The time of pruning grapes directly depends on the climate where the crop is grown. In the northern regions, where winters are harsh, pruning should be done in the spring so that the plant can recover after processing. Also, before the summer, cut off thermophilic grape varieties. When the climate is warm, winter is allowed to prune in the fall for frost-resistant vines. In the spring, the procedure is carried out in the first warm days, when sap flow in the branches has not yet begun, and in the fall, approximately 20 days after the leaves have completely dropped.
Among gardeners there is no clear position on the time of obligatory pruning of the vine. Some argue that autumn processing bush weaken it before hibernation. Other gardeners insist that "spring crying" (pasture, the active release of sap on the branches) inhibits the plant and may lead to its death. For proper care, you should take into account the climatic features of the region, the grape variety, its age. Comparing these three components, it turns out to choose the optimal time for trimming. More often it is the end of March or the beginning of April for most of the central and southern regions of Russia.
Spring grape pruning
The natural life cycle of the plant implies that the sap in the winter goes back to the roots, and by the summer it moves to the young branches. Pruning grapes in spring is needed to increase the volume of fruiting, the formation of the bush and speed up the harvest. It is important to begin cutting the vine under the guidance of an experienced gardener so as not to destroy the plants by improper treatment:
- Young grapes are pruned in order to form a full pillar shoot. This achieves maximum fruiting in a few years, and it is more convenient to care for the bush itself.
- Old bushes are pruned using a different technology (young shoots and inflorescences are removed), since the majority of brushes bear fruit in the lower part of the plant.
When to trim
By spring pruning of grapes must be approached carefully, so as not to maim or ruin the vine. The main thing is to wait for a stable temperature of +5 degrees without possible future frosts. It is important to have time to seize the pruning time before the onset of heavy juice movement. If the moment has been missed, then processing is no longer performed (it is only allowed to remove the dead branches). In May, pruning grapes is already unacceptable, although some gardeners still practice late processing during the period of bud swelling.
For pruning grapes in the spring and autumn, in most cases, use a secateur with high-quality sharpening, so that the stem does not split in the process. Old branches are removed with a garden saw. She has a thin sheet with fine teeth, so that the cut is as gentle as possible for the plant. For the full development of shoots and fruiting need to leave about 10 buds. Be sure to remove all damaged, frozen and dried branches, regardless of the scheme of formation of the bush. The cut is made at right angles to minimize the area of damage.
How to prune grapes in spring
Above were indicated only common points in the processing of vines. Plants in different stages have their own processing nuances. For example, the technique of pruning is different for young grapes and old vines. If you do not take into account these differences, then at least - the bush will no longer bear fruit, and in most cases - just die due to weather or branches damage.
Grapes are divided into covering and uncovered varieties. The first require a special wintering, therefore, in most cases, they form into pinless bushes (without a pronounced trunk that rises above the ground). Such grapes are not pruned in the fall of the first three years, but simply press the branches to the ground. Be sure to properly maintain the number of eyes that are left each spring. Pruning grapes in spring for beginners is as follows:
- First year. When pruning need to focus on the number of shoots. With one - 4 buds are cut off, with 2 branches - 2 each. The entire upper part of the vine should be removed.
- Second year. The sleeves are cut into 2 buds, and the young vine is left and attached to the garter.
- Third year. In each sleeve leave 2 fruitful vines (of those closer to the root). The lower branch is cut by 2 buds, and the upper - by 8–15 (depending on diameter).
Stamp cutting is suitable for frost resistant varieties that do not require hiding. Proper formation of the stem depends on the particular variety (this directly affects the number of buds that are left, the number of fruit-bearing vines, etc.). What remains common is that for 5–6 years, the central stem, which raises the vine above the ground, is drawn out and formed. This is necessary for better access to the base of the bush during processing and full development of the vine itself (preventing its wildness).
Shrubs that are up to 3–6 years old (depending on the type of plant forming) are considered young and are pruned to create fruit-bearing grapes without any extra shoots. The trimming pattern varies according to the variety, but the basic principles are about the same. A key aspect is the abandonment of a certain number of fruit bearing shoulders. Above are the main points of how the grapes are cut for beginners when creating a standard and non-standard bush. The main forms of the formation of the vine:
- Guyot scheme,
- trellis, etc.
The vine, which has been bearing fruit for several years, requires a special pruning, because as the bush is already formed, the fruiting shoulders are fixed in their positions. The formation of brushes is no longer on the young shoots, but in the middle and bottom of the plant. If the grapes were initially processed correctly and regularly, then pruning will not take much time and effort. The main thing is to follow the basic rules in order not to stimulate the wildness of the bush:
- Fruit-bearing grapes should be freed from seed-bearing, damaged, weak, frostbitten shoots, dry knots.
- Removed too thin and, conversely, thick ("fattening") branches. Leave shoots from 6 to 10 mm.
- 6–8 replacement shoots are left with 2–4 buds. Long shoots pruned at the level of 10-15 holes.
- For harvest pruned long biennial shoots.
- The thicker the branch, the longer its part is left.
- At any fertile age, 90% of the annual increase is necessarily removed.
- For some varieties, summer pinching of shoots and buds is acceptable.
