Old maple knocks on the window and waving its twigs in a friendly way inviting us to go outside and enjoy the surrounding beauty.
So familiar and familiar - red and greenish-yellow flowers in spring, affectionate shade of green plants in the summer and a riot of bright colors in the autumn.
Description of the species
Red mapleIn other words, the red-leaved is one of more than 150 varieties of crops, which belongs to the maple family. There is a plant from Southeast Asia, the plant became very popular in Japan, where it grows not only in open soil, but is also successfully used in the cultivation of pot plants, and is also grown in special tubs for decorating the verandas, terraces and balconies.
The common name red maple means several varieties of maple trees with a special color of leaves. Most popular of them are:
- Japanese red maple,
- Maple Shirasavi
- palm-shaped (tree with palm-type sheets), or fan.
His unusual beauty and decorative colors of leaves The tree is obliged to a special biochemical composition, which is characteristic of these trees. In addition to chlorophyll, which provides the green color of the plant, the maple also has a large number of carotenoids, which in most cases produce a red, yellow and orange color on the leaves. Cell sap of plants contains a large number of anthocyanins, which carry out the color of foliage in purple, as well as carmine color, beautifully in tune with the gray color of the bark of trees.
Red maple crown, as is often the case, occurs rounded or oval forms, in some cases, you can find trees in the form of a fungus. Finger-shaped cut sheets are more similar to lace gloves. In this culture, absolutely everything is considered decorative - foliage, which changes its color and saturation from spring to autumn, as well as silver-gray bark and thin twigs with leaves fallen in winter.
The ornamental plant is considered very hardy, but does not like to hit the direct rays of the sun, as well as drafts and low temperatures: below -15 degrees Celsius. The best place to grow red maple will be wind protected area in the garden with a mosaic view of lighting.
How to plant a plant
Planting plants is in the mountain gardens, where they can look beautiful with perennial coniferous crops. At the foot of a tall culture that can reach four to five meters in height, perennial flowers should be planted, which will not need special illumination. The umbrella type crown is able to create a cozy shadow in the very corner for relaxation, it looks beautiful with plants that are common in the central part of the country.
- Such cultures with red leaves look very attractive even with a single type of planting, as well as in limited plantings in groups. When planting is to maintain a certain distance between seedlings from one and a half to three and a half meters. The pit should be prepared in advance to a depth of fifty to seventy centimeters. If plantings occur on the territory of a highly marshy area, then it is imperative to create a good drainage layer. The well should be filled with water and add a complex of organic fertilizers.
- Some varieties of maple with red leaves are bred by breeders in order to grow in special tubs or containers. Such cultures do not exceed a height of one and a half meters. Maple should be planted in a mixture of an equal amount of compost, peat, and sod land. A culture that is grown in the pot itself does not like a lot of moisture. Watering red maples, and those trees that grow in pots, as well as growing in conditions of open ground, need to be combined with special fertilizers. The regularity of watering the plant will directly depend on the growing area, growing conditions and weather outside.
- If the plant lacks moisture, it does not die, but will lose its decorative effect.
During the care of the maple is to give greater importance to its pruning. Just enough that you will cut down from time to time damaged branches, as well as dry bitches. It is necessary to seal all damages and deformations on the bark structure of the tree in a timely manner so that protect the plant from infection and various parasites.
But the plant will have a special decoration if it stays in the hands of a skilled and professional gardener. Trees after a haircut get a very beautiful and elegant look, and in combination with the beautiful color of the foliage it can get an attractive result.
Reproduction of culture
Red Maple, like a large number of other plants, is worth propagate by cutting or seeds.
When choosing a method of propagation of a culture with the help of cuttings, they should be harvested and cut back in the fall, prikopat in a special hole before the onset of spring. In spring, overwintered cuttings should be transplanted into pots with a light, mixed soil along with sand.
If you grow a red leaf maple from seeds, then it is worthwhile to collect "helicopter" with seeds and maintain them in the winter time with a special temperature regime of 0- -3 degrees Celsius. In spring, before the process of planting seeds, they should be soaked, and when the sprout starts to bite, sow into the hole with a total depth of up to five centimeters. In summer, germinated seeds should be a good quality pritenyat, as well as create a moderate watering. At that moment when the seedlings grow to the mark of fifty to eighty centimeters, they should be transplanted to a permanent place of cultivation.
Maple with openwork crown
Japanese maple can be attributed to the family of Salinda, and it belongs to the genus of maple. The main place of plant growth is the forests of Southeast Asia. Japanese clover can surprise those around with a variety of forms, in the Land of the Rising Sun it has been bred for a large number of centuries. Now breeders are engaged in active breeding of more and more varieties of this popular ornamental tree.
- In the summertime, on the territory of the gardens and terraces of the surrounding area, the golden foliage from the Maple of Shirasawa can attract, in the autumn, it becomes bright orange. Dutch varieties of fan maple are covered with glossy dark red leaves, which, before falling to the ground, begin to change their shade to orange-red. Attractive crown on the plant acquires a large number of bright colors with good lighting, as well as in shaded conditions.
- Palapine maple is compact in size. A fan plant is able to show to those around you all its wealth of purple, orange, and pink shades. The main place of origin of such plants are the forests of Japan, Korea, as well as the territory of East China. In natural growing conditions, young trees can grow up to 8−10 meters. Crohn over time begins to acquire a rounded shape or a mushroom shape. Young shoots from the crops are covered with colored skin.
