Organic fertilizer is traditionally used in summer cottages and farm fields. To increase the yield of different crops you need to know the nutritional characteristics of different types of manure. It is important to feed in the correct form so as not to harm the plant with increased fertilizer concentration.
What is the value of manure?
Fertilizing organic matter - a real help for personal farming:
- the soil is structured by microorganisms,
- the crop improves,
- the soil is enriched with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, as well as microelements necessary for plants,
- nitrogen from manure is long preserved in the soil, does not erode,
- photosynthesis and heat transfer are improved, since a lot of carbon dioxide enters the soil,
- minerals are in a form in which they are easily absorbed by plants, provided that they irrigate the site before fertilizing,
- soil acidity is reduced due to the presence of magnesium and calcium in organic matter.
The amount of minerals in the waste depends on what feed was given to animals, as well as on the type of litter (straw or peat). The amount of nitrogen and phosphorus increases from the use of animal feed in the diet.
Avian and pork manure is saturated with nitrogen. These species are not applied fresh, as the roots of the plants can get burned. Horses and cows feed largely on grass, so their manure is used diluted and fresh.
Manure properties change due to storage conditions and conditions. As the decomposition of organic matter increases, the number of available basic elements for plant nutrition.
The richest source of nutrients
A large amount of nutrients is found in horse and cow dung, as well as in bird droppings. Less - in pork, sheep, rabbit. In fresh manure a lot of nutrients, but over time, overheating, it turns into a more valuable material, as the trace elements are transformed into a form that plants more easily absorb. Fresh faeces only in the form of slurry divorced several times are introduced into the aisle.
The impact of organic matter depends on the type of soil and on the presence of sufficient moisture for its decomposition and assimilation by plants:
- horse organic matter gives nutrients throughout the year,
- cow dung feeds the soil for 3 years
- other species also decompose in a few years.
The composition of various types of manure
Each type of animal waste has a special content of basic elements.
The most common manure usually contains 0.45% nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively, 0.23% and 0.5%. Seven percent are other plant-valuable substances: magnesium, copper, molybdenum, boron, zinc, cobalt. You can not be afraid to overfeed the soil with nitrates by making this fertilizer in liquid form.
In the slurry is more potassium and nitrogen, since phosphorus is mainly contained in the composition of feces.
This manure is not so easy to find, but it is considered the best for fertilizing a vegetable garden. This organic is richer in nitrogen - 0.85%. Phosphorus and potassium contain 0.28% and 0.6%. Various minerals make up 3.7%.
Horse manure - record for the content of silicic acid - 1.77%. With the presence of this element, the stems and leaves are strengthened, buds and ovaries are formed more actively. With silicon, phosphorus is better absorbed by plants.
Also widely distributed organics. Nitrogen as much as in the cow - 0.45%. The composition of potassium (0.6%) is almost equal to the horse. Contains much less phosphorus - 0.19%. If animals are fed with concentrates, there is a lot of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen in wastes, which are absorbed in the first year of feeding. Pork manure is poor in calcium, but there is a considerable percentage of silicic acid - 1.08%.
This type is not entirely beneficial to make, because it decomposes for a long time, but manure is rich in nitrogen (0.83%), which plants take away the fastest, because the fertilizer is dry. A lot of potassium (0.67%), as well as silicic acid (1.47%).
According to experts, the dry excrement of rabbits is as valuable for a vegetable garden as horse manure. The composition of a lot of magnesium (0.7%), 0.6% for potassium and nitrogen, 0.4% calcium. It is made not in the fresh form, but in the form of a slurry or powder mixed with the soil. Often used for feeding pot plants.
Powerful and valuable feeding, but very aggressive. Even in dry form, such manure is used only in the fall. The composition has 1.7% nitrogen, approximately 0.8–0.9% potassium and phosphorus, 0.5% calcium and 0.2% magnesium. Microelements account for 2.4%. Goose and duck droppings are somewhat milder.
The nutritional value of bird droppings is comparable with mineral fertilizers. But its aggressiveness is such that a fresh substance causes rusting of the metal surface, if it hits it.
Features of application by degree of maturity
Different plants react in their own way to the introduction of fresh slurry or humus.
- The use of fresh manure without treatment will be detrimental, since minerals will burn small roots.
- Prepare goo more often from mullein or bird droppings.
- Manure collected during the warm season and with humus feed up the plot in autumn, before plowing, contributing 5 kg per 1 m 2.
- A solution of half-distilled manure is fed cabbage and cucumbers.
- Humus is used to mulch various crops, and handfuls of such organics are poured into holes for tomatoes, potatoes, onions, and green crops.
- For the preparation of various earth mixtures take one part of the humus on 4 parts of the soil.
Korovyak do not contribute to garlic and onions, radishes or radishes, legumes.
Ways and norms of organic fertilizer
Each type of manure used in a special way. Although all feces can be laid in a compost pile or pit, getting valuable fertilizer in a year. In the rotted composition, microelements are in such a form that the plants absorb them easily.
- Bovine make 7-10 kg per 1 m 2 every 3 years on chernozem soils and after 2 years on sandy or sandy. Prepare a mullein in a ratio of 1: 5, insist 13-15 days, I once again dilute 1:10, water it in holes or grooves at a rate of 10 liters per square meter. Almost all garden crops, bushes and trees at the stage of budding and formation of ovaries can be fed with a solution.
- Horse manure is more nutritious, take 5 kg per 1 m 2. It is often used to create high beds when organic matter is laid down 15-20 cm down, peat on it, and then the soil. To destination it is universal: for a garden and flowers, cabbage, potatoes, melon and pumpkin cultures. More often organics are buried for plowing in the fall, used for seedlings as a layer of heating. Do and slush - for the same rules as for the mullein.
- Organics from pigs contribute only in a rotten state due to the presence of intestinal parasites. More often used for autumn plowing.
- A solution of rabbit pellets fed shrubs and trees, insisting 1-1.5 kg in 10 liters of water for a week and a half. Slush diluted 1: 5. On the plot with vegetables make 2 liters per 1 m 2. For pot plants and mushrooms grown in basements, powder is prepared: sun-dried feces are ground through a metal grid and 1 teaspoon is mixed with 200 g of substrate.
- Sheep, goat excrement, like rabbit, is suitable for regions with a cold climate due to a long period of decay. They are universal, suitable for fertilizing vegetables, especially potatoes and beets, shrubs and trees. But this species cannot be used fresh, since a high percentage of nitrogen is ruining the roots. It is believed that the effectiveness of goat manure is seven times higher than cow's. Apply for plowing and in the form of infusion semifilled in a compost heap of excrement.
- Bird droppings are also versatile. Use it in the fall in a dry form of 2 kg per 1 m 2. On large areas use a mechanical spreader. Prepare slush, insisting 10 days, diluted litter in the ratio of 1:20. Then the infusion is still dissolved in half to reduce the effect of uric acid. Water the wet soil between the rows. After its use, fruiting in beets, potatoes, grain crops, tomatoes, cabbage increases.
Horse manure well loosens heavy soil.
Organic in greenhouses
Manure is a source of long-term heat, which is produced in the process of rotting. Traditional greenhouses, greenhouses, high ridges do not do without manure.
The heat coefficient varies depending on the type of manure.
- The loose structure of horse manure allows it to quickly decompose and warm the soil layer. The temperature rises to 60-70 o C, it lasts 35-40 days, and then decreases to 30 o C.
- Rabbit, sheep and goat manure has similar characteristics.
- Cow and pork give a weekly rise in temperature to 50 degrees. It is better to use these types for late greenhouses in the middle of spring, when plants start to warm the sun.
- Avian can only be used for composting, which is then used in a greenhouse.
Piggy of national experience
Personal gardens have always been fertilized with manure and humus, so now you can use valuable observations.
- The best annual autumn mulch for berry bushes - gooseberries, raspberries, currants - rotted manure with a layer up to 6 cm.
- Under all fruit trees and grapes, 30-40 kg of manure or humus are introduced in the fall every three years.
