Attitude to melons and watermelons in central Russia is ambiguous. More precisely, everyone loves to eat them, but to grow them ... The ability to get a decent crop fluctuates dramatically depending on weather conditions. So, in the African summer of 2010, all of a sudden they became avid melon growers and boasted that there is nothing easier than getting wonderful harvests of watermelons and melons in the Center of Russia.
But the following years put everything in its place. I started almost the same. And today on our table melons are not translated almost all year round. In short, I will share my experience.
There are two ways to plant melons in the middle zone of our country - in open ground and in protected. For myself, I have long determined that fruits grow in greenhouses and greenhouses, though not as large as outside, but there is always a reliable harvest.
Which year I plant my melons in greenhouses and greenhouses and have a regular harvest of tasty fruits. In size, it is difficult for them to sometimes deal with unpaved ones, since the nutrition area in the same greenhouse for one plant cannot be large. The mass of watermelons can be considered standard, for example, about 1.5-2.5 kg. Although, on the other hand, it is very convenient - you can use portioned berries in one sitting. And the street is like a lottery.
Seeds for seedling sowing in the middle of April in individual cups, and in the middle of May I plant seedlings in greenhouses according to the 40x40 scheme. I donate 20 g of organic-mineral fertilizer into the hole locally. For the best survival of the earthy clod with roots I dip it into a solution of a liquid stimulator of the development of the root system. And in a week they shed young plants.
Such a tight fit requires mandatory formation. Watermelons are quite simple in this respect: I leave only the central stem, removing all lateral shoots. Melon after the formation of 5 leaves on the main stem pinch (after the 3rd sheet).
Why exactly? The root system and the aboveground part are always balanced. Pinching 2 extra sheets allows you to create a more powerful root system, providing intensive plant growth. After a few days, one lateral stalk emerges from each sinus. I choose the strongest of them, leaving it as the main one, and delete two less developed ones. True, it is necessary to take into account: there will be no ovaries on the “chosen” shoot - they are formed only on its stepsons, that is, on third-order shoots.
Important! Melon fruits may not be tied up for various reasons: weather conditions, nutritional deficiencies, varietal characteristics, and even lack of pollination. In principle, the melon can be fruitful without pollination, although it will happen closer to September. The “red line” for our region is August 10, and if you have not started watermelons and melons before this deadline, you can safely remove the plants.
At my place I pollinate melons by hand, transferring pollen from male flowers to female pistils. If the ovaries formed in the axils of the 2nd-3rd leaf could not be pollinated, the entire shoot is completely removed. Therefore, all third-order stems that have appeared at the initial stage of growth are left.
The plant itself is responsible for normalizing the fruit set. And often 7-8 ovaries, which began to grow, gradually die off, only 1-3 melons remain. I noticed that if the temperature at night is above 12 °, then the melons always have one fruit tied up, while under comfortable conditions the same plant can grow 2-3 medium and large fruits or, if the variety is small-fruited, up to 5-6 fruits. I remove all empty whips, and I pinch the main stalk and the side with fruits, leaving 3-4 leaves after the fruit.
But this is, so to speak, traditional agricultural technology. Global warming, manifested in the Center of Russia at an abnormally low temperature for a long time and endless rain flows, it would seem, should have put an end to the project “Gourds-2017”. And the more interesting was to compete with nature.
I placed my pets in three different shelters: polycarbonate, film closed and with a film only on the roof (practically open ground). Looking ahead, I will say that the last option almost failed - several watermelons even died. The best results were in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, although, in principle, the temperature was almost the same as outside. It clearly struck the difference in the development of plants, even within the same ridge. They were planted in 2 lines on a high bed. And those who grew closer to the wall of the greenhouse, were clearly depressed and ultimately yielded a harvest almost half the size of their fellows, who grew closer to the path by only 40 cm.
Explanation I find the following
The air temperature in the greenhouse - this is not the temperature of the soil. In my case, the cold from the outside clearly penetrated into the closed ground. And the cold soil prevented the development of watermelons with a strong core root system. Even using powerful stimulants of root formation, in this case it was impossible to do anything.
But it is all the more pleasant to realize that it was in these conditions that the fruit, which was record for my practice, was grown. Japanese hybrid F1 KC 24 - This is a real find. The powerful emerald aboveground part did not give in to any diseases, remaining the same until the autumn, the root system - without the slightest sign of Fusarium and root rot. Bravo to Japanese breeders! Prior to that, I could not overcome the boundary of 5 kg in the greenhouse. And then immediately the fruit of 7.7 kg!
Of the remaining hybrids I tested last year, I will highlight another beautiful one of the same collection. F1 COP 160 - very early, almost black, weight 3.2 kg, as well as Dutch F1 Romanza (3.4 kg).
However, the melons were much more plastic. They did not pay attention to the vagaries of the weather and pleased with a rich harvest.
Everything, as in life: men (watermelons) can do a lot if they create wonderful conditions, and women (melons) have to give results, and give, regardless of difficulties.
I selected for testing 28 varieties and varieties of melons so that the terms of consumption were maximally stretched and the taste gamut was not boring.
Due to weather conditions, fruiting began with a delay, but in the first half of August it was ripe F1 May. With it, he took only one melon, but weighing 2.3 kg. Then came the turn of the other early ones: F1 Voller gave 2 fruits with a total weight of 4.2 kg, the same F1 Sprint (but their total weight was 3.3 kg), F1 Aikido - 2 fruits with a total weight of 3.5 kg. Declared large-fruited F1 Miron pulled out 3 fruits, but they turned out to be small, the total weight was 3.5 kg. In September, fully mature hybrids that can be stored for up to 2 months or more. We removed 2 fruits F1 SweetHarvest total weight 3.1 kg, one 3 kg melon F1 Summit and 3 small F1 Ignazio (total weight was 3.3 kg). But the most spectacular gift prepared Raymond - one fruit weighing 3.7 kg.
Especially distinguished were two representatives of the type Yellow Canary - Ignazio and Ft SweetHarvest. This is a wonderful new season. I grew them on a trellis (and the stalk does not come off as the fruit ripens). Fruits accumulate sugar during storage, the period of which reaches 3 months. How nice in the middle of December to eat the almost cloying creamy melon flesh!
The last to pick the fruits of the Piel da Cano - Ft sort of Sweet Frog and Don Quixote Ft. These melons are never completely yellow and generally do not have a typical aroma, getting ripe in room conditions. There is an erroneous opinion about the connection of the flavor of melons and their taste. In fact, the strongest flavor in the early varieties (which at the same time may be savory). In mid-season, the aroma is mild, but the sugar content is higher. Late and sweet, and juiciness less, but in general, the taste is very, very pleasant - especially for winter and spring. And you can store them right up until the summer of next year.