In the springtime, the leaves begin to change their color to red, and in the summer they actively change their color, in the autumn time they become purple. The flowers from the culture are collected in bright and loose inflorescences of the type. The shape of the lionfish can vary greatly among different varieties of fan maple. The culture is thermophilic, and it is also particularly demanding on top dressing and soil moistening, but a culture can not withstand a large amount of moisture and overmoistening.
The temperature indicator outside less than -15 degrees Celsius can lead to a decrease in soil fertility and damage to the rhizomes of the plant. The breeding process can be carried out with seeds that should be sown immediately after assembly. The most common types of red maple are: pink-bordered, scarlet, purple-cut and other varieties.
Features care for the Japanese maple
Red maples do not need a strong pruning, but it is necessary to cut dry branches and sick parts. In the spring, care of the crop includes the replacement of the top layer of soil with a new one, as well as pre-enrichment of the soil with the help of complex types of fertilizers. The mixture should be prepared from 40 grams of urea, 30 grams of superphosphate, and 25 grams of potassium salt. Pristvolny circle should be covered with a special mulch so that it can keep the desired level of moisture in the plant, as well as protect it from the appearance of the crust. Watering in the summer season should go in the same complex with dressing and loosening the soil around.
Red Maple is able to tolerate a small amount of soil moisture well, but it can lose all its elegant qualities and attractiveness.
The mode of irrigation and fertilizing of the crop should be regulated in a certain way, and depending on the climatic conditions at the planting site and the general weather conditions. The winter hardiness index will mainly depend on the fruit itself, the variety, as well as the general age of the crop.
In autumn, the roots of young trees and shrubs in the garden area should be warmed with dry leaves, and containers should be brought back into the house.
Diseases and pests
Maple, the red leaves of which are so pleasing to the eye, can become infected with powdery mildew, coral spotting. Those shoots that were struck by parasites should be immediately removed, and the slices should be covered with a garden warp, and then sanitized with special tools. Prior to development on the plant of the kidney, it is worth treating the plants with blue vitriol and also to pollinate with special sulfur.
Such plants are also attacked by phytophages: mealybug, leaf weevil and wedge-shaped whitefly. If there are any parasites on the plant, then it is imperative to carry out spraying even at the stage of feeding larvae. Actellic remedy is perfect for removing pests. In autumn, the sheets should be collected, and then destroyed.
Red Maple in the garden
Red Maple is a hardy plant that is vulnerable to excessive illumination, as well as to drafts and increased soil moisture.
Plants and shrubs affected by poor conditions begin to shed their leaves very early. The branches, as well as the root system, begin to quickly deteriorate under the influence of low temperatures, if it is below -15 degrees C in winter.
Maples do not like to grow in open areas with a high level of illumination, which go to the south side. The best place for their growth will be a place protected from drafts, which will have mosaic lighting. All cultures are well suited for the garden area, made in the Asian style, as well as for general gardening front garden and patio.
Description of varieties and species
Maple red (Acer rubrum) is from North America, its three or five lobed leaves sit on red petioles. In summer, the leaves are light green above and whitish below. Especially red maple is beautiful in the fall. Before finally turning red, the leaf becomes yellow, orange, scarlet.
The most interesting varieties:
- Oktober Glory - leaves are glossy, green in summer, and crimson-red in autumn,
- Red Sunset - a tree with an oval crown and a rich palette of autumn colors from orange-red to pure red,
- Armstrong - differs pyramidal crown,
- Somerset - blooms in April, before the leaves bloom, in autumn the dark green foliage turns bright red,
- Sun Valley - the tree is not high, up to 6 m, in the fall the leaves acquire beautiful shades from bright scarlet to dark red.
Varieties with red autumn foliage coloring are also found among other species - Japanese red maple, Shirasawa maple, hand-shaped or fan-shaped, holvy.
Planting red maple in open ground
American maples are one of the few members of the genus that grow well in shading, and can withstand long-term flooding of the root system. Maples love rich nutrient substrates, do not tolerate sand and stony soils. Bright red foliage color does not appear on alkaline ground. Planting maple is carried out on a plot with fertile soil.
The tree requires constant moistening, so at the bottom of the pit they make good drainage so that excess water goes away. Complex mineral fertilizer is applied to the planting well, mixing it with the soil. The size of the pit should correspond to the root system. Sapling watered, mulch pristvolny circle with peat, compost, sawdust or straw.
Agrotechnical cultivation and care
Red maple is frost-resistant, undemanding to soil moisture. In his homeland, in North America, he is considered one of the most drought-resistant maples. At the same time, it is one of the few species that grows on flooded, almost marshy soils.
In tree care, it is unpretentious, it requires much less attention than fruit trees. In summer, red maple likes sprinkling on the leaves in dry weather. In the spring, two weeks before bud break, they are sanitized, complex fertilizer is applied and the tree trunk is mulched.
When pests appear, the wood is treated with insecticides. Most often, it affects the maple whitefly, mealybug and leaf weevil. Coral blotch is common among maple diseases - maroon spots appear on the bark. The affected branches are removed and burned, the slices are smeared with garden pitch. In the fall, maple leaves are collected from under the trees to prevent the spread of infections.
Cropping and crown formation
As a rule, maples are naturally beautiful spreading, conical, pyramidal or rounded crowns, which do not need formative pruning. In the spring and autumn, when the movement of the juice is slow, they carry out sanitary pruning of the branches, removing dried and frozen out shoots affected by pests or diseases.
Also cut out excess root shoots and shoots competitors, thickening the crown and intersecting among themselves. With age (about 10 years after planting), the skeletal branches of the tree can be shortened by 2/3. If the height of the tree needs to be kept at a certain level, the top is cut every year.
