Before you talk about where the coconuts grow, it is worth mentioning the history of this amazing plant. Oddly enough, but it is still not known exactly how such interesting palm trees appeared on the planet. But there are a number of legends, assumptions regarding this issue. How true they are is difficult to judge. However, all the botanists still tend to believe that the plant has a very long history, its history goes back to those distant times when dinosaurs still roamed the earth.
Coconut fruits have an interesting property - they are incredibly light and waterproof. As trees grow on the coasts of the oceans, ripe nuts fall into the water and are carried by currents to all corners of the planet. Almost all versions suggest that the south-east Asia, India, California and islands in the Pacific Ocean can be considered the birthplace of coconut palms. An interesting fact is that the fossilized coconuts were found in New Zealand, it is also known that in India palm trees have been growing for 4,000 years. Therefore, some scientists are inclined to believe that the shores of the Indian Ocean can be considered the birthplace of the plant. In general, there are many opinions, and they are all quite different. However, it is reliably known that the place of growth of the plant is the equatorial belt.
Where do bananas and coconuts grow? It would seem easy to answer this question: “Where it is warm ...” Partly this judgment is true. But not all readers know that coconuts grow in Asia, Africa, Oceania, Central and South America. In total, the plant is distributed and safely yields in 89 countries around the world.
Ocean coasts are the places where coconuts grow in natural environment. As we already mentioned, this is due to their way of moving through the water. But now coconut palms grow in many countries far from the coast, which is already the result of human activity.
The uniqueness of the coconut palm is that it is the only and unique representative of the Coconut family belonging to the Palm family. There are only intraspecific species. The basis of the classification is the size of the plant.
High coconut palms, which are widely used for commercial and home cultivation, are distinguished. The height of such plants is 25-30 meters. Such palm trees grow slowly in adulthood, and begin to bear fruit 6-10 years after planting. An interesting fact is that coconut palm fruits for sixty years, and sometimes even longer. Every year, each plant gives dozens of nuts. Such palm trees are cross-pollinated, and therefore they are planted in groups.
Dwarf palm trees (coconut) grow only up to ten meters in height, begin to bear fruit after three years, as soon as they reach one meter. Plants live much less than their big brothers - only 30-40 years. These palms are self-pollinating, and therefore they do not need relatives in the neighborhood.
Palm root system
Sometimes people wonder where coconuts grow: on a tree or on the ground? Do not confuse pineapples, which really grow on the ground, with coconuts growing on palm trees.
It should be understood that where coconuts grow, any other plant would die quickly. And palm trees feel well for decades thanks to their root system. The peculiarity of the plants is that they do not have taproot roots, but they are armed with a lot of fibrous roots that all look like a broom. And they grow from a thickening at the bottom of the trunk. The outer roots spread out on a horizontal surface, while the inner ones go down, penetrating to a ten-meter depth.
It is this unusual structure of the roots that allows palm trees to grow beautifully on the sandy coast, which is subject to winds, tides and ebbs. But even such a system is sometimes not enough. Often you can see fancy plants with curved stems and washed up roots from the soil.
The stem of the plant has no branches, it grows from one apical bud. It is called the heart of the coconut. It is a set of folded rudiments of leaflets. The trunk at the base in adulthood reaches eighty centimeters in diameter. The rest of the trunk has one diameter - forty centimeters. It must be said that in the first years the plant develops very quickly and can produce a 1.5-meter increase in a year. But over time, the palm tree matures and begins to slow down in growth and adds only 10-15 centimeters. The stem of the plant does not have cambium, and therefore it cannot repair damaged tissue. If a plant loses a single kidney, then it leads to its death.
But adult palm trees build up 18,000 vascular bundles on their trunk, which help them to withstand significant damage. We have already mentioned that in those regions where coconuts grow, there are frequent storms, winds, ebbs and flows, and the plants are sometimes injured.
The first leaves of the future palm tree, sprouting from a nut, look like feathers. Only after 8-10 of the first leaves the real ones begin to grow. Adult plant gives 12-16 new leaves per year.
At the same time on their palm tree grows up to 30-40 pieces. Mature coconut leaf has a length of 3-4 meters and is divided into 200-250 stripes. It remains on the trunk for three years, after which it disappears. And on the tree with a scar. For these scars you can determine the approximate age of the plant. To do this, you need to divide the number of scars by thirteen. This will be the approximate age of the coconut tree.
