There is not a single gardener who can bypass this tree. Plum has never been wild, it appeared as a hybrid of thorns and cherry plums. There are many varieties of this tree, which display breeders. Many of them are hardy and quickly produce crops. One of these types is considered to be "Zarechnaya early."
Early Zarechnaya Plum: variety description
This variety appeared as a result of combining "Eurasia 21" with the "Volga Belle" and "red dessert". In 1988, the variety was entered in the state register. To date, only 230 varieties of plum trees have been registered in the registry.
Plum "Zarechnaya early" is considered an early ripe grade. Large blue fruits ripen in mid-July.
Characteristics of plum in this class:
- The tree has medium height and spherical crown, not very thick. The color of the shoots is dark brown. The height of the "Zarechnaya early" plum is up to 3 meters.
- The leaf is large, oval-shaped, saturated green color, flat.
- White flowers are medium in size, stamens short, pistil long.
- Fruits are large dark purple with a waxed surface and a deep seam.
- The flesh of the fruit is amber, sweet to the taste, with a slight sourness.
- Fruits appear for 3-4 years, the yield level is high - 15 kg per tree. Every year yields increase. Fruits are used for harvesting.
These are the main qualities and the description of a variety of the "over-early early plum".
The advantages of the variety
The advantages of plum "over the river early":
- brings large fruits weighing 50-60 grams
- winter hardiness for Moscow region and central Russia is excellent both in wood and in buds,
- fruits are evenly distributed on the tree,
- disease resistance
- fruits have excellent sweet and sour taste,
- plum perfectly goes to the workpiece, because the stone is easily separated.
Harvested fruits are well transported, have high keeping quality, if removed 5-6 days before the expected period of ripening.
Plum - unpretentious tree. But still, experts advise planting a tree in the region of its zoning. This will allow to collect good yields in the near future.
Plum "Zarechnaya early" prefers sunny spacious places. If there is even a slight shade, the fruits begin to shrink, and the leaves turn yellow. It is better if the plot for planting is slightly elevated. It is very important to choose a place, given these nuances.
Plum does not tolerate windy places. A strong whiff can blow off the flowers, and the crop will decrease significantly.
It is best to plant a plum next to the fence or wall of the home. Lowlands are not suitable for her landing, there it will be cold and uncomfortable.
Sandy and light loamy are considered the most suitable soils. The groundwater level should be monitored; it should not be less than two meters from the surface. If this condition is not satisfied in a natural way, it is possible to build grooves so that the water flows along them. If the gardener knows that clay or sand is in the depth of the soil, such a place will not fit the discharge. Wetland plum also does not like.
Plum - tree srednerosloy when planting between seedlings is important to maintain a distance of 4 meters.
Plant can be in the fall and spring. The pit is prepared for 2-3 weeks, so that fertilizers can be absorbed into the soil. A hole is dug 60 cm deep and with the same diameter. First, the number is driven in 15 centimeters from the seedling.
What to consider when landing:
- soil is poured into the pit without any fertilizer
- root neck at least 2-5 cm from the upper border,
- around the tree lay a trench for watering.
After planting, the seedling is well watered. For each tree you need at least three buckets of water, this is the optimal size of moisture.
Within two weeks, the drain is no longer watered, and then watering is repeated. If the planting was done in spring, and the soil is heavily moistened, watering can be slightly reduced in volume. Water for irrigation should be heated in the sun or in another way. Watering the plum with cold water is not allowed, it can lead to diseases of the root system.
To achieve high-quality fruiting, it is necessary not to start the growth of shoots. At plum it grows rapidly. All the shoots pulled out. Cutting it is useless, because the new will grow just as quickly. Growth growth is a feature of all stone trees. Pulling out or uprooting can help, if the tree is already fixed. Otherwise, the site risks turning into impassable jungle.
The tree must be regularly cut, otherwise it will thicken very much, lose its shape and will be suppressed by its own branches. Increased branching adversely affects any fruit tree. Plum need to remove branches that grew from the lateral buds. The remaining branches are pruned, forming the necessary appearance. Removal is done several times a month. Be sure to remove the diseased and dry branches.
After landing on the right place, the tree must be inspected every year. It is important to monitor the central conductor during the formation of the crown. It should not displace lateral shoots. If they overtake the leader, they need to be cut. Plum regularly requires pruning and thinning, so that it does not turn into an overgrown tree or a shrub, resembling a broom.