Varietal maples are propagated in two ways:
- Seeds. Before planting, maple seeds require stratification. They can be kept for 3 months in a refrigerator at a temperature of 0 to 4 ° C. Or sow the seeds in the open ground in the fall of 3-5 cm in depth. Of these, young bores appear in the spring, which are best covered for the next winter.
- Cutting and grafting. This method is more often used in garden centers for obtaining seedlings of good quality. Cuttings of varietal maples are grafted onto a ready stock with a developed root system.
When growing maples, it is necessary to control their distribution, since this is easy to occur by self-sowing, in time weed out unwanted growth.
Red maple wintering
Red Maple - winter-hardy ornamental plant. He does not need a special shelter for the winter. Only young saplings can freeze in severe, snowless winters.
For the shelter of a small tree construct a frame, which is wrapped around a nonwoven covering material. In order not to freeze the roots, a thick layer of mulch is poured into the tree circle.
For a successful wintering of maple from mid-summer, stop feeding fertilizer containing nitrogen. To prepare for frost, the tree needs only potassium and phosphorus. In the autumn, before the soil freezes, it is possible to conduct water recharge irrigation, which will protect the root system from damage.
Application in landscape design
Culture is used for single and group plantings in gardens and parks. Small decorative forms are grown as tub plants, create bonsai.
Maple with red leaves is suitable for decorating the banks of ponds and recreation areas, creating hedges. It blends beautifully with elms, oaks, birches and lindens. And also with coniferous trees - pines, spruces, fir, larch. In the rocky gardens, low sorts of wood next to the Badani look good.
Exactly burning candles decorate the maples with autumn red foliage gardens and parks. Unusual trees stand out noticeably on a yellow-orange autumn background. Bright colors create a festive, good mood, which is so lacking in rainy autumn days.
How to grow maple in the garden
Growing conditions for ornamental maples
Planting maple in the garden
Features care for maples
The use of maples in the design of the garden
K Lena - one of the oldest garden cultures. They were used as ornamental plants at the dawn of landscape design and have not lost their status and charm to this day. This is not the easiest to cultivate, demanding on soils, capricious woody at a young age. But in the design of gardens equal to maples is not found. Элитные, яркие, легко узнаваемые, они становятся настоящей гордостью хозяев и привлекают восхищенное внимание не только осенью.
Условия выращивания для декоративных кленов
Быстрорастущие, яркие, в год прибавляющие по 50-60 см даже у самых скромных сортов, удивляющие густотой и красотой кроны, клены – растения далеко не легко предсказуемые. Mistakes in soil selection and lighting, especially where winters are unusually severe for varietal Japanese maples, can cause the loss of a valuable, and often expensive, plant.
Maple shade tolerance is expressed only in regions with mild winters and is manifested unequally in base species plants and in luxurious varieties. Most of the maples in the middle lane should be considered as light-loving, needing scattered or bright sunlight plants, poorly developed and often freeze in the winter when grown in the shade.
In the photo: Japanese maple (Acer japonicum)
Maples in the garden of the site can be selected for decorative purposes, rather than looking for protected places. These are wind-resistant plants, they are not prone to the curvature of the trunk or crown, even in drafts, they are pleased with surprising stability. But the specifics of harsh winters should be taken into account when selecting a landing site even for this parameter: when landing in places protected from the wind, even capricious maples spend much better winter, but the most resistant varieties can suffer in the wind. To air pollution plants are quite resistant.
Maples are woody not as adaptive as some of their ornamental counterparts. They prefer moist, fresh, high-quality soil. The usual version of garden soil is suitable for them only if it means cultivated, developed, containing high-quality biomedia and organic matter, not compacted and not neglected soil. High levels of humus content are preferable for all maples, but they are of critical importance only for varietal plants, especially fan maple. The reaction of pH for soil in which plan to plant maples, you can not strictly control, but extremely calcareous soils should be avoided. Maples develop well in acidic, slightly acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline soil variants. When buying maple, the composition of the soil and the preferred additives for improving it are better to specify, as well as the plant habits: if the maples are adults, especially krupnomery, the content of humus, peat, sand in the soil can be a critical parameter for the adaptation of the plant. So, for a popular ash maple, soils consisting of equal parts of peat and sheet soil with a half of sand are preferred.
When planting maples soil moisture is always considered an advantage, but marshy soil, high groundwater levels should be avoided even for these very moisture-loving plants. Maples are planted on wetlands or at risk of flooding; regular stagnation of water is planted only with a drainage tab - a layer of 10 cm of large fragments of brick, construction waste, rubble and 10 cm of coarse sand.
In the photo: tree circle after planting maple, adult seedlings of decorative maple in containers
Planting maple in the garden
Maples, like any other ornamental species from among large-sized plants, can be planted equally successfully both in spring and in autumn even in the middle lane. Spring planting allows the plants to better adapt to the first winter and to build up powerful roots, but it is connected with the need to provide young plants with more thorough care. Autumn planting is associated with the risk of incomplete rooting, so the choice of planting dates must be strictly individual. In summer, it is better not to plant even maples in containers from the number of young saplings.
Maples are planted in large, prepared in advance landing pits. The width and depth of about 50 cm for medium-sized seedlings and about 70 cm for fast-growing varieties with strong roots is considered standard. The bottom of the landing pit is necessarily deeply loosened with forks to create an additional "level" of aeration. The soil is improved even with a sufficiently high-quality structure, making a complete mineral fertilizer in a standard dosage of 60-100 g per plant and mixing the soil with organic matter. Dense and heavy soils are corrected by the addition of sand, light ones - by the addition of peat.