- For cutting you need to use an extremely sharp and clean tool so that the grapes do not hurt (for sterilizing the secateurs they use alcohol-containing solutions). The cut is made as close as possible to 90 degrees relative to the branch.
Pruning damaged bushes
The most difficult to prune grapes after damage. If you leave frostbitten branches, crippled hail, etc., then the bush will gradually wither, trying to support virtually dead shoots. Competent pruning of such areas of the grapes minimizes the consequences of a bad winter or sudden spring frosts. Restoring trimming rules:
- When freezing up to 80% of the kidneys, you should leave healthy more on lignified fruit-bearing branches than with normal pruning.
- With the loss of more than 80% of the kidneys, the shoot is completely removed.
- Totally frostbite bush removed by rhizome. The boles are dug up to 25–30 cm in depth, the entire ground part is cut, and the stump is covered with earth by about 5 cm. If the young shoots have not yet appeared, then they inoculate the trunk.
- If the roots of the shrub were frostbite, then they are dug out and checked with the help of cuts with a knife. The total loss of wood is expressed in a change of color to dark brown. If the frostbite depth was not more than 2.5 mm, then the grapes in most cases are restored on their own.
- With a sharp spring cooling, pruning is performed depending on the degree of damage to the branches. Weakly affected shoots are pruned to the first live kidney. With the loss of all the young shoots cut off the vine completely, leaving 2-3 internodes. In summer, such bushes should be intensively fed and watered in order for the plant to gain strength until the next wintering.
- The stalk after cutting a large branch should be about 10 mm.
- It is important to process the slices with a protective compound so that the sap does not flow through the slices. To do this, use garden pitch, bark imitators, wax, non-toxic paint, etc.
Basic rules for pruning grapes. Autumn pruning
It is known that in the life cycle of a culture there comes a period that stops the growth of the vine and the formation of buds, but enhances the development of shoots on last year’s vines. As a result, the bush begins to grow and grow in height. Because of the enhanced “eating” of the collected nutrients that are needed for the normal functioning of young shoots, the root system begins to “starve” and wither. To prevent further progression of the problemenough time to trim the extra parts.
As for pruning grapes in autumnthen such a procedure is carried out by different methods. They are determined by the age of the plant and the growing environment:
- Young individuals between the ages of three and five need annual formative pruning, which begins in the first year of life,
- Five-year, and older, bushes, require not only formative pruning, but also sanitary, which will become a stimulation for the development of good and large fruits,
- Older bushes can be pruned to prolong fruiting,
It may seem like a difficult task for a novice gardener to form grapes, but if you follow certain recommendations, even a beginner can successfully implement the procedure without outside help.
Pruning in the fall can be done in the event that the harvest has been fully completed and the foliage has turned yellow. In the process you need to get rid of all weak and infertile shoots that impair the productivity of vine growth.
The second pruning is carried out in 2-3 weeks. after the first, in the period when the leaves fall off. At such a time, most nutrients will be near the root system. Do not forget that you can not cut the grapes at temperatures below -3 degrees, because in such conditions, the vine begins to break and become very fragile.
Pruning in the early stages of growth looks very simple and does not require much effort. It is enough to clear the plant from unnecessary shoots in time, leaving several sleeves growing at an angle to the soil. The fact is that soon they will begin to bear fruit and give a good result.
Perennial bushes need more diligent treatment, and especially if they have not been prone to pruning before. Even with strong crown growth, proper sanitary pruning will improve fructification tenfold.
Benefits of Autumn Pruning
Despite a number of difficulties, the autumn pruning of grapes has a lot of undeniable advantages. Among them:
- Effective prevention of spring "crying" and simplifying the procedure of shelter culture for the winter,
- Improving yields due to the cleaning of unnecessary and ineffective shoots
- Improving the taste properties of fruits and increasing their size,
- Acceleration of ripening grapes
- Simplification of basic procedures for the care of the vineyard and harvesting,
In addition, proper pruning strengthens the immune system and makes the vine resistant to all sorts of diseases and pests. Shrubs gain a well-groomed look and turn into a beautiful addition for the backyard territory, so they need to be cut for aesthetic purposes.
Bezshtambovaya forming plants
Asking the question: “How to cut grapes at an early age,” study the procedure as carefully as possible. The timely execution of such actions contributes to higher yields and growth. As a result, the number and length of sleeves, knots and vines adjustable.
You can cut the grapes in different ways.. Today, there are three types of pruning shoots:
- Short - 4 kidneys are removed in the process,
- Medium - from 6 to 8 buds,
- Long - 9-18 kidneys,
Young bushes need formative pruning, which begin at the age of three. The following measures are to maintain the well-maintained condition of the crown, which is achieved by regular trimming and garters.
With proper care and good growing conditions, young seedlings begin to grow rapidly in a very short time. Weakly developing individuals are able to release only 2-3 shoots. This indicates their poor growth and development.. To conduct a comprehensive growth stimulation, it is sufficient to re-prune the branches with 4 peepholes. In such a case, the formative treatments are transferred to the next year, until the plants can release the necessary number of shoots to form a strong and good crown.
