In 1960, Canadian gardener Vazhek, while observing the apple trees, discovered on one Macintosh variety a branch that differs in structure from others by its unusual structure.
The gardener produced a stock taken by buds from this branch, to another variety of apple trees, this is how the first columnar apple came out. Further, the breeders, having taken this subspecies as a basis, began to develop new varieties of columnar crops. So the Moscow necklace variety turned out.
To find out the uniqueness of the plant and its distribution zone, you should familiarize yourself with the apple tree in more detail.
Colony-shaped apple tree The Moscow necklace is a winter variety of apple tree, which was bred by Russian breeders and agronomists. The author of the variety is Kachalkin. M.V.
Fruit culture was regionalized in different regions of Russia, however, it gained great popularity in the middle zone and in Siberian regions.
Important! The variety is quite frost resistant, with good immunity to various diseases.
Apple tree colony "Moscow necklace."
Apple is considered a semi-dwarf or dwarf fruit crop. Thanks to the compact size of the crown, it allows you to save enough space on the site.
The tree has the shape of a column, on which are located round and medium-sized fruits. In early ripening, apples have a green color with a red blush.
The root system of the plant is quite strong, which allows for tree transplantation.
Tip! Due to the color of the fruit, gardeners often confuse the Moscow necklace variety with the Vasyugan apple tree. To avoid this, each variety should be tagged when planted.
To find out the advantages and disadvantages of an apple tree, one should find out its additional characteristics.
The lifespan of a tree is not great. The maximum tree lives up to 25 years as an ornamental plant. Fruiting ends much earlier, at 15, after disembarkation.
How attractive is the columnar apple tree Moscow necklace: description, photo, reviews of gardeners:
Vyacheslav. Khabarovsk Territory: - “When choosing fruit crops in the market, I really liked an unusual type of apple seedling.
Let's say this I am quite an experienced gardener, I heard about a columnar variety, but I saw it for the first time. Having noticed my interest, the seller in every possible way began to praise this apple tree. As a result, I bought it, and did not regret it. The tree is quite compact, occupies a small space on the site.
The first apples received literally the next year. Now this is an adult tree with regular fruiting. Despite the simplicity in the care, the plant brings a high yield, tasty and large fruits. "
A columnar apple serves as a wonderful garden decoration.
Tatyana. Cheboksary: - “My mother is an agronomist by profession and loves to plant various ornamental plants. Colony-shaped apple The Moscow necklace appeared here 7 or 8 years ago.
Grade not only mom, but the whole family were satisfied. For us, of course, the taste qualities of apples are important. They are very juicy, fragrant, sweet and beautiful. For mum besides fruits, the apple tree was fallen in love in ease on leaving. "
Natalia. Lesosibirsk - “I heard about the columnar crops of apple trees for a long time, but because of the climate, I still did not dare to acquire them. On the advice of a friend, and I have a professional gardener, she still planted a variety of Moscow necklace. Over time, the apple tree fell in love as:
- Firstly, it is not necessary to wait long for the first fruiting, it comes 2 years after planting.
- Secondly, the variety with proper care does not freeze over in winter, which is so characteristic of our region. And thirdly, the fruits are tasty not only fresh for 3 months, but also in preparation in all kinds of canned food. "
Fruit culture blooms in the first year of life, which is not desirable on the advice of gardeners. To do this, it is recommended to plant an apple tree in the autumn.
The best timing is at the end of September - early October.
For planting Apple choose a well-lit area with loamy or sandy soil. Dig a hole so that the roots of the seedling are deep and free. Compost and humus are added to the excavated soil, mixed, and the resulting tree is poured into the prepared mixture.
Important! When planting, the place of the vaccination level is not buried, it should be above the ground.
Distance between apple trees
Moscow necklace is a compact plant that allows you to plant more number of fruit crops in one area. How to plant an apple tree Moscow necklace in large quantities? When planting several seedlings at the same time, take into account the distance of 40 - 50 cm.
The scheme of planting of columnar apple.
To seedling is well rooted, it is watered with warm water during the month after planting. In order to avoid frosting of the fruit crop during the winter period, in the fall the tree trunk is mulched with mineral fertilizers.
For high fruiting, the apple tree should be fed at all times. For different season make certain components:
- In the spring when loosening the pristvolny circle urea is introduced into the soil,
- In the summer they fertilize with wood ash, scattering it near the trunk,
- In the autumn dolomite flour is added to the soil.
Cropping and crown formation
The first pruning is carried out after planting an apple tree. In order to avoid frosting in winter, cut the top of the seedling, to the first strong escape.
Further pruning is carried out extremely rarely, removing the growth of fruit-bearing branches and weak shoots.
Grades of pollination are the columnar apple trees. The best varieties are Vasyugan and the President.
