Pear "Bergamot" - the common name of several varieties of fruit trees. They are united by the shape of the fruit - they are a little flattened. This breed was bred by Italian breeders - it quickly spread in Europe, the CIS, and today it is cultivated in China. Gardeners love a pear for unpretentiousness, high yield, good immunity to diseases. You will learn about the features of “Bergamot” and its care in this article.
Bergamot is an autumn variety, which partly explains its popularity with gardeners.
"Bergamot" is an autumn variety, which partly explains its popularity with gardeners. After all, autumn varieties of pears are not so much. Saplings perfectly adapt in nurseries and on private plots, grow intensively. The description, compiled by the breeders, characterizes this species of pears as strong-growing. The crown is thick, in the shape of a pyramid. The branches are thin. This pear has special leaves - their shape resembles a boat. Life expectancy of fruit plants is average.
"Bergamot" begins to bear fruit late, usually the first harvest gardeners collect 7 years after planting the seedling. The most favorable conditions for the variety are the southern areas where the climate is mild, there is no strong frost and gusting wind. The description focuses on the frost resistance of fruit trees, but it is relative. At temperatures of -20 degrees and higher the plant may freeze and die. Crop harvested in early September. An adult tree gives 100-150 kg of fruit. There are cases when gardeners harvested 200 kg of pears per plant.
The pear is small in size, round, slightly flattened. The flesh is white, with a bright aroma. Fruits need to be collected as soon as they ripen. Over-grown fruits do not fall off the tree, but lose their unique taste - the flesh becomes powdery, stony. This variety is famous for its medicinal properties. Doctors recommend a pear "Bergamot" for diseases of the liver and pancreaswith problems with the genitourinary system. In folk medicine, the branches and cuttings of the plant are used to prepare decoctions and infusions that accelerate the elimination of toxins and toxins from the body. The peculiarity of the fruit is that they tolerate transportation. The disadvantage is weak immunity to scab, short storage. Ripe pear stored about a month.
Types of "Bergamot"
In Russia and the CIS today, 6 species of this variety are actively cultivated; below you will find a brief description of each of them:
- Variety "Novik".
- Autumn "Bergamot".
Autumn pear variety "Bergamot"
This variety was brought by the famous biologist-breeder Ivan Michurin. A strong tree can reach 15 meters in height. It blooms in late spring, and the fruits ripen in late August. Pear Novik medium size, the weight of one fruit - 90-100 grams. Skin color is yellow. There is a lot of juice in the fruits, the flesh is thick, white-cream. The fruits of the new crop are rarely stored longer than 10 days. The peculiarity of this selection is annual abundant fruiting and good frost tolerance.
A large plant that looks like a Novik variety. The characteristics of the two selections are almost identical. The only difference is the color and taste of the fruit. Ripe pears are yellow-green in color, and their flesh is soft. Autumn - a fruitful variety, bears fruit every year and abundantly. Pear stored no more than 7 days.
Volga Bergamot matures in early September. Ripe fruits attract a trade dress - they are larger than the average size, green with a bright side. Pears taste sweet, juicy, their flesh is soft. They are stored longer than other selections - 20-25 days after harvest.
Variety "Moscow" like gardeners. The trees of this selection are medium tall, with a rounded and moderately dense crown. The fruits of the type "Moscow" ripen in early September. They are stored for no more than two weeks, but they can last up to two months in the refrigerator. The advantage of the variety "Moscow" - a presentable look and good taste of the fruit. Ripe wilderness weighs 150-160 grams, it is round in shape, of a beautiful yellow color. The pulp of the fruit is dense, it has a lot of juice. In taste, acid and sweetness are balanced.
The fruits of the type "Moscow" ripen in early September
This hybrid breeders brought a few years ago. It is classified as a winter selection, the fruits ripen in early October. Fruit trees are strong, tall, height reaches 15 meters. The shape of the crown is rounded, dense. The fruits are large, the average weight of a pear is 130 grams. The skin color is yellow with a slight shade of green.