So if the weather leaves much to be desired, the gardener's first concern is to help the plants. In the first part of the summer, I used an anti-stress medication, to improve stiffness - liquid boric microfertilizer, supplemental feeding with complex chelate fertilizers with a predominance of potassium. In the formation of fruits, the liquid chelate complex of calcium and potassium monophosphate began to be used.
Last season I was surprised not only by the extreme weather conditions, but also by the excellent yield (almost 100 kg with 11 sq. M) melons, as well as their incomparably sweet sugar taste, which happens not every year. So, the test only confirmed: even heat-loving crops here can grow perfectly and produce a large and tasty crop under the conditions of the correct choice of planting place, plant formation and nutrition (without the use of organic matter).
Varieties and features
They exist more than 1 thousand species, but for the middle band are suitable only a few.
- Alushta - oval-shaped berry, has a yellow color with orange, similar to stains, spots. The yield is high, the fruits are large and reach a weight of up to 1.5 kg. The flesh is juicy and very sweet. It matures in 70–85 days. This variety is suitable for greenhouse sowing.
- Dido - is a medium grade variety, it cakes after 80 days, has a round shape.
- Dessert - highly resistant to many types of diseases, fruits of moderate size. The flesh is white with a greenish tint - dense, juicy and crispy. Increased yield and has a long shelf life.
- Fortune - One of the varieties most suitable for growth in the middle lane. Fruit reaches weight up to 4.5 kg, oval. When ripe on the peel appear patches of light green color. Resistant to light frost - seedlings can withstand up to 3 degrees below zero. It is immune to powdery mildew and most pests due to the content of specific substances in the whips, which makes it possible to grow this species with less difficulty.
There are many varieties aimed at growing melons exclusively in greenhouse conditions due to the long maturation period, which is not always acceptable in a temperate climate.
Soil preparation and planting seeds
The place where the berries will grow, you need to prepare in the fall. The main criterion is the selection of the site where the sun should be abundantly during daylight and throughout the area. It is good if earlier legumes, alfalfa or espartse grew on this place. You should not experiment the cultivation of melons after garlic, dill, parsley. Before the cold you need to make a deep digging of the earth with the addition of organic fertilizer. In early spring (one week before planting), the soil should be loosened and sprinkled over the entire area with crushed gravel or dry sand, since melon grows best in this environment.
Seeds should be placed in a dish with water to remove the soothers that float to the surface, and leave it for two days. Thus, they will begin to spit faster. Immediately before sowing, a furrow should be made in the prepared area, at a distance of 60–80 cm, it is good to pour it with hot boiled water and pour fine river sand onto the bottom. Due to this, the soil instantly warms up to the desired temperature. You can sow sunflower seeds preferably 30 cm apart and pound the ground.
How to grow melon in the cold spring?
Very simple. There is a secret that is not found in most reference books, since it was opened about 100 years ago and is rarely used by current gardeners.
It is recommended to start planting in early April, then the fruits will have time to ripen in full force. When the seeds in the garden have sprouted, it is necessary to thin out so that the distance between them is at least 60 cm.
In order to avoid death from the last frost, small seedlings are required. This may sound strange, but this nuance works well against the cold and makes it possible to fully grow the crop in the early stages. The process is divided into two stages.
You need to take two and five-liter plastic bottles and cut the bottom on each. Smaller forms need to cover the sprouts, pre-made around a sand pillow. A larger cap is placed on top of this design. The principle of the matryoshka will turn out - the heat is perfectly preserved inside thanks to the air chamber. During the first watering, it is recommended to use a weak solution of nitrate with water, so that the developing root will receive additional feeding.
When the plants will release the third leaf, you need to break through the weed and pour the ash and ground humus. Cover again, but only with five-liter domes. No need to rush to remove the caps, let the greens bask in the abundance of heat. When a full-fledged bush is formed - usually on the 15th of June - it is possible to produce a culture from a plastic house into a street environment.
The seedling method is slightly different in technology. Seeds should be planted in nylon glasses filled with a mixture of soil with humus or garden compost, three seeds each. In this case, the plant does not necessarily feed solution of nitrate. The air temperature in the room should be at least 15 degrees. When seedlings appear, they need to be thinned, leaving larger sprouts. When lashes with 4–5 sheets have formed, you can transplant the melons into the open ground, preliminarily pouring them abundantly with water.
Some gardeners practice the hardening method, which allows to grow a frost-resistant berry. For two hours, the seeds are placed in a sealed container with water at room temperature. Then stand them for a day under wet gauze at temperatures up to 20 degrees. After that, the seeds for 13-15 hours are laid in the refrigerator. And again for 6 hours should be at room temperature. The procedure is done strictly before sowing into the soil.
Then adheres to the simple but crucial part of the agrotechnology of growing melons. Subsequent steps should be performed correctly and in a timely manner.
It is known that not only cultivated plants grow in the garden. There are still weeds that consume 80% of all minerals from the soil. This adversely affects the lives of vegetables that are close by. If on the site before the family of legumes, the land will be saturated with nitrogen, which loves the most terrible enemy for harvest - sow thistles. Its roots pierce the rocks and reaches a length of up to 30 meters, which makes the plant particularly resilient.
Therefore, weeding is an important step for growing melons. At the same time, the soil is being loosened, the culture is not subject to the formation of diseases and is not in the shadow. Large weeds must be removed from the root and removed outside the site.
Fertilizer and watering
If the majority of fruits and vegetables are recommended to be watered directly under the leg, then in the case of the southern berry, the opposite is true. Between the formed rows, you first need to make channels for water. Thus, the roots do not go deep, and grow around the perimeter of the site. And the plant gets more nutrients. Do not irrigate the soil abundantly - melons do not like excess moisture and may die. In rare cases, drip irrigation is used, for this the soil must be mulched to avoid rapid evaporation of water.
It is advisable to feed the culture three times during the whole season. It is not advisable to use chemical compounds for fertilizer. Fruitfulness increases, but physical qualities are lost. The flesh becomes like cotton and crumbles, a sour taste appears. Ideal for fertilizer suitable humus, compost and ash, because of the content of pure organics and minerals. Ash is also recommended to pour on the leaves to reduce the risk of disease.
Pruning is an important procedure for a similar berry, like a melon. The scourge must be stopped in such a way that there are no more than four ovaries on the vine, because the bush will spend forces on all the fruits, and most simply will not have time to fully mature. At the same time the plant is quickly exhausted and will begin to dry out. It is important to know: fruiting (female) flowers are formed on the lateral processes. Therefore, the main need to remove completely. My brother - watermelon is the opposite.
To grow any crop, you need to know the main diseases and be able to deal with them correctly. Melon has its negative favorites.
- Gourd Aphid - small insect, incredibly fast breeding. The habitat is most often the underside of the leaves. It prefers to accumulate in small flocks, feed on the sap of the plant, which eventually dies. And also have the ability to infect melon with incurable viruses. To prevent the need to remove the weed in time and for the prevention of spraying karbofos solution. Spider mite has complete similarity in habitat. The only difference is that the bush is covered with cobwebs.