Where do coconuts grow? On the tree are formed inflorescences in the form of a cob, each of which is located in the leaf axil. Palm trees are masculine and feminine. There are always more men than women. Four months after the separation of the leaf, an inflorescence germ appears, and the flowers themselves grow another 22 months later. And a year later the inflorescence shell will open itself. First, male flowers bloom, and then female ones. Approximately 50-70 percent of the flowers are not pollinated, especially in dry weather. And from pollinated fruits that ripen within a year develop.
What is a fruit?
The fruits of coconut themselves are fibrous drupes. The young nut on the outside has a smooth surface of green or red-brown color. Ripe fruits are covered with fibers, which are successfully used in various sectors of the national economy, and then inside there is a waterproof shell. It protects the core. Thanks to this shell coconuts travel the world. Inside the nut is covered with pulp (12 millimeters), and in the very center there is a liquid.
In its immature state it is transparent. Further, it becomes cloudy and decreases in quantity, turning into coconut milk. The fruits have many useful properties, because of what they are actively used in cooking and other areas of life.
Where do coconuts grow?
We mentioned that the typical habitat of plants is the equatorial belt. Where bananas and coconuts grow, there they have long been industrial crops that are grown for sale and processing. Plants not only decorate the coast, but also planted with huge plantations.
For example, India is known as the birthplace of spices. However, the country is engaged not only in their cultivation. At first glance, it is difficult to say where coconuts grow in India. Yes, in principle, everywhere, including the famous Goa, is an island that has a suitable climate and geographical position for growing coconut palms, cashews, and fruits. There is a huge number of plantations where coconuts grow.
For example, Pascoal Plantation, located near the village of Khandepar, borders the tributary of the Mandovi River. The land owners are engaged not only in the cultivation of coconuts, spices, nuts, breadfruit and mangoes, but also receive tourists. Here are built cottages where guests can stay. Excursions are conducted on the territory of the plantation, during which you can learn how cultures grow, what they are doing and why they are needed.
In addition, the island has a number of similar farms engaged in the cultivation of coconuts. This plantation "Savoy", "Sakahari", etc.
On the mainland, coconut palms are also growing everywhere. However, there are some features. For example, in the central part of India, plants grow to the height of a five-story building, and the fruits on them reach the size of a human head. Such a coconut weighs up to two kilograms.
But south of the palm trees grow much lower, but at the same time their fruits are smaller. In general, it is worth noting that coconuts in India grow almost everywhere. Here they are very loved and widely used in the life of products from them.
Where do coconuts grow? In New Zealand, China, Cambodia, Mozambique, Guinea, Cameroon ... The list of countries is incredibly long. In general, we can say that the plant grows in areas with a tropical climate, which is a paradise for coconut palms.
Coconuts in Russia
Where do coconuts grow in Russia? This plant can be found here only in botanical gardens or miniature options - in home greenhouses. Of course, it’s unlikely that it will be fruitful at home, but there may be a small exotic plant in the house. If you really want to plant a coconut, then the best place for it will be the greenhouse. The process of leaving is quite troublesome, but with a strong desire it is still worth trying. The most suitable are two species: walnut and Vedel. High-quality mature fruit should be half immersed in the ground and wait for the sprouts to appear. After some time, sprouts will appear from the coconut, which will turn into leaves. And later from them the wide trunk will begin to be formed.
The plant loves warmth, but not intense heat. The optimum temperature is 20 degrees. Coconut palm will need extra lighting. It is also worth remembering that the plant loves moisture, and therefore needs daily spraying and abundant watering during the warm period. Palm can not be disturbed once again, and even more to transplant, because you can disturb the root system.
It is worth noting that coconuts are very common around the world. They are not only on the European continent. From European countries, the plant is only in Spain, and even then not on the mainland, but on the Canary Islands, located near Morocco in Africa.
Instead of epilogue
Concluding the conversation about where coconuts grow (photos are given in the article), I would like to say that the plant is associated in our imagination with white sandy beaches and the ocean, and therefore attracts with its exoticism. But do not forget that the fruit itself is incredibly useful. No wonder he is so popular in places of growth. Its pulp and butter are actively used in cooking. And nut milk is tasty and healthy. Of course, in our latitudes it is difficult to buy really tasty and good fruit, because coconuts are often removed even green for transportation. Yes, and when transporting coconuts spoil. But if you happen to be in tropical countries, by all means try the real ripe fruit, you will certainly appreciate its taste and aroma.