- On acid soils, manure is applied more often than mineral fertilizers, which are more suitable for alkaline areas.
Tip for selecting the right amount of manure
In a 10 liter bucket fits:
- 5 kg of bird droppings,
- 8 kg of fresh horse and 9 kg of cow dung,
- 12 kg of slurry,
- 7 kg of humus.
Correctly applying top dressing from domestic waste of domestic animals, gardeners and gardeners significantly improve the soil structure and increase the yield. Fertilizers in moderation and recommended form do not harm plants and the environment. Their use is natural and accessible.
Which manure is better: what influences the choice of organic
Any manure is suitable for use as a fertilizer, be it directly applied to the soil, composting or fertilizing crops during the growing season. However, before applying it, manure must pass the necessary stage of preparation and processing. How to do this depends on what kind of manure is available. To get the best effect, you need to know its properties.
It is the richest and contains the most nutrients. In addition, it has the highest rate of decomposition, so that plants quickly get food. Perhaps the only drawback of bird droppings is its small amount. At home, usually chicken farms do not keep, and it is difficult to collect a lot of waste. For this reason, bird droppings are better used not for fertilizing the soil, but directly for plants.
Cow and horse manure
By the number of trace elements, both products of animal life are about the same. But horse manure decays more quickly. Accordingly, the fastest effect from such feeding will be noticeable when using horse manure. Trace elements will pass into the soil and become available to plants already in the current season.
But for the complete decomposition of mullein it will take at least 3 years.
How to apply manure to fertilize the soil
In principle, fresh manure nutrients at times less than rotted. In most cases, it is even harmful to plants, so before using the manure must “cure”, stand, and plant residues rot. It is desirable to increase the number of beneficial bacteria in organics, making additional supplements. It would be nice to punch. Also in the process of decomposition, it loses unpleasant gases and changes its structure to a more granular one. In the form of rotted, manure is an ideal organic fertilizer.
To fertilize the soil, manure is introduced for digging to the depth:
- not less than 15 cm - on heavy soils
- 20-25 cm - on the lungs.
Types of manure
The main potash fertilizers are potassium chloride and sulphide, its salt and sulphate. Potassium is perfectly assimilated by absolutely all cultures. It is necessary for their full development.
For the favorable growth of plants is not enough that they can give organic. Also needed are phosphorus-containing and potassium-containing substances. To restore the balance in the ground it is necessary to make mineral dressing.
- The best time to add organic matter is in the spring, after the snow melts. Many people prefer to scatter fertilizer right in the snow. But then they can be washed away with melt water and then the plants themselves will not have enough useful components. The most important thing is to have time before plowing.
- Briquettes should not be broken. They are interbedded with straw and laid in a separate utility room (well ventilated) or under a shed on lined dense cardboard. It is important that the room or storage location is ventilated and kept away from the land. Do not allow the spreading of liquid from under the manure (you can enclose a border).
- Laying horse manure for overriding. © Kay
- Horse manure can act as a fertilizer both in fresh form, and in half-broken, and in reverse, and in the state of humus. Its freshness is easy to determine by eye: the younger the organic is, the stronger the litter is seen in it, with its characteristic color and structure, the older it is, the darker the organic composition becomes.
Fertilizing in the main refueling, it is necessary to pay attention to the amount of ammonia nitrogen in protected soil. At a young age, culture is very sensitive to its increased content. Its share should not exceed 25-30% of the total nitrogen volume. This is especially important in the winter, in heated structures. With an insufficient amount of light and carbohydrates, the plantations do not use ammonia to form protein compounds and amino acids. In such cases, fertilizer should be used for cucumbers in nitrate form.
Growth slowed down, a light green border appeared on the edge of the old leaves, which began to creep between the veins to the middle, the edges turn inward, and the fruits become pear-shaped. All these signs indicate that potash fertilizers are needed. To turn fresh manure into high-quality natural fertilizer for your garden, it should be laid in a special wooden box. In this case, the layers of manure are poured with moss peat, which absorbs well the excreted liquid, or with phosphate rock.
How to make fertilizer from manure?
As the centuries-old agricultural experience shows, farm animal excrement is an excellent fertilizer for garden crops. The fact is that manure contains a lot of substances that are vital for plants. These include potassium and calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus, magnesium and iron. Also, manure contains active microflora, so that this natural fertilizer is so useful for the soil of any backyard. However, it should be made correctly. Let's learn how to use manure to fertilize the soil.
They produce mineral fertilizers consisting of only one substance. They are called simple. Complex (and also "Mittlayder mixtures") include several elements. Which one to choose does not matter. The main thing is that the plants have everything they need.
What fertilizers are needed for cucumbers? Fertilizers for cucumbers in open ground and in the greenhouse. Potash, nitrogen, mineral fertilizers for cucumbers
Mineral fertilizers are sold in any store that specializes in the country assortment. They can be powdered, granular and in the form of a liquid concentrate. All minerals are released in a concentrated form. To deliver them to the dacha is easy and easier to cook than with organic ones. The main thing - to comply with the correct dosage.
Potash fertilizer for cucumbers
If this sequence is difficult to observe, you can resort to other combinations: alternate a layer of manure and peat, or manure and earth. In addition, for more complete preservation in the formed mass of nitrogen and phosphorus, it is good to add phosphate rock or superphosphate to the formulated composition (at the rate of 20 kg per ton of manure). In hot weather, the dung heap must be watered and pierced several times a week with forks.
Growing cucumbers in protected soil, be sure to carry out dressing. On a limited amount of land it is difficult to retain a large amount of nutrients. For example, K and N are washed out very quickly. Adding loose materials requires a lot of nitrogen to decompose organic compounds and nourish microorganisms. Phosphorus can be excluded from the mixtures by adding it only to the main dressing. This is especially true for soils that have been used for years. Blending is best done in the morning. The first feeding is carried out a month after disembarkation. If there are signs of insufficient amounts of iron and magnesium, spraying is necessary. To do this, prepare a 0.1% Mg sulfate solution and a 0.1% Fe citrate solution (or also its sulfate).
Excess or shortage?
- Для огурцов, высаженных в незащищенной почве, требуется другое соотношение необходимых элементов. Оно зависит от состояния почвы, а также периода, в который происходит их внесение.
- Естественная переработка навоза в удобрение происходит в течение 4-6 месяцев, в результате чего получается хорошо перепревшая смесь. Для получения перегноя нужно будет подождать 1-2 года.
- Manure is different in terms of the degree of decomposition, and depending on the type of animal from which it is derived.
The number and types of dressings for spring application depend on the type of soil in your area. The soil is clay or sandy, loamy or sandy.
Recommended nutrient content
The main dressing should be done in early spring before digging. To close the granules in the ground need to 20 - 25 centimeters. Fertilizer consumption:
- Briquettes break, to saturate them with oxygen. If necessary, moistened with water to obtain a pasty consistency and placed in the open air under a canopy on a bed of cardboard and straw. They are composted by mixing with any organic waste and stratifying with straw, periodically spreading a pile of forks
- All of the above is, of course, good, but what should those who have no time to mess around on the beds every day, form a pile of dung, insist on tea, and still want to use this type of fertilizer? The answer is simple - you can buy already prepared and packaged horse manure from various manufacturers.
- In most cases, fresh horse manure is used as a soil refueling (this is due to the fact that it releases more heat and nitrogen), but the one that lasted 3–4 years is no less effective. It is during this period that the litter that is present in manure manages to go into a form accessible to plants, the manure itself is saturated with useful soil microorganisms, loses the smell of horse feces, acquires a crumbly lumpy structure and natural moisture.