- Mealy dew - refers to fungal viruses. Manifested on the leaves and stem in the form of small white spots, which gradually grow over the entire surface. The development of fruits slows down noticeably, the level of fructose decreases. Formed from excess moisture. To combat the disease you need sulfur powder (calculation of 4 g per square meter).
- Fusarium wilt - type of fungus. The focus of education - the ground. Like all molds, it is born from copious amounts of water. The leaves are covered with gray spots and lose their bright color. The plant dies within 10 days. It is recommended to treat with potassium chloride solution.
Ещё один совет – когда плоды достигли размеров среднего яблока, желательно подложить под каждый кусок фанеры. В результате не будет образовываться из-за влаги грибковый возбудитель.
Сбор урожая и хранение
Если выращивать дыни таким методом, готовый урожай можно собирать уже во второй половине августа. It is recommended to pick berries slightly unripened in this case, there is a chance that they will not perespeyut and not lose taste. It is advisable to store melons on wooden platforms in a dry, slightly ventilated room at a temperature not exceeding 5 degrees Celsius. Storage time depends on the selected variety (1–5 months mainly).
Seed preparation for sowing
If you want to master the cultivation of melons in the open field, first of all purchase high-quality seeds. The choice of varieties for residents of the southern regions depends only on the preferences of the gardener: in a long and warm summer, any variety will have time to develop well and bear fruit. If the summer in your area is short and cool, choose seeds of local breeding, they are already adapted to the adverse climate.
Be sure to pay attention to the time of fruit ripening: the faster the harvest time, the more melons will be on your table. Do not chase large-fruited species, they reach the desired size too slowly, and no excellent care will accelerate this process.
There are several good varieties that can be grown in cool northern summer:
- Early sweet
- Gilded Scythians
- Collective farmer,
- Sweet pineapple.
Do not grow melons from discarded seeds that have expired. Fresh seed gives more friendly shoots and as a result is more profitable.
A good harvest can give saplings from melon seeds, which was grown by your neighbor on your site. The plant has already adapted to the local soil, weather conditions and transferred these properties to the future generation. In this case, there are two subtleties: firstly, the variety should not be a hybrid. The second condition: the fruit must fully ripen on the garden. If the melon was picked green and left to ripen indoors, there is no guarantee that the grains will be viable.
Crops on the windowsill
In a warm belt, many gardeners plant a melon with seeds immediately on the garden bed. In cold regions, grains planted in open ground do not have time to develop and give fruit. On average, seedlings, if provided with proper care, are ready for planting a month after sowing the seeds. If the appropriate weather in your area is set in early June, have a sowing in late April. Soak the seeds in warm water and leave for several hours at a temperature of about 25⁰.
You can use the experience of our great-grandmothers. They wrapped the seeds in a damp cloth and laid them in their underwear. The heat and energy of your body will serve as a good stimulant for the quick awakening of the embryo.
You can buy soil for seedlings of melon crops or prepare the composition yourself. Fill the bucket with ¾ humus and ¼ garden soil. Add three more components to the soil:
- potassium fertilizer - 1 tbsp. spoon,
- nitrogen fertilizer - 1 tbsp. spoon,
- phosphate fertilizer - 3 tbsp. spoons.
If you are against chemical fertilizers, add a teaspoon of potassium sulfate and a glass of ash to the earth. It is better not to throw the seeds onto the surface of the soil, but stick it sideways in the ground and sprinkle 3 cm of soil.
In order for young melons to take root well, it is advisable to minimally injure their root system. The ideal option is peat pots with a diameter of about 10 cm. If there are no suitable cups, take a plastic bottle, make drainage holes in the bottom, and cut the neck. Each plant should be allocated an individual "apartment". If you are not sure of the quality of the seeds, you can plant 2 grains in each container, but then it is advisable to remove the weaker shoot.
The shoots appeared in the cups, now it is necessary that they become good strong seedlings. What kind of care do your pets need? Almost the same as any other seedlings.
Remember a few points that you can not forget.
- Watering. Keep the soil always wet.
- Comfortable temperature.
- Sufficient lighting.
Melon does not tolerate cramping, so arrange the cups so that the leaves of neighboring plants do not touch each other. With a lack of light, seedlings will begin to stretch. In order for saplings to grow strong, daylight must last at least 12 hours. If the sun rarely looks in the window, turn on the fluorescent lamp above the plantings. Watch the air temperature, but do not overheat the seedlings. The comfortable temperature for it is + 25⁰, and above + 30⁰ the plants will begin to die.
Food in a pot for the whole period is not enough. 2 weeks after sowing, you need to dilute the complex fertilizer in water and feed the seedlings. Immediately after this, water the plants. Repeat the procedure a few days before landing in the ground. In addition, do not forget to loosen the ground in cups - this is the whole care of the seedlings of the southern culture.
At the age of 3 weeks, seedlings should be gradually accustomed to life in the open air. Bring the pots to a loggia or veranda, where the temperature is about + 17 днем during the day and drops to + 14⁰ at night. Every evening, carefully listen to the weather forecast, that before cooling off, remove tender plants into heat. Melon does not tolerate the cold, and all your labors can die in one night.
Planting in open ground
It is better to prepare a place for melons on the ground, where legumes, cabbage or potatoes grew last season. The site should be sunny, protected from drafts. Make a warm bed for your melons: dig a trench and fill it with humus and hay, straw, or fallen leaves. Add fertilizer with a predominance of nitrogen, pour hot water over it, lay a layer of soil on top and cover with black covering material. Plant residues will start to rot, and the soil will always be warm. Not bad, if you get a small ridge above the trench for planting young plants.
When the ground at a depth of 10 cm warms up to + 18⁰, dig on the ridges of a hole 10 cm deep with a distance of 120 cm between rows, and 70 cm between plants. Fill the holes with compost and spill well with warm water. In each hole you need to install 2 peat pots. Close to the melons will not be, their whips spread along the ground, and your task is to guide them in different directions. If the seedlings grow in plastic cups, try to remove the whole lump of earth, so that the roots remain in the ground. It is better to simply cut the containers made of bottles into 2 halves; by the next planting season you will accumulate a new container.
A well-developed seedling should have a thick stem and 3 to 5 true leaves. To whip well branched, pinch the main sprout over the fifth leaf. Plant the plants so that the clod of soil is a couple of centimeters above the surface of the ridge. The soil should be mulched right away, besides protecting against weeds and retaining moisture, a thick loose layer will give the roots extra heat. While the weather is cool, arrange shelter from natkannogo material or film.
So that the soil does not cool down very much during cool nights, lay out “thermal batteries” on the bed. Take the stones or fill the bottles with dark plastic with water and place them near the seedlings. During the day, the sun will heat the stones, and at night they will give off heat to the earth. If the weather is cloudy and cold, heat the materials on the stove and in the evening place it under the plants.