Where grows and what a coconut palm looks like
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) - is a powerful tree, lives more than 100 years, with a straight trunk, up to 30 m high, topped with thirty - forty large (4-5 m) pinnate leaves. Same-sex flowers are collected in separate short inflorescences that appear from the axils of the leaves, and since the inflorescences grow from the corner of each new leaf that develops, approximately in a monthly rhythm, it can be harvested from the tree almost all year round, ripening fruits. Almost a year passes from the fertilization of the flower to the full maturation of the fetus.that also allows you to collect nuts in different stages of maturity.
The origin of the coconut palm is not fully understood, but, most likely, it comes either from the islands of Polynesia and Indonesia, or from East Africa. Already in very early historical epochs, about 4,000 years ago, the cultivation of this palm spread in many countries outside the original zone. They claim that sea currents spread coconuts across the islands of the Indian and Pacific Ocean. This theory is not reliable, but has many supporters, since the fact is that the fruits of the coconut palm tree can drift up to 4500 km across the sea, while maintaining its germination. Currently, coconut palm is widely distributed in both cultivated and wild in the tropical zones of both hemispheres. Loves the warm sea climate and often grows even on the salty coastal sands.
How to collect coconuts (video)
The fruit of the coconut palm, from a botanical point of view, is a drupe, but since its construction resembles a walnut, it has received the name coconut (often called just coconut). Mature coconut weighs from 2 to 4 kg, has from 20 to 35 cm in length and from 15 to 20 cm in diameter. The outer soft shell of the coconut is 5 to 10 cm thick and consists of closely intertwined fibers, which are called coir. They are lightweight and resistant to abrasion, and their length ranges from 15 to 30 cm.
Where does coconut grow? The story says that, according to some sources, coconut palm tree originated in the Malaysian archipelago. Fossilized fruits were found in New Zealand. It is also known that palm trees have been growing in India for 4,000 years. Therefore, many scientists believe that this type of palm appeared on the shores of the Indian Ocean.
So perhaps coconut is home to Southeast Asia, Polynesia, India, the Pacific Islands, Hawaii, South Florida, the Caribbean, and Southern California.
In fact, the tree is the most common and necessary in the tropics, and practically is the "tree of life". And this is true, because all its parts are used in people's lives.
Coconut palm is one of the most ancient trees on the globe, growing even in the age of dinosaurs.
Places of growth
Where do coconuts grow in which country? This exotic fruit today exists both in the wild and in culture in the Philippines, Africa, Sri Lanka, South America, India, Brazil, Thailand and the Antilles. All these countries have a rather hot tropical climate.
They are cultivated mainly in developing countries. The volume of annual coconut production is amazing. Approximately 17 billion nuts are harvested annually where coconuts grow. Country Philippines - the world's leading manufacturer. In addition to her - Indonesia, Malaysia and India.
This fruit is the most famous of the huge Palm family (approximately 1500). There are a total of more than 360 ways to use it, and half of them are associated with use in cooking.
This plant is exclusively equatorial. Widespread associated with the attitude of man to this plant (use of fruits, nuts, artificial planting).
Where does coconut grow? Photos with views of sea coasts often have this beautiful exotic tree as the main element. This plant in nature can be found along the coasts of the ocean and the seas, and on the plains, but mainly with sandy soil.
This growth is related to the fact that the only possible natural way to move coconuts is on the surface of the water. Moving to distant shores, coconuts with excellent waterproof properties, began to successfully conquer new territories. Palm trees, which grow far from the coast, are the result of human activity.
Coconut palm tree in natural conditions
Where coconut grows, as is commonly associated, there are clean beaches. This is a paradise island, where you can relax, swimming in the warm gentle sea.
What is coconut palm? A single trunk in the form of a pillar in a mature state can reach a height of 30 meters. It fancifully bends under the influence of the weight of numerous fruits and various natural phenomena. The crown of a palm tree is crowned with large leaves up to 6 meters long.
At about 5 years of age, flowering begins, after which fruits appear in the form of walnut nuts. Until they mature, they grow 6 months, but they become absolutely ripe only a year later. Usually, palm trees produce about 25 fruits a year, and ideally the number of nuts can reach up to 70 pieces.
The total lifespan of a palm tree is about 90 years, so most often it represents the source of food and property for many generations of Aboriginal people.