Features of ripening and fruiting
Although spring planting is not desirable for an apple tree, some gardeners still do it. If planting is carried out in the spring, the first crop is harvested in the same year.
After autumn planting, the first apples appear the next year. Every year the number of fruits increases, at year 7, the yield reaches a peak.
Attention! The first harvest is not more than 6 apples from one tree.
Apple tree The Moscow necklace blooms in the first year of life. The period of appearance of the first flowers is at the beginning of May.
Moscow necklace refers to winter varieties. Apples ripen quite late, in late September - early October.
The storage time for apples depends on the temperature and humidity of the room. With the help of the refrigerator, the fruits retain their consumer qualities until spring. In the cellar apples are stored no more than 3 months.
Subspecies and varieties of varieties, apple tree Moscow necklace has not much. New varieties are Moscow Necklace (X - 2) and Bush Scarce.
Subspecies and options
Moscow necklace (X - 2)
Average autumn ripening.
Tree 3 m tall, with a compact crown and dense foliage.
The variety is rather winter-hardy, tolerates a minus temperature of 40 degrees.
Fruit culture enters fruiting for 2 years of life. A distinctive feature is a very high yield.
At 6 years from the beginning of fruiting, fruits are harvested up to 18 kg. The fruits are large, weighing 250 - 300 grams. with very high taste.
From the abundance of fruits, the tree is prone to overload. In order to avoid injury to the apple, they are pruning the fruit branches and thinning the ovary. The variety will get acclimatized in central Russia.
By not kolovidnom mind include a new variety of apple - bush.
It is a rather small tree, up to 65 cm high. The branches rise from the ground and form a bush form. Foliage leathery, gray - green.
Fruiting apple comes in 3 - 4 years after planting. The variety is quite high-yielding; 18 kg of apples are removed from one bush.
Fruits are correctly rounded, weighing 100 grams. with white juicy pulp, sweet and sour taste. Ripening of apples falls on the beginning of September, storage of consumer qualities is up to 3 weeks.
Variety is valued by frost resistance, abundance of crop and resistance to scab.
Important! An apple tree grows rather in different regions of Russia, but for each region there are specific features of growing fruit crops.
Features of cultivation in the regions
Due to the high winter hardiness and ease of care, the Moscow necklace received a large Popularity in the suburbs.
The only feature of cultivating varieties in this region are as follows:
- In the summer, when there is a drought, they regularly water 2-3 times a week,
- In the fight against pests, the apple tree is treated with acaricides,
- To attract insect pollinators, during flowering the fruit crop is irrigated with sugar syrup,
- In the autumn, they are fed with mineral fertilizers.
In central Russia
Apple tree Moscow necklace can not only develop well in the middle lane, but also in quite northern regions.
The variety perfectly tolerates low temperatures in winter to 45 degrees. If, however, a slight frosting occurs, the tree is characterized by rapid recovery.
For higher yield in these areas, attention should be paid to the following:
- When planting, they carry out the first pruning,
- Although the variety is rather winter-hardy, they still insure an apple tree. In autumn, the tree trunk is mulched and the tree is covered with a special material.
There are no additional main features of cultivation in these regions.
Variety Moscow necklace.
See the video tips of agronomists, how to properly care and feeding:
Look at the video for information on the proper cultivation of columnar apple trees from experts:
See reviews of gardeners about apple-shaped apple trees:
Look at the video experience of gardeners, how to plant a columnar apple:
All of the above characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, varieties Moscow necklace, make the fruit culture the most popular among gardeners.
Due to its high resistance to frost and without losing its yield, the spread of the variety increases every year.
Observing all the tips of gardeners when growing a culture will be a healthy plant, and the fruits are large and tasty, even in the northern regions.
Kolonovidnye apple trees for the Moscow region: varieties, reviews
No matter what the area of the summer cottage or a country estate, a good owner is always a little space. After all, I want to plant both vegetables and fruits, decorate the site with flowers and bushes, break the gazebo and put a brazier, but also artificial reservoirs at the peak of popularity today!
It is not surprising that ordinary fruit trees often do not have enough space, because their crowns are spreading and can occupy several square meters of valuable space. The solution to this problem was the emergence of new varieties of garden trees - colonic plums, cherries, pears and apple trees. The main feature of the columnar apple trees is their compactness, so they quickly gained popularity among the summer residents of the Moscow region and other regions of Russia.
About varieties of columnar apple trees suitable for the climate of the Moscow region, will be discussed in this article. Here it will be told about the advantages of this type of trees, as well as about the features of their cultivation.
Features of the Apple Crusts
Kolonovidnye apple - low miniature trees that begin to bear fruit two years after planting. These apple trees are famous for high yields, and most importantly - they do not take up much space in the garden.