Melon care in the garden
Melon has large juicy fruits, but it does not have a great need for moisture. Powerful roots go to the lower layers of the soil to a depth of more than a meter and suck water from there. Make sure that the soil does not dry, moisten it to a sufficient depth. And now the secret of getting especially sweet fruit. As soon as they grow to the desired size, completely stop watering. The plant will receive water for its existence from deep layers of the earth, and more sugar substances will be deposited in melons.
Immediately after planting a melon you need a lot of nutrients for the development of lashes and leaves. A week after planting, when the plants take root, you need to water the planting solution of ammonium nitrate (20 g per bucket of water). After 2 weeks, feed them with complex fertilizers, after another fortnight, repeat the procedure. From time to time, treat your pets with wood ash, the fruits of it become sweeter.
Do not let a melon spend a lot of effort on the green mass, leave no more than 2 main shoots. The plant can bloom very abundantly, but many fruits on it will not ripen. Leave no more than 6 ovaries on the bush. If some escape does not form buds, cut it to save strength for the development of the fruit. Fix long scourges on the ground with pins or brackets so that the wind will not break them.
If you notice that only one fruit grows well on a bush, and the rest barely grows, it means that the plant lacks nutrients. Feed the melon with complex fertilizer.
Summer days in the north are long, and some varieties, such as the collective farmer or Ethiopka, cannot tolerate bright light for more than 12 hours a day. Arrange a blackout from dense fabric and cover the plants when half a day passes after sunrise. To evenly develop the fruit, from time to time turn them over. Do not let the formed melons lie on the ground: they can rot from moisture before they have matured. Place slate debris or other material under it that does not rot and does not collect moisture. To determine the ripeness of the fruit can be a bright yellow color and a specific smell.
Many varieties of melons grow beautifully and bear fruit in the open field in the Urals and in Siberia. Try to choose varieties with a short ripening period and small fruits, so that they can ripen in the garden before the cold weather. Melons Kolkhoznitsa and Ethiopka are considered the most resistant to cold. In the northern regions, not every summer is warm, and, despite all the efforts and excellent care for plantings, you can stay without juicy delicacy. To have your own melon on the table every year, grow more seedlings from the seeds and plant some bushes in the greenhouse.
Do not try to plant in the northern regions of the southern culture of seeds in open ground. At best, you will admire large yellow flowers, and at worst - only lush greens, and you will not wait for the fruit. Planting melon seeds in cold edges is possible only through seedlings. Even if the weather is warm, equip shelters to protect the plants from death in case of a cold snap.
Crows no less than people love delicacies. Drive away feathered sweet teeth from ripening fruits with scarecrow, nets, mirror shards, or electronic devices. Basic care consists of the usual procedures for any gardener: watering, feeding, pinching the tops of the whips.
Do not be lazy to master the cultivation of new crops, they will add variety to your menu and to the design of the suburban area.
The main conditions for the favorable cultivation of melons in the country almost no different from cucumbers. The only difference in planting and growing is that the melon matures several weeks later than cucumbers, so that it can grow not only in the south, but also in the northern regions. But for this it is necessary to observe three basic conditions when caring for these false berries.
How to grow melon in the open field
Melons are of three types. it net, or Kiliya, cantaloupe and winter. Early maturing varieties are suitable for the Non-Chernozem region of Russia and the Middle Band. It may be varieties "Solar", "Autumn", "Rainbow", "Gerda".
Pleases and simple agrotechnology cultivation of our melon culture. In order for the berry to feel comfortable in the dacha bed, the soil at the landing site must be fertile, but not very greasy and with good drainage. Melon seedlings are grown. This is due to the fact that plants are planted in open ground only in mid-June in order to avoid late frosts.
The best varieties of melons
Among the whole variety of varieties, Alushta, Dessert 5, Zolotistaya and Kolkhoznitsa are especially known. Sort "Alushta" ripens in just 70 days and gives a very good yield: 145-175 centners per hectare. "Dessert 5", in addition to high yields, is known for excellent keeping quality.
Sort "Golden" Perfect for growing at home, because it has amazing disease resistance.
BUT "Collective farmer" - one of the most sweet and common varieties in the middle lane. For sowing, it is best to choose 2- and 3-year-old seeds.
The best predecessors for the melon are winter wheat, corn, and barley. For more than two years it doesn’t make sense to grow it in one place, the yield drops sharply.
Melon is sown in early June, after the threat of unexpected night frosts disappears. This will greatly facilitate the care of plants. Planted seeds need to a depth of 3 centimeters.
If you want to harvest early (2-3 weeks), you can first make seedlings. 30-35 days before planting in the melon should be sown in pots.
Another little trick. In order for the seeds to come up faster, they are soaked before sowing, and they are sown when they have already “hiked”.
The first two times loosening between the rows is carried out at a depth of 10-15 cm, not more. Then - no deeper than 10 centimeters, while it is impossible to loosen the soil right next to the stem. As soon as the first side lashes appear, the melon can be minded.
Watering a melon should be moderate. If you see dew on the grass in the morning, you can cancel watering on this day. Watering is carried out between the rows, the water should not fall on the lash and leaves.
An important part of caring for melon - its feeding. Two weeks after the landing, you can begin to make saltpeter, chicken manure, mullein or special mineral fertilizers. After this, it is necessary to feed the plant every 10 days. When the fruits begin to ripen, feeding stops.
Weeding beds need only in case of need. Make sure that the lash does not fall into the aisle.
If a If you put a piece of the board under the already tied up melon, then prevent it from rotting from contact with wet earth.
Costs and profits
At sowing 100 square meters. m will need 200-300 grams of melon seeds, in monetary terms it will be about 800 rubles, depending on the variety. In order to plant and grow a melon, you will have to spend money on tools for loosening, fertilizing, organizing watering plants. Therefore, we add to the cost of another 1-1.5 m. P.
Realizing your harvest in bulk, you can count on income of about 20-40 tons. P. with 100 square meters.
In order for the cultivation of melons to make a profit, it is important to absolutely follow the technology and choose the best varieties. Especially if for the time being you have no experience in the implementation of such a product. So, you can grow a delicious culture for yourself and at the same time do a small business.
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Growing melons in a greenhouse - let's experiment
Melon - one of the most useful products
In warm countries, watermelons and melons are grown on the street, in the ground. In an area where the air temperature is not very high, you can grow melons in the greenhouse. The result will be no worse, on the contrary, when grown in a greenhouse, the melon will be even more tasty and fragrant.
To provide ourselves with such a delicious gift of nature throughout the year, we grow melons in the greenhouse.
If there is little space in a greenhouse that is heated, in summer, melons can be grown in an unheated greenhouse that has a cap or hinged lid. You should not grow cucumbers and melons nearby. They can pollinate from each other and lose their taste.