Where do coconuts grow in culture? In many hot countries. Almost artificially grown palm fruit starts from 7-9 years, and this goes on for about 50 years. The fruits are arranged in groups of up to 20 pieces together. They fully mature within 9-10 months. The yield of one tree per year is 60-120 fruits.
Это тропическое уникальное дерево является единственным представителем рода Кокосовые, одной из самых полезных пальм в мире.
Множество видов кокосовых пальм: фото
В природе существует более 580 видов пальм подсемейства кокосовых.
Где растут кокосовые пальмы? Они растут не только на побережье, но и засушливых районах тропического пояса.
Is it possible to grow coconut palm at home? Houses grow only two types coconuts.
Weddel. Dwarf palm from the forests of Brazil. It grows slowly, rarely exceeds 2 m. Very elegant tree, which can be grown in a small apartment. To fully emphasize the charm of the Veddel coconut, surround it with a white background.
Walnut. Coconut is spread throughout the tropical coast. It grows slowly, but can reach a height of up to 5 m. In small apartments, this type is better not to grow, it is more suitable for greenhouses and spacious winter gardens.
Coconut care at home
Features care after purchase. Purchase only healthy plants. Leaves should be a uniform green color. Pay special attention to the growth bud, if it is damaged palm tree will die. If there is an unpleasant smell from the coconut, give up the purchase, as well reject specimens with damage to the trunk. Often the roots are in a bag or a small container; in this case, the palm must be immediately transplanted into a large pot.
Lighting. Guest from the tropical belt accustomed to sunlight and the same length of day and night. In the winter in the northern latitudes of the palm is not enough lighting. Turn on bright lights so that the “day” is at least 12 hours.
Place the plant near the south window, and in the summer months, two hours before and after noon, shade a little. If the leaves began to curl and turn yellow, it may be a sunburn, hang tulle on the window.
Bloom. Do not expect from the homemade coconut exotic flowers and tasty fruits. Such processes occur only in their native land. In nature, a palm tree throws a long sprout from the top, on which clusters of small flowers turn yellow.
Temperature. In the summer, it is desirable to keep the palm at 25-28⁰, in the winter a slight decrease in temperature is acceptable, but not colder than 18⁰.
Air humidity. In nature, coconut palms grow along the shores of seas and oceans and are accustomed to high humidity around 80%. In the apartment the air is much drier.
Spray the plant daily and wipe the leaves with a damp cloth. Since a person and a palm tree need different moisture regimes, it is better to grow coconut in greenhouses or winter gardens.
Watering. Watch the soil, it serves as an indicator that the plant needs watering. In the summer, the top layer of the earth should be slightly damp, in the winter, let the soil dry out a little. With excessive moisture, the plant may die, so take seriously the preparation of the soil. If the composition is chosen correctly, the excess water in it will not linger.
Fertilizers. In winter, the plant rests; to maintain vital activity, one supplementary feed per month is sufficient. In the summer, during the period of intensive growth, it is necessary to fertilize twice as often with a special compound for palm trees.
Transfer. Palm roots need a lot of space, it should be replanted every year. The best time for this job is the middle of spring. Take a container 10% more than the previous one, remove the palm tree with a lump of earth from the container, remove some felt roots.
It is very important to plant a palm tree at the same depth as before the transplant. If the roots are inadvertently exposed or damaged, cut off half of the leaves, otherwise a weakened root system will not be able to supply them with moisture.
It is better to use a special soil for palm trees. If you do not find such on sale, make it yourself. Mix in equal parts.:
- sod land
- leaf ground
- tree bark.
In nature, palm trees grow on sand, you can use it without other additives, but then the soil should be well fertilized, because there is no nutrients in the sand.
Pruning. Palma does not need regular pruning, you only need to remove completely dead or broken leaves. Do not cut the leaves, which have begun to change color, the plant receives nutrients from them. You can only remove dried feather tips.
Growing walnut palm trees
How to grow coconut palm from coconut? To do everything right need to knowhow coconuts breed in their homeland.
Palm trees grow on the ocean and drop nuts in the water. The fruits of coconut palm trees are covered with a thick fibrous shell and contain a little air inside, so they are able to stay on the water and swim to a new place.
Coconuts should be fresh, store bought fruit is unlikely to give shoots. If you decide to risk - shake the selected nut, take the one in which the splash of liquid is heard. Purchase the fruit only in a fibrous membrane. Soak the coconut for a day in warm water, then put it in a pot.