Excessive contact with the roots is best avoided. Maples are set on a mound of substrate. The main thing is to ensure that the root collar remains at the level with the soil line for tree-like plants and is 2-5 cm deep for shrub, giving rise to multi-stemmed maples. Watering is carried out after planting maple, using a double rate of water (about 30 liters) for each plant. After the water is fully absorbed into the soil, tree trunks mulch.
In the photo: Maple in the Garden of the Russian-Japanese friendship in Sochi
Features care for maples
In order to admire the bright colors of maple, lush flowering and original autumn colors in full, for these trees will have to take care of several mandatory care measures. Maples need watering, feeding, mulching, and most varieties need pruning.
Watering is carried out for all maples. Among them there are drought-resistant species and even varieties with declared drought-tolerance, but the maples always show normal active growth and much brighter colors with additional watering. Of course, for these trees we are not talking about the same watering, which need flowering herbaceous plants. Maples are watered only in prolonged drought, while 1 watering per week is enough for one tree. Varieties that recommend watering regularly need 1 watering per month in normal weather and 1 watering per week in drought. For maple trees, the rate of watering is somewhat higher than for ordinary ornamental shrubs - 15 liters or 1.5 buckets of water per plant.
Top dressing for maples in the garden depends on how the plant was planted. If, when planting in the soil according to the standard method, full mineral fertilizer was applied, then fertilizing begins only from the second year after planting. Accordingly, for maples that have not been planted in the soil with full mineral fertilizer, fertilizing begins from the next season. For maple trees, they usually spend only two supplements:
1) starting, or spring, after thawing of the soil and the first loosening of the soil for young plants - a complex fertilizer or a mixture of a full portion of nitrogen and half the dose of potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, when using individual drugs contribute 40 g of nitrogen, 25 g of potash and 50 g of phosphate preparations ,
2) summer top dressing - full mineral fertilizer in the amount recommended by the manufacturer.
In order for the soil in which the maples grow, not to lose breathability and drainage, for these trees it is necessary to loosen the soil. It is better to combine it with watering, mulch renewal or weeding weeding. The soil in the tree circle should not be allowed to cortex. Maples love mulching, tree trunks are better protected by an additional layer of mulch not only after planting, but also regularly. Maples love mulching with peat, bark, high-quality substrate. For them, a layer of 3-5 cm is enough.
In the photo: the Norway maple "Globozum" (Acer platanoides 'Globosum')
Pruning maples is usually reduced to the removal of diseased, damaged, atypically green leaves, and all dry shoots. Removing the lateral branches with no characteristic coloring prevents the rest of the crown from losing color. Forming pruning maples spend on the desired contour, trying not to cut more than 1/3 of the shoots.
Maples in the garden are pleasantly surprised and resistant to most common diseases and pests. Maples may be affected:
- coral blotch, which is struggling with the removal of affected branches and preventive spraying fungicides,
- powdery mildew (the fight is also conducted by spraying a solution of fungicides or biological preparations),
- specific insects.
Maple pests - maple weevils, mealybugs and whitefly - require spraying of plants before budding insecticide solutions and collecting and destroying dry leaves under the trees.
The key factors of successful or unsuccessful wintering of maples in regions with severe winters is the choice of varieties. When purchasing varieties adapted in local nurseries, maples can winter without shelter or with minimal procedures. Usually in the first few years it is enough to additionally warm the base of the trees, cover the root collar with a thick layer of dry leaves or spruce leaves.
If the maples are frosting over the winter, especially the maple tree, it is necessary to cut off the damaged tops of the branches as soon as possible in early spring. Plants recover well and grow at the same pace as usual. The older the maple becomes, the more it is winter-hardy. But when planting krupnomerov adaptability is partially lost. The effect of improving wintering is also leveled if the plants are used to milder winters.
In the photo: seedling and sprout of maple maple, in nature, it is well propagated by self-seeding
Maples are considered the most expensive garden trees, largely due to the difficulty of reproduction. Maple is easier to obtain by vegetative methods, and not to grow from seeds, but in fact, and in another case, it will take a very long time to wait until plants reach a tangible decorative effect.
Maple seeds are subjected to very long stratification, aging for 3.5-4 months at a temperature of 2 to 5 degrees Celsius. Before sowing them for 1-3 days etched in hydrogen peroxide. In many maples, seeds lose their germination two years after harvest, and a false maple tree will not germinate in a year. Only seeds that were sown at the stage of soaking are sown on the beds or under the greenhouse. Maple seeds are buried by 3-4 cm. For plants, stable light soil moisture, protection from the noon sun and protection from weeds and soil compaction is required. Growing shoots quickly, but before the formation of the trunk will have to wait more than one year.
The cuttings for maples are carried out in the fall, cutting and dropping powerful ones for the winter, up to 25 cm long, and cutting them into individual containers only in the spring of next year. For varietal maples, the grafting method (suitable for budding and copulation) for wild-growing or species plants (of the same species) is preferable. Vaccination is carried out only before the start of sap flow, leaving for the stock at least 50 cm high.
The use of maples in the design of the garden
Maples in the garden always remain real stars that attract admiring attention regardless of the season. But the options for their introduction into the garden and use in the compositions directly determine the type, size and characteristics of the variety.