How to grow a melon in a greenhouse? In fact, there is nothing complicated. It is only necessary to take this occupation with all seriousness and attention.
Basic rules for growing
- First, you should pay attention to the fact that care for these fruits should be carefully.
- Secondly, every owner who decided to grow melons should know how to form a melon in a greenhouse.
- Thirdly, it is very important to choose the right grade. Agronomists say that it is best to choose the early varieties of watermelons and melons of small size, their weight does not exceed two kilograms. Keep them for a long time can not be.
Please note that if you remove melons immature, they can keep up indoors.
Sowing should begin when the weather is fully capable of protecting the shoots from frost at night. As a rule, this should be done at the beginning of summer.
You can not delay this process, because the fruits do not have time to ripen. Some varieties of melons can be planted in the middle of May.
Growing melons with seedlings, you give yourself the opportunity to harvest two or three weeks earlier. The seedling option involves planting seeds in pots about a month before they land in the ground. When the greenhouse option to plant the seeds in the pots can be approximately in early April.
Do not forget that the successful planting of a melon in a greenhouse also depends on what sort of melon you choose for the greenhouse. Having picked it up under your soil (see the Land in the greenhouse: soil selection and care), you can start sowing. The most successful variety is the variety "collective farmer".
Melon growing in a greenhouse
Planting melons in the ground
First, you need to create the necessary conditions for the growth of melons:
- Soil for growing melons should not be increased acidity and density,
- The air should not be stagnant,
- Cold weather also adversely affects ripening melons. Notice that the ground should be warm enough
- Для того чтобы плоды созревали быстрее, а дыни были более ароматными и вкусными, почву нужно предварительно удобрить и полить (см. Система капельного полива в теплице или парнике).
Во-вторых, перед тем, как высаживать дыни в грунт, нужно чтобы они сперва проросли в горшочках. To do this, in April, one grain was planted in pots. These pots are placed on the windowsill, on which direct sunlight falls.
It is possible to replant sprouts in big pots when they increase in sizes. It is necessary to grow melon seedlings at a temperature not lower than sixteen degrees, and as soon as it gets warmer, the melon needs to be planted in a greenhouse.
By the end of the spring is to change grapes. To do this, they must first be moved to pots that are large enough or to open ground. When planting in open ground, you need to make sure that the place for growing fruit is bright and sunny.
It should be noted that the cultivation of melons in the greenhouse requires close attention. You need to place them at a distance of half a meter from each other.
Once planted melons on the street, you need to start their watering. While the melons are not formed, they need to be watered a little, but over time the amount of water for irrigation should increase.
When they begin to bloom, it is necessary to fertilize the soil with universal additives. As soon as the first fruits appear, they can be fed with other fertilizers. After more than two fruits have appeared, you can begin to feed the plant twice a week.
Features care for melons
It is not enough to know how to grow melons in a greenhouse, you should also be aware of how to care for them.
It is worth remembering that:
- you need to grow a melon in a bright warm area,
- water melons need only when the top layer dries,
- when growing melons in a greenhouse, it is worth remembering that it should be well ventilated (see How to air a greenhouse if you cannot always be near),
- sprouts should be fed with special fertilizers,
- The soil in which melons grow should be loose and soft.
In order for melons to grow big, beautiful and whole, you need to provide them with various supports.
As supports you can use:
When tying, you need to behave especially carefully with the sprouts, so as not to damage them, just as carefully as when tying tomatoes.
Preparing for sowing
By this time, preparing the plot at the cottage for planting. First you need to dig holes 80x80x20 cm in size, after which you need to fill them with about humus about half, and then fall asleep 2-3 cm with a layer of earth. A few days before planting the seedlings of melons, the holes are covered with a film so that the earth warms up as best as possible. It is better if it is not just a film, but prepared mini-greenhouses, made, for example, of laths, with film attached to them and located in a place completely open to the sun, or reputable greenhouses. We grow together melons and watermelons in them.
Artificial pollination when grown
In order to guarantee the harvest, it is necessary to carry out artificial pollination. To the green mass does not grow so rapidly, you need to pinch the side shoots through a couple of sheets of fruit that grows. Thanks to this simple reception, all the energy of the plant will be directed to the formation and ripening of fruits.
Features care for melon collective farmer
Melon collective farmer - cultivation in the greenhouse occurs in several stages. First of all, you need to do the seeds. In order for the seeds to sprout faster, you need to pre-soak them.
In the soil, they are sown as soon as they hatch. It is worth noting that when sowing dry seeds, they can rise two or three days later
- As soon as real sheets appear in the seedlings, it should be planted in the soil.
- Before disembarking it is necessary to make holes, pour a tablespoon of ash into each of them. After that, the wells need to add a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This is done in order to prevent the possibility of mold.
- Then a small amount of warm water is poured into each well. As soon as the water is absorbed, seedlings can be planted.
- Approximately a day before this, the seedlings should also be poured with water.
- The distance between each landing should be about half a meter.
In the greenhouse melons need to tie up. This is done quite simply - just like the tie-up of cucumbers. But you should take into account the fact that the melon sprouts do not curl, so you need to wrap it yourself in the process of growth.
The origin of the melon of this variety also determines some features of its care. You should not put melon and cucumbers in one greenhouse - they can be pollinated from each other and this will spoil their taste. But pepper and tomatoes are excellent neighbors for the “collective farmer”.
After opening the leaves, you can begin feeding plants with fertilizers. To feed the plants need to simultaneously with watering.
Please note that you can not overwet the soil. Depending on what kind of lighting in the greenhouse, you need to adjust the frequency of watering melons.
As soon as the melons begin to bloom, they can only be fertilized with additives that contain phosphorus and potassium.
It is also worth with great care to harvest the fruit. You need to collect them when you feel their specific smell. This usually happens by the end of summer.
In order to determine the level of maturity of the fetus, you need to slightly push down on the base. If it is soft and there are dents on the surface of the fingers, then the fruit is ripe and ready to eat. It is worth paying attention to the fact that melons are consumed immediately.
In the process of storing melons in a greenhouse, one should be very careful that microorganisms do not start their activity on its surface. To avoid this phenomenon, you need to protect the melon from damp and cold. Keep them for a long time is not recommended.
Now that you know how to grow melon in a greenhouse, you can safely buy seedlings and get to work.
How to grow watermelons and melons in the greenhouse
Diligent gardeners grow many different fruits and vegetables. An experienced gardener, it would seem, nothing to surprise. Even such southern plants as cherries, grapes, apricots, successfully settled down on our sites. However, melons and gourds are still considered some kind of wonder, although planting watermelons and melons in a greenhouse is a pleasant and simple affair.
For the cultivation of watermelons and melons should prepare a greenhouse height of 1.7 meters, and preferably 2.