Landing position the nut itself will tell: put it on the table, how it will settle down, and put it on the ground. You do not need to bury it completely, cover it with earth until half the coconut.
Diseases and pests
Palm trees may be damaged mealybug, mites and flail. Having noticed pests, treat the plant with insecticides.
Sometimes coconuts appear black or pink rot. For treatment, treat the plant once a week with fungicides. The best prevention of disease - the right care, strong palm trees usually do not get sick.
Watch the coconut tree, it itself report your mistakes:
- The leaves turn yellow or their tips turn brown - little moisture.
- Brown spots appeared on the leaves - the tree is cold or the ground is over-humidified.
Where the coconut grows, the fruits look a little different than people see it on the counters of the trading rooms. In natural conditions, the nut is much larger.
The outer fibrous membrane (exocarp) of the nut protects it when it falls. The inner shell (endocarp) is a shell with 3 pores that look like eyes. They lead to three ovules, one of which develops into a seed, consisting of a superficial fleshy layer of white (12 mm thick) and endosperm (transparent and liquid - coconut water). The oil produced in it, secreted by copra, slowly turns into a milky emulsion, and then thickens, hardens.
Prevalence and viability of the coconut tree
- The homeland of coconut palm is supposedly considered to be Southeast Asia (Malaysia), since the exact place of its origin is unknown. Thanks to the efforts of man and with the help of sea and river currents the geography of the spread of coconut palm has expanded considerably. Today, they grow on more than 5 million hectares, mainly in the countries of Southeast Asia.
- Coconut Fruits maintain their vitality for 110 days in salty sea water. For such a long period of time, the fruit can be carried away over a distance of 5 thousand kilometers from its native shore. Due to the fact that coconuts easily tolerate soil salinity, they take root and germinate right on the shore. Other trees in such conditions die.
Coconut palm tree
- Trunk. The coconut palm tree is a tree with a long and smooth trunk, with scars in the form of rings from fallen foliage. It has a height of 25 to 30 meters. The trunk itself is 15–45 cm in diameter, and at the base it reaches 60. Coconut palm has no one-year rings, which are found in most trees.
- Root. Over time, the main the root of a coconut palm dies off, instead, there is a large number of adventitious side roots, which perform all functions. Every ten years, adventitious roots die, and new ones replace them. Vertical sprout to a depth of eight meters, horizontal - up to one and a half meters. Coconut palm roots are used to make dyes.
- Leaves. Palm tree has huge leavescalled pinnacled. They reach a length of five to six meters, the weight of one such sheet is about 15 kg. The palm leaf consists of 200-280 small leaves, each reaches a length of about 80 cm and a width of up to three. The base of the sheet covers the palm trunk almost completely, which serves as a secure mount and allows it to withstand strong gusts of the sea wind. Approximately once a month a new leaf appears on a palm tree, on average their number reaches 35. Small palm leaves are used for weaving mats, making bags and souvenirs.
- A coconut tree can bloom all year round, but only under favorable conditions. At intervals of three to six weeks, numerous inflorescences appear in the axillary region of leaves in the form of a panicle up to two meters long, which is collected from the spikes of male and female flowers. After pollination in the inflorescence is obtained from 6 to 12 ovaries. If from them for a year ripens up to six fruits, then it is considered a good harvest.
- Cutting off the top of the unblown inflorescence, get a sweet juice, which contains 14.5% sugar. Crystalline brown palm sugar is obtained by evaporation. Palm juice is left in the sun, where it is quickly fermented and converted into vinegar within 24 hours. If the juice is fermented slowly, you can get a coconut wine that is low in alcohol and has a refreshing effect.
Palm begins to bear fruit at the age of six, each year increasing its yield by 15 years and lowering it after 50 years, due to aging. Under favorable conditions, coconut palm yields a crop of coconuts up to 200 fruits per year, on average, ranges from 80 to 120 pieces.
As a result of the long-term cultivation of coconut palm, breeders have created many varieties, which are divided into two groups:
- Stunted (dwarf).
- Fast growing (normal).
They differ significantly from each other in different characteristics.
The dwarf varieties, compared with the usual, productive period is 30−40 years, but the fruits appear already in the fourth year, when the tree barely reaches a meter in height. Reaching the age of ten dwarf palm can give maximum yield. Low-growing varieties have smaller fruits than ordinary ones, but harvesting is easier from a 10-meter height than from a 30-meter one.