The taste of a sweet and sour pear, a lot of juice in the pulp. Immediately after harvesting, the fruits cannot be eaten - they must ripen within 2-3 weeks. Mature fruits are stored for 3–3.5 months.
Selection "Rossoshansky", as well as "Moscow", "Novik" - autumn. The fruits ripen in early September and stored after harvest for 3.5 weeks. The plant begins to bear fruit in the fifth year after planting, the average yield is 50-60 kg of fruit from a tree. Fruits are not large - the average weight of a pear is 80 grams. The color is green-yellow, with a slight blush on the side. The flesh of "Rossoshansky" is not very juicy, but soft. The advantage of this type is high frost resistance and immunity to diseases.
How to care for "Bergamot"?
"Bergamot" is unpretentious in care, but there are a few rules, compliance with which will increase the harvest and prolong the life of the fruit tree:
- It is desirable to plant seedlings in areas protected from the wind, and away from groundwater. Pear this selection does not like a lot of moisture.
- Soak the roots in water for several hours before planting in the ground.
- Water the plant regularly, but not abundantly.
- Before frosts, insulate the roots and branches so that the tree does not die.
- Every year, cut the crown and excess shoots and fertilize the plant.
As you can see, care is no different from caring for other garden crops.
"Bergamot" - a group of varieties of table pears. Among all the varieties, the most famous is the "Bergamot Autumn".
"Bergamot" is the fruit of popular breeding. Ripens in early autumn. Today the variety is in decline, as it loses to newer varieties in all respects. Trees This variety is medium tall, the crown has the shape of a reverse pyramid and is not very dense. The shoots are thickened, shortened, have a brown color. The leaves are shaped like a chicken egg, folded to the central part (resembles a tubule), pointed at the edges.
Fruit small weighing up to 85 g, round, yellowish-green with a red spot on the side. The flesh is white, hard enough, has a peculiar taste and aroma. The time for harvest comes in early September. After collecting the fruit can be stored 2.5 - 3 weeks. "Bergamot" begins to bear fruit after 7 -8 years after planting. The yield is low, as trees of this variety are exposed to scab. Frost resistance is low; under the influence of low temperatures, the crust on the trunk and skeletal branches is damaged.
Sort self-infertiletherefore pollinators are needed, for the role of pear varieties “Bessemyanka” and “Tonkovetka”. Under the pear you need to choose a place with good lighting, a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil. Pears can be planted both in spring and autumn. For planting you need to dig one hole at a seedling. The depth of the pit should be about 0.9 - 1 m, diameter - 50 - 60 cm. If you plant trees in the spring, you need to dig holes in the fall.
If planting is planned for autumn, then it is necessary to dig holes in 3 - 4 weeks. The ground that was dug first from each pit should be mixed with two buckets of manure, one cup of superphosphate and three tablespoons of potassium sulfate. If the roots of the seedlings are dried, then before planting they should be placed in water for several hours. In each pit of the mixture of soil and fertilizer you need to form a mound on which to spread the roots of the seedling.
Before laying the tree in the soil, you can drive a wooden support for a future pear. Next, the seedling is thrown with earth, watered with 2 - 3 buckets of water and mulch with manure, peat or sawdust.
1) Watering It is necessary to water pear trees during the whole time when the temperature is high. Water should be poured into circular trenches around the tree.
2) Mulching The first mulching is carried out during planting, then mulch the soil around the pears further regularly. As mulch you need to use natural materials: humus, sawdust, wood ash, mowed grass.
3) Harboring "Bergamot" especially needs shelter, as this variety has low frost resistance. In mid-October, the stumps and the lower part of the skeletal branches need to be limescaled. To protect against various animals, the lower part of the pear trunk can be wrapped with sunflower stems, cotton cloth. On pristvolny circle throw mulch (manure, sawdust, leaves). It is also possible to warm the boles and tree trunks with snow.
4) Pruning The pear should be cut off in spring, when the temperature will not be below zero, but the buds have not yet blossomed. The center conductor and the lower side branches must be shortened by a quarter, and the remaining branches of the second level must be removed. In order for the tree to bear fruit better, every 2 - 3 years it is necessary to shorten all branches of the crown. Also, sick or damaged branches should be removed. Complete pruning of branches should be done right at the trunk and smeared the cut with a garden pitch.