It is important not to allow the crown to thicken; all internal branches are cut out for this. Experts say that inside the crown should be such a distance that the birds flew. In this case, and caterpillars will be much smaller. Agronomers recommend thinning the branches in the harvest year.
To preserve the integrity of branches with fruits, they make supports for branches with an obligatory substrate made of rubber or rags, so that there is no friction of the bark.
Gardeners find it easier to care for small trees, as opposed to tall ones. And the yield of compact plums is higher, and the frosts are better tolerated.
After planting, the tree is not fed for several years. Only regular watering is needed, at least once every 7-10 days.
After two years, fertilizers are applied:
- in May, urea,
- in June nitrophoska,
- in August superphosphate.
Diseases and pests
The early river ’plum is quite resistant to diseases, and pests rarely visit it. But to strive to prevent the emergence of diseases and pests is still worth it.
What is sick plum? The most common diseases are:
- Bushiness - the appearance of thin colorless shoots.
- Klesterosporiosis is a fungal infection, manifested by the appearance of small specks.
- Moniliasis is a fungal disease, also called fruit rot.
- Gommoz - the appearance of gum on the tree.
- Coccomycosis is a fungal disease expressed in red spots on the leaves.
- Scab - brown spots on the leaves and fruits.
- Rust - angular rusty specks on the leaves.
To prevent the development of diseases, you need:
- periodically inspect the tree for diseases,
- time to clean and burn the leaves,
- remove weeds in the stalk circle area,
- plum spring sprinkle Bordeaux liquid.
Plums are affected by such pests:
- fruit mite is a brown microorganism 0.5 mm in size,
- the hawthorn is a light butterfly, reaching 7 cm in size,
- Aphid - the most frequent pest, small insect,
- plum moth - butterfly, striking the fruit,
- ringed silkworm - butterfly covered with hairs.
To prevent the occurrence of pests, you need:
- remove weeds and foliage from the soil,
- dig up the soil in the fall
- lime barrel,
- spray plums in the spring with special formulations.
These simple measures will help protect the trees from parasites and get a good harvest.
Early Zarechnaya plum: pollinators
Some gardeners are faced with the fact that the plum does not produce a crop. This means that the tree is self-fruitless and needs pollinators. The "Zarechnaya early" plum is self-productive. However, even in the most fruitful trees, fertility increases with the appearance of a pollinator. If the neighbors do not have plums (other varieties), you should purchase trees as quickly as possible.
Pollinators for translucent plum are varieties: "etude", "Tambovskaya beauty". For successful tying, experts also advise planting plum next to plum.
How to choose a plum for planting
There are basic selection rules to follow:
- Should be selected zoned varieties. These are varieties listed in the state register and recommended for a particular locality.
- Do not forget about self-fertility. This is a quality that characterizes the independence of the tree from the weather and the high level of harvest in any conditions. Plum refers to cross-pollinated crops. Therefore, it is very important that pollen from other trees get on the pistils. In this case, the set will be good. But if it is difficult to provide these conditions at one site, one can prefer self-fertile plum varieties.
- Earliness is one of the most important indicators. In central Russia, summer is quickly ending, so varieties with a long growing season will not work. For early ripening varieties is "early river one". She manages to ripen in a short summer and bring a lot of fruit.
Tips from experienced gardeners for growing plums
To ensure the survival of the plum, you need to choose the best seedlings. They must have fresh roots, there should be no damage to the bark, the trunk without damage.
When planting, it is better if several varieties grow on the same plot, this will allow cross-pollination to increase yields.
Regular pruning will help increase yields and form a beautiful tree crown.
Plum likes regular watering, the lack of moisture is dangerous, as well as its excessive amount. Soil moisture can be checked by digging up soil near the plum. The soil should be wet for at least 40 cm. If it is less, plum needs to be watered.
Reviews on the variety of plum "over the river early" are the most positive. Gardeners note winter hardiness, early ripeness of the variety, excellent fecundity, excellent taste and quality of the harvest. Fruits are well suited for all types of canning. And care for the trees of this variety is not at all complicated. These qualities, along with the absence of minuses, put the variety in the category of more and more sought-after over time.
Description varieties with photos
Compact trees of medium height. The branches form a neat crown, not large in size with medium thickening. The leaves are rounded oval, spherical, rather large. The edge of the sheet plate is smooth, the surface is green and dark. The number of leaves on the branches is moderate. The color of young shoots is brown, curved shape.