- Culture develops well in fertile soil. On the sod-podzolic soil of the plant should be planted in the second year after making a large number of organic mixtures. It is not recommended to plant cucumbers in fresh manure. Although it can be made in the autumn in the process of digging in the amount of 5-10 kg / m2. Mineral fertilizer can be replaced by a mixture of simple ones: 20 g of urea, ammophos or double superphosphate, 30 g of potassium magnesia and 20 g of potassium sulfate. This mixture is designed for 1 square. m
- Fertilizers for cucumbers in open ground should be balanced. To ensure normal development and growth should know the recommended number of necessary elements. So, per one plant consumed:
- Cucumber is considered the most demanding crop fertility. For a high yield of 30-35 kg / sq. m and more must comply with several conditions. On the one hand, the soil should contain a large number of nutrient compounds. However, the culture does not tolerate a high concentration of elements in the substrate. Therefore, to ensure balance, fertilizing of cucumbers is carried out. Consider further the main types of them.
- In the first case, these types of manure are distinguished:
- If the soil in your garden is high in acid, you cannot do without top dressing. Especially acutely react to the excessive acid content of the plant at an early stage of development.
- Phosphorous - 250 grams per square meter.
How to get good compost?
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It is due to the combination of unique qualities that horse manure has its own indications for use, and the main one is the filling of greenhouses and warm beds. Based recommendation for such use on the specificity of the decomposition of the composition of organic matter. Lower moisture content (relative to cow dung), rapid heating, high burning temperature (from +70 to +80 ° C), slow cooling, (horse manure is able to retain high temperatures for about 2 months), characterize it as especially hot refueling material that can more efficiently release heat and carbon dioxide, give nutrients faster and actively stimulate plants to grow.
- When planting seedlings, two feedings should be made with chicken manure or mullein. The first is done 14 days after the emergence of shoots. The second feeding is carried out two days before planting in unprotected soil. After this recharge is carried out every 10-15 days. Fertilizers for cucumbers should contain many N before flowering. Subsequently, plants need phosphorus in large quantities. Top-dressing can be carried out with complex fertilizers: nitroammofosk and Stimul-1 (15 g each) or 30 g of fertilizer garden mixture with trace elements without chlorine for 10 liters of mullein. However, it is not always possible to prepare such a mixture. In this case, one should increase the volume of mineral fertilizers by one and a half times.
- Culture is characterized by a long period of absorption of nutrients. But during the formation of the fruits, each bush consumes a large amount of K2O (up to 1 g) and N (up to 0.6 g). In this regard, the lack of compounds leads to a sharp decrease in yield. Choosing fertilizer for cucumbers in open ground, it is necessary to take into account the needs of plants at a particular stage of the cycle.
- 23 g of nitrogen.
They are necessary for culture at almost all stages of its development. Nutrient compounds are particularly relevant at the beginning of the growing season, since they contribute to the formation of leaves. It should also be remembered that the use of fertilizers for cucumbers can adversely affect the condition of the fruit. For example, ammonium nitrate is undoubtedly useful for culture. However, it can accumulate in the fruit as nitrates, which are harmful to humans. Choosing fertilizer for cucumbers in the greenhouse, we should focus on those in which there is NO3. They can be used with proper drip irrigation, and when spraying. If, at the beginning of growth, an excessive amount of potassium and phosphorus is added to the soil, and the N content is not enough, this will negatively affect the culture. Plants will be large, with a large number of male flowers and a small number of small ovaries. Subsequent application of the necessary fertilizer for cucumbers in the greenhouse will not correct the situation.
Correct the acid - alkaline balance can be using lime. It is necessary to carry out liming in the early spring, in 3 - 4 weeks prior to the beginning of landing of cultures. Sometimes it is necessary to add up to a half-kilogram (usually 0.3-0.4 kg) of limestone per square meter of soil. Limestone is scattered evenly over the site and carefully dig the ground.
Despite the fact that loose composting allows you to quickly bring sheep manure to a state suitable for entering into the soil, the process of decomposition will still take longer than in the case of mullein. This is important to consider. The pile heats up within three to four days after loosening. The temperature in its center can reach up to +60 - +70 degrees Celsius. This is normal. Moreover, it is useful, since harmful bacteria, fungal spores, larvae or helminth eggs die in manure at this moment. Sheep manure is quite dense, so it is important to maintain an optimal level of humidity by periodically watering a heap of water or slurry. Throwing the compost, you saturate it with oxygen, which is necessary for decomposing bacteria, so it should be done regularly. The frequency of transfer depends on the intensity of decomposition (this is influenced by the specific composition of manure caused by the diet of animals and their lifestyle). On average, it is once or twice a week.
To make horse manure work to its fullest, it is laid in a layer of 30 - 40 cm, with the spring organization of the greenhouse, and 50 cm in preparation of the greenhouse beds from autumn, they are covered with straw and covered with straw in the top 30 - 35 cm.
In its active phase and at its attenuation, cucumbers need K and N. The plants are very productively fed with complex soluble mixtures (20 m2 per 1 m2). This dressing is especially good on light soils, where the culture may lack magnesium. Phosphorus is needed to prolong the fruiting period. Superphosphate is applied before rain or watering. Best of all is the second way. With an optimal amount of phosphorus cucumbers also need potassium nitrate without chlorine.
2-3 days before planting in the greenhouse, it is advisable to sprinkle the seedlings with a solution of trace elements and add the nutrient mixture. So it will be easier for plants to survive the change of conditions and stress. For cultivation in greenhouses, you can prepare a mixture of manure and sod land. For preliminary composting it is prepared as follows:
This element is needed cucumbers in small quantities. However, he must act constantly. Phosphorus ensures the normal growth and functioning of the root system, the rapid build-up of green mass. The main thing is to add phosphate fertilizers in time and correctly. For cucumbers, it is important to obtain the necessary nutrients for timely and abundant flowering. Phosphorus also ensures the normal setting and ripening of fruits.
Semi-mature manure is more often used for feeding plants in the form of an aqueous solution (1 kg of such manure per 10 liters of water). Liquid manure from manure like cabbage, pumpkin, cucumbers, zucchini, spinach,
When liming, burnt and hydrated lime is used most often. Limestone flour is also suitable, but it is used more on an industrial scale. Often, to reduce the acidity instead of lime, wood ash and dolomite flour are taken. Ash not only copes with acidity, but also perfectly fertilizes the earth. It contains more than 30 substances that are beneficial for plants.
If organic matter was not added to the earth, nitrogen-containing substances should be added - approximately 350 grams per square meter. For a more accurate determination of the rate of feeding you need to carefully examine the packaging manufacturers. Overdose affects plants.
Bird droppings or manure.
Horse manure use
What can be added to sheep manure based compost?
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Horse manure can also be used as a greenhouse biofuel in combination with other organic fertilizers. So, for example, for early greenhouses, its composition (in equal proportions) with straw or kitchen remains will be a good composition, in any ratio - with cow, goat or sheep manure, as well as with peat or sawdust (60 x 40% respectively). For spring greenhouses, doses are somewhat different. It can be 50 x 50% horse and cow dung or 70 x 30% horse manure and faded foliage.
If the complex mixture is not available, several simple ones can be combined. 10 liters of water: 10 g of potassium sulphate or 20 g of kalimagnezii, 10 g of urea. The resulting mixture is designed for 1 square. m. All irrigation is allowed to combine with the addition of wood ash. It is rich in calcium and potassium. One hundred liters of water need from 40 to 100 g of ash. Top dressing with such a solution can be carried out after rain.
They shift 10-15 centimeter layers of turf with manure (30 cm each) and sprinkle with phosphate rock. In case of increased soil acidity, lime is added. Burts should be made at least 2 meters high. Every two months, the compost is shoveled by pouring slurry.
Cultures urgently need such mixtures, as they ensure the movement of nutrients from the root system to the rest of the plant. Potassium contributes to normal vegetative growth and fruiting. It is during active ripening that it is necessary to increase its quantity. At the same time, nitrogen fertilizers for cucumbers are applied in smaller volumes.
Well-rotted manure is already less concentrated, so its dosage for liquid plant nutrition doubles. In addition, from such manure is good to make a soil mixture for seedlings,
How to independently prepare horse manure
A distinctive feature of sandstones is a lack of nutrients and an inability to retain moisture. You can eliminate this problem by adding organics and a variety of minerals. Add fertilizer to sandy areas need only in spring. It should be remembered that the fertilizer applied is enough for a maximum of one year. In the autumn, everything that has not been absorbed by the plants will be brought out by the waters.