The branches of the columnar apple trees are directed upwards; they have a strong trunk and are literally covered with fruits. Externally, the structure of such a tree resembles a column, hence the name of the species.
Attention! Kolonovidnye trees appeared by chance, when one of the branches of the apple tree mutated, and the owner turned out to be a breeder and paid attention to it. From the buds of this nonstandard branch, columnar varieties were bred. It happened in the second half of the last century.
Gardeners love colony trees for characteristics such as:
- high yield,
- ease of planting and care,
- good survival rate of seedlings,
Of course, there is a columnar tree and its own characteristics, some flaws - this will be discussed below.
Colonic varieties for the Moscow region
The climate of the Moscow region is very ambiguous: there is a hot summer and a relatively cold winter. That is why not all varieties of fruit trees and other crops are suitable for cultivation in this region.
Kolonovidnye apples for the suburbs must have a number of characteristics in order to grow normally and bear fruit well in this climate zone. Among these factors:
Important! Not all columnar apple trees can boast a set of such characteristics. According to reviews of gardeners, Medoc, Vasyugan, Currency, Gene, President, Titania, Moscow Necklace, Bolero, Arbat and Maluha are recognized as the best varieties of apple-shaped apple trees for the Moscow region.
Apple tree classification
In modern breeding there are hundreds and thousands of varieties of apple trees, and they all differ in some way: yield, fruit quality, taste and color of apples, resistance and frost resistance of trees, ripening terms, and so on.
Perhaps the most important factor for gardeners is the ripening period of the fruit or the growing season - the time during which the flowers turn into ovaries and ripe fruits. Colony-shaped apple trees for the Moscow region, as well as other varieties, are divided according to this attribute into three large groups:
- Summer varieties of columnar apple trees, such as Medoc or President, ripen in the summer, that is, they have the earliest maturity. Usually the harvest from such apples is harvested in the first half of August. These fruits are tasty fresh, but not stored for long.
- Autumn varieties bear fruit in September, these include Gene, Titania and Vasyugan. These apples are good both in fresh form and in jams, compotes, they can be dried or dried. Mid-season crops are stored better than early ones, but fruits will not be left till spring.
- Winter varieties of columnar apple trees are distinguished by amazing keeping quality - their fruits can safely and safely reach until February and even until March. These columnar apples ripen in late autumn. They include the Moscow Necklace, Arbat and Bolero.
Tip! It is better to plant colon-shaped trees with different apple ripening periods on your plot, this will allow you to enjoy fresh juicy fruits all year round.
The best columnar apple trees for the Moscow region are united by one important quality - the ability to survive in a difficult and even harsh climate. Before you buy a seedling and focus on a particular variety, you need to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of each of them. A gardener must understand that any columnar apple has both strengths and weaknesses. All these qualities need to be weighed and compared with the conditions of a particular site.
Trees and fruits of each variety will be presented in the photo.
The variety is considered semi-dwarf, as its crown is quite massive and spreading. There are many kolchaks on the tree on which apples are tied and ripen. The yield of the Kolonovid variety Vasyugan is declared within six kilograms of wood, but this figure can be easily increased by providing the columnar Apple with sufficient care.
Vasyugan fruit already in the year of planting (if the tree was planted in the spring), but you should not immediately wait for huge harvests - for the first time it is just a few fruits. Since the third year of life, the apple tree fruits steadily.
Early varieties of columnar apple trees can also grow in the Moscow region, a great example is Medoc. The fruits of this columnar tree are sown in the first days of autumn.
Apple Tree Medoc is characterized by strong immunity, good frost resistance, compact size and high yield. The tree grows no more than two meters tall. Maintains decrease in temperature in the winter to -40 degrees.
Sharpness in a columnar variety is very good - in the first year after planting, it is quite possible to gather a full harvest. Productivity is excellent - about 6-9 kg from each miniature tree. But the fruits are stored poorly, not more than a month, so they need to be eaten or sold as quickly as possible.
Attention! Although the apple tree tolerates frost well, it is still better to rewind the trunk for the winter. This will save the wood from rodent attacks.
This apple tree is miniature and compact, frost-resistant and very prolific. The peculiarity of the columnar variety is the different sizes of its fruits: depending on the growing conditions, the tree can produce both large and medium or small fruits.
The resistance of apple trees to fungal infections is simply amazing: most gardeners can do even without prophylactic wood treatment. Ripening dates are late, apples can be stored for a long time (3-4 months).
With all the advantages, a columnar variety is very demanding on the composition of the soil. If the ground is not fed, the apple tree may not bloom in the spring or do not tie fruit. As a fertilizer, it is better to use balanced mineral complexes for apple trees. For good yields, the columnar tree is recommended to be planted in an open area that is well lit by the sun.
