cm more than the previous one. It should be remembered that flowering will begin only when the roots completely fill the whole earth in a pot.
To feed a room maple it is necessary mineral fertilizers which should be brought every week in the spring and in the summer. When will buds begin to formfertilizers containing a high percentage of phosphorus and potassium are used.
With the onset of autumn, the shoots of the plant need to be cut. If this is not done, home Abutilon can grow to a height of two meters. Shorten branches necessary before flowering. First of all, it is necessary to cut the weakest shoots. A small tree can be obtained by periodically removing the processes on the sides, leaving the main stem. In order to form a beautiful and lush crown of a bush, the tops of young shoots need to pinch from time to time.
Seeds of home maple quickly lose their germination, so it is recommended to collect them yourself. After harvesting, seeds are stored in a dark place until spring.. Sowing is best done in mid-March, acting as follows:
- First you need to choose the largest and whole seeds.
- The grains for planting must be wrapped in some kind of fabric and placed in a special solution that stimulates the growth of plants.
- Then you need to prepare the ground for planting. It should contain three components: peat, turf, coarse sand. All ingredients should be taken in equal quantities and placed in the landing box.
- During sowing, place the seeds in the ground to a depth of 5 mm, keeping a distance of about 2 cm between them.
- The seed box must be covered with foil. It is necessary to remove it for a certain time every day in order to air and moisten the ground.
- The temperature of the room where the crop will be located should be 20-22 degrees.
If done correctly, sprouts will appear in 2-3 weeks. When they grow up and leaves form on the surface, it is necessary to transplant the seedlings into small pots. Small maples should be in a bright room without drafts. With good conditions and proper care, they will quickly begin to grow. After a month, you can begin feeding young Abutilonov. Flowering plantsgrown from seed can be expected 5-7 months after sowing.
Diseases, pests and possible problems in growing domestic maple
Abutilon refers to unpretentious plants, but with the wrong content such difficulties can arise:
- The plant sheds leaves. The reason for this may be sudden changes in temperature or lighting, drafts, improper maintenance of feeding and watering.
- Dry up and twist the tips of the leaves. This trouble may occur due to too dry indoor air. To solve this problem, you need to spray the plant more often.
- Yellow leaves may indicate the presence of pests.
- The plant drops foliage and buds. This may be due to drafts, improper watering, temperature fluctuations.
- Pale color foliage. The most common reason for this is insufficient lighting.
The main pests of indoor maple include:
- Spider mite The reason for its appearance on the plant can serve as a rare watering and dry air. This problem is solved by treating foliage with acaricide, regular spraying of the plant and full watering.
- Aphid. You can remove it using a soap solution, after which it is recommended to wash the leaves well with running water.
- Mealybug. To get rid of it, you need to wipe the leaves with a cotton pad dipped in alcohol.
- Mealy dew. This disease can often affect indoor maple. Signs of its appearance on the leaves of dark growths and sticky plaque. It is possible to treat the plant with the help of a special preparation "Aktara", and it is also recommended to wash the leaves with soap and water.
- Root rot. Symptoms of the disease are expressed in the fact that Abutilon leaves begin to fade and fall off. To help the plant, it should be transplanted, cutting off all the rotten roots before it and treating the remaining crushed coal.