Caring for these crops is no more difficult than for cucumbers. And how nice to eat ecologically clean fragrant fruits. Follow the detailed instructions for growing watermelons and melons, and you will enjoy a good crop of tasty melons.
Proper preparation of greenhouses - the key to success
Use tall structures. Heat-loving melons under the open sky can not grow, the ground should be protected. A greenhouse is not suitable for this - it is too small. In order to grow watermelons and melons, any type of greenhouse is suitable with the only condition: its height should be at least 1.7 m, and better - about 2 m. As they grow, these plants hob high along the trellis, so they may to grab.
Arrange plants separate housing. Watermelons and melons grow beautifully next to other plants: cucumbers, peppers, eggplants. However, experienced gardeners recommend using a separate greenhouse for cultivating melons. This will allow to choose the conditions optimal for the southern berries: low air humidity and temperature of about 30˚С. Plants are able to tolerate drought, but they absolutely do not tolerate high humidity. When the humidity is above 60%, the plants infect fungal infections.
Greenhouse scheme for growing watermelons and melons.
Greenhouse must be prepared in advance. At the end of March, it is cleared of snow, if any, and carefully inspect the building inside and out. All breakdowns need to be fixed: melons are afraid of cold weather, and any gap lets in cold air and can lead to the death of seedlings. After the greenhouse is covered, you need to take care of the fertility of the soil: add a neutral, not too greasy soil. The greenhouse preparation work can be started immediately after the snow has melted.
For a start, a greenhouse can be used for growing frost-resistant early-ripening crops. Before growing watermelons and melons, plant radishes, greens, and daikon. Gourds can be planted only in well-warmed land, when frost does not happen anymore. Greenhouse by the time it will be free. Material to protect seedlings from sudden cold weather must be placed in the greenhouse in advance. It can be spunbond, rags, special film, paper - anything that can save fragile shoots.
Proper seed selection
The arrangement scheme beds.
Growing melons in the greenhouse begins with sowing good seeds. The wrong choice will bring all your efforts to nothing. Refuse the help of good people who want to share. Use only the products of proven companies sold in good stores. It is best to choose a variety with medium-sized fruits: this gives a guarantee of excellent results.
When buying seeds should pay attention to the place of production of seeds. It is best to take the products of your region, adapted to its climate. The period from the ovary of the fruit to their ripening should be small. This ensures harvest. With a long term you can be left without a crop. Do not believe and predicted a large number of large watermelons and melons. Giant melons can ripen only in the south. In the greenhouse, small-sized berries grow, of which there are many, as they are tied better. Take seeds with a shelf life. Fresh seeds germinate better.
How to grow seedlings with your own hands
From the time of sowing seeds to planting seedlings in the ground takes about 25-30 days. This means that the plant is important every day. Manage to do all the work on time, then strong and healthy plants will settle in the greenhouse. Strong and strong plants will grow in separate pots. There are several secrets that will help you in growing seedlings.
Do not be late with the planting dates. For this fit mid-April. It is preferable to use peat pots: this will protect the root system when transplanting to the ground. As pots you can use cups with a diameter of about 10 cm - in large pots seedlings can be ruined by overflow. If there are no ready pots, they can be made with your own hands. For planting seeds you will need the following materials and tools:
Melon formation scheme.
- plastic bottles
- phosphate fertilizer
- nitrogen fertilizer.
Seeds before sowing need to soak. They are left in warm water or an immunostimulant solution. After such treatment, they sprout together and faster. Correctly select the composition of the soil: 1 part of the earth, 2 parts of humus, 3 spoons of phosphate fertilizer, a spoon of nitrogen fertilizer and a spoon of fertilizer with potassium. Instead of fertilizers, you can add wood ash and potassium sulfate to the soil.
In order for the cotyledon leaves to break through the shell easily, the seeds need to be planted sideways. They are deepened into the ground by 2-3 cm. For germination of seedlings a temperature of 22-25 ° C is required, after the emergence of shoots it is reduced to 21-23 ° C. Before the appearance of the first sprouts, the pots must be covered with a film.
The scheme of the formation of watermelon.
Watching seedlings is a pleasure! It grows in the eyes without much hassle. However, three conditions must be met. Plants need to ensure complete freedom. The pots need to move away from each other, avoiding contact. It is necessary to make good fertilizers to give sprout strength: before planting in the greenhouse, the plants are fed with two types of fertilizers.
The easiest way is to feed the seedlings with mineral fertilizer diluted in water. The first feed should be made 10 days after planting the seeds and a little later. If you do this before, you can burn the weak roots. Seedlings require long-term coverage. With a lack of sunlight, lamps are used, otherwise the plants are drawn out and weakened.
The scheme of planting seedlings in the greenhouse
Choose the best terms. To grow watermelons in the greenhouse is possible only in case of settled warm weather. If the greenhouse is heated, watermelons and melons can be planted in the middle of May. In the absence of heating is not worth the risk. Cucumbers and tomatoes can suffer a short-term decrease in temperature, capricious melons - no. Embarking on the landing is possible when the daytime temperature reaches 20-25 degrees, and the night temperature exceeds -5 degrees. Suspend the landing if soil frosts are expected.
If the watermelons are already planted, and frost is expected, cover them with pre-prepared covering material.
The soil must be prepared in advance. Remove the top layer of soil, put humus and hay in the trench. Sprinkle with nitrogen fertilizer and pour in hot water. After that, lay the ground again and tightly cover the bed with black material. This will allow the soil to warm up faster. The technique of planting soil is as follows.
Seedlings should be planted in a row according to the scheme of 70x50 cm. Two plants can be placed in one well, defining their stems in different directions as they grow. Pit before planting plants need to be filled with compost or humus and pour abundantly with water. Seedlings are planted directly in peat pots. From plastic, you need to get it carefully, without damaging the roots. There is no need to deepen the seedling lump, it should rise a couple of centimeters above the ground. Otherwise, the undermined part of the plant will rot.
Caring for melons in the greenhouse
In the first days after planting, seedlings do not require care. Care in the future is reduced to watering and ventilation. Temperatures greater than 30 degrees can lead to the death of plants, so in hot weather, you need to open the vents or tilt the film on the ends. For watering it is necessary to use only warm water. Do not fall on the leaves of plants, otherwise they will rot. The need for watering signal leaves: if they began to wither, hurry for watering. Excessive watering is dangerous. This will lead to fungal damage and damage to the fruit.
Scheme of germination.
Once a week, when watering, nitrogen fertilizers and ammonium nitrate should be added to the water. Sweet ash will give wood ash. Procedures must be completed before the fruit ripens, so that nitrates do not get into them. Plants require podchipki and garters. In melons, like cucumbers, the growing point is removed with the appearance of the fifth leaf.
When the ovaries are the size of a plum, they leave one with the correct form on each lash; the others are removed. Garter plants need to start within 10 days after disembarkation. The fruits themselves are then tied up like this: they are placed in nets, the edges of which are tied up and suspended from a trellis by a string. This saves watermelons and melons from disease and dampness.