Maples change the color of the leaves three times a year, surprising the shades of young greenery during the unfolding of the first buds. Regardless of whether flowering belongs to the decorative features of the variety, the maples look elegant and bright, seem almost fluffy and fragrant clouds. And the autumn color palette of leaves is not just an integral feature, but also a true symbol of autumn gardens and parks. Maples are traditionally perceived as woody for a Japanese or Chinese garden, but they are relevant in any direction of modern design, because their beauty is much more multifaceted stylistic norms.
In the photo: examples of the use of maples in the design of the garden.
Maple red: characteristics and biological features
Genus Maple (Acer) covers more than 160 species. It grows without any problems on any soils, except for marshy. This plant is interesting for its shades of red. Like all plants, maple trees contain chlorophyll, which in summer stains the leaves green. However, in addition to chlorophyll, it contains carotenoids and anthocyanins, which give the leaves various colors: yellow, orange, red, etc.
The crown of the plant has a round or oval shape. Sometimes it looks like a white mushroom. The bark has a light silver color, which harmoniously combines with red leaves. The leaves of the tree can be three or five lobes. This type of tree tolerates our climate. Maple red has good frost resistance and can withstand up to -20 ºС. The plant does not like constant exposure to direct sunlight and strong moisture. Trim and rejuvenate wood is advised from late August to early December. This cannot be done in the spring, as the tree actively absorbs nutrients from the soil, and you can harm it. Vaccination is done in spring or summer by budding.
Maple red has many varieties. The most popular ones are used as decorations for gardens or parks. Here are some varieties:
- Red Sunset (Red Sunset) is one of the most popular tree species of this species. It has a lot of carotenoids, so in the fall its leaves are colored bright red.
- “Fassens Black” - a large tree with an oval-shaped crown. It has a maroon leaf color.
- "Royal Red" (Royal Red) - at the very beginning of the growing season, the crown is bright red, which eventually fades.
- “Drummondi” (Drummondii) - when blooming, the leaf color is pink, with time it becomes light green.
- Elsrijk (Elsrijk) - a field plant that has a wide oval crown, is used for landscaping park areas.
- blue or blue
- raspberry red
- light purple.
The essence of this technique is that the root is not allowed to grow, and the crown is greatly shortened, almost to the size of the indoor flower. After that, the plant becomes a real mini-tree.
Choosing a place for maple red
The tree grows on almost any soil. Red maple grows well on our black soils in a cold and snowy winter. This plant will be in harmony with perennial conifers. Under it you can plant bright late flowers, which in the autumn will blush with the leaves of the maple tree.
Breeders brought some decorative varieties of maple, which reach a height of no more than one and a half meters. They are planted in pots and serve as decoration for balconies and terraces. When planting such a tree, the ground must be bred with peat and at the same time fertilize. Such plants should be watered regularly, as they may lose their ornamental properties.
The process of planting maple seedlings
It is best to plant maple trees in partial shade, but you can also in open areas. The plant does not like constant sunlight, but still needs it. Red maple is planted in spring, preferably in early to mid-April. When planting a seedling, the root collar should be at the ground level or protrude by no more than 5 cm. With a large protrusion, the roots of the tree begin to dry with growth.
If you plant a plant near groundwater, then it is necessary to make a drainage so that the root system does not start to rot because of the high humidity. Put a little bit of humus and peat into the hole along with the root of the tree, pour with twenty liters of water. It is also advised to make a little nitroammofoski (about 150 g per seedling). The optimum acidity of the soil for the normal growth of the ornamental tree should be pH = 6.0-7.5.
How to care for young seedlings
Red maple requires special care. While seedlings are young and immature, they require constant feeding with mineral fertilizers. Every spring, urea (40-45 g), potassium salts (15-25 g), superphosphates (30-50 g) should be added. In the summer, the soil around the tree should be loosened and at the same time, 100-120 mg of Kemira preparation should be applied once per season.
Saplings are watered about once every two weeks - 15-20 liters of warm water at the root. The plant tolerates dry soil, but it can lose its decorative properties. In winter, red maple seedlings need to be covered with spruce leaves right under the root, especially if there is not enough snow. In severe frosts, the root of a young plant is very sensitive and requires protection. It is also necessary to wrap the trunk of the tree with thick sacking. If the shoots are frozen, they must be removed. In the spring, with normal care, the tree will grow again.
How to care for mature trees
When the plant has grown and is strong enough, caring for it does not require much effort. Maple red after planting and up to the age of four requires care in terms of fertilizers. After that, the minerals should be applied to the soil no more than once every two years. Many ornamental plants are suitable for growth in the wild, for example, in the forest, where no one cares for them. And while the trees grow normally for 100-150 years. But for an ornamental tree requires care, in order for it to remain beautiful and bright.
To do this, cut some twigs, especially dried. You also need to cut down all the branches that prevent growth. Experts recommend not to cut off the shoots, the maple plant should be branched. The tree can be given a beautiful rounded crown. The ideal season for trimming wood is August-December. If you do not comply with these time limits, the plant may begin to "cry."
Using maple red
Red maple, in addition to its decorative properties, has a lot of useful environmental and economic purposes. The bark of this tree in some countries produce a paint of purple color. In addition, the bark of the plant is rich in tannin and sugars. Листья клена красного содержат много витамина С, их используют как корм для овец и коз. В период цветения возле дерева собирается много пчел, которые активно собирают нектар.