The length of the skeleton of perennial bushes is determined by the strength of growth, conditions of detention and varietal characteristics. For this reason, the shape of the bush can be medium, large or small. Despite the shape, each sleeve must have at least one fruit branch. Not bad manifest themselves and annual vines, which are cut to 5-10 branches. You can also use a multi-year sprout, cut off for 2-4 nights.
Conducting trimming activities One important rule must be followed: fruitful shoots should always be at the top of the sleeves, and substitutable ones should be close to the root system. Such an arrangement is usually called correct.
The principle of the procedure is as follows. Annual bushes lose almost all branches, with the exception of the two thickest and strongest. In the second year of life, they are pruned into three buds, removing all other shoots. Near the bush fix the trellis, to which, in turn, attached several finally formed shoots. The active formation of the sleeves begins in three-year-old plants. Here it is necessary to leave only two well ripened vines.
Proper trimming of annuals with one branch
- Such a grape pruning involves pruning branches on 4 buds, which is necessary for the more productive formation of young shoots,
- Four-year bushes need the formation of fruit units. For such purposes, the vine is cut to the outside by 5-10 eyes, placed above,
- It is important to understand that each vine is planted for specific purposes. In most cases, the culture is kept for fruiting and good yields. The replacement knot serves as a reliable basis for creating strong branches,
- The main purpose of trimming annuals is to artificially enhance the crown and skeletal branches of four thick branches with a diameter of 6-9 centimeters. In the future, from the resulting shoots can be formed grape sleeves,
Spring grape pruning for beginners
If you take into account the basic recommendations for the care of the vine and properly cut it in the spring time, this will allow you to get a high-quality and excellent harvest in a short time. The pruning procedure for fruiting is performed for four-year-old bushes that already know enough formed sleeves and fruiting links.
The essence of the action implies pruning of young shoots formed on the bitch. The branch that grows near the sleeve is trimmed into two buds, which allows you to form a replacement shoot. The second vine is cut to one third of the length, which is necessary for the rapid laying of a fruiting shoot.
With the successful implementation of the procedure, in the summer, new fruiting links will begin to develop in the culture.
Before you begin to cut the grapes in spring, consider one key rule: replacement knots that are near the rhizome, you need to cut short, and the top fruiting vines left long. Given such recommendations, you can grow a compact, lush and richly flowering bush in a short period of time. Regular pruning of the vine contributes to more productive growth and good yield. It also gives the culture a well-groomed appearance and warns of unforeseen overgrowing of bushes, where flower buds practically do not appear. In addition, the action improves the immune system of plants and protects them from all sorts of diseases.
If we talk about pruning before winter, in this case it is necessary to cut off the underdeveloped sleeves that do not have well-matured vines, as well as sleeves with young small branches.
Weak specimens with a single, but mature vine are best left by removing all the shoots above it. The ideal option is to choose the strongest brush, removing the weak and immature. In the end, a fruitful shoot will remain on the bush.
Forming a trunk
This kind of trimming activities will be relevant for winter-hardy varieties of grapevine, which do not need prior protection from the winter cold. In the process it is necessary to choose a good plant with excellent growth, growing in a favorable environment and receiving proper care. Если речь идёт о выращивании в прохладной местности, штамбы могут обладать разной высотой. В южных регионах создаются высокие штамбы, а в засушливых и неплодородных – низкие.
Метод формировки штамба относительно простой. Он заключается в регулярной осенней обрезке однолетних саженцев, в процессе чего на каждой ветви остаётся только три глазка. Все остальные побеги лучше удалить. Such activities include growing a strong root system and two powerful shoots. In the end, there is only one main branch and two backup in the side.
Near the bush you need to form a strong support and tie young branches to it. In the summer, you need to get rid of all stepchildren. In turnwhen autumn comes near a young bush, you need to install a trellis and prune the main shoot to the height of a trunk. You should also remove all stepchildren and backup, side escape.
Another cut off all the green mass, which managed to grow over the summer. It suffices here to leave the two upper branches, which are carefully pinched and tied to the support.
On the side of the vines remains two mature branches. One of them needs to be clipped to two eyes, and the second to five. If the development is good enough, the stepchildren will start developing on the bush. In the future, they will serve for the development of fruiting elements that are formed at the ends of the branches.
The formation of the trunk is carried out in several stages:
- initially get rid of the young shoots that are on the old sleeves to the first wire level trellis. Crop them better in early September,
- The next stage is to trim the branches that have outgrown the second tier of the trellis. They need to be shortened to a tenth of the length. Also get rid of stepchildren,
- when the leaf fall is over, a replacement knot and fruiting arrow should be formed,
Let's sum up
Asking the question: "How to cut the grapes in the spring?" - do not look for definite answers. This topic is very extensive.therefore, there are many “pitfalls” and incomprehensible moments in it. Only after carefully studying all the features of pruning activities, you can clean the crop from unnecessary parts and make it healthy, well-groomed and fruitful.
Spring or Autumn Trimming
Often the question arises: “And when is it better to cut it, in spring or autumn?” The answer to this question causes many disputes.
Many say with absolute certainty: “It is clear that in the fall. This will help plants prepare for winter. And in the spring it is necessary to have time to prune before the sap flow begins with the grapes, otherwise the bushes in general may die. ”
But in fact, it is the spring formation that allows you to get the maximum yield of this crop, although it is at the same time quite risky.