Another miniature columnar variety, reaching a maximum height of two meters. The main advantage of this variety is a very high yield. In the first year after planting, up to six kilograms of apples can be harvested; for the fourth season, the President will give about 20 kg per tree.
Еще одно достоинство – ежегодное обильное плодоношение. Этой яблоне не нужно «отдыхать», каждый год ее ствол и стебли покрываются огромным количеством плодов. The apples are large, their shape is slightly flattened, the color is pinkish.
Productivity, resistance to cold, disease and pests - these are the main advantages of the Moscow necklace. The tree is small (up to two meters), covered with foliage and apples - it looks very beautiful. Therefore, the variety is often used in landscape design, so the apple tree can not only feed the family, but also decorate the site.
The roots of the columnar variety are resilient and undemanding, so the apple tree takes root well. Fruits in large varieties - weighing about 250 grams, with a blush. The taste of apples is pleasant, dessert - sweetness with a slight sourness.
Harvest in mid-September, apples can be stored for several months, if they are placed in suitable conditions. The highest yields are observed in columnar trees planted in well-lit areas with loamy or sandy soil.
Tip! A Kolonovidny variety Moscow Necklace is recommended to be grown for commercial purposes, since apples of this type are in good demand among buyers.
The columnar tree of this variety is literally covered with large egg-yellow fruits. Apples weigh from 150 to 200 grams, have a good taste, often called dessert.
A gardener should know that Maluha is not as hardy as the other varieties listed here. Therefore, the tree in the Moscow region will have to cover with rags or other materials. The columnar tree may lose its original shape, so Maliukha needs to be regularly cut, forming its crown.
Apple tree prefers light, moisture-permeable soil, loves the sun and space. Maljukha does not tolerate the wind, therefore, secluded corners of the garden are preferred for planting.
Not all columnar apple trees are suitable for growing in the climate of the Moscow region, but there are several varieties that are well suited for such conditions. In order to grow and bear fruit in a difficult climate, a variety must possess a number of specific factors, including frost resistance, resistance to diseases, precociousness, and unpretentiousness. If a gardener from the Moscow region wants to plant a columnar tree in his garden, it is better to choose a variety from the list above.
Crusta apple varieties
The following varieties are best suited for planting in the Moscow region:
- Vasyugan is kolonovidny,
- Moscow necklace,
Each has its own advantages over the others. And they all get acclimatized on the soil within the Moscow region, as this climate is optimal for them.
The apple tree Vasyugan is columnar excellent for planting in cold regions. It perfectly withstands temperatures up to - 42 C in the winter - which is very important, because sometimes the frosts on the territory of the Moscow region are quite severe. At the same time, the tree produces rather large bright red fruits, the weight of which can reach 200 grams.
Vasyugan belongs to varieties of semi-dwarf apple trees and can reach a height of 3 meters.
The tree has an impressive size of the crown, on which there is a large number of kolchaks - it is on them that fruiting takes place. The one-time harvest is about 6 kilograms. The creation of any special favorable conditions can significantly increase this figure.
The tree begins to bear fruit in the first year, but the harvest in this case is small - it makes only a few apples.
The period of effective fruiting is 15 years. That is why it is necessary to update the garden every 10 years - so that a few years always remain in stock.
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Apple Tree Currency
Apple Tree Currency is also a columnar apple tree with a fairly high resistance to frost - even very strong. The trees themselves are represented by a compact, columnar shape. Fruits can be both large and medium size - it all depends on the conditions of ripening, which occurs closer to winter. An important feature of the fruits of the presented variety is that they are stored for a long time - 3-4 months subject to the conditions.
Apple Tree Currency requires planting in a moist, well dendritic soil, but does not tolerate close groundwater deposition.
The greatest advantage of this type of variety is its remarkable resistance to scab and other similar diseases, which negates the need to produce chemical treatment of the garden. At the same time, the currency is extremely demanding on the availability of special soil supplements. In their absence, the probability of fruiting is extremely low. Flowering with insufficient fertilizer may not occur at all. As a top dressing it is necessary to use specialized formulations. which are based on mineral and nitrogen fertilizers.
It is advisable to plant the seedlings of Apple Currency varieties in a well-lit, open area. You should not do planting in shaded areas of the garden, in this case, the probability of fruiting will be minimal.
Read the same: Video: how to properly care for raspberries
Variety Moscow necklace
The apple-tree Moscow necklace was made by breeding by MV Kachalkin. The original name of this variety - X2. Sometimes many gardeners to this day so called Moscow necklace. The tree itself has a rather small height - no more than 2 meters and according to the classification it is considered dwarf. The root system of the tree is extremely unpretentious and resilient, seedlings very quickly take root. Moscow necklace is extremely resistant to a variety of diseases.
You can speed up the fruiting of the Moscow necklace variety by planting on the most well-lit part of the soil.