Весной, еще до разбухания почек, с деревца можно собирать сок. Из чистого и прозрачного сока при правильной обработке можно добывать сахар. Сок активно течет днем, ночью этот процесс прекращается. Стоит заметить, что когда почки разбухают, сок становится мутным и зеленоватым. In this form, it is no longer suitable for making sugar. In the USA, maple sap is made into tasty and healthy syrups. And in Canada, this plant is a national symbol, its sheet is depicted on the flag of the country.
Still, a lot of people grow maple red for decorative purposes. With proper care of the tree, it becomes an ornament to any suburban area. Crimson-red leaves bring color every autumn day. If you have read our article and learned how to grow red maple, then you should not delay its landing. Different varieties of red maple can be grown in pots, as well as on the site under the open sky. In any case, it is a great decorative ornament.
Agrotechnics when growing maple at home
- Purchase maple seedlings. The acquisition time of such a plant is the end of September or the beginning of October. The leaves on it should be without wilting. Root system without damage or defects.
Landing The maple tree is held on a bright place, but in the first year of life, shading should be organized from the direct midday rays of the sun. A pit for planting is prepared 14–20 days before the operation so that the earth settles in it. Used for filling, the same ground from the fossa, but mixed with humus. The size of the hole should be 70 cm in depth and 50 cm in width. If a hedge is formed, the distance between the seedlings should be 1.5–2 meters, but with a single planting it is 2–4 meters. A maple seedling is planted in the hole so that the root neck is flush with the ground surface. After it is moistened, the soil can settle down to 20 cm in a natural way. If the site has groundwater close to the soil surface, then a drainage layer of expanded clay or crushed stone is laid at the bottom of the landing pit.
Fertilizers for maple contribute once a year. If the planting is done and there is a nutrient substrate in the fossa, then there is no need to feed such a tree, and next year make superphosphate, potash salt and urea.
The following rules are required to make your tree happy with its beautiful fur crown:
- Regular soil moistening - in spring and autumn, only one watering is performed, but it is sufficiently abundant (up to 15–20 liters of water under one tree). In the summer heat, it is recommended to carry out weekly watering, and if the specimen is still young, it should be watered with twice the volume of liquid.
After watering the substrate in the wheel circle is loosened.
- It is recommended to remove weeds in a timely manner.
Rules for self-reproduction maple tree
You can get a young maple plant by sowing seed, grafting or grafting.
Seeds before stratification are stratified — for up to 2-3 months they are placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator at a temperature of 5 degrees. Then they should be soaked in hydrogen peroxide for 3 days, and only then planted in the prepared soil. It should contain humus, garden soil and river sand in the proportion of 4: 2: 1. The landing is held at the end of April. The seeds are immersed 4 cm in the substrate and after 20 days you can see the first shoots. It is recommended at first to prune seedlings from the rays of the sun, regularly water and loosen the soil in the pot. For a year, such plants reach a height of 80 cm. The transplant is carried out for the first time after a year, but 3-year specimens are more viable.
Cherenok in late summer or early fall. Twigs are cut to a length of about 25 cm, the cut is carried out at an angle. On the handle leaves a couple of leaves, but they are cut in half. Then the branches are placed for a day in the growth stimulator solution and then planted into the substrate no deeper than 5 cm. The soil should consist of garden soil, peat and river sand (in the ratio 3: 2: 1). You can put the twigs under the cut plastic bottle, but air them regularly. With the arrival of spring cuttings should be planted in fresh soil.
In the riverine maples, root sprouts appear over time, which in the spring or autumn period can be dug up and landed in a new place. Sometimes maple propagation is used by grafting.
Pests and diseases of maple, methods of dealing with them
Maple often suffers from many infectious and fungal diseases, among which powdery mildew, white, brown, pinkish, yellowish and black spotting are distinguished, and a mob, wilt, viral mosaic or foliage can also become deformed. In identifying these diseases should be treated with fungicides, Bordeaux mixture, use of colloidal sulfur or copper oxychloride.
Pests can also cause irreparable harm to maple trees, devouring leaves or sucking juices, and they are often carriers of infections with various ailments. The American white butterfly, ash-tree, and an unpaired silkworm are distinguished from harmful insects. The maple is also harmful to maple trees, apple clerk, maple sawfly, plane tree moth. In the fight against these insects used insecticidal preparations of a wide spectrum of action.
Often trees are eaten by mice or hares and other animals.
Interesting facts about maple
The beneficial properties of maple plants have long been known to people, for example, the Indians of North America and to this day they prepare syrup from juice, which is collected, almost like birch. Americans like to use this sweetness to season their culinary dishes. It is curious that in the maple sap there are numerous beneficial substances, such as reproduced sugars, various trace elements, tannins, lipids and unsaturated fatty acids. Because of this, it can be used by people suffering from diabetes or obese obesity. To prepare the juice, you need to have several types of maples, such as black, red, silver and sugar.
Young foliage can have a tonic and tonic effect, as well as long-known choleretic, antiseptic properties, the ability to quickly heal wounds, so maple is widely used in traditional medicine.
Maple can relieve nervous tension, which causes stress and is a good antidepressant. It copes well with aggression, contributes to the harmonization and restoration of energy. There are many recipes from the bark, leaves, fruits and flowers of maple.
For bath procedures also use a maple broom on a par with birch. Maple sap can heal internal wounds and is used in peptic ulcer disease.
And because of the polyphenols that are in the juice, it is prescribed to cancer patients. If fresh maple leafy plates are crushed, it can be applied to skin lesions, as well as juice can be drunk during avitaminosis and asthenia, if maple juice is added to the drug complex, diseases such as viral infections, kidney diseases or hepatitis, bronchitis will heal faster. Maple bark ash diluted in water can be used for good hair growth.