5) Fertilizer Feeding pears on a regular basis. 20 - 30 g of nitrogen fertilizers need to be made in early spring and after flowering in the second year of the pear tree in the garden. Starting from the fourth year in the fall, pears should be fed with other fertilizers - phosphate (30 g), potash (20 g) and organic (slurry solution, 1: 4 ratio).
6) Protection Variety "Bergamot" is prone to scab, so you need to carry out preventive actions or treatment. Before budding, trees should be treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid, and after flowering, the systemic “Fast” fungicide should be used (an ampoule of 2 ml is diluted in 10 liters of water for 3 to 4 trees). As a preventive measure, you need to burn the fallen leaves, handle all the damage to the bark of the tree and fertilize it regularly.
How to care
- In general, the pear "Bergamot" is unpretentious in the care, but if you want to get a good harvest, follow these rules:
- Water the plant regularly, but don't overdo it. It is worthwhile to increase irrigation intensity during a dry summer and during the period of fruit ripening.
- Warm branches and roots before frosts. To protect against hares, the trunk is wrapped with sacking and stalks of sunflower.
- Annually cut the crown and excess shoots. Dry branches and damaged branches are removed, the cut points are processed by garden pitch.
- Feed the tree with manure or urea. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in early spring. When the tree reaches four years old, it is fed with complex fertilizers.
- Before blooming buds in the spring, treat the tree with 3% Bordeaux mixture - this will prevent the appearance of scab. If, however, affected branches are found, they are cut and burned.
Unlike other varieties of pears, “Bergamot” does not tolerate dry soil, therefore, special attention should be paid to tree irrigation.
The variety propagates not only seedlings, but also by grafting. To do this correctly, several steps are performed alternately:
- Choose the closest healthy branch to the ground.
- Branch bend to the ground. In the place of its dropping, the cortex is incised in the transverse direction.
- It is covered with earth and strengthened.
- To the branch quickly gave the roots, in water for irrigation add drugs that accelerate growth.
- In order to avoid drying the branches and young roots, the soil around them is mulched.
The variety is popular among gardeners. Do not forget to plentifully water the tree, otherwise the fruits will become hard and lose their usual aroma and taste. The species is very sensitive to low temperatures, therefore, for breeding in northern latitudes, complex measures of warming are required. Although this is a rather capricious variety of pears, the efforts of the gardener will be repaid with interest, for few what sort of pears compare to “Bergamot” in taste and aroma.
General description of the group of varieties
Bergamot was originally developed in Italy, near the city of Bergamo, for which he received its name. Russian breeders have put a lot of effort into making various types of Bergamot pears more resistant to the harsh climate. Some cultivars were developed specifically for growing in conditions of central Russia, for example, Bergamot Moscow pear, characterized by increased frost resistance. More often heat-loving Italian is cultivated in the Caucasus and southern Russia.
All trees of the group are distinguished by medium height, high rates of development. The spreading pyramidal crown consists of small, boat-shaped leaves. The relative cold resistance of the group significantly narrows the growing area. Trees have a stable fruiting, high yields up to 150 kg per specimen. They are very demanding of moisture, with a shortage of which the fruits lose their taste, shrink.
Botanical description of the variety says about the need for additional pollination. As pollinators are most often used cultivars Bessemyanka and Tonkovetka.
The group is characterized by a late entry into the fruiting period. The first crop is removed after 6-7 years. Under favorable conditions and proper care, a mass of fragrant fruits weighing 80-120 g are tied up. They ripen by early autumn and require immediate harvesting. If you delay the harvest, the fruits will be overloaded, they will lose their great taste. You can see the photo of the ripe fruit below.
Now species of Bergamot are found in China, Asia, and Western Europe. The most resistant cultivars are grown not only in the Black Soil Region, but also in central Russia, where gardeners deserved their appreciation.