Requires aeration as well as drainage. Excellent results in terms of the number of fruits give trees that are planted on loamy and sandy soil. Immediately after planting, trees must be tied up in order to avoid injury to the trunk. Apple harvest ripens relatively late - in mid-September and tastes similar to Melba apples. The shelf life of the harvested crop is long enough. Fruits can, under the conditions of storage, lie and not deteriorate for 3-4 months or even more.
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A distinctive feature of Maluha’s apple tree is the dessert taste of the fruit - they are distinguished by their excellent taste. That is why this variety is sometimes called dessert. The egg-yellow color and the unusual juiciness of the fruits, which also have quite large sizes, say about excellent taste, 150-250 grams.
In spite of the fact that Maluha is an excellent fruit when planted in areas of the Moscow region, it should be remembered that it does not have very high frost resistance, which requires additional labor for the gardener to cover her well from the cold with rags and other items. The variety is demanding of the soil - it must be well ventilated and humidified. Avoid planting this type of apple tree in places where strong winds blow, which will negatively affect the amount of the crop. Also, the apple tree must be constantly formed, otherwise it will lose its columnar shape, it will grow, and the fruits will become small.
The best 9 varieties of columnar apple for the Moscow region
Kolonovidnye apple for the Moscow region are particularly resistant to rapid temperature changes. The parameters of the bush allow you to place it in any territory. Small sizes do not affect the quantity and quality of fruits. The columnar type of apple is acclaimed all over the world due to its high yields and excellent taste.
The tree grows up to 5 m in height, and does not exceed half a meter in diameter. Feature - the absence of a massive crown. Branches do not grow in one direction, central shoots develop. Some varieties for the Moscow region bear fruit in the first year of life. Gradually, yield increases.
But after 15 years of productivity is reduced to zero. It is recommended to renew the garden every 10 years in order to provide you with fresh and healthy delicacies. By the criterion of parameters, there are several types of trees. Dwarf plants reach 2 m, semi-dwarf plants - 3 m, vigorous - above 3 m.
Each tree is propagated by rootstock. On the territory where there is one full-fledged apple tree, you can plant three or four columns. The narrowest crown is noted in Reneta Mazherov with a diameter of 40 cm.
Fruits strew the trunk, creating a unique composition. If the region is properly zoned, then the varied color of the fruit will fill it with bright shades of summer. The average price of a sapling is about 240 rubles. The cost varies depending on the type of hybrid.
In the first year of life, the tree will give 2-3 apples. Do not rush to sound the alarm. Genetic characteristics increase yields exponentially.
The variety belongs to the semi-dwarf species. Vasyugan maintains to -42 ° C in the winter without damage of external and internal parts. For Moscow region is quite a real indicator. At a time, you can collect about 6 kg of crop. Fruits of red color weighing up to 200 g have a pronounced taste with a slight sourness.
Feedback on this variety is positive. Gardeners insist that it is necessary to manually prune the branches, to form a crown. Frost resistance indicators are slightly lower than the previous relative. In winter, the tree should be wrapped with foil, and the soil around the leaves sprinkled with leaves.
The soil should have good absorption and ventilation. Fruits are dessert types for excellent taste. Under the yellow skin lies incredibly juicy flesh. Fruit weight reaches 250 g. A gardener does not like drafts.
Early autumn dwarf variety with good root system and excellent immunity. The apple tree is resistant to most common diseases. For the period of severe frosts recommended tying the trunk.
This procedure will protect the tree not only from low temperatures, but also from unwanted guests, such as mice. Up to 9 kg of apples can be harvested from one seedling. The fruits are consumed fresh and stored no more than 2 months. Gardeners assure that more apples and not linger. Their taste is so pleasant that loved ones and guests will not be able to resist.
The breeding of this species takes place by seedling rootstock. Dwarf autumn variety tolerates harsh winters. Bright red fruits ripen in early autumn, weighing up to 200 g. Sweet and sour flesh gives them a piquancy. In the right conditions, apples are stored until February. They are suitable for preservation, baking and consumption of fresh.
Parameters define this variety to vigorous types. It is also resistant to scab, powdery mildew, and several other fungal diseases. Compared with the above species, the fruit is slightly smaller. Their weight reaches 110 grams, but the wonderful wine taste and aroma completely covers these disadvantages. The flesh is thick, crunchy, so apples are good for preservation. The tree gives a harvest in September.
Growing this apple is a pleasure. It is unpretentious in care, resistant to disease and gives excellent yield in qualitative and quantitative terms. The tree does not like excessive moisture. Before disembarking, make sure that the groundwater flows at a depth of at least 6–7 m. The winter variety ripens in October, so that until spring there will be fresh goodies on your table.