If maple was planted near the house according to old belief, it brought happiness and always this tree symbolized good. Such a tree helped to find balance and to be in a calm mood. In some ethnic groups, the maple leaf has become a symbol of good luck and its five peaks symbolize the five human senses.
Types of maple
Here are only the most famous and ornamental varieties of maple plants:
- Field Maple (Acer campestre) The height of this tree is on average 15 meters with a trunk diameter of 30–60 cm. The crown is made of intertwined branches, which slightly wilt downwards, and it crowns with a short trunk if the growth is free, but in the planting the branches grow high, and the stem looks high and slightly twisted. His crown is wide-conical, composed of 5-7 lobed leaf plates, their opposite arrangement. The color of the foliage is light green. When flowering flowers are formed almost imperceptible due to the small size, they are dioecious, going to hanging brushes. Plant with male flowers begin to bloom earlier. They appear almost immediately after foliage is formed. The flowering process takes place in May-June for about a week (maximum 15 days). Fruit - a lionfish with a sunflower seed.
Maple dark red (Acer Platanoides Royal Red) it can reach 12–15 meters in height and has a high growth rate. The crown is tapered, but over time it becomes more rounded. Sheet plates reach 18 cm in length and have five blades. Their color is lighter red than other varieties with red foliage. Before blooming foliage flowers form a yellow-green color. The root system of this tree is superficial, sensitive.
French Maple (Acer monspessulanum) may have both tree and shrub growth. Growth rate, while the young plant is quite high, but over time it slows down. The root system of this tree is superficial and the plant does not tolerate stagnant moisture. To the touch, the bark is smooth while the tree is young, but then the surface of the trunk becomes covered with cracks. Unlike other varieties, the leaves have only three lobes. Color - dark green. Fall foliage only in late autumn. At the end of the summer, the color of the leaves begins to change to yellow-green. The flowering period is at the end of April and may last until mid-May. At the same time, small yellowish-green flowers are formed on the tree, which are collected in racemes. The decoration of the tree is considered to be fruits with wings that are painted in a bright rich red hue.
Black Maple (Acer nigrum) native territories of growth are the eastern lands of North America. The height of this plant is impressive and its figures approach 40 meters. It is considered a long-liver as there are specimens that have overstepped the mark in two centuries. Flowers of black maple are not formed, the period of vegetative activity falls on May and lasts until the beginning of October days. The root system is superficial and therefore sufficiently sensitive to the substrate. Sheet plates are divided into 5-6 blades. The color of the foliage is not as black as the name suggests, it is most likely a very maroon or dark purple that goes to a black tone. On the surface of each lobe is clearly visible the central vein, which stands out among the rest.
Japanese Maple (Acer japonicum) can also be found under the name Maple Japanese aconitol. It has average height parameters - no more than 5 meters. The foliage of this species is quite decorative, the length of the leaf plate is 10–15 cm, while the color is light green. The crown is spherical in shape. When flowering buds form a yellowish-brown color scheme, the fruit is a lionfish. The root system of the plant is quite branched, but it does not lie deep, hypersensitivity to substrate flooding. It is better to plant in sunny or dim places.
Although the root system is also superficial, but the plant is undemanding to the composition of the soil, has frost resistance and is not afraid of much wind.
How to plant a maple from a seed, see below:
Planting maple and care for it
Before proceeding directly to planting, you must determine the place and soil, which may be ordinary garden, but pre-fed organic fertilizers. Adding soil mixtures can be adjusted depending on the soil of your area and the selected type of plant. Mainly used a mixture of 3 parts of humus or peat compost, 2 - sod land and 1 part of sand. If groundwater passes nearby, then a 10 - 20 cm drainage layer is needed from: rubble or screenings, building materials waste and sand.
The most suitable place to live for a new sapling is open or light partial shade, as in trees growing in the shade, the decorative color of the leaves may become faded and less saturated. Planting can be carried out in early spring or autumn, leaving the distance between the trees at least 2 - 3 meters, and a hedge of maples - planted with an interval of up to 2 meters between them. Before planting, it is advisable to soak the root system in water and leave it for a while.
Having dug a planting hole to a depth of half a meter, add mineral fertilizers such as nitroammofoski at the rate of 120-150 g to each hole and lower the seedling there, placing the root neck at ground level. Considering that after planting, the soil will necessarily settle, preferably planting a plant to raise it 20 cm above the ground, especially if you are transplanting an adult tree. Then mix 3-5 cm with a layer of peat or soil and pour water at the rate of 30 l for each tree. If during planting no top dressing was made or its quantity was insufficient, then in the spring of the next year everything can be corrected by fertilizing the plant with urea, superphosphate and potassium salt.
During the summer, the tree must be fed fertilizer Kemira - wagon (100 g per 1 m2). Maple tolerates drought quite easily, but for the beauty and brightness of the color of leaves, it should be watered regularly. On hot days, it is necessary to pour about 1 to 2 buckets of water under each tree once a week, and seedlings and young plants need a double portion of water. In autumn and spring, watering can be carried out less frequently - about 1 time per month.
Also, for a good flow to the roots of air and water, weeding should be carried out regularly and the soil should be loosened in the near-stem circle.
Although maple is considered not very demanding, he still loves attention and care, so it is necessary to carry out all the necessary procedures on time, including pruning dry and diseased branches. And your grateful plant will grow even more intensively and branch out.