Planting and Care Rules
Competent care and compliance with the rules of planting trees will help to achieve high and regular harvests of pears of the Bergamot variety. In order for the trees to start bearing fruit on time, they must be planted immediately next to the pollinators. The place should be sublime, well lit and ventilated.
For Bergamot, loamy or chernozem soils with high fertility are preferable. Empty soil will not be able to provide the necessary nutrition for young trees. This land requires regular feeding.
For planting seedlings, a pit is prepared with a diameter of about one meter and a depth of up to 70 cm. During the adaptation period of young trees, they need intensive watering. The soil around the tree must be mulched. The first time it is carried out when planting seedlings. As a material for mulch, mowed grass, humus, fallen leaves, sawdust are used.
Bergamot trees are characterized by low frost resistance and need additional protection for the cold period.
In mid-autumn, the lower part of the skeletal branches and branches is lime-stained. Sacking, sunflower stalks, wrapped around the trunk, will help protect the young tree from animals. Pristvolny circle is covered with mulch and insulated with snow. Circumcision of pears is carried out in the spring, when it is already time for frosts, but the buds have not yet begun to bloom.
The center conductor as well as the side branches are shortened by a quarter, and the branches of the second level should be removed. To increase the yield of the tree, its crown should be shortened and periodically thin out. Completely removed dry and damaged branches. Places of their cuts are necessarily processed by garden pitch. Pear - moisture-loving plant. Due to lack of water, its fruits become hard and lose their usual taste. Abundant watering should be provided to trees throughout the growing season.
Bergamot pears are very often infected with scab and require treatment and constant prevention from this scourge. Trees are treated with Bordeaux mixture (3% solution) before buds begin to blossom. At the end of flowering pears are sprayed using the systemic fungicide "Skor".
The timely pruning of damaged branches, the burning of fallen leaves, and the treatment of bark help prevent the appearance of scab.
Bergamot pears have long been very popular with gardeners. But now these trees are infrequently chosen and preferred pears of another variety. Bergamot’s “reputation” suffered from plant freezing in the northern regions and the constant scab damage that trees in the southern regions suffer from. From this disease, the fruits lose their quality and presentation. Bergamot pears gradually give way to other, more promising selective varieties.
Description and characteristics of the variety with a photo
Pear trees grow at different heights - from 4 to 25 meters (depending on the variety), have a pyramidal crown. The leaves of the pear are slightly concave inward, shaped like an elongated oval, the tip is slightly pointed, the edges are solid.
Груша Бергамот (кроме Дагестанского сорта, который был выведен для произрастания в суровом климате) имеет среднюю холодоустойчивость, при понижении температуры, более чем -20 градусов, подмерзает кора и нижние скелетные ветки.
Дерево (в зависимости от сорта) вступает в плодоношение через 5-7 лет после посадки. Созревание плодов начинается в первой декаде сентября. Under favorable growing conditions, the average yield of this variety is up to 120 kg of fruits per season. If the pears are harvested later than the ripening period, they will lose their taste, become powdery and rocky. Harvested fruits (depending on the variety) can be stored for seven days to three months.
The average fruit weight is 100 grams. The shape of pears is round or flat-round. Peel is green-yellow, with subtle yellow dots and faded red speck.
Bergamot pears have a sweet-sour taste with a pleasant, specific aroma. The flesh is white, has a loose texture.
The variety is characterized by stable fruiting and good cold resistance. The fruits are not very large, weight - 90-100 grams, have a dense, yellow skin. Pears are quite juicy, with dense white-cream pulp. The fruit ripening period is from September 1 to 10. Ripe pears after removal are stored no more than ten days.
High-yielding and frost-resistant variety. It is immune to scab. Fruits are light green with a red spot on the side. The flesh of the pear is creamy, juicy. Pears taste sweet, with a delicate honey aroma. The ripening period begins in late July. The shelf life of the collected fruit is not more than seven days.
Pears are yellow-green in color, have a juicy flesh and a pleasant aroma. Average fruit weight is 120 grams. The ripening period of the fruit falls on the beginning of autumn. Fruiting Bergamot Autumn annual and abundant. The collected fruits are stored for no more than seven days.