The size of flowers is average, pure white during flowering, in the bud phase white with a greenish tinge. For fruits, a large size is common, the weight of fruits fluctuates. Small berries weigh about thirty grams, large can pull sixty. Fruits are oval, rounded. The skin is easily removed, the color is dark purple, there is a characteristic patina. The seam on the fetus is noticeable. The bones are medium, easy to remove.
The quality of the berries is determined by the pulp, its properties:
- The tenderness of the fibers
- Sweet taste and the presence of a little sour.
- Tasters gave a grade of 4.5 for taste.
Fruits are distributed over the crown evenly, the branches are not overloaded with excess weight, nutrition to the fruits arrives in a timely manner, plums do not shrink. Zarechnaya early can be used for home consumption and industrial processing. Transported well.
Zarechnaya early begins to bear fruit. One-year saplings bear fruit for the third summer after planting. Fruits every summer. Fruits ripen amicably. The collection is carried out in the third decade of July. Average yields.
The overall winter hardiness is average. Wood and flower buds are highly appreciated. Variety immunity to major pathogens and pests is good. Flowers on the tree are only for women. Recommend to land for pollination:
- Renklod Tambovsky.
- Volga beauty.
Features of growing and care
Good growth and fruiting plum will ensure the correct placement of it in the garden, if you plant in the shade the fruit will be small leaves faded. The best place is solar at a sufficient distance from other trees.
The wind harms the plant, blows flowers, reduces yield. The best place for landing choose near the fences. Lowlands plums contraindicated, there is going to fog and damp.
Sandy and light loamy soil is best suited plum. Groundwater should not be closer to ground level than two meters.
Planting pit located at 4 meters away from buildings and other trees in the garden. Seedlings can be planted both in spring and autumn. Pit for seedlings to dig in advance. Better two weeks before planting. During this time, mineral and organic fertilizers will disperse in the soil.
Pit dig 0.6 by 0.6 meters. Stake to support the seedling to drive into the center. Put the seedling at a short distance from the support, spread the roots, cover it with fertile garden soil without fertilizers. Tamp the ground slightly, the distance from the ground to the root collar is 5 centimeters. Circle pristvolny limit small roller out of the ground. Water during irrigation will not spread. Finish landing by watering. Three buckets are enough. After 10 days, the seedling is watered again.
For plum characteristic root growth, it must be regularly removed. It is necessary to cut dry branches and shoots directed to the center of the crown, as well as branches that thicken it too much. Thinning is best done in fruitful years.
With abundant fruiting, the branches can break off from the abundance of fruits. Installing supports solves this problem. From the third year of life, plum needs mineral supplements. Fertilizer application:
- In May, 60 g of urea per bucket of water,
- In June, 90 g of nitrophoska on a bucket of water,
- In August, 60 g of superphosphate per bucket of water.
Throughout the life of the plum, you need to deal with the formation of its crown. More often it all comes down to the removal of dry and damaged branches. It is also necessary to remove the branches thickening the crown. These works should be carried out in early spring or late autumn.
For the Zarechnaya Early plum, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments of the crown and stem, this reduces the likelihood of becoming sick with moniliosis, coccomycosis, rust, scab. Enough for this:
- Inspect trees for signs of infection,
- Clean up fallen leaves
- Remove weeds,
- Whitewashing the trunk and thick branches,
- In early spring, use Bordeaux liquid for spraying.
Drain Zarechnaya Early, should be planted in their gardens, it is unpretentious, cold-resistant, easy to take care of.
We live in the Moscow region managed to grow up early Zarechnaya plum. Pleases early fruits, eat from the end of July.
Gathered the first harvest from the plum Zarechnaya early. There was no such early harvest in other varieties. Large fruits weighed weight 40 grams. The taste is wonderful. Fruits without pollinators.
History of breeding and description of the variety
The Zarechnaya plum of early fruiting was obtained by crossing three varieties: Volga Beauty, Red Dessert, and Eurasia 21. A new variety was bred by the All-Russian Research Institute for Breeding and Genetics of Fruit Trees named after them. Michurin. Authors are L. Kursakov and G. A. Kursakov.
He went to test the variety in 1985, entered in the state register in 1988. Designed to grow in the Central Black Earth region.