Often, gardeners prefer only natural feeding. Many of the chemical elements are negative, because of their negative impact on soil structure. But for plants they are simply necessary. What substances decide the summer cotter himself.
The most versatile and well-known organic fertilizer is humus. It can be found in almost all horticultural areas, because each gardener is trying to provide for them. The recommended rate is one bucket per square meter. The method of application - before digging up the area, sprinkle evenly.
Horse manure in beautiful packaging
You can add any organic waste, but do not throw fat, bones or wool in a pile, as it takes a lot of time to rot. But any vegetable crops and most types of melons are great. Be careful with fallen leaves. If there was a disease of the tree or parasites, then their larvae could remain in the fallen leaves. If you bring them into the compost, then at the very beginning, so that they can “bake” together with the manure, preferably, before doused with boiling water. With this method of composting for a month or two, you can get good humus on the basis of sheep manure.
As organic fertilizer, sheep manure is also highly effective, which, along with mullein, is rich in phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium. But there is almost twice more nitrogen in it! For comparison, we give specific numbers. So, sheep's excrement contains up to 0.9% of nitrogen, whereas in its mullein it is only 0.5%. It may seem that this difference is insignificant, but it has a great influence on the processes of decomposition.In large, open areas, this type of manure is best applied for autumn plowing, and if in the spring, then only for crops with a long growing season. At the same time, the dose of fertilizer application per square meter should not exceed 6 kg, and it should be plowed immediately after spreading to avoid losses, which have the ability to volatilize nitrogen.A nettle infusion also has a beneficial effect on the culture. Grass should endure a week. Infusion diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 7. Plants watered with a solution every other day. When a cloudy weather is established during the growing season, foliar top dressing with urea is recommended (10 grams of water for 10 liters of water).
Cucumbers do not tolerate chlorine. It is often present in nutrient mixtures. However, potassium necessary for cucumbers is used in conjunction with chlorine (KCl). In order to avoid harming the plants, the mixture is brought under the autumn digging. With an open top in the greenhouse, all chlorine will be washed off with snow and rain. By spring planting, the desired element will remain in the soil.
Humus is the best type of fertilizer for any crop. Completely rotted manure improves the taste of vegetables grown on it and is used both for adding to the soil and for mulching.
The most ideal fertilizer for sandstones is compost. Mineral need to apply very carefully. Through the sand, they quickly penetrate to the roots and are absorbed by plants. It is better to make dressing slow motion. The dosage should be minimal so as not to burn the plants.
Potassium is mainly found in the young part of the plant. They need it during the formation of the main biomass, that is, immediately after germination. That is why it is so important in the spring to supply plants with potassium. The required amount of it in the ground increases the resistance of plants to various diseases, improves the quality of fruit.Organic matter fills the earth with essential substances, and has a positive effect on soil composition. But too much to get involved in them is not worth it. Spring feeding is preferable. No more than once in 3 - 4 years on heavy clay soils. On sandstones a little less - once every 2 years.
The introduction of sheep manure-based compost into the soil is practically the same as using mullein. Fertilizer can be applied to the soil under arable land in the autumn, to each well when planted in the spring, to be used in combination with straw for mulching. Due to the high nitrogen content, sheep manure is rarely used in its pure form, but is still used for the manufacture of bait. They are brought into the soil in the spring, immediately plowing the ground, on average, two weeks before sowing. Since in the process of decomposition of sheep manure is very hot, it is also used for natural heating of greenhouses (along with horse), but with caution, since the release of side gases occurs more than actively.Do not forget that improperly prepared manure can be dangerous for your crops. The main hazards are methane and ammonia. These gases are released as a result of the vital activity of decomposing bacteria, processing nitrogen and other substances contained in manure. They can simply burn out the roots and stems of plants, destroy crops. Just one kilogram of sheep manure can stand out up to 0.62 cubic meters of gas, 70% of which is methane. Поэтому предварительная подготовка овечьего навоза ведется особым образом. Мы предлагаем вам высококачественный продукт, уже готовый к использованию!
Конский навоз в полиэтиленовых мешках. © Kirsty
Очень часто от опытных садоводов и огородников можно услышать рекомендации о применении конского навоза. Однако, если вы не глубоко разбираетесь в теме подкормок, то понять, чем это удобрение лучше других достаточно сложно. But in fact, horse manure is not just good as a dressing for warm beds, but also has several advantages over other types of manure.
Nitrogen - 0.5 doses.
Mineral fertilizers for cucumbers are made in different quantities. It depends on the quality of spring and autumn digging, soil characteristics. In addition, you should pay attention to the condition of the leaves. It is not necessary to make a mixture immediately under all the plants. It is advisable to feed a few bushes and look at their condition. If after a few days they feel good, then you can make a mixture under the other plantations.
What fertilizers to make in the spring on the site
As for the second type of classification, the best manure is considered horse. It quickly decomposes, producing a lot of heat, and is suitable for enriching the soil mixture in greenhouses and greenhouses.
Unlike sandy, these soils do not allow water to pass through and do not give air access to the root system of plants. To improve the structure of the soil, organic fertilizers, straw, chopped twigs can be used.
Phosphorus is also important for all cultures. It affects the growth and maturation of plants. Thanks to phosphorus, crop yields increase, the amount of sugar and starch in root crops increases. With a lack of phosphorus lower leaves become bluish in color with brown spots. The plant blooms poorly, seeds and fruits do not ripen.
Application of organic and mineral fertilizers in the spring in the soil
One of the advantages of organic fertilizers is their availability. Humus can be cheaply bought in any village. For the manufacture of compost, in addition to your time for the manufacture of a box or pit, in the future nothing is spent. But organic matter is consumed in large quantities. And if you can’t cook yourself, get them in an accessible proximity, delivery will require a decent cost.
- Sheep manure, like mullein, is versatile. This fertilizer is equally well suited for vegetables and fruits, legumes, grains, forage crops, for all garden semi-thistle trees. Significantly increases the yield of apricot, cherry and peach. Allows you to increase the collection of tomatoes and cucumbers in half! Onions that grow on such a soil, it turns out much softer, better is black radish.
- Horse manure is also used as a mulching material, but only well rotted, having a dark color and a loose structure. For this, it is laid out on the ground with a layer of 3 - 5 cm.
- Horse manure © Matron
- Magnesium - 0.5.
- Per kilogram of fruit, you must:
To determine which fertilizers are needed for cucumbers, periodic diagnostics should be carried out. There are a number of signs that indicate which element is in abundance and which is lacking in culture. To determine what fertilizers are needed for cucumbers, you can, guided by the following simple instructions:
Cow manure as a fertilizer is in second place in terms of efficiency. It warms the soil worse, but acts longer. Usually sawdust is added to this fertilizer.
In the first years of the development of the site in the spring, we add one and a half buckets of organic matter per square meter. It should be covered up shallowly, maximum by 10 - 15 cm. Use only well-rotted humus. Otherwise, you can burn the young roots. The best option in the spring is to apply horse or sheep dung. The time of their decomposition is much less than the cow. Organic helps clay soil become more loose and breathable.
It must be remembered that minerals are absorbed by plants in a very short time. They need to be made to the land annually (some monthly). So that they have time to digest themselves by the plants and not flush into the ground, we bring them right before planting the crops. Spreading along the beds in the aisle and along the edges of tree trunks is allowed.
To determine how much nitrogen is contained in the compost or humus is difficult. Therefore, do not get too involved in dressing. An excess of organic matter can lead to negative results. For young seedlings it can be disastrous. Brown leaves, light bloom on the plants themselves and around them - a sign of the appearance of fungus. To prevent the appearance of fungus along with humus, ash with dolomite flour must be introduced into the ground. It neutralizes the ground.
In spring, all owners of the plots receive a lot of worries: what is better to plant, how to equip the beds, what fertilizers to make, what to buy fungicides from diseases and insecticides from pests ... What we will get in the autumn depends on the efforts made in spring. Spring feeding of crops provides them with food for the entire vegetative period. This is the most successful season for applying all types of fertilizers - organic and mineral.