Bergamot in memory of Prince Trubetskoy
This variety of Bergamot grows well on any soil and develops well under different weather conditions. Very resistant to frost. The harvest begins to ripen from September. Fruits in the age of four.
The surface of the broad pear-shaped fruit is a green-yellow staining. The flesh is sweet and sour, of good density, with a light and not too pronounced aroma. The size of the fruit is very large, has a very high taste characteristics and perfectly preserved under the conditions of storage up to the middle of spring.
Advantages and disadvantages
Bergamot pear varieties are considered quite popular among gardeners, as it has many advantages:
- Nutritional value of fruits
- Relatively good frost resistance
- Stable fruiting
- High yield,
- Resistance to many diseases
- Good taste.
Disadvantages of the Bergamot variety:
- With a lack of moisture, the fruits become astringent and acidic,
- Fruits are affected by scab,
- Short shelf life.
Bergamot pear is partly self-fruited. To obtain a good harvest, other varieties of pears are needed, which will serve as pollinators for this variety. As pollinators for pears, Bergamot should use such varieties of pears: Bessemyanka, Tonkovetka, Marble.
In turn, the variety Bergamot is used as a pollinator for varieties Moskvichka and Memory Zhegalova.
Planting and care
Bergamot pear is unpretentious in care, but there are some growing requirements.
For pears of this variety is extremely important soil moisture and plenty of sunlight.
With a small but constant watering, as well as good illumination of the site, the fruit will be sweet and juicy. For planting it is necessary to choose seedlings with flexible branches and a well-developed rhizome. Planted seedlings on fertile and loose soils. If the ground is not fertile enough, before planting the seedling, the soil must be fertilized with organic and mineral supplements.
- Watering. The tree is watered constantly, but with a small amount of water. Water is poured into a tree trunk. Especially, the tree needs watering during the period of hot summer.
- Mulching. During the planting season, the first mulching is carried out, then the tree is mulched after each weeding and fertilization. For mulching, you can use humus, sawdust, hay.
- Harboring. In late October, the tree trunk is whitened with quicklime and wrapped with cotton cloth. Pristvolny circle sprinkled with sawdust, manure or leaves.
- Pruning. Pruning of the tree is carried out in the spring, when there is no frost, but before bud break. After planting, the central trunk and lower skeletal branches are shortened by a quarter, and the remaining branches should be removed completely. For good fruiting, every two years, pruned all the branches of the tree, and place the cut, smeared with garden pitch. If there are diseased or dry branches, they are removed.
- Fertilizer. Pear varieties Bergamot needs constant feeding. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in early spring, as well as at the end of flowering, in the second year of the tree’s life. When the pear is already four years old, it must be fed with fertilizers, which include phosphorus and potassium. Also, the pear needs organic fertilizers that are applied in the fall.
- Protection. Since the pear variety Bergamot is quite strongly affected by scab, before the bud breaks, the stem and branches are treated with Bordeaux liquid. When the tree fades away, fungicides can be used to treat the leaves. For prevention, it is necessary to burn fallen leaves.
Bergamot Moskovsky grows in our plot, we bought a sapling in our nursery five years ago. Frankly, an excellent variety, pears are sweet and juicy. Pests have never been, but a year ago, the tree froze. In the spring, half of the branches appeared buds, and the other half was not one. Not going to cut, I hope that the tree oklemeetsya.
Natalya Petrovna, Vologda
Fine grade. In our garden, one pear, planted in the 60s, still brings a good harvest, though not every year. The tree is not spreading, pears are always tasty and fragrant. Nearby grows a pear Marble, it is believed that it pollinates Bergamot. The scaby fruits were amazed only once or twice. There are many pears, but unfortunately they do not lie for a long time. I use fruits for jam, compote, and also I make dried fruits. Also, these pears are very tasty fresh, because the pulp is juicy and soft, my grandchildren love it very much.
Pears of a grade of Bergamot differ in good tastes. Among the many varieties, each gardener will be able to find a suitable variety. At observance of all rules of landing and leaving, the pear Bergamot, will please with an excellent harvest of tasty and useful fruit.