Plum belongs to the dining-technical areas. The description of this variety includes the following points:
- good crop transportability,
- high precocity. Fruiting young sapling starts in 3-4 years,
- self-infertility. For the formation of the crop tree needs pollinators. The role of pollinators is perfectly handled by Etude, Renklod Tambov or Volga beauty,
- high yield
- the fruits ripen almost simultaneously
- annual fruiting
- excellent cold resistance. Especially this parameter is high in flower buds and bark.
In addition, the tree has a relatively high immunity to the vast majority of ailments.
Characteristics of the tree and fruit
Plums of this variety are medium grown trees with a medium thick compact crown. The shape of the crown can be both spherical and oval.
Shoots slightly curved, rich brown. Short and medium-thick internodes. The formation of numerous lentils, which are clearly visible, as painted in gray, is characteristic. Buds are small, not pressed to escape. Their shape is cone-shaped, and the tip is pointed.
The leaves are quite large. Their plate is colored dark green. The shape of the leaves is oval, the edges are smooth. They are characterized by crenate serrations. The sheet itself is smooth, but leathery to the touch. Reminds a slightly concave boat.
The flowering of this variety is characterized by flowering of medium-sized flowers. Petals are painted white, but at the bud stage their color is green. They are rounded and touch each other. The stamens are short, and the pistil itself is long, about 2 times longer than the stamen. The color of the cup is dull green, it has the shape of a bell. In this case, the sepals have a slight serration.
Zarechnaya forms large fruits. Their maximum weight is 60 g. Round-oval cream. They have a clearly visible deep funnel, as well as a depressed tip. The peel has a low density. But this is enough so that the crop does not lose its presentation in the process of transportation.
The color of the peel is deep purple. It is covered with a waxy coating. На кожице имеются многочисленные выраженные подкожные точки. Шкурка от мякоти отделяется очень хорошо.
The flesh has a beautiful amber color. It is dense and juicy. The flesh is delicate and sweetish with a slightly perceptible sour taste. The taste of Zarechnoy resembles a cross between a red and a yellow plum. According to expert assessment of taste, this variety earned 4.5 points. For a more pronounced taste, it is recommended to harvest the crop about 5–6 days before the onset of the period of removable ripeness.
The stone is small, has the shape of an oval. From the pulp it separates very well. It has a sharp seam on the back. At the same time, the seam on the "abdomen" is wide and characterized by noticeable ribs.
The fruits have the following composition:
- sugar - 7.85%,
- 100 g of product P-active substances - 200 mg,
- substances (dry) - 16,84%,
- Vitamin C - 13.5 mg / 100 g,
- acid - 1.56%.
Plums are formed evenly throughout the tree. Therefore, the plant is not overloaded with an abundance of harvest. Thanks to this feature, the tree does not need additional props. At the same time, it is noted that over time, the plums do not become smaller.
Advantages and disadvantages
Plum varieties Zarechnaya early contains in its description a lot of positive moments. The advantages include:
- abundant fruiting, which has no ups and downs. With proper care, trees each year produce a bountiful harvest,
- excellent appearance of the fruit,
- good taste plums.
The advantages also include the possibility of planting seedlings in regions where the temperature in winter can drop dramatically. Plants can be planted in areas of central Russia, as well as in the suburbs. Moreover, the buds and wood have a very high resistance to severe frosts.
Fruits often go to the preparation of canned food (jam, jams, compotes). Also, plums have good keeping quality.
This species has no significant drawbacks.
Plum variety Zarechnaya early is a variety that is beneficial in terms of breeding, which has many positive points of cultivation and does not have pronounced drawbacks.
The history of the variety
The early Zarechnaya plum appeared in the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants. I. V. Michurin thanks to the scientist G. A. Kursakov. She has three parental varieties:
- Eurasia 21 is a complex interspecific hybrid of domestic breeding with high winter-resistance. In the formation of its genotype was attended by 6 types of plums.
- Volga beauty - derived in 1939, plum, characterized by high commercial quality of products.
- Red dessert - about the third "parent" there is no information in the sources.
In 1988, the variety was registered in the register of selection achievements of the Russian Federation and zoned for the Central Black Earth region. It successfully grows in mid-latitudes.
Description and characteristics of the plum Zarechnaya early
Trees are medium tall - this property is a big advantage for gardeners.. Crohn has the shape of a ball or oval, compact, not prone to thickening, with a moderate amount of leaves. Dark brown shoots are somewhat curved. The length of the internodes is small, their thickness is average.