If the vents remain open for a long time, artificial pollination is not needed. If the bees do not fly into the greenhouse, you will have to deal with pollination. Find the largest male flowers. Tearing them, tear off the petals and attach the flower to the stigmas of female flowers. The procedure must be repeated several times. It is better to do in the morning. Do not overtighten. Male flowers live only a few hours. If pollination does not occur, there will be no fruit.
Melon ripeness in the greenhouse is easy to check. The tail will have ring cracks, and the fruit itself will emit a characteristic aroma. Determine the maturity of watermelon more difficult. This can be done by the brightness of the pattern of the crust and the deaf sound when tapping. Clean need to dry fruit, they are stored longer. Harvest is placed in cardboard boxes and shifted thick paper. Your work will surely be a success. You no longer have to buy watermelons and melons on the market.
The basic rules for preparing greenhouses for planting melons:
- The height of the greenhouse should be more than one and a half meters, since the melons are wicker berries. The length of the whips from melons is large enough, and they need a place to curl.
- Melons are heat-loving and drought-resistant plants that do not tolerate high humidity. Therefore it is better to plant them in a separate greenhouse, where you can maintain optimal conditions for growing.
- The greenhouse requires a thorough inspection for cracks and damage and their removal, because the slightest draft can lead to the death of plants.
- It is necessary to prepare the soil by adding humus or peat and sawdust to it, as well as adding wood ash and potassium sulfate.
From planting until the seedlings germinate, only 25-30 days pass, therefore it is necessary to properly organize the whole process of planting melons:
- the seeds are soaked before planting - this will speed up the germination period,
- when planting the seeds are laid on its side, which will facilitate the breakthrough of sprouts through the shell,
- seeds are planted in the second half of April,
- in order not to damage the roots when transplanting, they plant seeds in peat pots,
- pots should be of small diameter, preferably within ten centimeters. If there are none, cut plastic bottles will do,
- seeds are planted to a depth of 2 to 3 centimeters,
- the room temperature is maintained around + 22- + 24 ° C,
- potted soil should be loose.
Proper care of seedlings
Basic rules for caring for seedlings:
- as the seedlings grow, the sprouts should be periodically moved away from each other so that they do not touch,
- seedlings before planting in the ground must be at least two dressings, the first of which is produced ten days after the emergence of melons,
- рассада требует длительного освещения до четырнадцати часов в сутки, поэтому недостаток света необходимо компенсировать, используя лампы.
Правила посадки дыни
Рекомендации по высадке дынь:
- Высаживать рассаду следует не раньше средины мая, но температура воздуха должна быть не ниже +25°C.
- Грунт перед высадкой необходимо подготовить и прогреть. To do this, remove the top layer of soil, put hay on the bottom and sprinkle with humus. Then the earth is put back, after which they cover everything with a dark film.
- Holes do at a distance of 70x50 cm, positioning in a row.
- Before planting, the hole is poured with water, in the same hole should be planted no more than one germ.
- When planting in the ground, the plants should not be too deep, as it is possible the rotting of the perimeter knee.
At first, after planting, the plants do not require special care. In the future, you should monitor the room airing and watering of melons.
- The temperature in the greenhouse should not reach + 30 ° C, as this will have a detrimental effect on the seedlings.
- Watering plants should be only warm water.
- When watering can not wet the leaves in order to avoid rotting.
- Excessive humidity of soil and air can lead to fungal diseases of plants.
- Watering should be combined with dressing, adding nitrogen fertilizers to water.
- Plants need to do a pinch and garter vines.
There are some peculiarities for the care of the vine gourds.
- To form a vine begin with the appearance of the fifth leaf, arresting a growing point. Then the strongest shoots are selected, which are sent to the trellis. The remaining shoots must be removed without regret.
- It should form a plant in two or three stems, on the second-order shoots nip is done on each stalk.
- Ovary, when it reaches the size of the plum, is left alone, and the rest are broken.
- On the tenth day you should start tying up the vine.
How to tie the fruit
Melons are placed in a nylon mesh, then the edges are tightened and attached with a twine to the trellis. It turns out a kind of "cradle", which will protect the fruit from disease. Melons, like other greenhouse crops, can be exposed to various fungal diseases, be affected by insects, so a number of preventive measures should be taken.
In order to prevent pests in the greenhouse, it is necessary to carry out cleaning both in the area around it and inside. Before entering the greenhouse of polycarbonate should pour a rug of sawdust and soak it with salt. Affected plants must be removed immediately and then burned. Then it is recommended to disinfect the room.
When cracks appear in the melon tail, and the fruits themselves smell amazingly, it means that the melons are ripe and you can safely harvest. The removed fruits should be put in aerated boxes, shifting each row with cardboard.
Melons along with watermelons are deservedly popular. The technology of cultivation of melon and watermelon does not have significant differences. Particular attention should be paid to the competent selection of high-quality seed material.
Grow greenhouse melons in the Siberian climate is not very difficult. And the key to a good harvest and high-quality fruits is strong seedlings, the optimal composition of the greenhouse soil and proper care throughout the growing season of melons and other greenhouse melon crops.
Special attention should be paid to the competent selection of high-quality seed material.
Description of varieties
Today in Siberia you can’t surprise anyone with independently grown watermelons and melons. These melons manage to grow even gardener novices. However, the yield of greenhouse melon and watermelon strongly depends on the variety. The most suitable varieties of melon for cultivation in greenhouses are listed below.
- Early variety for growing in the greenhouse "Barnaulka". Melons of this variety are characterized by a regular shape, slightly elongated and fully covered with a net of thin cracks. The maximum weight is one and a half kilograms. The flesh is creamy orange in color and good taste. The variety is very resistant to high humidity in the greenhouse.
- Melon variety "Altai", specially zoned for cultivation in the Altai Territory. External qualities are similar to the variety “Barnaulka”. The variety is distinguished by precocity and the presence of thin, short lashes, which facilitates the care of the plant. The maximum weight of round or oval fruit is no more than two kilograms. Bright yellow or white flesh is juiciness and sugar content.
- Greenhouse cultivar "Amber". Characterized by excellent taste and elongated shape. Fruits are light, and the standard shelf life does not exceed twenty days.
Altai melon variety specially zoned for cultivation in the Altai Territory
In addition to the above varieties, melon varieties, such as "Early-133", "Hybrid", "Dessert", "Dream" and "Golden."
In difficult climatic conditions that distinguish Siberia, it is recommended to grow in the greenhouse the following varieties of watermelons.
- Early variety "Stocks-647" with rounded fruits, the mass of which does not exceed two kilograms. The thin bark has a dark green color with very dark stripes. The flesh is very juicy, pale pink. Tastes are excellent, but the variety cannot be transported or stored.