The palm trees of vigorous varieties fruits have a spherical shape, with a diameter of 30−40 centimeters and a weight of about three kilograms. Crop harvested all year round with an interval of two months.
The inside of the coconut and its use
- Collected coconuts, like the whole palm tree, fully used. Fruits are covered with a thick, smooth shell of green color, which eventually turns yellow or becomes reddish. Under it is a wide layer of brown fibers. These two layers are very important, as they reliably preserve the fruit from the external environment.
- The fibrous layer is called coir or coir. It is a valuable raw material, because of which part of the crop is harvested immature. Coir does not rot at any temperature and humidity, perfectly maintaining its shape. It is used in the manufacture of upholstered furniture premium segment, as a filler for upholstered furniture and mattresses.
- The endocarp is the next shell of the fruit, having a brown color and high strength. In fact, it is coconut shell, which covers a single seed and copra. Copra is the inner layer of the fruit from which coconut chips are widely used in the confectionery industry.
Shell and Coconut Pearl
- The shells of coconuts and fiber residues are crushed and the coconut substrate is used, which is used as a nutrient organic medium for growing various plants. The substrate has a high moisture capacity and a high degree of breathability and does not rot.
- On the basis of the fruit, three points are seen that are not subject to overgrowth with fibers. These are the pores that form on the place of carpels. It is through one of these pores that the sprout makes its way. The remaining two pores remain clogged.
- Very rarely there are fruits in which all three pores are clogged. In such closed fruits, a seed germ can form into a unique so-called coconut pearl. Smooth white shell similar to pearl, has the same high strength and unusual beauty. Such a “pearl” is considered the only jewel that is of plant origin.
Coconut palm fruit
Coconuts are marketed peeled and dried in the sun. Green fruits do not tolerate long-term storage and transportation. When buying it is worth shaking the coconut to check for the presence of liquid in it. If the splash is inaudible, then the coconut is stale. A dry nut can be stored at a temperature not higher than + 5 ° С. The opened fruit is stored no more than 2 days. For longer storage, the pulp can be frozen or dried.
Fruits are usually harvested using a ladder, as coconuts grow on top of a palm tree. Monkeys are specially trained to help people get the fruit of this tree. They unscrew the coconuts and throw them down. Coconuts grow in groups of 15-20 pieces. They need 8–10 months to fully ripen, and the first harvest is 7–9 years old. 120 fruits per year - the average yield of this species.
Coconut fruit is usually called a nut, although according to botanical signs it is a drupe, which consists of several layers. What a coconut looks like:
- exocarp - outer shell,
- coir - fibrous membrane
- endocarp is an internal hard shell.
Coconut pulp is his seed. This layer is filled with endosperm - a white translucent emulsion that thickens and hardens as it matures.
Raw Coconut Palm
Coconut palm is used in many areas of industry, all its parts are used:
- Coconut water has antipyretic properties, quickly replenishes the reserves of fluid in the body. Coconut milk is used for sore throat. This is an effective means of preventing atherosclerosis. Coconut has a positive effect on the human reproductive system, supports immunity, improves brain function, and normalizes the state of the nervous system.
- Coconut chips are used for the preparation of confectionery products. Coconut oil is also obtained from the pulp. It is added to shampoos, balsams, hair masks, creams and lotions. From the coconut oil they get margarine, make candles, soap.
- The coconut shell is used as a substrate. The remains of the peel is crushed and processed, getting ready nutritious organic material. This soil has a high nutritional value.
- Wood is used to make furniture and flooring for the floor. Pacific island natives use leaves as a roof for huts.
- Coconut fibers (coir) are used for the manufacture of ropes, brushes, carpets, as fillers for orthopedic mattresses. The high price of these products is due to the complex technological process of their manufacture. Fiber impregnated with latex to obtain a monolithic block that holds the shape and does not crumble.
Coconut fibers are used as fillers for orthopedic mattresses, as well as for the manufacture of carpets, ropes, brushes
- environmental friendliness
- ability to resist the formation of rot, the appearance of insects and microorganisms,
- does not cause allergies
- moisture resistance
Growing palm trees at home
Coconut palm grown at home will not bear fruit, but serve as an ornamental plant.
A few tips on how to plant a coconut:
- It makes no sense to germinate walnut, bought in the store, because they remove the endocarp, which is necessary for reproduction. Only unprocessed fruit will sprout.