What mineral substances are better?
Thus, if you have already used cow dung, then you can easily cope with a sheep analog. It is recommended to alternate the types of fertilizers used, since the ratio of different elements in them is different.
Good horse manure and as a root feeding. However, in order to use it in the form of liquid fertilizer, it is recommended to make an aqueous solution. For this, 1 kg of sawdust and 2 kg of manure are added to 10 l of water, the mixture is infused for 2 weeks, stirring regularly, and then it is watered. Only before applying this fertilizer under the root, the ground of the beds must be abundantly wet.
If we compare horse manure to cows that are more familiar to us, it will turn out that it is drier, lighter, quicker in decomposition and has more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in its composition. It warms up better, gives off heat quickly, is distinguished by a smaller number of weed seeds and is practically not affected by the various pathogenic microflora inherent in manure. According to the degree of yield increase, it stands first not only in front of cow, but also in front of pig, and before chicken, and even more so before goat, sheep and rabbit manure. Well loosens heavy soil, and when introduced into the lungs, increases their water retention effect. And what is also important, it does not contribute to acidification of the territory being fertilized.
Plant growth ceased, a bluish tint appeared on the young leaves. These signs indicate a lack of phosphorus.
Pig manure is used as a fertilizer most often in conjunction with horse, because pig pigs themselves decompose for a very long time, without creating
Sawdust and sand have a favorable effect on the composition of the clay soil. Sawdust must first be soaked in urea solution, then spread over the area along with sand and organic matter. Sawdust consumption - no more than a bucket per square meter.
Among the nitrogen-containing substances, carbamide, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are the most famous. Nitrogen is needed to accelerate growth, gain a green mass of crops. Therefore, it is preferable to apply it in the springtime.
The main drawback of manure is the presence of seeds of various weeds in it. Weeds are in it with litter, with animal feed. Once in the soil, the seeds germinate, littering the area with weeds. Fresh manure is not used in the spring!
Types of mineral fertilizers
Every summer resident knows about the need to take care of the land. If the land is not fed annually, its resources are depleted. This leads to a decrease in yield. Spring dressing allows you to start the process of microbial biocenosis with plants, provides them with development and growth. How and what kind of fertilizer to make in the spring depends on many factors.
We offer you a high-quality product in tightly packed briquettes. This is due to its special consistency, as well as its slow accumulation (no more than 2.5-3 kilograms of excrement per day can be obtained from one sheep on average). In such a downed state, with constant fresh manure feeding, the decomposition process is slow, and all the nutrients remain in the manure. So, what needs to be done with briquettes.
Considering the validity of this organic fertilizer it is worth noting that it will be different, depending on the type of soil and the climate of the territory in which it is applied. So, the colder the climate zone and the heavier the soil, the stronger the direct action of horse manure, the warmer - the higher its aftereffect (in the first year horse manure is ineffective on dry, loose soils).
Despite the fact that for many of us the name “horse manure” does not carry any special associations, this organic mass has its own quality indicators, based on the litter and its time of maturation.
Features feeding sour peat and loamy earth
The leaves brightened and diminished, the fruits began to thicken and shorten, and their color, regardless of the variety, became pale green. In this case, not enough nitrogen.
This high temperatures. In addition, pig manure has a specific smell.
Features fertilizing sandy soil
In the spring, in a short period of time, gardeners and gardeners should pay attention to all corners on their site. The most important - spring feeding - provides plants with food throughout the year. Without it, getting a good harvest is impossible.
Of phosphorus-containing, superphosphate is the most widely used in granules (it can be simple and double) or powdered. Phosphorus is added directly when planted in the beds.
Features feeding heavy clay soil
The introduction of organic matter in spring has a beneficial effect on the structure of the soil and plant growth. Better yet, feed the land using a combination of organic and mineral substances. For example, compost is well mixed with lime. Peat compost (a mixture of peat with manure) is mixed with phosphate rock.
In spring, the earth must be sated with the substances needed by plants at the initial stage of growth. When asked which fertilizer is better, you can answer that you can use both mineral and organic substances. The best option is to combine them.
If prolonged storage is expected:
If you have the opportunity to collect and store horse manure yourself, you must either dig a hole in the garden or build a fence for the manure pile. Further, it is necessary to observe the layering of mass formation: the first layer (20–30 cm high) is a bed of peat (to collect slurry), the second (15 cm) is bedding with horse feces, the third (30 cm) is sawdust, fallen leaves, grass, and finally - earth (20 cm). And so, from the second to the fourth, until the hole is completely filled or a pile of about 1.5 m in height is formed. For the winter, it is good to cover the formed mass with lapniknik or oilcloth.
The best option of this type of manure is considered to be the mass of horse feces, filled with peat. In the last place is manure mixed with sawdust. And the most optimal and most affordable option is the straw option. It is able to absorb more moisture, retains nitrogen well and more efficiently fluffs the soil.
Why soil and plants manure?
This is one of the most popular and valuable organic fertilizers, a real treasure for the garden. Humus improves the structure and quality of the soil: airiness and friability gives the dense earth, and sandy soil helps to retain water.
Manure provides plants and soil microorganisms with all the necessary nutrients, because it contains almost the entire periodic table:
• macronutrients - nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium,
• trace elements - boron, copper, sulfur, molybdenum, manganese, cobalt,
• as well as herbal ingredients.
Plants absorb natural organic matter much more efficiently than synthetic minerals, therefore they bloom and set fruits better and faster. And in animal waste there are many beneficial microorganisms that regulate the chemical processes in the soil and facilitate the absorption and assimilation of nutrients.
Which dung is better?
Cattle waste is used alone or mixed with bedding made from straw, leaves, sawdust or peat (bedding manure). Its quality depends on the method of storage, the type of animal and the composition of the feed.
The most popular in the garden - bovine manure. It contains all the components necessary for plants in optimal proportions, therefore it is considered universal and suitable for all types of soil. It is usually moderately humid and not oversaturated with nitrogen.
AT pork manure contains a large amount of nitrogen, but it is poor in calcium and acidifies the soil. Therefore, before applying the fertilizer must be diluted or used rotted. It is most often introduced in greenhouses, where high humidity is maintained. It is not recommended to use this fertilizer on heavy clay soils. In addition, he has too pungent smell, so it is better to combine it with other organic matter.
Valuable fertilizer is also considered horse manure, however, it is less common (horse farms are far from everywhere). Compared with other animal wastes, it is drier and more friable, less “aggressive” due to its reduced acid content, and it decomposes and “warms up” the soil faster. It is used most often as a raw material for heating greenhouses, greenhouses or greenhouses. This is real biofuel for creating warm beds!
Strong and fast-acting natural fertilizer for beds is considered avian litter (especially chicken and pigeon). In terms of the content of nutrients, it exceeds the waste of cattle. Most bird excrement is suitable for vegetable crops, fruit trees and berry bushes.
Other types of manure - rabbit, goat, sheep - used much less frequently. When using them on the site, follow the same rules as when "working" with the above-described organic matter.
Is it true that manure is dangerous?
Due to the high nitrogen concentration, manure is the main cause of leaf and root burn. Used undiluted, it can destroy even the most hardy green pets. Fresh manure, especially cow, is better not to use. It can contain not only putrefactive bacteria and spores of fungi, but also many weed seeds, which will easily germinate and hinder the development of cultivated plants. Feces may contain helminth eggs and antibiotic residues that were used during animal care. Therefore, undiluted waste in diluted form is suitable only for irrigating between rows in beds with plants that have already grown and matured.
In addition, the indicator of the acidity level (pH) of all types of manure is 7-8, which is not suitable for growing healthy and strong plants. Therefore, for each type of excrement the norms of consumption and the degree of dilution are strictly defined.
What is manure composting and how to understand that it is ripe?