It does not require additional processing, which significantly reduces the cost of purchasing drugs. The fruits are juicy, sweet-sour, and the skin has a pleasant golden hue. It is necessary to make ground nitrogen and mineral supplements, especially a few weeks before flowering. Fruiting increases with sufficient light.
Plant and grow a variety is easy. Preparation of planting pits is better to do in the fall, but the landing itself is carried out in the spring. You will need a hole about 50 centimeters deep, since the root system of the columnar trees does not go deep into the ground. The width of the pit should also be about 50 centimeters, but it varies from the span of the roots of the seedling. The distance between the trees should be about 50-60 centimeters, and between rows about 1 meter. This distance is quite enough for the roots of neighboring trees not to interfere with each other's growth.
In the aisle near the apple trees you can plant other crops, such as cereals.
In the spring, on the eve of planting, you will need annual saplings of apple trees, the roots of which must be carefully straightened. Cover the bottom of the pit with a mixture of rubble and sand approximately 25 centimeters. Mix the soil with superphosphate (80 grams), humus (4 kilograms) and potassium sulfate (40 grams), also pour into a hole.
Form a small hillock in the pit, hammer a support peg into it. Then place the seedling in the center of the mound, tie it to a stick and proceed to fill the pit with earth. Tamp the soil from time to time. Fill the pit to half, pour half a bucket of water into it, then fill it to the brim. Always fill in a little more ground to make a reserve in case of subsidence. Water the seedling again, but this time take 2 buckets of water. Tie the seedling again to the support peg.
Peculiarities of care
The grade does not demand specific leaving. It is important to monitor watering, especially in the early years of growth of the tree, to fertilize in a timely manner, and also not to forget about preventive treatments with fungicides and insecticides. Despite disease resistance, one can never be careless.
Fertilizer is better to be applied dry on the surface of the circle of the trunk or slightly dredging into the ground.
In the first year of cultivation using nitroammofosku in the amount of 50 grams per tree. After 4 weeks feeding is repeated. At this time, you can use a solution of urea (2 tablespoons of urea per 10 liters of water). The third additional feeding occurs after 4 weeks of nitroammofoskoy or urea. Top dressing is combined with irrigation and subsequent mulching of the stem around the trunk so that moisture and nutrients are kept longer in the soil.
The variety requires moderate watering. On light soils, trees are watered 2 times a week, but for different regions the irrigation schedule is different. The soil should be wet at a depth of 4-5 centimeters. So check the rainbow circle for moisture and you can build your own watering schedule.
In spring and autumn, it is necessary to treat trees with fungicides and insecticides of complex action in order to maintain a high plant immunity. For the winter, it is recommended to wrap tree trunks with a chain-net to protect them from mice and hares.
Video "About the columnar apple"
Kolonovidnye apple trees are not often found on the backyards, many simply do not know what to do with them. How to care for a tree-column, will tell this video.
The first columnar apple appeared in Canada after an unusual branch was seen on one of the mac varieties of apple trees: very thick with a complete lack of lateral shoots. The apples hung in large numbers on the underdeveloped shoots. It was she who was used to produce the variety “vazhak”, which became the ancestor of all columnar apple trees in different countries. In Russia, such an apple tree appeared in 1972, when Professor V. V. Kichin, using pollen "vazhak", crossed with an apple-tree variety "brown striped".
Colony-shaped apple "fry": description of the variety
The apple "Maliukha" refers to dwarfs, its height does not exceed 180 centimeters. It successfully combines ornamental and fruit tree. This variety is preferable to grow in the Urals and in central Russia. Due to the small growth and elegant appearance, these apples are used in landscape design. The trunk of the tree of the columnar apple "little one" is an elegant and miniature column with a neat and compact crown. Fruits are evenly distributed over the entire height of the trunk.
Terms of ripening
The crown-like apple of the "little one" refers to late-ripening varieties by maturity, fruiting begins in early September. The cultivar "Maluha" is considered skoroplodny - in the first year it is already possible to harvest, which will be only a few apples. Some experts believe that in the first flowering flowers should be cut off, to give the tree a chance to take root and settle down. The first full-fledged apple harvest will take place no earlier than four years, and after five years, with proper full-fledged care, the harvest from a single tree of the columnar apple of the "little one" can reach 12-15 pounds. The life span of an apple tree in this variety is about 10 years.
Apples are yellow-green with a coral blush, fruit is slightly elongated. “Maliukha” apples belong to table dessert varieties. The weight of one apple can reach 250 grams. With the wrong care, not only the size of the apples is reduced, but also the harvest.
The flesh is a pale yellow color, sweet-sour taste with a high content of juice, it is easily broken. They have a delicate flavor and have the aroma of honey and cinnamon. By organoleptic indicators, “fry” apples are considered among the most delicious varieties.