Crop of young grapes
It is carried out for the correct shaping of the skeletal part of the bush, as well as for the selection of the branches that will bring harvest in the season. In fact, there are a great many ways to form grapes, but not all of them are suitable for growing in cold regions with harsh winters. For example, in the areas of the Moscow region, the Urals and Siberia, grapes must be covered for the winter. Therefore, the following will be considered options for the formation and pruning of grapes in the spring of covering grapes.
- The formation of the grape stem. This means the operation of spring pruning of grapes with the removal of almost the entire grown part. It remains only the trunk, which will be two living buds. This procedure is carried out in the first year of life of the grapes on the site.
- The choice of forming a bush.
Here, each link, designed for fruiting, is on its sleeve. And the sleeves, in turn, grow from one center and are directed in different directions. Thus, the vine bush resembles a fan. The main positive qualities of the cultivation of grapes using the fan method include:
- ease of formation,
- simplicity of shelter for the winter,
- compactness of a bush of grapes.
The length and number of branches of a bush depend only on the gardener.
In this case, the method is characterized by growing short sleeves on the long arms of the bush, therefore the skeletal part is much more powerful when growing grapes using the cordon method. In order to make it clearer, a shoulder is formed from a trunk (one or two, directed in different directions), on which there are sleeves. And already on them will be located links of fruit bearing.
This type is very similar to the fan pattern of growing grapes, but differs in the absence of woody sleeves. Here it is proposed to grow several vines that have about 18 eyes, as well as replacement knots, cut for 4 eyes. they all grow from one center. Thus, the vines that have been hatched are replaced by knots for the next year, etc.
- Formation of sleeves. The sleeve also refers to the skeletal part of the grape, which is formed in the second year. Their number depends on the chosen scheme of growing grapes. They are formed from growth on a trunk from left buds in the first year and also shortened, leaving two living buds on these branches.
- The formation of units for fruiting occurs in the third year. On the sleeves of the two left buds, the growth will grow, from which it is necessary to form an arrow for fruiting (from the upper bud by shortening the growth by 5 ... 6 buds) and a replacement knot (from the lower bud and leaving only two eyes).
With such a formation of a young bush, he zapronodosit for the fourth year.
Pruning old grapes
Pruning of old vine bushes is necessary first of all for thinning and shaping a sturb, which is stronger and more resistant to diseases and frosts. In fact, in just two years, it is possible to make an absolutely normally fruit-bearing varietal grape from an old, untidy shrub using the correct pruning. It is enough to use this step-by-step instruction:
- Removing dead shoots and vines. The usual pruning after wintering is done here. If it is not entirely possible to understand which specific parts of the plant are dead and which are still alive, then it is possible to cut off a small part of a suspicious vine and examine it inside. If it is light green in color, the vine is alive, but if the cut is not green at all, then the vine is dead. But do not rush to cut it all completely - it is better to check a few more times, making and examining slices from top to bottom along the selected escape.
- The choice of the method of forming a bush. In principle, the main types of forming a grapevine were described above. When rejuvenating old bushes, “Fan Shaping” and “Horizontal Cordon” are recommended. If you plan to grow grapes on the arch or gazebo, then the arch forming can be found below.
- Remove all unnecessary vines according to the shape. That is, after choosing a method of forming a bush, you just need to maximally bring its appearance under that described. If, after the initial pruning of dead branches, some vines are not enough to carry out the scheme, there is no need to get upset - you will be able to build the missing branches for the next year, using the most suitable growth for this.
Pruning grapes on the arch
For the cultivation of grapes on the arch or arbor apply cordon formirovku, the choice of which depends on the number of available seedlings. So, for example, if it is necessary to occupy a large area with grapes, but at the same time there are few seedlings, then a two-shoulder cordon is formed.
If there are a lot of seedlings and they are planted at a certain distance from each other, then they choose a one-shoulder cordon. Subsequently, if desired, you can develop the third and fourth shoulders, it is clear that it will be somewhat more difficult to care for such grapes. In addition to the method of shaping when planting grapes on the arch, it is necessary to consider that for such plantings it is necessary to choose an unopened variety of this crop.
After reaching the cordon forming of the plant with pruning of the shoots in two eyes, they start forming the fruit links. A fruit arrow will be formed from the upper bud, therefore the shoot that grew from it must be cut into 5 ... 7 holes. And the replacement knot is obtained from the shoot, which grew from the lower bud and shortened with a shear for 2 eyes.
And this formation of fruit links is made annually by a simple replacement of the roles of these shoots: the following year, the fruit link is formed from the substitution bitch, and the arrow is cut off.
Why do you need pruning
Grape is inherent in such a property as polarity. It lies in the fact that derived from the soil nutrients, the plant continuously sends up to the tips of the branches. Therefore, the farther away from the root is the shoot, the better it develops. This property ensures the rapid growth of grapes up and sideways while simultaneously exposing the lower part of the bush, which lacks nutrients.
In the absence of care for the plant, its fruits become small and sour. Such a vine is called “neglected” or “feral”, and they do not expect a good harvest from it. Timely pruning of the bush can prevent all these troubles. But you need to know how to properly carry it out and when.