With the onset of early frosts, it is desirable to cut off annual shoots, at the expense of new ones, the crown will self-repair, the shoots will have time to get stronger and will be able to survive the frosts. Before the onset of cold weather, young, fragile trees should be wrapped with spruce branches or other insulating materials such as spunbond near the roots. Grown maple trees do not need warming and calmly tolerate the vagaries of the weather.
New maple trees can be bred with seeds or green cuttings, and decorative species should be propagated by vaccinations. The most effective is the cultivation of new maple seed. Moreover, the seeds of such varieties as holly, Tatarian, green-green, and ash-leaved remain viable for two years, and there are species whose seeds must be used within one year.
Fallen seeds of maple trees growing in natural conditions in the winter are independently stratified, and then also sprout independently in the summer. But when cultivating domesticated plants, a longer stratification is required at a constant temperature of 3-5 degrees Celsius. Experts recommend meeting the deadlines: for Norway maple - 110 days, Tatarsky - 100, green-expensive - 120, yelonist - 40 days.
Before sowing, it is necessary to soak all seeds for 1-3 days in hydrogen peroxide. Then, germinated seeds at the end of April or at the beginning of May should be sown in prepared beds to a depth of 4 centimeters and wait for 2 to 3 weeks of their germination.
During the first year of life shoots can rise to 50 centimeters or more. As the seedlings grow, they need to weed, wean and water regularly. With strong heat, young plants should preferably be covered from the sun. After 1 - 3 years, you can safely transplant seedlings for permanent residence.
For reproduction of decorative maples, you should apply vaccinations on maples of the same kind as they are: cutting or kidney. Alternatively, a decorative form can be grafted onto the wild-growing stock of the Norway maple. The height of the trunk varies from 50 cm to 3 m. It is most favorable to conduct vaccinations in early spring, before the start of sap flow.
Like all living things, maple can be exposed to diseases and harmful insects, which include: coral spot, maple whitefly, maple mealybug and leaf weevil.
Коралловая пятнистость проявляется в выступании на коре бордовых пятен и отмирании веток. Пораженные ветки необходимо немедленно удалить, а места срезов обработать садовым варом. Причем садовый инвентарь следует продезинфицировать во избежание распространения болезни.
Для лечения от кленовой белокрылки, надо опрыскать ее личинки аммофосом, удалить и сжечь засохшие ветки и листья. For the purpose of prophylaxis from a maple mealybug, you need a tree before bud break, spray it with a solution of 3% nitrafen, and if a maple is affected by a leaf weevil, it should be treated with chlorophos. Also, young plants are lurking danger from various rodents in the autumn-winter period, so you should take care about the means of protecting plants from unforgiven guests - insects.
One of the most favorite species of gardeners - Japanese maple. A rather compact tree with a lush crown, a magnificent autumn color and an unusual shape of pointed leaves (three-, five- or seven-pointed) from very small to the size of a palm. Many species dress up in dark - red foliage, not only with the onset of autumn, but also so dressed throughout the summer. However, in order to maintain such a beautiful saturated color, the maple must grow in good light under the direct rays of the sun, since lack of sunlight may cause the leaves to remain green and not redden. Dwarf varieties of Japanese are especially popular, which will perfectly complement even the smallest garden plot.
Japanese maple needs only pruning dry or broken branches. Corrective pruning is not necessary, as the main beauty of the plant is the crown of a rounded shape, cutting which you can only spoil it. If, after a while, the crown needs to be corrected, then it is enough to shorten the branches, keeping the desired shape, adhering to the principle - do no harm.
Maples are not always large deciduous trees, but among them are varieties such as low shrubs and evergreen specimens. Also, their main beauty leaves are quite diverse in shape, size and color range - from white to dark chocolate.
If you decide to choose a maple for your garden plot, then among the existing diversity, you can choose your own unique tree. Fans of something extraordinary should take a closer look at such a maple as a snake-short. These trees look quite exotic thanks to emerald trunks, covered with gray or white longitudinal stripes and leaves that do not resemble the usual maple. Looking at them you lose touch with reality and it seems that you find yourself somewhere in the fabulous gardens of Japan.
Maple in the garden landscape
Maple trees are universal trees that do not require much trouble and do not create problems. Plants are famous for positive energy, breathes peace from them, for which they are especially esteemed by lovers of wildlife. It is difficult to imagine today's landscape design without slender maples, topped with a beautiful crown in a colorful autumn decoration. Maples perfectly complement the evergreen spruce trees, look good against the background of high dense bushes, in the form of a hedge with other trees or as a tree - a loner. Maples are considered the leaders among all greenery, providing a cool shade in the heat. Thanks to a thick crown in the shape of a ball, a pyramid or another, they are regulars in parks, squares, alleys and in different green areas.
Maple is widespread and popular all over the world. The most famous maple in Europe is distinguished by the shape of leaves, flowers and fruits from 150 species of the genus, and besides all its positive qualities it is a long-liver and lives 200 to 300 years old, having the largest area of distribution. Maple from America is called American or ash-leaf for the similarity of leaf shape with ash leaves, and its distinguishing feature is unpretentiousness and the ability to quickly spread to new territories. Appearing in Europe about 200 years ago, it grows from the extreme south to northern latitudes. The national tree of Canada is the sugar maple, its leaf adorns the coat of arms and national flag of the country. Canadians take care and protect their national wealth and constantly plant new lands with maples. And although the maple leaf is a symbol of Canada, but most of all the various types of maple grow in China.
A handsome maple is sung in songs, epics, poems and always arouses sympathy as a positive and courageous character, and a beautiful tree planted on your site can be its worthy decoration for many years.