- Super-fast and popular in the Siberian region variety Hybrid-45. High-yielding variety with excellent taste, which can be grown not only in a greenhouse or greenhouse, but also on the ridges of open ground.
In addition, consistently high yield and resistance to adverse weather conditions are characteristic of varieties and hybrids. “F1-Present to the North”, “Cinderella”, “F1-Moscow-Charleston”, “Ultra-early”, “F1-Krimstar” and "Siberian".
Let's start with the most prose: learn a little about this garden crop. In general, melons are melon plants. Their closest relatives are cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins and squash. The family of plants to which the melon belongs is called Pumpkin, and the genus is called Cucumber, and the official botanical name of the melon is Cucumis melo.
And what is melon fruit, you know? Its fruit is called pumpkin and can be of a round or oblong yellow, green, orange, brown and even white color. Melon has been known since very ancient times (it is even mentioned in the Bible), and it was cultivated in North India. And although people grew and ate cantaloupe several centuries before our era, it settled on the Russian lands of the Lower Volga only in the fifteenth century.
But the five hundred year old history is also something that means something. By the way, the melon very quickly migrated from cooler southern Russian melons to cooler regions, and it was grown in greenhouses in the seventeenth century. The first greenhouses with melons appeared in Izmailovo near Moscow under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. So the Russian history of growing melons in the open field is not much older than its history of growing in greenhouses. And I must say, this is not such a difficult task, as it may seem at first glance. Although, of course, to grow a good harvest is possible only with good care.
Choosing and preparing a greenhouse
For a melon, any greenhouse that can grow cucumbers will do. And if you have this experience, then there should not be any questions about choosing a greenhouse. If you are just starting to equip your greenhouse, keep in mind that melons can be grown in a heated and in a cold greenhouse. The greenhouse must be necessarily ventilated, and film or glass it is not important. The decisive factor in choosing a greenhouse is height. Melon is a vine, and in the greenhouse it needs vertical space.
To grow melons in the greenhouse, steam beds (aboveground or in-depth) are prepared with a biofuel thickness of at least twenty-five centimeters. For the equipment of such a ridge, a layer of biofuel is poured on the ground (manure, weeded weeds, or mowed grass), and when it warms up well, a fifteen-centimeter layer of soil is poured from above. By the way, although melon and cucumber are the closest relatives (there is simply no closer), it is impossible to plant them in the same greenhouse. In close proximity, the plants will re-pollinate and lose their natural taste, and the melon can become inedible in general.
For growing seedlings need pots with a diameter of eight centimeters and the usual soil for garden crops. For planting, they take the largest seeds and soak them first in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour, and then in a one-percent solution of baking soda for twelve hours. After that, the seeds are germinated and planted one seed in a pot.
For successful cultivation of seedlings it is necessary to maintain the temperature not lower than sixteen degrees and to ensure good lighting of the shoots. After the appearance of the third or fifth true leaf, the seedlings are pinched, prompting branching. Watering sprouts need moderate, in which water does not fall on the stems and leaves. Mineral dressing requires double (for the entire transplanting period). If the need arises, the seedlings are transplanted into more spacious pots as they grow, and a support is put under the drawstring lashes. The seed planting itself is carried out at the beginning or in the middle of April.
Enough and grown plants are transplanted to the greenhouses, planting them in the holes located at a distance of forty-five centimeters from each other. Plants are planted directly with a lump of earth, without in any way deepening it, after which the hole is watered with warm water and sprinkled on the sides of dry earth. The first five to seven days after planting the plants do not water, do not loosen and do not pile up, but only air the greenhouse.
A week later, carry out watering with warm water and fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers. At the same time, the plants are tied up to supports in the form of poles or tension nets. Tie up and leave for growth only the main stem and an ode or two lateral whips, the other side shoots are plucked.
From the moment of the appearance of the first flowers, the melon begins to be fed with universal liquid fertilizers. Top dressing is carried out once a week, and after the appearance of the first ovaries - twice a week. As soon as the first fruits begin to form, feed the melon with fertilizers for tomatoes (also liquid and also twice a week). Pinch the tops of the lateral shoots through two leaves after the fruit and do not leave more than six fruits on one bush.
Water the melon only when necessary. Remember that this is a drought-resistant plant that reacts very poorly to waterlogging. And the ingress of moisture on the leaves and stems in general can cause fungal diseases. Therefore, water the plants in the furrows made near the holes.
To guarantee the harvest melon must be pollinated artificially. To do this, work the bee and, armed with a brush, collect pollen from several flowers and walk this brush on all other colors.
Planting melon seedlings
When the land in the greenhouse well warms up, plant seedlings are planted. For this purpose, holes are made directly at the corners of the pit, where the seedlings are placed together with a clod of earth. When planting it is necessary to ensure that the edges of the berry sprout protrude a few centimeters above the ground. This will allow the young germ to avoid bacterial rot.
The first condition is to protect the plant from spring frosts, so it’s better to plant a melon on the garden bed in the second decade of June. Another condition - the correct formulation and reduction in the number of fruits on the bush. And the last condition - multiple fertilizing plants. It contributes to the intensification of the growth of melons in the open field.
Watering melon sprouts must be very careful, trying not to wet the leaves. Until the plant is well grown and stable hot weather is established, a mini-greenhouse should not be removed. When the plants have the fifth leaf, it is removed, as it is done when growing cucumbers, the point of growth. This will contribute to the development of lateral lashes. After the whips grow a little, you need to carefully consider them, remove diseased processes, leaving only four healthy ones.
Flowering melons in the country should be in the open field, which will contribute to a good ovary of the fruit. When the ovary has reached the size of a plum, their number should be reduced to get a good harvest. To do this, one healthy, having the correct form, fruit is selected on each lash. Under each abandoned growing fruit, you must put a plate or mulch the land with hay so that it does not touch the ground and rot.
General watering and feeding
To accelerate the ripening and growth of the fruit requires regular watering. The fact that a plant needs moisture can be identified by the appearance of its leaves. If the leaves are sluggish, drooping, then urgent watering is required. However, this does not mean that melons can be watered abundantly. Too much moisture can cause the fruit to crack.
To country fruits quickly ripened, the plant must be constantly fed. It can be from mullein, chicken or herbal infusion with the addition of wood ash. It is best to alternate the infusions and feed them every 7 or 10 days until the process of ripening melons begins.
Berry harvest readiness
The fact that the melon has ripened can be determined by its appearance and smell. The ripened fruit has annular cracks in its tail, and when it is pressed on the crust of the opposite part, small dents appear. To store grown false berries you need in an open container, for example, a cardboard box, putting them in one row and paving them together with paper. In this form, they can lie until mid-October.
Melons are not only very tasty, even the jam of them is boiled, but also useful. Since they contain a large amount of potassium, the use of culture contributes to the prevention of heart attack, stroke.