Composting is the overheating of fresh manure in a compost box with a lid or on a special pad in a stack. This process can continue throughout the year. Under the influence of bacteria and with the maximum access of fresh air, waste undergoes biochemical changes, rot and becomes an ideal natural food for plants. In the composted form, the “product of vital activity” can be used without fear of harming green pets. Biological products based on living microorganisms will help speed up the ripening process.
Determine that the manure has decomposed, it is possible by its color and appearance. Fresh "product" - a light color with a not very pleasant smell and well distinguishable inclusions of straw.
AT half broken an admixture of straw is also still noticeable, but the stems are already more brown and brittle. This type of waste is used for fertilizer most often.
Dead manure becomes more uniform, the straw in it is almost not visible. The temperature of the "burning" of this mass can increase to 60-80 ° C, but the content of organic substances is reduced by half.
Humus - It is a crumbly mass of dark color with an earthy structure. Fertilizer can be used for all vegetables without fear of harm. Only here the amount of nitrogen in the humus is minimal. Therefore, for optimal feeding, it is best to use semi-mature manure diluted with water or mixed with the surface layer of soil. In the latter case, this mass should lie for some time.
Store manure (even temporarily) needs to be properly. For this purpose, a special closed container or concreted area will do. The pile is placed in a dense layer; on top of it it must be covered with peat (to reduce "burning") and a tarpaulin to avoid large and rapid nitrogen losses. If the mass is not going to be used immediately, it is mixed with the earth and periodically agitated and shovel for quality overheating. Properly stored winter manure in the spring will be fully ready for use.
When do you need to make manure?
This can be done both in spring and autumn. In the spring, fermented and well-rotted mass is used. It is added to the soil when digging for 1.5-2 months before sowing seeds or planting plants. Свежие отходы допускается использовать перед посадкой только некоторых культур с поздним сроком вегетации – поздней капусты и картофеля, тыквы, кабачков, сельдерея, лука-порея.
Некоторые овощи (морковь, свекла, редис, томаты, петрушка) не любят почвы, удобренные свежим навозом. На них растения развиваются медленней, а качество корнеплодов, плодов и зелени значительно ухудшается. Эти культуры лучше высаживать и высевать на 2-3-й год после внесения удобрения.
In the fall, you can use fresh manure, it is distributed over the soil surface and immediately dug up from the ground to the depth of the spade bayonet (15-20 cm). Deeper termination will not be beneficial - fertilizer will “work” inefficiently. Application rate for vegetable crops - 2-4 kg / sq.
How to apply manure?
Cows cakes are embedded in the soil in the fall to a depth of 20 cm in an amount of 4-6 kg per 1 sq.m. If you put them in a bucket and pour water in a ratio of 1: 5, then insist for 2 weeks, you get a liquid fertilizer - mullein.
Horse excrement is used in the amount of 5-8 kg / sq.m and is also immediately plowed, otherwise they will quickly lose useful properties. For liquid feeding fertilizer diluted with water 1:10 and insist 2 weeks. The resulting infusion is again diluted (1:10) and used for watering. Berry bushes will be enough breeding infusion in a ratio of 1:20.
Pork waste when mixed with the top layer of soil decomposes for a very long time, so they are recommended to be left on the surface and use rotted in the dosage of 6-7 kg / sq.m or fresh - 4 kg in the same area.
Rabbit “balls” are also used in diluted (1:10) form, after which about 2 liters of infusion is poured onto 1 square meter.
Avian litter diluted 1: 15-20. In dry form, the rate of application should not exceed 50 g / sq.m.
For exact dosage use our cheat sheet:
More information about the use of the most popular organic fertilizer can be found in the article Why is manure needed and how to apply it properly in the country.
How to add manure when planting, so as not to harm the plants?
Spring landing potato apply any manure (cow, horse, pork), rotted for 8-9 months. It is placed on the bottom of the holes in the amount of 200-250 g and sprinkled with a layer of earth 2-3 cm thick. For a more harmonious development of tubers and increase yields, they also use mineral fertilizer, for example, Kemira potato - 15-20 g (1 part incom. .) per well.
Seedlings cabbage planted in deep holes, which add 500 g of animal humus, 1 tsp. nitrofoski or superphosphate and 2 tsp. wood ash.
When landing squash 5 kg of humus, 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium chloride and 5 g of urea are introduced into the planting pit.
For pumpkins 1-2 kg of humus will be enough for one plant, 10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of superphosphate.
Planting seedlings tomatoes, 1-2 handfuls of humus or compost are applied to the planting hole, mineral fertilizers are poured in (10-12 g of double superphosphate and 5-6 g of potassium sulfate or 1 cup of wood ash).
When landing cucumbers organic fertilizer applied in May. 10-15 kg of humus, 30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of urea and potassium sulfate are added per 1 sq. M of land. If the bed is prepared in the autumn, 6-8 kg of organic matter is put under digging for 1 square meter.
Carrot and beet the best will “perceive” natural top dressing in spring or autumn at the rate of 4 kg / sq. m of soil.
Bow and garlic do not like fresh fertilizer. For them, top dressing should perepret, so it is prepared from the fall - at the rate of 4-5 kg / sq. M of soil.
Fruit trees fed with swollen manure every 2-3 years, in the autumn. In each pristvolny circle make up to 30 kg of fertilizer.
Berry bushes need to be fed annually - under gooseberry, raspberries, currants lay out a layer of humus with a thickness of 5 cm. For liquid feeding, mullein, divorced bird droppings, and slurry are used. The solution is watered furrows around the bushes.
Read more about feeding other crops in the article What can feed manure.
And there is manure in the "pills"?
Today, fertilizer producers offer compressed, or granulated, manure with a similar natural “product” action. Such fertilizer and hands will not pollute, and the air will not spoil. Working with him is a pleasure! Granulated manure will also help out if access to natural fertilizer is limited or absent. It is easy to use and versatile, and in terms of utility it is not inferior to the natural "analog", since it also contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.
Diligent manufacturers, as a rule, clean the raw material from impurities and inclusions, including bacteria and weed seeds, and plants receive only a balanced set of nutrients plus growth stimulants. An additional "bonus" of such fertilizers is the improvement of the soil and the increase of its fertility.
The inhabitants of the Moscow Zoo annually produce more than 4 thousand cubic meters of manure, including the "exotic." This amount of excrement can accommodate about 700 trucks.
So what are the main rules of "work" with manure to remember?
There are only 4 of them, but all are very important:
• apply natural fertilizer to improve the composition of the soil according to the degree of its maturity: in the spring - only completely rotted manure (humus), in the autumn we admit fresh, but semi-ripened, more “relevant” - it will have time to ripen before spring,
• Be sure to mix it with the ground, otherwise it will lose its useful properties and simply will not work. The depth of embedding into dense clayey soil is 12-15 cm, in loose and light it is 20-22 cm. It is appropriate not to distribute a small amount of manure over the entire surface, but to use it locally - directly into the landing pits,
• strictly observe the norms of manure application: for horse and cow - it is on average 6-8 kg / sq. M, you should dilute bird droppings with water 1: 15-20,
• Do not ignore complex mineral fertilizers. Properly combining them with useful organic matter of prolonged action will facilitate the absorption of nutrients by plants, and thus increase the yield.
What is the use of such fertilizer?
The application of manure favorably affects the quantity and quality of the crop due to its chemical composition. So, any livestock excrement contains:
- organic substances that increase the yield and improve the agrophysical properties of the soil,
- nitrogen, an essential nutrient for the growth of each plant,
- phosphorus, contributing to the timely, abundant formation of ovaries,
- potassium, which is involved in the process of photosynthesis and makes the plant resistant to the negative effects of the environment (drought, temperature extremes, diseases),
- water and some other inclusions.
The amount of substances depends on the characteristics of digestion, conditions of keeping and diet of animals:
- using straw as a litter reduces the level of nitrogen compared to the use of peat analog,
- feeding with feed leads to an increase in the nitrogen content in the faeces.
These factors suggest that the maximum amount of nitrogen is contained in pig manure and poultry manure. These fresh products are not used to feed plants, since they are highly likely to be harmed. The optimal amount of nitrogen is contained in cow and horse excreta, which is the result of a significant consumption of grass.