Like many fruit crops, columnar apple cultivars of the “little one” have their advantages:
- The small height of the tree facilitates the care of the crop and the harvest.
- Благодаря их миниатюрному размеру возможна более уплотненная посадка деревьев.
- Яблоки крепко держатся на ветках и не опадают.
- Как видно из представленных в этой статье фото, колоновидная яблоня «малюха» имеет красивый декоративный вид, что позволяет использовать их для дизайна участка.
- При выборе сорта «малюха» для посадки в регионах с более холодным климатом большое значение имеет ее зимостойкость.
- Another advantage is the varietal variability, a small crop can be harvested in the first year after planting.
- The apple tree of the “little one” variety has rather large fruits.
- Apples with proper storage can not lose their commodity quality until January.
- The variety has a strong immunity to scab and some other diseases.
Acquired apple seedlings should be held in water for 24 hours to compensate for lost moisture. You can plant the seedlings of the “fry” apple tree in spring in April or in autumn in September-October. To begin with, before landing, you should choose a place that meets these requirements:
- Planted apple trees in open sunny places, plants are very sensitive to light. With a lack of lighting, the yield is reduced.
- Plants must be protected from drafts.
- Groundwater should not be located close to the ground.
- It is advisable to plant seedlings of the columnar apple "fry" in a warm garden bed.
- Land should be fertile with good drainage.
After selecting a place, a landing pit is prepared; it is advisable to dig it up a couple of weeks before the intended landing. The width of the hole should not be less than 50 centimeters, and the depth should be chosen taking into account the length of the roots. Typically, apple trees of this type are planted in rows, the distance between them should be left about 1 meter 30 centimeters, and the distance between the trees - 70 centimeters.
When planting, it is recommended to make a warm garden bed in order to create more comfortable conditions for the growth of the columnar apple "little one". According to the description, the bed is made like this: a well of the required depth is prepared, ordinary plastic bottles are placed on its bottom, and compost is poured on top. The next layer is laid various plant residues, then sawdust and poured a layer of earth. In the thus prepared "pillow" and planted apple tree "baby". One more rule should be observed during planting: the root neck cannot be covered with earth. After the seedlings are planted, they should be well shed with water and mixed. It is advisable to put a support for the plant and tie it up to protect the seedling from the weather and wind.
Special care for apples of this variety is not required, it consists of the following activities:
- timely watering,
- weed removal, loosening,
- top dressing
- protection from various diseases and pests,
Despite the fact that this variety is frost-resistant, it should be warmed for the winter.
Kolonovidnye apple "baby" is very sensitive to watering, especially in the first year. It is necessary to ensure that the soil always remains wet at a depth of 5 centimeters. If there is a sunny dry weather, watering is done at least 2 times a week.
First of all it is necessary to remember that the dressing is never applied to dry soil, it is first necessary to water the plants. In the first year, a nitroammofosk in the amount of 50 grams per plant is applied as a fertilizer. A month later, the seedling is fed with a solution of urea (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). In the third dressing - in a month - use urea or nitroammofosku in the same proportions.
Apple trees of this variety are quite resistant to various diseases and pests. But nevertheless in the spring it is necessary to carry out preventive measures with fungicides and special preparations for pest control. Near the trunk of the apple will not be superfluous to pour "Thunder" to protect against ants. If there are no ants on the seedlings, then the aphid will not appear. In order to prevent the rodents from damaging the trunk in winter, it is wrapped in roofing material and mesh with a rabbit.
You need to know that if you do not pruning of columnar apple trees, they lose their shape and quickly grow old. Pruning is carried out in the second year after planting, the lateral horizontal branches are removed. The highest and strongest escape do not touch. Circumcision of the branches is carried out according to the following scheme:
- 2nd year of life - side branches are removed to the second buds, in summer new shoots will form from them.
- 3rd year - annual shoots start to bear fruit, prune all young shoots.
- 4th year - the branches bearing fruit last year are removed, with the rest of the shoots they work anew in the same way.
Colony apple "baby": reviews
Gardeners who have “Malukha” apple trees on their plots note the high yield of the variety, excellent taste qualities of apples, and long shelf life. The variety is especially popular with owners of small plots, because in a small area you can plant more of these plants and achieve high yields. Use columnar apple for design.
"Maluha" is a variety of a columnar apple, grows to 180, rarely up to 200 cm.
It is a real find for gardeners of central Russia. Its advantages are undeniable:
- The height is very convenient for picking fruit,
- The shape of the tree is such that it takes up very little space, and in a small area you can plant a small garden of several fruit trees,
- It has a very decorative appearance, which allows it not only to supply the fruits of its owners, but also to decorate the site,
- Thanks to the shape harvesting occurs to the last fruit, the apples do not fall off,
- Winter-hardy, which is very valuable for areas with a cool climate,
- Gives a harvest of full-fledged, large fruits.
it just a few benefits, which has “Maluha” in front of some ordinary varieties, although planting and care have some differences.