- Soak it for 2–3 days to swell and soak the fibrous layer. This is an imitation of sea travel after falling from a palm tree. Under natural conditions, coconut grows at high temperatures during the wet season.
- The main condition for growing is a tropical climate. The plant is very fond of moisture, heat and sun, but it is better to protect the plant from direct sunlight.
- Use a shallow pot that is 1.5–2 times the size of the fruit. A quarter of the tank should be drained.
- Deepen the fruit is not fully, leaving a third on the surface. It can be planted both horizontally and vertically. When placed vertically, the side remains where the fruit was attached to the palm.
- The soil should be kept wet all the time, but stagnation of water is unacceptable.
- For a coconut palm, the optimum temperature is from 22 to 30 ° C without direct sunlight. The lower threshold is 13–15 ° С.
Sprouting coconut takes a lot of time - from 2 to 6 months. However, then the coconut palm will quickly grow. As it grows, the palm must be transplanted into a larger pot. When the plant becomes large, and transplanting becomes difficult, you can replace the top layer of soil with the introduction of organic fertilizers.
The leaves of the plant need regular spraying or installation of a pallet filled with clay with water. This will increase the humidity of the air.
Wood and palm leaves are widely used for construction, and fruits are used as food. However, it should be noted that for many people, this palm tree may turn out to be a tree of death, since a blow of a coconut that fell on its head can even be fatal. According to the existing statistics, about 150 people die each year from the fall of these fruits. On average, the weight of a coconut is about 1 kilogram (there are also 3-kilogram), and it beats the ground with a force of 1 ton. Most of the wonderful natural material are residents of those countries where coconut grows.
Coconut breeds nuts. Чтобы вырастить его в домашних условиях, следует плод наполовину поместить в приготовленную землю в горшке. Обычно молодое растение – это пучок гибких широких листьев.Then a more mature palm tree appears trunk. However, the chances of getting the fruit at home can be said to be zero (even in greenhouses).
Be sure to remember the following: in order to grow a coconut at home, you must use a ripe fruit. This is an important condition.
Coconut should be placed in the soil containing a lot of sand, so that the eyes located at its base, as a result were on the side (almost horizontal position).
To speed up the germination process, it is necessary to constantly keep the substrate wet. Spray the planted nuts can be a solution with a small content of sea salt. You can also put a pot of nuts in a plastic bag, as this will help maintain an appropriate atmosphere (high humidity and temperature).
A coconut is a light-loving plant that requires at least 12 hours of light for normal growth. Since May and throughout the summer, abundant watering is necessary 2 times a week, and usually - only moderate watering is sufficient for this period. Fertilizing can be a special means for palm and mullein infusion.
For sprouting sprouts, the optimum temperature is 24 ° C, and for an adult plant - about 22 ° C.
The following varieties of coconut palms are usually used for growing at home: Weddell coconut and miniature.
Coconut water is the inner part of the endosperm, and the outer part is the copra. The second is a source of coconut oil, which is quite a valuable product due to the content of various fatty acids in it. It is mainly used for health and beauty purposes.
This is an oily dried secondary endosperm of nuts. Copra consists of white or yellowish pieces, covered with skin. Their thickness is 6-12 mm. One nut gives up to 500 grams of copra, which is an edible product containing 9% protein, 6% water, 16% carbohydrates and 67% fat.
Where coconut grows, harvesting copra at one time was almost the main occupation of the inhabitants of the islands in the tropics. Atolls (where there were few palm trees) were specially planted with coconut palms. Copra is a valuable commercial product that has long been traded on the southern seas. And today they are engaged in its preparation.
Filipinos are considered the largest earners of copra. It is harvested by both large companies and farmers.
It is worth noting that if the copra is not properly dried, it can form molds that produce deadly poison (Aflatoxin). This most powerful carcinogen can cause liver disease. Copra in food can not be eaten, but it is sold. Oil is obtained from it, and it, which is produced industrially, is harmless.
In conclusion about the amazing properties of the product.
In the period 1941-1945 (Pacific War), the parties to the conflict used coconut water to treat the injured as an “alternative” to plasma. This is quite a universal remedy, identical to human blood plasma.
In addition, coconut water is more nutritious in its composition than whole milk. It has no cholesterol and less fat. Residents of the tropics have a surprisingly useful in all respects natural plant.