When to do it: in spring or autumn?
Among growers there is no consensus as to when it is better to perform pruning, in spring or autumn. But there are recommendations of experts who assert that autumn pruning is preferable in regions with a harsh climate, and spring pruning in warm climatic zones.
One of the consequences of pruning is increased sap flow.
In order to independently understand this issue, it is necessary to understand that the polarity property starts to act with the first thaws in the plant, forcing nutrients to move away from the roots. In the second half of October, the vine goes into a state of rest and the reverse movement of juices is observed - from the tips of the branches to the base of the bush.
Opponents of the autumn pruning insist that it weakens the plant. If the vine is shortened during the rest period, its lower root part will not receive the nutrients necessary for wintering: they will remain in the cut branches.
Supporters of the autumn pruning claim that it is the most benign, as it reduces the intensity of the "spring crying" of the vine. So called apocaly, the movement of juice in the branches, drops of which protrude on their surface. This is an undesirable and even dangerous for fruiting phenomenon. It can lead to several unpleasant consequences:
- wetting and rotting of the kidneys,
- fungal infections,
- lower yields
- drying of shoots.
Spring "crying" of grapes is interpreted differently. Some gardeners consider it a sign of good activity overwintered roots. Others view the juice output as a weakening of the bush and insist that pruning grapes in the spring helps to strengthen the plant and make it more resilient.
Experienced winegrowers are guided by certain rules.
- Vine, which is not covered for the winter, pruned in the spring.
- Shrubs requiring warming, pruned in the fall. This is due to the fact that the overgrown grapes for the year is difficult to cover. This requires a large amount of covering material and is difficult to do.
- Shrubs older than 4 years pruned in spring and autumn.
When pruning in the fall, it is considered that some buds (eyes) may die during the winter. Therefore, leave them with a margin of several eyes. Spring assess the situation and perform the correction of the bush.
Basic work rules for beginners
- Vine pruned to bud swelling. That is, until the moment when the intensive movement of juice begins in it.
- Delete all old and damaged branches.
- All young shoots are pruned, leaving 2–3 eyes on them.
- On first-year shoots, 12–15 mm of wood should be left.
Care for old and young grapes
Diagram of the correct pruning of grapes in the spring will help to understand the procedure
In the care of the old and young grapes have a lot in common, but there are differences. In order to do everything in time, novice gardeners need to remember simple rules.
- One of the purposes of pruning is to give the bush the most convenient form for shelter for the winter.
- The guarantor of a good harvest of the next year is a ripe vine in the current and overwintered eyes. This is taken into account in the autumn pruning.
Nuances of care for young grapes
The main task of the spring pruning of a young bush is the creation of conditions for the smooth formation of a pole shoot. During the warm season, the vine should grow stronger. She is helped in this by tying to a trellis or a peg hammered near the base of the bush.
In the first year of the plant, it is recommended to remove all appearing inflorescences. Young grapes will not give a good harvest and large berries. The ripening of fruits will take away from the plant the strength and nutrients that are needed to strengthen the young vine and increase its yield next year.
In the first two years of the life of a vine, caring for it consists in forming a powerful bush and preparing it for fruiting. During the entire growing season, pinching over the second and third leaves is performed.
Nuances of care for old grapes
For abundant fruiting of grapes pruning should be regular
Experienced winemakers in the care of the old grapes spend not only spring and autumn, but also summer pruning.
It is necessary to remove the upper inflorescences and clusters, leaves and shoots. This is due to the peculiarity of adult plants, the fruits of which are concentrated in the lower part of the bush. And with the outflow of nutrients up to the ends of the branches, the lower, fruiting part of the bush weakens. Summer pruning is performed without using a secateur.
In the care of old grapes pay special attention to autumn pruning. It is performed in several stages.
- Before the onset of negative temperatures, while there are still leaves on the vine, new shoots and “old sleeves” are removed. The strongest branches are cut to 1/10 of their length.
- After the foliage has fallen, the process of preparing for winter begins and the movement of juices in the opposite direction - from the tips of the branches to the root. The goal of the autumn pruning is to remove all the powerful shoots formed this season. This process has its own name: “the formation of a knot of substitution”. To do this, 3-4 buds are left at the bottom of powerful shoots, the rest is cut off. On younger shoots 5-6 eyes are left (2-3 of them are spare ones).
- By the beginning of the third year on the bush should be 4 formed vines. In the spring they are cut, leaving 2 buds. During the summer, each will give an escape. The entire warm season of the year removes the branches that grow from the replacement buds.
- Grapes of the 4th year require the formation of 2 vines on each sleeve. For this, when pruning, 8–10 buds are left on each shoot.
Formation of bushes of covering and uncovered types
The formation of grapes of any variety begins in the first year of planting and lasts for 4–6 years. The process requires several actions:
- garter sleeves and shoots
- breaking out extra shoots.
Molding is considered completed after the creation of a branched skeleton of a bush, each branch of which has fruit wood. Thus ensure the stability of fruiting and high yields. Further care of the bush is to maintain its shape. For this purpose, in the autumn, up to 90% of the growth that has appeared in the current season is removed.