In order to understand what kind of manure to choose as a fertilizer, it is necessary to become familiar with the nuances of making each of them and the requirements of the feed culture.
Cow manure is one of the most used due to its availability and low cost. It includes:
- nitrogen (0.45%, including 0.14% ammonia),
- phosphorus (0.23%),
- potassium (0.5%),
- Organic (20.3%),
- boron, molybdenum, copper, magnesium, cobalt, zinc (in the total amount of 7%).
Depending on the conditions of keeping cattle, the following types of fertilizer will be identified:
- Litter It is a mixture of excrement with straw. This fertilizer is composted or applied to the soil in the fall for rotting. Manure is rich in a number of additional nutrients.
- Layerless. It has a liquid consistency due to a large amount of urine. It contains an increased amount of ammonia and is practically devoid of potassium and phosphorus. Used in a fresh, diluted form of water for watering plants.
Some garden owners prefer to feed the cultures with slurry or factory liquid fertilizer, made on the basis of cow feces. Such fertilizers are always diluted with water before application.
Korovyak is an excellent fertilizer for most crops, and is particularly favorable for the yield:
- A tomato.
However, deciding to use fertilizer, it should be remembered that radishes, radishes, legumes, onions and garlic react negatively to the introduction of mullein: the growth of these plants slows down, their taste qualities change.
Remember! Adding fresh cow excrement is fraught with burning of the root system.
This is due to the high temperature overheating of the manure. Negative exposure can be avoided when fertilizing for the winter or by harvesting it in the compost. You can also make an infusion:
- To do this, mix feces with water in a volume ratio of 1: 5, respectively.
- The resulting solution is infused for two weeks, stirring regularly.
- The finished product before feeding is diluted with water again at a ratio of 1:10.
- Watering is carried out in the grooves or holes under the root. The application rate is 10 liters per 1 sq.m. soil.
Cow fertilizer can be applied multiple times during the season. The first feeding recommended to apply in early spring. So the process of pererevaniya, accompanied by high temperature, will warm the seedlings during the period of low spring temperatures. Subsequent feeding is carried out once a decade and stops 3 weeks before the intended harvest.
Horse excrement is considered the best type of fertilizer. This value is due to the presence of a balanced nutritional composition:
- nitrogen (up to 0.85%, including ammonia 0.2%),
- phosphorus (0.28%),
- potassium (0.63%),
- Organic (25.4%),
- silicic acid (1.77%),
- other minerals (3.7%).
It should be noted that horse manure contains the maximum amount of silicic acid. This trace element is responsible for the strength of the foliage and stem, allows the plant to intensively bloom and form healthy ovaries, promotes the absorption of phosphorus.
Horse excrement is represented by dense balls with low water content, which facilitates the work with them. At the same time, the rich content of organic matter makes it possible to effectively improve the agrophysical properties of the soil, making it more loose and saturated with oxygen.
Pumpkin and melon crops are considered to be “lovers” of horse fertilizer: melons, watermelons, cucumbers, squash, pumpkins. Also fertilizing is perfect for potatoes, cabbage, celery ,. Used to fertilize flowers and fruit trees and shrubs.
Horse manure can be applied to the soil in fresh or rotted form, but you should always remember about the high nitrogen content. So, the following fertilizer methods are recommended:
- embedding during autumn plowing in the amount of 1 bucket per 1 sq. m. m. of soil
- in winter, on top of the snow, 1.5 buckets per 1 sq. m. m., which will contribute to the early melting of snow in the spring,
- in the spring under the root of seedlings for its warming,
- in the summer for the preparation of a liquid infusion, similar to bovine feeding.
Despite the possibility of using fresh horse manure, the best use is still composting and depositing of humus into the soil.
Horse manure is the best because it has a balanced chemical composition and contains a significant amount of organic matter, which makes heavy soils loose.
At the same time, by changing the diet of the animal, it is possible to achieve the highest content of nitrogen and potassium, close to 2% of the total mass of excrement. Such horse manure is called warm, it quickly perevarivaet in compost and allows plants to easily absorb nutrients, accelerating their growth and increasing yield.
This type of natural fertilizer is very common among gardeners, because it contains a large amount of organic and inorganic trace elements:
- nitrogen (1.7%, including ammonia 0.4%),
- phosphorus (0.9%),
- potassium (0.8%),
- calcium (0.5%),
- magnesium (0.2%),
- manganese, copper, manganese, zinc, sulfur, boron, cobalt (in a total fraction of 2.4%).
In general, the composition of the litter depends on the conditions of detention, watering device, type and age of the bird, the method of collecting excrement. So, with a litter-less content, the amount of nitrogen can reach 2.1%, and the thermally dried product contains 4.4% of this trace element.
Such high rates allow to achieve a better yield, while using less fertilizer and, as a result, with less money.
Chicken droppings are popularly called “burning” because of the high concentration of nutrients that, when fresh, can damage the plants. Feeding from bird droppings should be prepared:
- mix litter with water in equal proportions and insist for a week, stirring daily. The resulting product is highly concentrated, so before use, dilute with water in a ratio of 1:20.
- A mixture of litter with sawdust, straw, peat or grass is put into compost. Such fertilizer after 3 months can be used safely for all garden and garden plants.
- Fresh bird droppings should be introduced into the soil only for autumn in the amount of 2 kg per 1 square meter. m. of soil.
To feed bird droppings respond well:
In order to understand what type of animal excrement to choose for feeding, you should consider the preferences of a particular plant and decide on the method of introduction (plowing for the winter, watering under the root, composting).
However, in any case, it is necessary to remember that fresh fertilizer may contain some amount of weed seeds and even helminth eggs that can harm a person. For this reason, it is recommended to prepare top dressings, which will not only prevent the negative effects of nitrogen, but also eliminate the possibility of grass clogging the garden and reduce the risk of soil contamination with helminths.
Despite the mass of chemical fertilizers on the market, natural organic supplements will never lose their relevance, because they do not contain toxins and do not cause harm to humans.
By right, horse dung is considered the best among analogues. It contains a balanced chemical composition, with a high content of organic matter, which loosens and nourishes even such infertile, heavy soils with oxygen as clay. At the same time, Korovyak is a more affordable counterpart, which contains slightly less organic and mineral substances, which means it can successfully replace horse fertilizer. The use of chicken manure requires special care because of its “stinginess”, but it is used by economical owners.
Where is manure used
Organics of this type can be used to increase nutritional properties of the substrate, and to improve the structure of the soil, as well as for a kind of heating greenhouses and greenhouses.
When manure is introduced into clayey soil, the latter becomes lighter and more fluffy, and if sandy soils are fertilized, then the opposite effect will be observed: the soil will become more plastic and slightly compacted.
What is the most useful manure
Most often, gardeners and gardeners use cattle manure to fertilize country or garden crops. The popularity of this variety can be explained primarily by the fact that it is very easy to get. Buy cow dung from villagers or order a car organic fertilizer from a farmer can be at a relatively low price. However, the popularity of this organic matter does not mean that it is the best.
No one would argue that dressing of cow origin is very effective and simple. Using it on a garden bed with garden crops, it is possible to increase the yield by several percent in a fairly short time. Moreover, it is possible to apply organic fertilizer to almost any crop. However, it is still inferior to other varieties in the number of useful elements and nutrients.
For example, much more effective and useful is considered horse organic matter. Its advantages, in addition to a large content of nutrients in the composition, include a fairly loose structure, a short burnout period, and lightness.
If you put organic fertilizer on the bottom of the greenhouse with a thick layer, horse manure will also excellent biological "heater"which far surpasses other varieties of organic matter in “power”. Therefore, it is recommended to start using it in greenhouses and hotbeds at the beginning of April in order to get the first crop early. Cow manure is heated at burnout only up to 50 ° C. Therefore, it can be used as a natural “battery” for heating seedlings only when the weather is warm enough outside.
Almost the same useful and nutritious for plants, like horse manure, is rabbit. However, despite this, it is used even less often. After all, to get a sufficient amount of litter from these small animals will be very problematic.