Plum tree Zarechnaya early srednerosloye, has sparse rounded crown
The fruits have an attractive appearance. They are rather large, their average weight is 40 grams, they can reach 50-60 grams. The shape is rounded oval. The top of the fruit is depressed, the abdominal suture is pronounced. Dark purple plums with a thick wax coating. Under the medium dense skin there are multiple clearly visible subcutaneous points. The small oval bone separates well from the pulp. Transportability is good, subject to timely harvest.
Dark purple fruits of the plum Zarechnaya early rather large (from 40 to 60 grams), with thick wax coating
Tasters rated the taste of the fruit at 4.5 points. Juicy amber pulp has a dense and delicate texture at the same time. The taste is sour-sweet, pears contain 7.85% sugars, their acidity is 1.56%. The direction of use is universal.
Amber flesh of plum Zarechnaya early delicate texture, very juicy
The variety is very early, the fruits ripen in late July. Return of the harvest is friendly. Fruiting annually, begins at 3-4 years after planting. The variety is self-infertile.
The yield is above average, its specific level is not specified in the official description of the variety. According to some sources, young trees give 15 kg of fruit. In other sources there is information about the yield of 65–90 kg per adult tree.
Winter hardiness exceeds the average level. There is no information on drought tolerance. Diseases increased immunity.
The advantages of the variety are medium growth, excellent quality of commercial products, early ripening, increased yields, a rather high degree of winter hardiness and relative immunity to disease. The lack of ability to self-pollination can be mentioned as a disadvantage.
Zarechnoy early pollinators
According to experts, self-infertility means that in the absence of cross-pollination no more than 4% of flowers will fertilize. The best pollinators for the described variety are considered to be the plums of the Volga Beauty, Renklod Tambov and Etude. In the absence of sufficient space for planting several plum trees, the pollination problem of Zarechnaya Early will be solved by the corresponding pollinator varieties grafted into its crown. As well as additional pollination can be obtained from plum trees that grow in a radius of 50–60 m in neighboring areas and bloom in similar terms. If the flowering periods of trees overlap with each other for 5–7 days, cross-pollination may occur between them.
Plum variety Zarechnaya early self-productive, without cross-pollination will not bear fruit
Features of the cultivation of plum Zarechnaya early
The variety is quite unpretentious and does not require non-standard agricultural techniques. There are not so many features that need to be taken into account when growing it.
It is better to plant a plum in the spring in the middle lane in order to avoid the risk of freezing of the seedling that was planted in the autumn and did not take root. The recommended layout for placing a medium layer plum is Zarechnaya Early - 3x4 m. Growing conditions of the variety and planting process are standard for plums.
Types of pruning
For a medium-sized Zarechnaya early tree, a cup-shaped form will be optimal. For 4–5 years, 3–5 branches are left, growing in different directions at a short distance from each other (approximately at the same level), the central conductor is removed. The advantages of this formation are obvious:
- good illumination has a positive effect on the yield, size and taste of the fruit,
- crown ventilation helps reduce the risk of fungal disease,
- You can maintain the optimum height of the tree (about three meters), at which it is convenient to care for the crown and harvest.
The crown of the plum tree Zarechnaya early best shaped in the form of a bowl
Sanitary and regulatory pruning is carried out as needed. Support pruning (shortening, stimulating fruiting) should be carried out regularly - it will help increase yields.
Watering, dressing, protection from injury
There is no data on drought tolerance of the variety, therefore it is better for the Zarechnaya early discharge to ensure a minimum standard irrigation schedule(3-4 times per season and autumn water-charging irrigation). The amount of water used should be sufficient to moisten the soil to a depth of 35–40 cm. It is not necessary to allow the soil to dry out: the discharge can discharge the ovary, and the quality of the fruits will suffer.
Feed Zarechnaya early in the usual periods of traditional fertilizers. The only nuance is the increased need for large-fruited plum varieties in potassium during the formation and maturation of the crop. It is brought not only into the soil, it is recommended to spray the trees with potassium humate three times to improve product quality.
To get high-quality fruit, large-fruited plum Zarechnaya early need to be provided with an adequate amount of potassium during the period of formation and ripening of the crop.
The variety has an increased immunity to disease. Performing standard preventive work will avoid problems associated with diseases and protect the plants.
Regarding the vulnerability of plums to pests in the sources there is no information. However, it is well known that it is more reasonable to prevent their attack through timely preventive measures. Late to begin the fight against malicious insects, when signs of defeat become visible.
Gardeners reviews about the variety
Plum Zarechnaya early has a lot of positive qualities, but there is not a lot of feedback about it on the forums of gardeners.
Today was the first collection of varieties of early Zarechnaya plum. I have not yet seen an earlier home plum. The average fruit weight is 40 grams. Maximum 50 gr. Tastes are high, 4.4 points. The variety is self-infertile and requires pollinator. Productivity is high. Vysokoustoychiv to klyasteosporiozu.
Kolyadin Roman, Moscow region
Unpretentious plum Zarechnaya early on economic characteristics is ideal for growing in the middle lane. Self-infertility is the only lack of variety. Depending on the specific conditions and the area of the site, you can always find a suitable option for creating conditions for cross-pollination and grow early juicy fruits of excellent taste.
Plum Zarechnaya early variety description
According to the description, plum trees of this variety are medium thick with a round-oval or spherical crown, compact, medium-dense and medium-rich.
The shoots have a slightly curved shape with dark brown bark. Interstices of medium thickness, rather short, gray in color. Medium buds, cone-shaped, slightly pointed to the top, weakly pressed to the shoots, have a dark brown color.
The leaves are medium in size, oval in shape, pointed at the top. The surface of the sheet has a slight concavity inward. The sheet plate is painted in saturated dark green color. Its surface is smooth, leathery, matte, smooth along the edges with small notches. Stems are dense, short length, thick.
The flowers of the Zarechnoy plum have round petals that are tight to each other, painted white. The buds have a delicate green color. The cup of the flower looks like a bell. The stamens are short, the length of the pistil exceeds them twice.
Fruits of Zarechnoy plum medium size. The mass of one fruit is 40 grams. Plums have a rounded shape with a slightly indented funnel. The skin is dense with a wax bloom of dark purple color, well removed from the pulp.
The fruit has well-defined subcutaneous points. The stone is small, oval, well separated from the pulp. The fruit is located on a short thick stalk.
Pulp of plum of saturated yellow-amber color, rather dense, juicy. She has a gentle pleasant refreshing sweet taste with a subtle sourness.
Fruits form on the tree evenly., thanks to which it does not overload and the fruits do not shrink over time.
Plum belongs to skonoplodny grades. Young trees begin to bear fruit in the third year after planting.
Ripening plum occurs in late July. Trees bear fruit every year. Fruits ripen at the same time.
Plum Zarechnaya early is characterized by high winter hardiness and resistance to disease and pests.
The variety belongs to the self-fertile, therefore it needs pollinating plants. As pollinators The most commonly used varieties are Volzhskaya Beauty, Sketch, Renklod.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Plum varieties Zarechnaya early has many advantages. The main ones are:
- attractive fruits of sufficiently large size with high taste,
- early terms of crop ripening,
- high resistance of kidneys and wood to lower temperatures in winter,
- regular fruiting, simultaneous ripening of fruits,
- resistance to disease.
Deficiencies in the variety Zarechnaya early not identified.
Fruits of this variety are used for making compotes, jams, preserves, dried fruits, marmalade, soufflés, and fresh.
Cultivation and care
Growing plums in the garden does not present any particular difficulties, because the plant is unpretentious and undemanding.
For plum varieties Zarechnaya require a well-lit dry place, protected from cold wind and drafts. You should not plant the plants in the lowlands, since high humidity, dampness and fog can harm the trees.
Planting seedlings is best done at some distance from other fruit trees. The most convenient place for planting a plum tree is a plot near a fence or structure.
When planting seedlings on shaded areas, the leaves may lose their bright green color, and over time there will be a decrease in yield and shredding of fruits.
Planting of young trees is carried out in early spring or early autumn. Pre-prepare landing pit. It should be located no less than four meters from buildings or other fruit trees. Preparation of the planting pit begins 10-14 days before the planned planting of seedlings. Its depth and width depends on the size of the root system. Garden soil from the pit should be mixed with humus. In the center of the pit should be placed a peg to strengthen the seedling.
The shoot is placed at some distance from the peg, the root system is spread and covered with soil. When planting, do not bury the root neck. It should be at ground level or slightly higher. After planting the plant is watered..
Further, care consists in systematically loosening the soil around the stem and weeding. To control weeds, it is recommended to mulch the soil in a pristvolnom circle.