What is wonderful coconut liquid
Before you open the nut, about one is drained from it a liter of cool liquid through the hole made in the pore. In order to obtain the maximum amount of coconut liquid, fruits are harvested in the fifth month of aging. Coconut water has many beneficial properties.
Here are some of them:
- It promotes the splitting and leaching of kidney stones.
- It is recommended to use for breastfeeding women, as this fluid increases lactation.
- Coconut liquid is sterile.
- For a number of indicators she very similar to blood serum (blood plasma, devoid of fibriogen) and, in fact, is a saline solution of natural origin. During World War II, this water was used for emergency transfusions in case of emergency.
- With a low content of sodium in this fluid a lot of potassium and natural chlorides.
Now coconut water is sold in canned due to short shelf lifewhich is up to three days.
From sprout to the first leaves
- Initially, the sprout covers the apical bud of the so-called heart of a palm tree, and outside it is covered with a white cannon, which is edible and tastes like a marshmallow. Of these kidneys make a salad, which is considered a delicacy, which is called the "millionaire salad" because of the high price of this dish. Each serving of this salad is a whole palm tree that has not grown, as the plant loses its core.
- After about nine months, the first leaf grows, and the primary roots leave the mesocarp (a thick hairy layer under the outer layer of the exocarp) and begin to grow in the soil. Palma does not yet have a trunk, it consists of a fruit with sprouted leaves and a terminal bud.
- When the kidney gains enough strength and reaches a certain size, the trunk begins to grow. It turns out that the coconut palm initially expands to the sides, and then begins to grow in height. As practice shows, the fruits that were harvested from the more productive palms first begin to grow. Those fruits that did not give their sprouts, after five months, are rejected.
Landing in the soil
- Palm trees are planted in the soil when they reach the age of 6 to 18 months. But at the same time the nut itself is left, as the future tree for three years continues to receive nutrients from it. Planting is made all year round, exceptions are made only in times of drought. The coconut palm is very fond of light, so when planting in open ground should take into account the illumination of the place, as well as soil fertility and characteristics of the variety.
- A coconut tree can withstand salinity of groundwater and soil for about three percent. The density of planting trees on the plantation ranges from 100 to 160 pieces. The distance between each should be at least nine meters, so that the leaves of the trees do not interfere with each other and receive enough light for rapid growth.
- As the fruit ripens, copra begins to accumulate and then release oil, causing turbidity and subsequent thickening. By nine months of ripening, as the amount of proteins and fats increases, the seed is formed completely and, two months later, is ready for germination. During germination, a sprout appears from the pore, and the primary root system is formed in the fibrous layer of the fetus.
After the coconuts have been harvested, the nuts are chopped and dried in the sun. The future copra is separated from the shell and dried using sunlight or in specialized furnaces - to protect against bacteria and fungi. The resulting copra contains approximately 70% coconut oil.
Oil is obtained from copra by cold pressing or hot pressing.
As a result of these actions get fatty thick liquid, which is called thick coconut milk. It is used in the confectionery industry for making desserts and sauces.
Coconut milk contains:
- Fat - 27%.
- Carbohydrates - 6%.
- Proteins - 4%.
- Vitamins: B1, B2, B3 and C.
- Fresh coconut milk to taste is very similar to cow's milk, so often the usual is replaced by coconut. The energy value of coconut milk is 230 kcal per 100 grams. Cold-pressed oil is more valuable than something made using hot pressing.
- Applying a cold method of extraction, reel mass is used again, dropping it into the water, and again pressing, getting already liquid coconut milk. It is used in the culinary industry of the countries of Southeast Asia, is added to soups, sauces and other dishes. The remaining cake after the production of oil goes to feed the cattle.
- Copra is used in the confectionery industry, we know it well in the form of coconut chips. Due to its high fat content, it is used in soap making, the production of cosmetics, drugs and suppositories.
The temperature at which coconut oil begins to melt is from +25 to + 30 ° C. At a lower temperature, it acquires a grainy texture.
Coconut oil has a lot of useful properties:
- It has a long shelf life, it is almost not oxidized due to the presence of saturated fatty acids.
- The oil has exceptional heat resistance and does not lose its properties when heated to high temperatures.
- Coconut palm oil is an anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antibacterial agent for the body.
- It contributes to the removal of toxins, bile.
- Prevents the development of urolithiasis, various kidney diseases and obesity.
- Normalizes the thyroid gland and cholesterol metabolism in the human body.