Very little inferior in terms of nutrients and usefulness of horse and rabbit sheep manure. This type of organic fertilizer is also actively used for heating greenhouses and greenhouses, and for feeding garden plants.
Теперь понятно, какую органику лучше всего использовать в качестве подкормки и для естественного «отопления» — коровью или конскую. Конечно же, более предпочтительным является второй вариант. По степени полезности для любых культур коровий навоз находится только на пятом месте. The quality of it is inferior only to the pig - this kind of organic contains in its composition very little potassium. Pork excrement also acidifies the soil too much. Therefore, it is recommended to use such plant food for exclusively in conjunction with hydrated lime.
Horse and cow dung
In addition to the choice of fertilizer, the summer resident first of all needs to know how to apply it correctly: if you make the slightest mistake in proportions, you can simply destroy all the plants in the area.
Also note that some types of organics are best used at certain times of the year. For example, horse manure will give the greatest efficiency if brought into the soil in the fall, during the digging of the beds. Here's how to properly apply horse manure:
- During the processing of the soil (autumn), we add from 4 to 6 kg of organic matter per square meter of land.
- In summer and spring, the beds should be additionally shed with horse horse liquid to ensure proper planting of the planted plants.
- Preparing a solution for irrigation by infusing dry fertilizer in a small amount of water.
- Sludge after clarification diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10. Then it is used to water the plants right under the root.
To heat the seedlings in the greenhouses you can lay a fresh organic fertilizer. Previously it must be mixed with straw in equal quantities. Some gardeners recommend adding ordinary household trash to horse manure.
Cow dung is best used for entering into the ground for weeding fall or spring - a couple of weeks before transplanting. From cow dung, as well as from horse, very often make various liquid fertilizers, which are used to stimulate the growth and development of crops, especially in summer. Also, during the flowering of the plants, fertilizing with a fermented compound is performed.
One more very useful stimulant for the formation of fruits and ovaries can become mullein. The nutrient solution is prepared in a volume ratio of 1: 4. Such a means is insisted for at least 10 days. Before watering, dilute 1 liter of this substance in 10 liters of water. The resulting solution should be fertilized at the root of the plant, and it should be done very carefully, trying to prevent contact with the leaves. About 5 liters of mullein solution should be used per square meter.
Sometimes gardeners or gardeners argue among themselves about which manure (cow or horse) should be used for different crops (tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplants, etc.). In principle, special rules about advantages of use one or another organic for a particular culture does not yet exist. Therefore, for feeding your green pets, it is recommended to use the fertilizer that you have at hand.
The only exception to the general rule is strawberries, since this crop is very demanding on the nitrogen content in the soil. Therefore, wondering what kind of manure is recommended for strawberries: cow or horse, the answer will be obvious - neither one nor the other. It is best to fertilize strawberries with bird droppings., because it contains the greatest amount of nitrogen among all known organic supplements.
Horse manure is different in that when it burns out, it emits a tremendous amount of heat, so it is most often laid in greenhouses before planting early cultures. Therefore, this organic matter is considered the most preferable for crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, early cabbage and so on. After all, all these plants can be planted in greenhouses and greenhouses in early March, and some shade-tolerant varieties of cucumbers at all in late February. For crops planted in May, it is advisable to use cow manure, because it will provide enough heat for this time of year, and it is much cheaper than horse.
Many gardeners use manure to feed vegetable plants, but what about root vegetables? A fairly good result is the use of this type of fertilizer for potatoes:
- The best result can be obtained by fertilizing the plots during the autumn tillage.
- Also, when planting tubers, you can save on fertilizer by putting a small amount of fresh organic matter in the hole.
Summer residents, of course, and in this case are interested in the benefits of cow manure or horse for potatoes. It is best to give preference to the second option, but at the same time it is unable to increase the yield as much as cow dung. Therefore, it's up to you.
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How to properly store at home organic matter? In most cases, before using it, it should be kept for a while in a warm place for overheating. And if you do not pay due attention to this issue, the fertilizer will lose a significant part of the useful properties.
Fresh manure is practically not used for feeding crops, primarily due to the fact that during burnout it will burn the roots or stems of plants. In addition, in such a mass almost always in large quantities contain harmful microorganisms and weed seeds. But the rotted manure will be completely safe in this plan. Indeed, depending on the variety, this organic mass can be heated to a temperature of 60–70 ° C. In such conditions, no microorganism will survive, and all weed seeds will lose their germination.
Of course, it is important to know which fertilizer is most useful for plants, but it is equally important for every summer resident to know which type of fertilizer is most appropriate to use depending on the method of storage. Manure should be burned out on a special litter with a thickness of at least 30 cm.
The effectiveness of fertilizer depends on the material from which it will be made. So, the highest-quality mass is considered to be the one that pereprela on a litter of fallen leaves or peat. Also pretty the manure that burned out on the straw is considered nutritious. The smallest amount of nutrients will be contained in the mass stored on sawdust, although this manure is considered a good baking powder, which would be appropriate to use on heavy clay soils.
Now you know what organic mass is considered the best. Horse manure, of course, is the highest quality, but also the most expensive among all types of organic matter. In the end, the decision always remains for the vegetable grower.
What is the difference between organic and mineral fertilizers?
Mineral fertilizers are produced at chemical plants and, when introduced into the soil, are a foreign substance for plants to be converted into an accessible form of use.
- To become available to plants, the elements of nutrient salts must be converted to chelate form.
- Mineral fertilizers contain only a narrow list of chemical elements required by plants.
- Tuki contribute to the soil, taking into account its parameters and the needs of plants.
- Mineral fertilizers do not contribute to the formation of humus, which reduces the natural soil fertility.
Nutrients of organic fertilizers are more accessible to plants, as they are the product of animal activity, and in the ecosystem it is its natural element. The only restriction in agriculture: when the wrong farming practices in the fruits and vegetables accumulate nitrites. Organic waste during processing forms humus, which determines the level of soil fertility.
The beneficial properties of manure
The basis of manure is the excrement of various animals in a mixture with bedding (straw, grass, sawdust and other plant debris). According to the degree of rotting, manure can be divided into 3 categories:
- fresh manure litter and bespodilochny,
- half broken manure
- rotted manure, or humus.
Fresh manure bespattery, not diluted with water - thick, not fluid form, the consistency of homemade sour cream (can be cut with a knife like butter).
Fresh bedding manure easily holds the shape, mixed with straw or other materials (sawdust, fine chips).
Slurry has a less concentrated composition than fresh manure. Basically, it is a nitrogen-potassium liquid fertilizer, which is used to feed all garden and vegetable crops. In order not to burn the plants, slush is diluted in a ratio of 1: 5-6. Bring in after watering. Use for moistening when laying the compost.
Poluporevshy - it's lay in the open for a while (3-6 months), partially dried and decomposed. The bed is rotting, crumbles easily in the hands. It is used as the main fertilizer for digging, especially on soils depleted in humus.
Humus is a completely rotting bulk mass in which the individual components of the litter and other inclusions are not visible. The most common of the natural fertilizers used by summer residents.
The humus content of nutrients and nitrogen, as compared with fresh manure, is 2-3 times less, which makes it possible to use it directly during the growing season of plants for additional dressing.
Humus-based manure. © Jill & Andy
The content of the main nutrients in the manure
The composition of the manure includes components that provide nutrition to plants, improve the physico-chemical properties of the soil, its structure. Being a source of organic matter, manure during fermentation forms humic compounds that increase the natural fertility of the soil.
Manure in any condition (fresh, semi-matured, humus) is a source of macro– and trace elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, magnesium, boron, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum. Active microorganisms of manure are the main source of energy for soil microflora.
All types of manure differ in alkaline properties, the alkalinity index reaches pH = 8-9 units. In cow manure, it is equal to 8.1, in horse manure - 7.8, in swine manure - 7.9 units. Naturally, their introduction alkalizes the soil, reducing acidity. The content of the main nutrient elements are presented in the average indicators of table 1.