The lack of moisture affects the development of young plants. Watering plants is carried out in case of hot weather and lack of rain. It is also necessary to water the trees when preparing them for the winter. To preserve the moisture reserve under the trees, mulching is carried out using peat or compost.
The application of mineral fertilizers begins in the third year of the life of the plum trees. Urea, nitrophoska, and superphosphate are used as mineral supplements, which are introduced during the entire growing season.
Organic fruit fertilizers can be used to fertilize fruit trees. Once every 2-3 years make compost or rotted manure.
To maintain high yields of plum trees, pruning and crown formations should be carried out annually.. Spring pruning.
To form a plum crown, it is necessary to leave no more than 6 skeletal branches in each tier of the fruit tree, keeping the distance between tiers of 40 centimeters.
If plants have a slow growth, rejuvenating pruning should be done.
In the course of sanitary pruning, it is necessary to remove root growth, which can significantly reduce the yield of fruit trees.
Growing regions and ripening period
In the state register of breeding achievements "Zarechnaya early" was included in 1988 as a variety approved for cultivation in the Central Black Earth region. Due to the good ability to tolerate winter frosts and sudden spring frosts, plum has spread throughout the country.
Variety refers to the early ripening. Fruit ripening occurs simultaneously and occurs in the middle of July.
Biological tree description
Trees varieties are characterized as sredneroslye and rarely exceed a height of three meters in height. The spherical crown has compact dimensions and medium thickening. Slightly curved branches are relatively rare to each other. The color of the bark of the trunk and shoots rich brown. The leaf plates are rather large, have an elongated ovate shape with margins without chipping and are painted in marsh dark green color.
The “Zarechnaya Early” plum blossoms in medium-white snow-white flowers. Flowers are composed of rounded petals, a long pistil and a very short stamen. In the bud stage, the petals have a greenish tint.
Characteristics of the fruits and their purpose
The variety belongs to the large-fruited and famous for its fruits with an average weight of about 50 grams. Plums have a regular, rounded shape, with a distinctly formed abdominal suture, slightly deeper apex and a funnel of medium depth.
Externally, the fruit is very attractive. They are characterized by purple color and thick wax coating. The peel has an average density and perfectly removed from the fruit. The bones are small, easily separated from the tender and juicy flesh. With all the juiciness and tenderness of the pulp, the structure of ripe plums is quite dense. The taste is balanced, sweet with a slight refreshing sourness. Tasters rate the taste qualities of “Zarechnaya Early” quite high; on a five-point scale, the variety received a rating of 4.5 points. The content of dry substances in fruits does not exceed 17%, and the amount of sugars comes to 8%, acids about 1.5%.
The variety is universal in purpose. Delicious fruits are great for fresh consumption and processing. Fruits with an easily separable bone greatly value hostesses and use them to make jams, marmalades, confiture. Fragrant and astringent taste produces homemade wine from plums and spirit tinctures. Плотная структура позволяет перевозить их на далекие расстояния и выращивать для продажи на сельскохозяйственных ярмарках.
«Заречная ранняя» относится к группе скороплодных сортов. This means that trees come into fruiting early, already for 3-4 years of life. Since the variety is not capable of self-pollinating, pollinating trees are necessary for obtaining the crop. For good cross-pollination in a radius of 50 meters from the "Early Zarechnaya" plums should grow with similar flowering times. Experts consider the best pollinators for this variety of plums "Etude" and "Volga Beauty".
If there are neighbors pollinators from one young tree, you can get up to 8 kg of the crop, with age the fruitfulness increases and one adult plum gives about 15 kg of fruit. Feature of the variety is continuous annual fruiting.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The advantages of the variety “Zarechnaya early” include the following characteristics:
- high and stable yield,
- term fertility (plum brings harvest to the third year of life),
- annual fruiting, without frequency,
- compact size of trees
- early ripening,
- fruits ripen at the same time,
- cold resistance
- excellent taste,
- Plums are not afraid of shipping and are well kept.
Of the minuses of the variety, its self-barrenness can be noted. This drawback can not be called significant, since plum trees are very common in garden plots, and there are no problems with pollination in Zarechnaya Early.
Place and layout
The variety “Zarechnaya early” prefers light loamy and sandy loam soils. Lowland and wetlands quickly ruin the culture. For good growth and fruiting trees require a sunny and protected from gusty and cold winds place. Therefore, it is good to place the seedling on the south side of the house or near the high fence. At the same time, in order for the crown of the tree to be freely located and not to be shaded, it is necessary to sustain a gap of at least four meters. The same interval is recommended to observe when placed near other fruit trees.
Since the variety is characterized by increased cold resistance, it is possible to plant young trees both in the autumn and in the spring. According to reviews of gardeners, the survival rate of seedlings is almost one hundred percent, regardless of the time of planting.
In spring, the best month for planting will be April. It is important to complete the planting before the sap flow begins in the trees. Otherwise, the seedlings will be sick for a very long time. Therefore, they start planting immediately after the soil thaws after the winter season.
In the fall, planting specialists recommend planning at the beginning of September. In this case, the seedlings of “Zarechnaya Early” will have enough time to get stronger before the arrival of stable cold weather.
The algorithm of planting a sapling of this variety is no different from planting other fruit trees. The only thing you need to pay attention to is the location of groundwater on the site. If they are located higher than two meters from ground level, then it is necessary to lay out a material through which the roots cannot grow, for example, a sheet of slate, to the bottom of the trench. This will save the root system from contact with water, and, consequently, the plant from death.
The variety does not like stagnant water in the soil, but a prolonged drought affects the general condition of the tree and reduces the yield. Therefore, in a dry summer it is necessary to water the plum at least three times:
- in early spring before the growing season,
- in the flowering phase,
- during the formation of ovaries,
- late autumn (during dry weather).
Water consumption is 5-6 buckets for young trees and 8-10 buckets for adults and fruit-bearing. Watering is carried out by the method of irrigation or through irrigation grooves on the Pristambov circle.
"Zarechnaya early" throughout life tends to form new shoots. Therefore, the formation of the crown is a mandatory annual procedure, otherwise the plum will turn into a bush-like thickets.
They carry out formative pruning at the end of winter when severe frosts subside. Remove the branches, thickening the crown and side shoots, overtaking in growth the central conductor.
In the autumn after the fall of leaves spend sanitary pruning. To be removed are dry, diseased or just damaged branches.
In addition, it is necessary to regularly remove the shoots growing near the headquarters of plums. It grows very quickly and interferes with the main tree, pulling nutrients out of the soil.
Loose shoots can be pulled out manually, and already grown ones need to be dug down to remove them along with the root system.
Like all fruit trees for good growth and fruiting, “Early Early Recruitment” must be fed several times per season. Begin to make fertilizer from the second year of planting. Experts recommend sticking with the following scheme:
- in April, 400 grams of urea in a dry form is distributed on the plum circle,
- in June, they feed up the liquid infusion of nitrophosphate diluted in accordance with the instructions,
- phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in early September.
In addition, during the summer season it is good to feed the plum with natural organic herbal infusions.
Harvesting and storage
You can only remove plums in dry weather and closer to dinner, when the morning dew dries. To remove the fruits begin with the lower tier of the branches, gradually moving to the crown. To gather fruit from the top of the tree, use the ladders. The plums that are planned to be transported are removed with the preservation of the stalks, trying as much as possible not to damage the skin and the wax. The fruits of “Zarechnaya early” have a fairly dense structure, but still the less contact with the fruits, the longer they will remain. Therefore, it is desirable to carry out the collection immediately to the container for transportation or storage. Fruits are placed in one layer in disinfected boxes lined with food paper and transferred to storage.
To grow the “Zarechnaya early” plum on its plot under the force of not only experienced gardeners, but also beginners amateurs. The variety does not require special care and at the same time it is able to regularly produce abundant crops. With simple rules of cultivation, the fruit tree will retain its excellent varietal characteristics for several decades.
Excellent, completely unpretentious grade. It grows on the site for a long time, and unlike others it is not affected by diseases. Aphid on the site, ready to eat all the living "Zarechnaya early" bypasses, which is very pleasing. Of the pests on the ripe fruit attack the crows. We scare them away with the help of the installation of the scarecrow and tie long ribbons on the branches in order to develop in the wind. It does not always help. Plums are very large and tasty, different juiciness. Tree fructifies annually, without interruption, although it is now far from young.
Until a second tree was planted next to it with the same flowering period, it did not produce plum fruit. It was a pity they did not warn about this in the nursery when buying, they would immediately buy a second variety suitable for pollination. The overall impression of the variety is positive. Fruits as in the description of large. For the interest weighed, some reach up to 60 grams. The taste is excellent sweet and juicy, real dessert, almost no acid is felt.