There are several types of grape forms, but they all fall into one of two categories:
The first is chosen for varieties that require shelter for the winter due to the characteristics of the plant or the climate of the region. Uncovered shaping needed appropriate varieties: unopened. Each grower must choose the right way to create a powerful bush. In order to eliminate the error, they are guided by the recommendations of experienced winemakers.
Popular Forming Techniques
- Fan. It consists in the creation of such a skeleton of a bush, in which each fruit link is located on its sleeve, going from the root of the plant. This principle is observed, regardless of the number of branches and their length. Fan - the most simple and popular method of forming grapes.
- Cordon. The second most popular way is to create several short sleeves (on each of which there is a fruit link) on powerful and long “shoulders”. There are two types of cordon shaping: horizontal and vertical. Any of these methods allows you to get a powerful bush with a large amount of perennial wood.
- Arched. It is mainly used for the formation of arbors, arches and decoration of landscape design elements. It is a kind of vertical cordon with trellis shaping elements.
- Reliable stamb. The goal of the process is to create a high vertical shtamba (trunk), in the upper part of which there are sleeves with fruit-bearing arrows.
Method selection rules
The choice of the method of forming a bush depends not only on the grape variety. Of great importance is the distance chosen by the gardener for planting the bushes and the width of the row spacing. The more these indicators, the more powerful way of forming can be chosen. Beginners are recommended to focus on proven practice recommendations.
- For regions with a cold climate where cover varieties are grown, three ways of shaping are most favorable: horizontal cordon, fan, sleeveless capitatum type.
- If the distance between the bushes is not less than 3 m, a horizontal cordon is recommended.
- If the distance between the bushes is less than 3 m, the four-arm fan will be the optimal choice.
- Если расстояние между кустами менее 1,5 м, выбирают друхрукавный веер или безрукавную формировку.
- Для регионов с теплым климатом возможны любые способы формировки кустов.
Пошаговая инструкция по обрезке винограда
Обрезка винограда обычно проводится секатором — он более удобен, чем аналогичные приспособления
Для выполнения обрезки потребуется специальный инструмент — секатор. Его лезвия должны быть остро заточенными, что исключит чрезмерное травмирование растений. Для того чтобы работа была наиболее эффективной, секатор должен быть удобен для руки.
Rules for pruning:
- the cut is made perpendicular to the branch,
- leave the number of buds required for the selected method of forming a bush,
- perennial lidged branches are removed carefully, leaving a “stump” 7–10 mm high,
- leave for fruiting shoots not less than 6 mm thick,
- remove all shoots from a thickness of 10 mm.
Trimming scheme with stab form:
- In the spring of the first year pruned escape, leaving two eyes.
- In the spring of the second year, they choose the strongest escape of the two and leave it to form a bole. Cut, leaving a branch, 50–80 cm long. The second shoot is cut to 2 eyes.
- In the spring of the third year, leave only the top two vines, cutting them up to 2 eyes.
- In the spring of the fourth year, cut off all fruit-bearing branches. Form the fruit links of the shoots on the knots of substitution. On the most powerful shoots 6–12 eyes are left, on the second - 2–3.
Proper pruning of grapes in spring
Spring pruning of grapes begins even before the moment when the sap flow of the plant comes. If this has already begun, it is best to cut only old shoots. The formation of the same bush should be done by pinching off the extra eyes on the vine.
To correctly prune, you must follow some rules.
- The cut is made at right angles, i.e. perpendicular to the branch. As a result, the healing of the cut point will be much faster.
- Annual shoots that have already sprouted must be removed without damaging the bark. To this end, when pruning the shoot, leave a stump of about 0.5 cm.
- Patients and frozen branches should be removed. Too long shoots do not need to leave. The best will be the presence on the branches from 6 to 12 buds.
- Leave only healthy shoots with a diameter of at least 6 mm. The thinner ones are removed.
To make the grapes feel good, they leave 2-4 old vines after pruning. They regulate the supply of food in young shoots. Such old vines are also called "sleeves." As a rule, old and strong branches are chosen for this role.
After deciding on the old branches, it is necessary to decide which way to form a bush. And only then proceed to the removal of those young shoots that are redundant.
If you are new to this business, it is necessary to prune as follows: out of 10 buds, only one remains for harvest. Bush at the same time, of course, will be bare, but everything will come back to normal after the appearance of the first new leaves, as well as shoots.
Pruning grapes is carried out in two ways:
- with standard shaping
- when forming without bobbin
What does it mean?
Grape shtam is a vertical part of the bush, starting from the ground surface. And it ends at the place where the first vines depart. Thus, this is a continuation of the underground trunk. In trees, shtambes usually form independently, while grapes must be made artificially.
Pruning is carried out in accordance with the age of the grapes. Those. for young and old bushes have their own methods of pruning.
Pruning of grapes
It all begins in the spring of 1 year plants. To get two shoots, only 2 peepholes remain on the seedling, all others are removed.
In the second year in spring, the main shoot is released, which will be the same as the stem. It should be shortened to 50-90 cm. Thus, we have created the basis for the trunk.
In the third year in the spring we delete on the main shoot (which, I remind you, is a bole), remove all the vines except the two upper ones. On each of them leave 2 peepholes and tie up to the trellis. Vines should be sent in different directions. The next pruning should be done in the fall. The lower shoots are pruned to 2 buds, the upper to 15. They leave so much, because they will serve for fruiting. The lower ones will serve as the replacement of the upper ones for the next year.
And finally, for the 4th year, we cut off all the branches that otplodonosili. And on the young shoots of the lower branches, which last year were left as substitutes, it is necessary to form new fruit branches. To do this, one shoot is trimmed to 15 eyes, it will become fruit, and the second - to 2. This is again the so-called substitute, which will be formed as fruit for the next year.
Pruning non-standard grapes
Now, with regard to the formation of a grape bush is not standard. Here, in 1 year in the spring, it is necessary to remove all dry, diseased, as well as damaged parts of the bush. As for young shoots, most of them are also removed. We leave only a few of the strongest and cut them at a height of 2-3 cm above the second kidney.
In the second year in the spring, we remove more than half of all young shoots. We leave only 2-3 strongest sleeves. They should be cut to 2 buds.
In the spring of the third year, fruit units begin to form. The lower vine must be shortened to two buds, and the upper fruit to 15 buds. On each sleeve at the same time, there should be 2 vines. The rest is deleted.
So summarize. Trimming is done one way or another, in spring and autumn. Spring pruning is basically a bush update. Therefore, it includes such works as removal from the fruit-bearing branches, damaged, frozen, too thin, as well as “fattening”, i.e. very thick more than 6-10 mm.
Speaking about the pruning of grapes, it is impossible to raise the question of the tool necessary for this operation.
What tools are needed for pruning grapes?
With how to carry out pruning grapes figured out. Now the question is what tool to use for this purpose.
The answer is unequivocal. This is a garden pruner. Secateurs models are sold a lot. You get the one that is convenient for you, it is good to use it.
Only experienced growers recommend using different secateurs for certain works.
So, for trimming green branches it is better to use a plane bypass pruner, which has two curved blades. In the open state, they “embrace” the stem. As a result, the shoot is not deformed, and the cut is smooth and heals quickly.
If you remove old dry branches, then contact thrust shears are necessary for work. Unlike the first option in this secateurs, the upper blade does not slide, but abuts against the bottom plate. It is a kind of emphasis for the blade. The cutting edge of this pruner has a wedge-shaped double-sided sharpening. Secateurs of this design can be cut dry vines up to 2-3 cm thick.
The first picture shows a pruner designed for cutting vines and branches, and on the lower bypass standard pruner.
If the branches reach more than 5 cm in diameter, or they are located high (which is especially for trees in the garden). Then the lopper is used. As well as secateurs, delimbers are planar and contact.
The upper blade of the contact delimber, as well as the same pruner, abuts against the lower plate, which plays the role of an emphasis. Such a delimber removes dried branches.
As for planar delimbers, they have two curved blades, which in the open state completely embrace the branch. Top convex blade - cutting. It is sharpened on one side only. Sliding along the side surface of the lower blade, the upper blade uses it as a stop. Planar circumferential delimber removes thick live branches.
When is the spring season pruned young shoots?
As noted above, in spring you only need to trim the grapes before the start of sap flow. This process begins in May. Therefore, all pruning is desirable to carry out in the month of April.
In general, early and late pruning is distinguished. Early is held when the first warm days come. That is, the air temperature reaches +5 ° C and the grapes begin to awaken. So you can trim.
Late pruning is done after swelling of the first kidneys. However, this pruning is fraught with the fact that the plant may not receive the necessary nutrients.
Of course, there are no definite deadlines, since everything depends on the region and on how the weather conditions pass.
However, summing up the above, I note that pruning is carried out, first of all, on the basis of these two conditions:
- Temperature condition should be stable and not less than +5 ° C
- Lack of sap flow (it is also called “weeping” of grapes). If pruning in the presence of sap flow wounds can not heal for a long time, which will lead to the death of the plant.
How many brushes to keep on young shoots?
The load of brushes on the vine depends on the variety and age of the plant. If the bush is young, at the age of 3 to 5 years old, then rationing is necessary. At the same time, it is desirable to leave one brush per escape. Infertile shoots must be removed.
There are varieties such as Kishmish Radiant, Strasensky, Original, etc., which give large clusters. In this case, the young branch is not only left with one brush, but also reduces its size itself. This is done by pinching about 1 / 3-1 / 2 of the brush.
Thus, the rationing of grapes of large varieties is simply necessary, otherwise the crop will remain unripe.
Different varieties give different number of clusters. Based on this, the bush is normalized. If, for example, a bush gives 2-3 brushes to escape, and this is subject to a powerful escape. Then either two brushes or 1.5 are left (the second one is pinned off to half). If the branches are weak, then leave either the floor of the brush, or delete them entirely.
It is possible to normalize both in the flowering phase and in the phase of the appearance of “peas”, that is, the first small green berries.
Thus, the following rules exist for rationing:
- The yield on one shoot should not exceed its capacity to provide this crop with proper nutrients.
- For large-fruited table varieties, giving a bunch weighing 800 g, one bunch is left to escape, and with a weight of up to 500 grams - no more than two.
- For technical, or wine varieties, as well as canteens with a mass of 200 grams. and less. Left on three or more bunches.
- Varieties with a bunch weight of 1.5 kg or more are recommended one by one cluster, and fruitless shoots should also be left.
Well, that would have been clearer - a small video on the issue of rationing brushes.
We treat wounds after spring grape pruning
The grapes were cut, and he began to "cry." What to do? Many solve this problem in a standard way - applying garden pitch. However, experienced winegrowers do not recommend this, as the var will not stick to the raw cut. As a result, the cut will rot and a fungus will settle on the grapes.
However, there are a number of methods that can stop the "crying".
- Burn the place cut by a flame lighter, so that the capillaries of the wood clogged. This is done only for thin branches.
- Putty cut using surikovoy paint, which is added linseed oil, chalk and boric acid. The mixture is smeared with a thick layer at the site of the cut.
- Use lacquer-balm Etisso "artificial bark".
- And another common method that is not always recommended to do. This is a tug of escape with aluminum wire. The danger is that the shoots above the waist may dry out.
To make the grapes easier to endure “weeping,” in the spring at the roots, the soil is loosened and mulched. When drying is done spring watering. Thus, all this will strengthen the root breath and provide sufficient moisture and nutrition to the plant.
Trimming scheme for beginners
Below are charts of common grape formation options. The first one shows a one-sided horizontal cordon on which 6 fruit units are located. This is after pruning.
The following diagram shows a four sleeve fan shape with four fruit links, also after pruning.
The following diagram shows what a classic fruit link looks like with a substitution bitch.
- The perennial part is the basis of the grape bush, where the fruit link is located.
- The replacement knot is a short-cut last year's sprout for 2-3 buds. It remains the following year to form a new fruit link.
- Fruit arrow - escape last year. It is the basis for fruiting in the current year. It leaves up to 15 buds.
- The peephole is a grape bud, which will sprout with the harvest of the following year.
The following scheme of the formation of a grape bush a little easier. Here everything is the same as in the upper case, only there is no substitute bitch.
In this variant, for the fruit arrow of the next year, the vine that went from the first bud of the fruit vine of the current year is taken.
This is a drawing before trimming. And so the bush looks after trimming.
Features of the structure and the names of the parts of the vine
The base of the trunk, which is underground, is called heel, roots grow from it.
Shtamb - part of the stem to the first lateral shoot, like all trees. In grapes, part of the trunk is located underground, ending in a heel.
Head - a thickening on the main stem, from which the side shoots depart.
Sleeves (shoulders) - These are lateral shoots extending from the main stem. And the eyes on them are the same buds.
There are terms that need to be remembered: the fruit arrow and the knot of substitution.
Fruit arrow - a long trimmed sleeve, on which 8-12 buds are left after trimming.
Replacement knot - short sleeve, after trimming, 2-4 eyes remain.
Fruit Link - a pair of shoots consisting of a knot replacement and a fruit arrow. All the names we have disassembled, we turn to the secrets of grape pruning.
Grape Bushes Formations
There are many options for the formation of the vine. Let us dwell on the simplest and most comprehensible form - let the shoots to grow, not vertically, but horizontally.
Grape formation in the first year
In the spring on the central shoot leave the 2 lowest buds, the rest is cut. Of them grow 2 escapes, and tie them obliquely in different directions.
Late in the fall, when all the leaves fall, you can’t do this before, otherwise the grapes will run out of juice, shortening the shoots. We leave one shoot short, leaving 2 buds, leaving the second shoot long, leaving 4 buds. For the winter, remove the vine from the trellis and cover it.
Grape formation for the second year
In the spring, after the threat of severe frost has passed (beginning of April), remove the shelter and tie the vine to the lower wire of the trellis, tops in different directions.
Stems growing from the buds are allowed to vertically up or with a slight slope away from the center of the bush.
In autumn, after the leaves fall, the long sleeve is cut leaving 2 shoots. Sleeves will be the same. Then cut the vertical stalks: those that are closer to the center and lower along the main stem, cut off leaving 2 buds. This will be the swirl of replacement.
Vertical stems located further, cut leaving 4 buds - it will be fruit arrows. Remove the vine and harbor in the winter.
The formation of grapes in the third year
In the spring, after passing the frost, remove the shelter from the vine. Long fruit arrows tie the trellis horizontally to the bottom wire, the tops in opposite directions.
Replacement knots leave to grow vertically. During the summer, stems will grow from all the buds. At the beginning of August, conduct minting - pruning of stems by 10-20 cm. Due to this, the quality and quantity of berries will increase.
Before August, do not carry out minting, otherwise the mass of processes will appear on the vine.
In the autumn, after foliage, trim the otplodonosivshie extreme 4 vertical shoots with part of the sleeve.
As a result, on each shoulder will remain one link with two vertical shoots. They should be pruned as in the second year. The shoot closest to the center is pruned, leaving 2 buds, the distant ones leaving 4 buds each.
All subsequent years of growth of the vine, pruning is carried out in the same way as in the third year.
Attention: for greater reliability and reserve, you can leave more buds on the shoots, but no more than 10 on each. This is done in case of frost damage.
For example, the optimal number is 3 buds on replacement knots and 6-7 buds on fruit arrows. In the spring, if all the kidneys have survived, the excess can be cut off.