Inferior the same columnar apple tree is common in only one - on an ordinary apple tree, because of its size, there are more fruits.
However, from the columnar apple you can harvest 13-15 kg.
First harvest it will be possible to collect as early as 2 years after the tree has been planted.
In the first year one should not expect rapid fruiting, but from 5 years old "Maluha" will come into full force and will bear fruit annually.
Apples have a yellowish-green color, with a barely noticeable blush.
With proper care reach a mass of 250 g. If you make mistakes in the care, the fruits can become shallow.
The flesh of the apple is white, with a creamy tinge.
The taste is rich, sweet and sour, fruits juicy, starchy weak. Bite off when biting.
Apples have a pronounced aroma, are evenly distributed throughout the trunk.
September fruits ripenbut they have such high keeping quality that they can maintain their qualities until January.
Fruiting colony apple Maluha.
Pollinators can serve varieties such as "Currency", "Chinese", "Chervonets".
Variety has not only high frost resistance, but also good resistance to many fungal diseases.
And this means that there is no need to apply therapeutic chemicals to this apple.
Plant a columnar apple can be in spring (April) or autumn (September-October).
Before embarking, it is necessary to determine the location landing.
It should be remembered that the place should be:
- Protected from drafts,
- Need to choose the sunniest place, otherwise the yield will be reduced,
- For planting it is better to use a “warm” bed, if possible,
- The tree does not tolerate nearby groundwater, so it should not be planted in a hollow,
- The soil must be fertile and have high drainage properties.
After the place is found, start digging a landing pit. It should be prepared 2 weeks before planting.
Width planting pit should be 50 cm. In depth of the pit dig, depending on how long the roots of the seedling.
As a rule, the columnar apple trees are planted in a row, therefore a distance of 70 cm is expected between them. If several rows are planted, then a distance of at least 130 cm should be maintained between the rows.
In order to create more comfortable conditions for the tree, they arrange a “warm” garden bed.
It is done like this:
- A hole is dug at a suitable depth,
- At the bottom of which are placed plastic bottles,
- Compost is laid over them
- Then the plant remains of grass and weeds, grass and leaves are laid, and then sawdust and a layer of earth,
- In this "pillow" and planted "Maluha".
After the tree has been planted, it is well watered and mulched.
Special care grade "Maluha" will not require.
But, you can not neglect the carewhich is necessary for any plant:
- Timely watering,
- Top dressing
- Weeding and loosening,
- Protection against pests and diseases
In the first year of landingwhen the roots have not grown enough yet, it is necessary to pay special attention to watering.
Different weather conditions dictate their watering regime, but in order for the tree to feel comfortable, care must be taken that the soil at a depth of 4-5 cm was wet.
In normal weather, watering is necessary 2 times per week.
In the 1st year after planting, add 50 g of nitroammophoska to 1 seedling.
Re-feed possible in a month. In this case, carbamide can be added (2 tablespoons of carbamide per 1 bucket of water).
Third dressing passes a month later. At this time, you can make either carbamide or nitroammofosku.
Protection against pests and diseases
Maluha is a resistant to disease, however, it will not be superfluous to make the treatment of seedlings with fungicides and preparations against pests in the spring.
Pristvolny circle can be filled up with the drug "Thunder" - against ants. There will be no ants, the aphids will not settle on the leaves.
In order to prevent the rodents from damaging the tree in winter, the stem is wrapped in a net with a rabbit.
Like all the fruit trees "Malukha" pruning required. To form a crown, to remove the extra branches that grow horizontally, you can already from the 2nd year after landing.
The topmost shoot - strong and vertical, not cut, it can only be tied up. It happens that columnar trees form as a result of conducting three conductors (in the form of a chandelier). In such a situation, it is these conductors that are left, and the rest are removed.
It is more convenient to cut the "Maluha", adhering to the following scheme:
- 2nd year of life - side branches cut to 2 buds. Of them over the summer will develop young shoots
- 3rd year - one-year shoots bear fruit, young shoots are pruned for 2 buds,
- 4th year - Those last year's branches, which are fruitful - removed, with the rest of the shoots come under the scheme again.
With this scheme, a shtamb is obtained, which does not grow quickly, but annual fruit bearing is ensured.
Many gardeners have long had this wonderful variety on their plots. How is the apple tree grown Kolonovnaya Maluha variety description, photos, reviews of gardeners.
They should listen:
Watch the video from the experts how to plant the apple-shaped apple trees:
Look at the video of the gardener's experience of growing columnar apple trees:
Watch the video on how care and feeding should be done:
See the video tips gardeners on how to be made spring feeding of columnar apple trees: