Botanical name: Black Oak (Quercus robus), Common Oak, genus Oak, family Beech.
Motherland of English Oak: Europe, Crimea, Caucasus.
The soil: wet, fertile.
Maximum tree height: 40 m
Tree's average lifespan: 400 years or more.
Description of bark, leaves and other parts of pedunculate oak
English Oak (ordinary) - deciduous tree, reaching up to 40 m in height. It grows to 200 years, then growth stops. The increase in thickness continues throughout life.
The bark is gray-brown, fissured, about 10 cm thick. In young individuals, light gray, smooth.
Buds are light brown, hemispherical. Along the edges of the cilia scales.
Crohn dense, wide pyramidal, sprawling with strong branches and a wide trunk. The root system consists of a long taproot, which goes deep into the ground. Later, lateral roots appear.
The leaves are simple, alternate, oblong, lobed, on short petioles, green, with prominent veins.
Flowers gay. Male - yellow-greenish hanging earrings, female - reddish, on short pedicels.
Fruits - acorns, brown-yellow, with stripes. Immersed in a cup plyus. Ripen in September - October. Fruiting begins with 40-60 years. Abundant yields are repeated after 4-8 years.
It blooms in late April - early May, simultaneously with the blooming of the leaves. Pedunculate oak thermophilic. Suffering from spring frosts. Prefers well lit places. It grows slowly.
Pedunculate oak spread
It grows in Western Europe and the European part of Russia, in Africa and Western Asia. It is one of the most common species of broad-leaved forests in Europe. The range of pedunculate oak comes to the east to the Urals, in the south - to the mountainous regions of the Crimea and the Caucasus. Adjacent to spruce, pine, hornbeam, ash, birch, maple, beech. Young oaks are shade-loving. The soil is not demanding.
Tree pests and diseases
The main pests of pedunculate oak are pathogenic (marsupial) fungi. Spots form on the leaves of the diseased tree, the leaves gradually die off.
The pedunculate oak may be affected by powdery mildew, autumn planting, and sulfur yellow tinder. Some plant diseases cause pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial dropsy, in which wood and bark quickly rot and die.
The leaves are covered with light spots and do not fall for a long time. Such a disease as a transverse cancer forms growths on the branches of young individuals, which increase in size over time. Transverse cancer can cover both branches and the trunk of a tree. In places of defeat branches break off.
English oak: planting and care
Planting of English oak is done in early spring before leafing. A well-lit place, protected from wind and excessive waterlogging, is suitable for this.
Seeds are sown in autumn or May after their preliminary storage in a damp, cool place. In open beds, grooves or grooves are made with a depth of 5-6 cm. Decorative forms are propagated by grafts.
Planting and transplantation of young individuals is made in fertilized nutrient soil. To do this, make a soil mixture of sod, peat, sand and leafy ground. If the soil is too heavy or too humid, add a layer of rubble or expanded clay. When planting a seedling, the root neck should be at ground level, but you can put it a little higher. When the soil settles, the plant will fall, the root neck will be at ground level. After planting for 3-5 days, regular watering is necessary. On dry days the water volume should be increased. Timely weeding and loosening of the soil to a depth of 20-30 cm are important.
In early spring, make feeding. As a fertilizer, a mullein diluted in water, urea and ammonium nitrate is used.
English oak is often grown from acorn seeds. In this case, the first weeks of life, seedlings grow to 10-12 cm. Intensive growth is facilitated by the nutrients contained in acorns in large quantities. Under favorable conditions, oak seedlings are grown for 1-2 years. Best of all grow on fertile, fresh loam and sandy loam. The powerful and widely branched root system of pedunculate oak allows the tree to grow even on dry, poor, stony soils. The plant does not tolerate overmoistening and acidic soils. It is warm. It is cold-resistant, but young individuals often suffer from frost. Drought resistant
Collection and storage of raw materials
Leaves, acorns and pedunculate oak bark are used in medicine. The bark is harvested during sap flow. For this fit young trees intended for felling in the cutting areas. Dry the bark in the open air under a canopy or in an often ventilated room. Dry bark during drying breaks, undrained bends. If during drying this raw material is subjected to excessive waterlogging, much of the tannins contained in it will be lost. The shelf life of dried bark is 5 years.
Fruits of an oak are collected in the fall, right after falling. Dried under a canopy in a well-ventilated area. Suitable for this purpose and attic. Acorns are spread out in one layer on paper, mixing them from time to time. Dried in the oven or dryer. After that, clear of the leathery seed and seed skin. Ready raw materials are stored in bags. Shelf life is not limited.
Use of bark and leaf of English oak in medicine
Pedunculate bark is widely used in medicine as an astringent, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic. Broth bark is used for inflammation and gum disease, stomatitis, sore throat, as well as to eliminate bad breath. Compresses impose with burns, frostbite, ulcers, wounds, dermatitis and other skin diseases. Infusion of oak bark drink with diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding, heavy menstruation.
Dried and crushed oak seeds help with diarrhea and cystitis. From the seeds of oak, surrogate coffee is processed, which has healing properties. This drink is effective in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, rickets, anemia and scrofula.
Infusions and decoctions of oak leaves treat diabetes.
Use in other areas
The pedunculate oak is used in furniture production, construction, medicine, food industry, agriculture and shipbuilding. Its strong and durable wood is considered one of the best materials for building buildings, bridges and ships. Parquet, door structures, frames, plywood are made of it. In the chemical industry, oak bark is used for the production of paints, as well as resistant dye for fabrics and carpets. In agriculture, acorns serve as food for pigs. Acorn meal is human food. Oak wood is an excellent fuel for indoor heating.
The pedunculate oak is a rich source of nutritive pollen. Sometimes honeydew and honeydew often form on this tree, collecting which bees produce unsuitable for eating honey.
The leaf of English oak contains pigment of quarticin, which is used to dye wool in green, brown and black tones.
The English oak tree has also been used in landscape design. Used for decoration of parks, alleys, squares, gardens, the creation of hedges.
English Oak "Fastygiata" with column-shaped crown
Deciduous tree with a narrow, columnar crown, vertical, widely branched branches. The height of pedunculate oak, Fatigiata, reaches 15–20 m. The annual height increase is about 25 cm. Male flowers are yellow earrings, 2-4 cm long. Female flowers are spikelets on long cuttings. The leaves are alternate, wedge-shaped, 10-15 cm long. Leathery, light green.
English oak Fastygiata is not picky about the soil. Light-requiring Drought resistant
It grows predominantly on the plains, in the lowlands, in the meadows and mixed forests. It is adapted to urban conditions, gas pollution and environmental pollution.
It has a decorative meaning. Planted in parks and gardens. Autumn coloring of this tree is considered one of the most beautiful.
Pedunculate oak oak reaches 8.5 m in height. The diameter of its trunk is 20 cm, the diameter of the crown - 3 m. The branches grow up at an angle, forming a dense, dense crown. Start at the vaccination site. Some trees have a loose, wide pyramidal crown. The leaves of the pyramidal pedunculate oak are dark green, dense.
The plant is frost resistant. It grows slowly. Prefers moderately moist, fresh, loose soil. Drought resistant Does not tolerate overmoistening.
Pedunculate oak does not need pruning, as it has a pyramidal crown. To preserve its attractiveness, cutting of dry branches is necessary. Propagated by budding and copulation. Planting seedlings produced at 5, 6 year after vaccination. Well gets acclimatized in lighted, sheltered from the wind places. Its roots go to great depths and, meeting groundwater, form many lateral branches. Its top dries up. Therefore, it is important in the home to protect the oak from excessive moisture.
The tree is used for landscaping parks, alleys, creating hedges. Perched in group and single landings.
Popular forms of English oak
The plant has several different species, which differ in the shape of the crown, leaves and leaf color. Forms of pedunculate oak crowns: pyramidal, weeping and spherical. The pyramidal crown can be cypress, silver dot, green, gold dot.
Depending on the shape of the leaves, the tree is:
English oak, it is common oak or summer oak, is a bright representative of the beech family. It is considered to be a long-liver among trees, the average age is 400 years, but it can reach 1500.
Root system, bark, crown
Oak is a sustainable durable deciduous plants, therefore it has a powerful and developed root system, which provides it with high resistance to external natural factors:
- The root system of the tree is very deep. The young individual usually has one rod-like long root, from which lateral roots spread as the first seven years grow,
- trunk height can reach 40-50 meters, the thickness of the trunk continues to slowly increase throughout the life of the tree,
- the bark changes its appearance depending on the age of the plant: in young individuals it is usually light gray, without obvious furrows, smooth, but as it grows it thickens, becomes uneven, the color begins to change towards dark gray with an admixture of brown shades,
- tree crown spreading, lush and thick. The crown can reach 25 meters in diameter.
Shoots, buds, leaves
Young shoots of a tree are usually not bare or covered with a small fuzz, as a rule, they are brown or red in color with numerous buds. The buds are round, have a shade slightly lighter than the shoot and scaly surface. The foliage is dark green oak. The leaves have an oblong ovoid shape with rounded lobes, short petiole and many veins. Leaf size can vary from 7 to 35-40 cm. Young foliage has a fringe.
The pedunculate oak is a same-sex plant, respectively, and its flowers are same-sex. Males bloom with lush earrings hanging down, consisting of small yellow flowers. The pistillate flowers are reddish, small, located in the axils of the leaves, are collected in small inflorescences up to 5 pieces. Fruits tree nuts. We know the fruits of the oak as acorns - oblong bare brown nuts, 2-7 cm in size with dark brown stripes, each located in its cup-shaped “nest”. The first acorns usually appear on trees that have stepped over a 40-year milestone.
Where Oaks Grow: Spread
Oak ordinary knowingly can be seen on many emblems and emblems of Old Europe. It is in Western Europe that this type of tree is the most common. It also grows in the European part of Russia and Western Asia. In the South, it can be found in the mountainous regions of the Black Sea coast and the Caucasus.
Is it possible to grow in the country
Green, sprawling long-liver looks very impressive, and many gardeners dream to rest in the shade of his crown. Is it possible to independently grow an oak tree at the dacha, try to figure it out. Growing pedunculate oak on the plot is common for landscape design, it looks great next to the standard for the garden shrubs and coniferous trees. However, it should be remembered that the oak requires a large amount of space and a soil resource for growth, and it is quite capable of “robbing” its neighbors for nutrients. In order for the oak to not bring you trouble and please the eye, it is necessary to choose the right place for its planting and to follow the formation of the plant, not allowing it to grow excessively.
Do I need lighting
Oak likes good bright lighting, it is especially useful for the upper part of the crown. In this case, the lateral shading of the tree is not scary. In this regard, for the cultivation of a green giant fit open area of the site with nearby trees and low shrubs.
The second important point is to determine the appropriate soil - this is one of the key secrets to the success of oak cultivation. The tree loves fertile neutral soil, but does not tolerate its increased acidity, so you should not grow oak near conifers.
It feels best on fertile loam, although it is quite viable on poor, stony soils. Oak is drought-resistant, does not like stagnant water and excessive soil moisture.
When planting pedunculate oak
Planting of young individuals is recommended in early spring before the leaves bloom. If reproduction is carried out by means of acorns, then they are sown either in autumn or in late spring, closer to May, in this case from autumn to spring acorns are stored in a cool, dark place at high humidity.
Reproduction of trees by cuttings is a rather laborious process, but it allows you to grow a tree without any special expenses. English oak multiplies by rooting cuttings from the mother tree:
- It is best to take cuttings from young plants, age 2-3 years. The most favorable period for rooting is in the period from May to early July,
- it is best to cut the shoots in the early morning or in cloudy weather, they should have green bark and be flexible,
- the shoot is cut into cuttings with a sharp knife, usually the middle part of the shoot is used for cutting, the lower part of the cutting is cut with an oblique cut, and the upper part is cut with a straight cut,
- before planting, the sliced cuttings are placed in a container of water and sprayed,
How to grow oak from acorn
Much less trouble will bring the cultivation of common oak from the acorn. The most important thing is to seriously approach the choice of acorns, which will become planting material, because among them it may not be viable:
- the fruits of the oak ripen in the autumn, already mature, acorns are ideal for germination. When collecting, it is important to determine whether the fruit has dried up inside, for which it must be shaken, the nut kernel should not knock on the walls. High-quality fruits do not have cracks, mold and other irregularities, the acorn cap is easily removed,
- Experts advise you to take the soil and a small amount of fallen leaves from the native tree to ensure proper storage of planting material,
- It is very easy to check the suitability of an acorn for growing trees: pour the selected fruits into a container with water. Those acorns that immediately surfaced, can be safely thrown away, they are not suitable for planting. After a few minutes, repeat the procedure - this time you need to wait a few minutes, perhaps a few more will pop up. Those fruits that remained at the bottom of the dish, you can safely take as seedlings,
So, you have successfully coped with the task of growing a seedling and transplanted the plant to a permanent habitat at the dacha. Now your main task is to provide the young tree the right care. We emphasize that careful care of the oak requires only at first, while the plant is young, that is, up to about 5 years of age.
In ancient times it was for many nations the most holy tree, which was even worshiped, like a deity. It was believed that he brings happiness and success. By the way, to this day they say that the oak tree dreams of success, career and money growth.
Oak, among all the trees most often exposed to lightning.
Almost all elements of the tree are used to make medicines for various diseases.
There are over six hundred species, some of which are almost impossible to distinguish from each other.
Oakwoods tremendously purify the surrounding air.
80 years of marriage are called “Oak Wedding” in honor of this great tree.
Великобритания проводила огромное количество войн с целью пополнить запасы дубового материала для судостроения.
В России наиболее распространённый вид — черешчатый.
Многие люди даже не подозревают о том, что дуб способен цвести. All this is quite easy to explain: the oak has quite unusual green flowers, which often become invisible among the foliage.
However, oak flowers are quite complex, so, like other plants, are divided into two types:
- female (possess pestle),
- male (contain stamens).
But, after looking, they can be distinguished without a microscope. For example, male flowers are usually collected in inflorescencesthat resemble catkins hanging from branches. Women gather 2-3 flowers on special short stems and have a very small red top. It is precisely from these flowers that acorns known to all appear in the future.
Tree flowering period
If the oak grows in free space, its first flowers appear when they reach the age of about 20-25 years. Twice longer it is necessary to wait for flowering from a tree growing among other plantations.
In any case, flowers appear, like leaves, in late spring. After some time, pollen ripens on the stamens of male flowers, which remain active for 4-5 days. If the weather is favorable windy, and there is plenty of sunshine, then ripe pollen is poured out and air is transferred to the pistils, fertilizing female flowers.
Literally early autumn they turn into rather large acorns and eventually fall to the ground, after which they calmly winter over snow, and grow in young trees in a warm spring. However, it should also be noted that reproduction takes a huge amount of energy from a tree, so oak bears fruit only once every 5-8 years.
Useful properties of oak
Oak is a plant possessing a huge amount of useful properties and finding its application in every area of humanity.
For example, this tree is one of the best building materials with high strength and reliability. It is actively used in such industries as shipbuilding. Oak is used to make high-quality furniture, floors of various formats and colors, used in the manufacture of vehicles.
From acorns can produce an excellent coffee drink.
This tree is able to saturate the air with phytoncides around it, so even just breathing next to the oak tree is undoubtedly a useful activity.
But the oak is able to benefit not only man, but also animals. Its acorns are used for food, and the boar is considered special by their lovers.
In addition, this part of the oak, as the bark, is in great demand not only in folk but also in modern medicine. The most important for this medicinal raw - prepare it properly. This should be done at the beginning of spring, using exclusively young plants.
Dry bark is best in the sun, in the rain - under a canopy. Preparation of raw materials in the room is undesirable, with the exception of a well-ventilated room, however, this option does not guarantee high-quality drying.
Prepared dried bark has a large number of tannins, it can be used, for example:
- to stop bleeding (2 tsp. bark pour 0.5 liters of boiling water and leave for about 9-11 hours, then strain and drink 10-15 ml every two hours),
- for stomach health (2 tbsp. of bark, pour a glass of warm water on it, heat it in a water bath for half an hour, then strain, dilute with warm water and take 0.5 cups 20 minutes before meals).
Acorns are harvested and dried according to the same principle as the bark, however, they are applied somewhat less frequently:
- hemorrhoids (roast dry acorns, fry, 1 tsp. pour a glass of boiling water and leave to infuse for 24 hours, then drink half a glass before eating).
Be sure to remember that the use of medicinal raw materials from oak has its own contraindications and side effects, so before using it, you should consult with your doctor!
How many oak lives?
The oak tree is considered a long-lived, often associated with wisdom and durability. And for good reason. The life span of an oak tree is up to 5 centuries, although in history there are specimens that live more than 1000 years.
Description of oak. What does an oak tree look like?
Oak is a deciduous tree. The size of the oak is impressive. Its average height is about 35 meters, although sometimes 60 meter giants are also encountered. The thickness of the oak can also be quite impressive. The trunk of an oak tree is on average about 1.5 m in diameter, covered with dark bark, mottled with cracks, tortuous and wrinkled.
The form of a leaf of a tree depends on a type of an oak. Oak leaves can be lobed, toothed, pinion and others. Branches of oak indirect, curved. This sinuosity is due to the fact that the oak tree is very responsive to the sun's rays. When growing, shoots stretch to the light and therefore change direction depending on the season, weather and time of day.
The root system of oak is very well developed. Usually, oak roots are huge and go deep into the ground. The crown of an oak and its shape depends largely on the conditions in which the trees grow. In the forests, mostly oak trunks are straight and even, separately growing plants on the plains are very strongly distributed in breadth. The crowns of such oaks in circumference are measured in meters. If the tree has grown in extreme conditions, for example, with a lack of moisture or under the frequent influence of the wind, then the crowns of such oaks are deformed and not quite clear and regular in shape.
Where does oak grow?
Most often, oak is found in regions with a temperate climate, in the Northern Hemisphere. Although some species of these giants are found in the tropics, it is true, only in those places where the air temperature is not very high, mainly in the highland regions.
Oaks grow well in rich soils, like medium humidity, but there are known species that exist well in the marshes, or, conversely, in conditions of lack of moisture.
How to plant oak?
A variant of oak planting is also the gathering of germinating acorns in the park or in the forest in early spring immediately after the snow melts. Such seeds with sprouts can immediately be planted in the ground, taking care that the fragile and not yet strong sprouts do not dry out and break off. Oak saplings must be protected from weeds and do not forget to water during drought.
Healing properties of oak.
The use of oak is quite wide. Fruits of an oak, bark and branches of an oak are often used in the medical purposes. In addition, luxurious oak wood is highly valued.
Oak bark - medicinal properties.
Oak bark, the use of which is found in medicine, is very useful. Oak bark is used to relieve inflammation, is an effective wound healing and astringent. Broth oak bark treats gastric diseases, allergies, skin diseases, throat, mucous membranes, good for gums. Oak acorns also have beneficial properties, they help with diarrhea, gastric bleeding, treatment of hernia, burns, skin problems.
Oak bark for medicinal purposes is harvested in spring. Most of all, raw materials from young branches and trunks are valued. After collecting, the bark must be dried, but not for long - 2-4 days. For long-term storage, this process should be increased until the bark reaches brittleness.
Do I need to water the plant
Despite the fact that the oak tree is considered to be a drought-resistant plant, in this case mature trees are meant, and young individuals require regular watering. As soon as you have planted a seedling in open ground, it should be immediately watered and continued to be watered for up to 5 days daily.
Then, in the hot season from late spring to early fall, young oak trees need to be watered systematically as the ground dries. It is important to remember that oak does not like stagnant moisture, so periodically you need to loosen the soil around the trunk and timely remove the leaves and other debris.
Responsiveness to feed
Young animals are very sensitive to the environment, therefore, in order for the oak to take root, in the first years it is especially important to pay attention to top dressing. Usually, oak is fertilized twice per season: in early spring and in autumn, special mineral dressings in the form of pellets are used for this. It is noted that regular fertilizer increases the resistance of oaks to diseases and fungi, and also contributes to more intensive growth of young trees.
Literate pruning young oak
As is known, oak has an impressive crown, which can bring to the garden plot not only the desired coolness, but also an undesirable shade for other plants. In addition, the timely removal of dried branches gives the tree a neater look.
- pruning is usually carried out in the fall before the onset of frost or in early spring before the juice is released. Usually remove excess shoots, cut off dry branches and carry out the pinching of the branches to form the crown,
- in order to give the crown a rounded shape, several branches are cut out in the central part of the crown, while the side branches are only slightly trimmed. If the oak tree has gone too far into vertical growth, it is pinned to the top (central shoot). On the thick branches after cutting off their parts, the area of the cut is painted,
- It is important to remember that young oak is better to start pruning after the trunk has been fully formed, otherwise you risk getting an oak bush instead of a tree.
Disease and pest treatment
Oak is a very stable culture, but like other deciduous trees, it is prone to certain diseases and attracts pests:
- most often oak strikes powdery mildewforming a whitish bloom on the leaves of the tree. This fungal disease not only spoils the appearance, but also weakens the plant, in addition, it can go to the shrubs and trees adjacent to the oak. It is easiest to combat powdery mildew with preventive methods: it is necessary to periodically process the plant with fungicidal agents, and if the first signs of the disease are found, then destroy the affected branches, and spray the tree with the fungicide
- dropsy. This disease occurs in oak trees due to the ingress of pathogenic bacteria under the bark. As a result of the development of the disease, swelling under the cortex forms, filled with liquid, then the dropsy is opened and leaves cracks and stains on the bark. The disease occurs after adverse weather conditions: extreme heat or cold snap. In order to avoid dropsy, you need to carefully monitor the branches and crown, remove dry branches, leaves, cut wild shoots,
- rot caused by mushroomsthat develop directly in wood and even roots. Typically, these mushrooms live on dead trees, but there are species that infect and live plants and lead to shrinkage and destruction of these, such mushrooms include root sponge, tinder oak. For the prevention of rot, it is necessary to observe the agrotechnology of growing a tree, timely cutting and cleaning of dried branches, protect the tree from rodents, in order to preserve the integrity of the bark and prevent spores from getting inside,
- gall midges- the most common pests. Many saw small balls around oak leaves. They have nothing to do with the fruit — these are eggs laid by these insects, the larvae stimulate the growth of tissue around them, thus forming a shelter in the form of balls (galls). The timely processing of oak with industrial pesticides will help against the attack of harmful nut-yards.
- green oak leafworm - malicious caterpillar that devours the foliage, weakening the tree and reducing its yield. Appears in hot, humid weather. It is recommended to fight it, as well as other insects, by spraying with insecticides when the first symptoms appear.
Shelter for the winter
Despite the natural frost resistance of common oak, it is sensitive to sudden temperature changes, so young trees, at least for the first 1-2 years of life, are best sheltered for the winter. For these purposes, you can use special insulation or ordinary burlap, which is wrapped with a trunk and branches. With age, the oak adapts to the cold weather, and 2-3-year-old trees will be able to tolerate them without shelter.
Mistakes gardeners when caring for oak
The success of growing any tree, including oak, is in compliance with agrotechnics, but often novice gardeners make standard mistakes that lead to the death of a seedling or disrupt the growth of an adult and other plants.
One of them:
- wrong place selection. Oak is known to possess sprawling crown and an extensive root system. Planting it too close to other plants or objects can be harmful. Overgrown roots can damage neighboring crops, as well as damage to buildings,
- violation of landing rules. Many gardeners are in such a hurry to plant a tree in the ground that they do not pay attention to the preparation of the pit. The planting pit should be dug in advance in order for the metabolic processes necessary for the adaptation of the seedling to begin in the soil. You can not plant a tree in a newly dug hole,
Common oak is a beautiful and powerful tree, known to many, renowned by poets in verse and since ancient times known for its healing properties. Pro oak description is found many centuries ago. So, it has long been proven that walks in oak forests or groves have a positive effect on those who have hypertension or atherosclerosis. Oak phytoncides when inhaled lead to the removal of headaches, reduction of pain in the heart area. Promote normalization of sleep and reduce irritability.
Description of the species
Oak ordinary very large and powerful tree, reaching a height of 50 meters, and the diameter of the tree sometimes reaches two meters. Oak belongs to long-livers, among them there are millennial representatives. There are a huge number of oaks, but the most common among them is pedunculate or common oak. Oaks have a very well developed root system and crown.
Young trees are covered with smooth, olive-brown, slightly pubescent bark, and with age the bark of oaks becomes more gray and becomes covered with cracks. The foliage of oaks is known to all: oblong, bare, obovate, narrowed to the bottom, dark green, short-stubby, shiny with distinct veins.
Common oak is divided into two subspecies: early and late. A feature of these subspecies is the time of appearance and fall of the foliage. So, in early oak foliage appears in April and falls for the winter. While the late subspecies leaves appear a few weeks later, and in young oak trees it does not fall off at all, even for the winter.
The flowering of oak begins in mid-late spring, when only the first foliage appears. Monochrome oak flowers are unisexual, extremely small and completely unremarkable. Male flowers of oak trees resemble the hazel earrings, they are also greenish, hanging down and collected in small inflorescences. Female flowers are very small and almost imperceptible. The size of a female oak flower is no more than five millimeters and more resembles a small greenish seed with a raspberry tip. Female flowers are located on thin stalks one at a time, less often several things. By the autumn on these stalks fruits are formed - acorns. Fruit ripening occurs at the end of September and the beginning of October.
Common oak is more common in the European part (up to the Urals), in the steppe and forest zone. Previously, most of the forests in Europe were occupied by oak forests, today their concentration has decreased to 3% of the total number of other forests. Oak hardly tolerates cold or too humid climate.
Collecting and harvesting
Oak bark is used as a medicine. Harvesting of bark is done in early spring, without wood or cortical layer. At the same time for harvesting, you can use only young trees that were cut for sanitary purposes. Like any natural vegetable medicinal raw materials, drying of oak bark is carried out in the open air under canopies or in well ventilated rooms, for example, attic. The finished raw materials should break well, and the undiluted will bend. In no case should the harvested bark get wet, because of this, most of the valuable tannins are lost. The shelf life of dry bark is quite large - up to five years.
The main advantage of oak are tanning substances that make up the bark. The content of these substances in the bark varies from 10 to 20 percent, they are also present in the leaves and fruits of oaks. Tannins are a mixture of phenol compounds quite similar in structure. Organic acids and trace elements, carbohydrates and starch, flavonoids and pentosans were also found in oak bark.
Oak fruits have a very interesting composition, due to which they are used (in combination with chicory) as a coffee substitute. In addition to tannins, starch, sugars, proteins and fatty oils are found in acorns. In addition, it has long been known that acorns are very nutritious. In the foliage of oaks, in addition to the tanning substances mentioned above, there are also flavonoids and pentosans.
Contraindications to the use of individual intolerance. Also, do not abuse it, that is, to allow overdose, as tannins that are part of the preparations based on oak, can cause vomiting.
Acceptance of decoctions and infusions using oak is absolutely contraindicated for children.
При приеме препаратов с использованием или на основе дуба при полоскании ротовой полости может наблюдаться некоторое угнетение осязательных и обонятельных рецепторов.
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What does an oak tree look like: photo and description
Starting the description of the oak tree, it is worth noting that it is a representative of the genus of trees, less often shrubs of the beech family. Homeland - North Africa, Southern Europe, Syria, Palestine. You can find out what the oak tree looks like from the proposed material, richly illustrated with pictures.
There are about 45 species of oak trees. The most common oak is common.
For many nations, oak was considered the most beautiful tree, and it was treated with respect and love. In Latin, it is not without reason that oak is called: “beautiful tree” - quercus (Quercus), from the Celtic words “quer” - “beautiful” and “cuez” - “tree”. This is the most durable plant: sometimes an oak lives up to two thousand years, and centenary and three hundred year old oaks are very common.
To imagine what an oak tree looks like, you need to understand that this is a huge tree, up to 40 meters high, with a thick trunk and twisting curly branches, forming a wide foliage tent - it really gives the impression of power and strength. Particularly powerful are single old oaks growing somewhere in the meadow. The trunk of this oak is low and not very straight, but it is very thick at the very bottom. The winding branches are spread widely in all directions, the lower ones almost touch the ground. The crown of the tree resembles a ball. In the forest, oak looks completely different. Here it is tall, with a narrow, laterally compressed crown, which never descends to the ground, but on the contrary, is located at a rather high altitude. The trunk of such a tree is more or less straight. All this is a consequence of the competition for light, which manifests itself between the trees in the forest, the stronger they are closer to each other.
See what the oak tree looks like in the photo, where representatives of this species of different ages are represented:
Thin oak branches, even if they have no leaves, are easy to recognize. Their characteristic feature is that at the very end of the shoot there is a whole group of buds. In our other deciduous trees this does not happen. A single kidney has an ovoid shape and is covered on the outside with many protective scales.
Look at the oak tree in the photo and description offered on the page above, will play with bright and rich colors of fresh greens:
How does an oak tree bloom (with photo)
In the spring, oak is late in blooming, one of the last among our trees. He is clearly not in a hurry. Hurry would only hurt him: after all, the young leaves and stems of this tree, which barely came into existence and had not yet had time to grow properly, are very sensitive to cold, they die from frost. And in the spring frosts are sometimes quite late. And then we will understand how oak blossoms and when it happens in wildlife.
An oak tree blossoms when it has very small leaves and trees appear dressed in thin green lace. The flowers of the oak are very small and inconspicuous. Male, or staminate, flowers are collected in peculiar inflorescences - thin yellowish-green pendant earrings that resemble a little of the hazelnut earrings. These earrings hang in whole bunches down from the branches and almost do not differ in color from the young, very small leaves. Female, or pistillate, oak flowers are harder to find. They are very small no more than a pinhead. Each flower has the appearance of a barely noticeable greenish seed with a raspberry-red top. These flowers are arranged singly or two or three at the ends of special thin stems. It is from them that the acorns familiar to everyone are formed by autumn. From spring to autumn, acorns go through a difficult path of development. After flowering, the small cup-shaped wrapper first grows, and then the acorn itself. Only in late autumn do acorns fully ripen and fall to the ground. A ply some more time remains on the tree.
See how the oak tree blooms - this amazing process preceding the appearance of acorns is shown in the photo:
Oak has the rare ability to produce two generations of shoots in one season. The first generation is formed in the spring. From the buds appear normal stems with leaves, which grow at this time and all other trees. But a few weeks pass, and the spring escape seems to be completed. At the end of it, the apical bud begins to grow and gives rise to a new, summer escape. The newly emerged escape at first has a lighter, sometimes reddish coloration and due to this is clearly visible. Later it gets dark and no longer stands out.
Summer oak shoots appear at the beginning of July, at about the time when the day of Ivan Kupala comes on the national calendar. This is probably why they got the name "Ivanov shoots". Such shoots are more often formed in oak in more southern districts, where sometimes even two generations of such shoots may appear in one summer.
Oak wood (with photo)
Oak has a very hard and heavy wood. You can tell a lot of interesting things about its structure and other features. Look at the surface of the cut down of some fresh oak stump and note the color of the wood. Almost the entire surface of the stump, with the exception of a narrow outer ring, has a rather dark, brownish color. Consequently, the trunk of a tree consists mainly of darker wood. This is the so-called core. Oak core wood has already served its time and is not involved in the life of the tree - no fluids flow through it. Its dark color is explained by the fact that it is impregnated with special substances that preserve the tissues and prevent the development of rot. Heartwood oak has a peculiar smell. You clearly feel it when you walk past a stack of fresh oak logs. Oak barrels have the same smell. The core is the most valuable part of the trunk for handicrafts; furniture, parquet, barrels, etc. are made of this material.
There is a lighter, almost white outer layer of oak wood. On the stump it looks like a rather narrow ring. The name of this layer is sapwood. It is through this layer that the soil solution that is absorbed by the roots, water with a small amount of nutrient salts, rises up the trunk. Sapwood is an active, active part of wood that is of great importance in the life of a tree. However, its share in the total mass of wood is small.
If the stump is sufficiently smooth, it is not difficult to notice here a multitude of tiny holes, like injections with a thin needle. These are the thinnest tubular vessels cut along the trunk. It is on them that the soil solution rises. In oak, compared to other trees, vessels have a large diameter, they can be easily seen with the naked eye. In many other tree species, they are only visible through a strong magnifying glass or microscope. The carrying capacity of oak vessels is quite large. It was estimated that in just one hot summer day, about 100 liters of soil solution passes upward through vessels in the trunk of an old oak tree.
Vessels located on the stump surface are not random. They form clusters in the form of thin concentric rings. Each ring consists of very many vessels, closely related to each other. On the stump it is clearly seen that one ring of vessels is separated from the other by a thin layer of homogeneous wood. Such alternation of layers is connected with the change of seasons. In late spring - early summer, a ring of vessels is formed, and at the end of summer - early autumn a layer of homogeneous wood is formed, devoid of visible vessels. The following year, everything is repeated again. And so many tens, and sometimes hundreds of years.
On the rings of vessels on the stump, you can calculate the age of the oak. The account must be conducted, of course, from the center of the trunk: here the very first rings of vessels appeared, when the tree was just beginning its life.
Oak vessels are clearly visible not only on the stump, i.e. on the cross section of wood. They are easy to see and on a longitudinal section. Look carefully at the tile of oak parquet or on the surface of oak furniture, such as a table. You will see many thin parallel lines of dark color. These lines are collected in narrow bands. Between the strips are layers of "uncirculated", homogeneous wood. Probably, you have already guessed that the thin lines are cut along the vessels, and the strips of lines are the rings of the vessels cut in the same direction.
See what oak wood looks like in the photo, where various samples of this material are offered:
Galls on oak leaves
In autumn, yellowish or yellow-pink balls as large as small cherries can often be seen on oak leaves. Such balls are called galls. Gauls on oak leaves are a painful growth of leaf tissue. The reason for their appearance is the insect Gallita, similar to a very small fly. At the beginning of summer, a gall midge with a thin, sharp ovipositor punctures the skin of the leaf and lays an egg in the leaf pulp. The plant reacts to this foreign body by a strong growth of tissues, and after a while a ball-gall grows on the sheet. If you break such a ball in late autumn, in the middle of it you can find a small white worm - a gall midge larva or an adult insect. In some years, oak leaves are literally dotted with galls - there are several pieces on each sheet.
Gauls on oak are sometimes called "ink nuts". This name is not accidental. They were once used to make black ink. To get the ink, you need to prepare a decoction of nuts and add to it a solution of ferrous sulfate. Merging two weakly colored liquids, we get a completely black liquid. Such an unusual phenomenon is simply explained. The gall contains a lot of tannins, which have the ability, combining with iron salts, to give a thick black color.
Oak Tree Fruit - Acorn (with photo)
It is necessary to say a little about acorns. It should be noted first of all that these are not seeds, but fruits (since each is formed from a pistil of a flower). But acorns are like the fruit of an oak tree, peculiar: all their contents consist of only one large seed.
Some other features of acorns are also interesting. Compare them with the seeds of plants familiar to us, such as peas, beans. The mature seeds of these plants are completely dry. They are perfectly preserved and warm and frost. But those are not acorns. They are relatively juicy and very capricious. First of all, they absolutely do not tolerate drying. Once they lose even a small part of the water, they die. They are sensitive to frost.
Finally, they very easily rot. Therefore, it is rather difficult to keep the fruit of the oak tree for a long time. It is especially difficult to keep them alive during the winter, from autumn to spring. This problem sometimes arises with forestry workers.
In fact, how to protect acorns in the winter from several dangers at once - from frost, drying out and rotting? Proposed many ways to save them. One of the most effective is to put the collected acorns in the basket in the fall, close it and lower it to the bottom of the river until spring (water, of course, must be flowing so that the acorns do not "suffocate").
It is characteristic of oak seed that almost all of its contents make up the germ of a future plant — the germ. But the embryo is unusual here: the cotyledons are excessively powerfully developed. They have a lot of starch. This is the food reserve for a young oak tree that will emerge from an acorn.
Look at the acorns of the oak tree in the photo, which shows all the features of this seed, intended for the culture propagation process:
How does an oak grow from an acorn
The process of how an oak grows from an acorn resembles pea germination: the cotyledons do not rise above the soil surface, like in many plants, but remain in the ground. Upward only a thin green stalk grows. Initially, it is leafless, and only after some time at its top you can see small, but typically oak leaves. In nature, oak seedlings appear relatively late - in late spring - early summer.
In the first summer a young oak forms a rather long stalk, often it is longer than a pencil. Under forest conditions, this is the record height of the seedling among the trees. The large length of the stem of a young oak tree is explained simply: it lives at the expense of the acorn, spending the nutrient reserves that are contained in the cotyledons.
But how does an oak grow in subsequent years if it lives under a forest canopy? It is rather dark under the trees, and in the second year the stalk lengthens a little, because in low light the leaves of the plant produce very few organic substances necessary for growth. (Now the oak tree lives already due to its own photosynthesis.) Further growth of the stem due to lack of light almost stops, and sometimes the stem even dries out completely. However, oak is a viable plant. He stubbornly clings to life. At the base of the dried stem, a new live shoot appears, but very weak. Such half-dead, stagnant oak trees are called sticks. Their life time in the forest during shading is rarely more than four or five years. Torch - a kind of reserve of young, which persists for several years. While the mother tree is alive, the corks are doomed to slow death. Many times throughout the life of an old tree, young oak trees appear under its shadow and die each time from a lack of light. But as soon as the old oak for one reason or another dies and a lumen is formed in the forest canopy, the peaks begin to grow vigorously and replace the deceased maternal tree.
Where the oak tree grows in Russia and how it lives
The most suitable places where the oak grows are zones of mixed forests, river valleys, steppe zones, ravines and ravines. Oak forests are much less common than oak itself. We find these forests only in the soil and climatic conditions most favorable for oak. In prehistoric times, oak forests were significantly larger than they are now, but even then they were far from being everywhere where oak is capable of growing. This is a general rule in the plant world. It happens with many other plants. Within the area of natural distribution (range) of a plant, it does not always grow massively. Let us consider in more detail where the oak tree grows and what it needs for successful and rapid development.
Currently, the bulk of our oak forests has long been destroyed. The fact is that these forests occupy very favorable soil for agriculture - they are rather moist, well-drained, and rich in nutrients. Therefore, when our ancestors needed arable land, they first of all cut down oak forests. It is necessary to understand how an oak tree lives in order to be able to create suitable conditions for it.
Well, you need to figure out where the oak grows in Russia and how this plant differs depending on the climate. In different parts of our country, oak grows in different ways. A straight-bottomed giant with a height of over 30 m - this is how we see it in the oak-forests of the forest-steppe, for example, in the famous Tellerman grove near the town of Borisoglebsk, Voronezh Region. No wonder this forest was declared by Peter I "ship grove". From here they took the best wood for the construction of the Russian fleet. The oak near Moscow looks different. Here it is rather clumsy and low - no more than 22-23 m - and is mostly suitable only for firewood. Further north, for example in the Vologda Oblast, the oak tree grows in the form of a squat tree or even a bush.
Interestingly, in the past, oak and in the north grew in the form of large trees. In the depth of sediments at the bottom of the northern rivers of the European part of Russia, buried black trunks of such oaks are sometimes found (this is the so-called bog oak).
Oak is best developed in Western Europe, where the climate is milder and warmer than ours. Here are known giant trees at the age of 1500-2000 years. Near Moscow, the oldest oak is about 800 years old. This unique oak - the same age as Moscow - is preserved in Leninsky Gorki.
In early spring, before the leaves bloom, the oak tolerates temporary flooding by the waters of rivers, which is not tolerated by many other tree species. In the floodplains, i.e. Oak forests (floodplain oak forests) are often developed on the flat low shores that are annually flooded with spring waters. During the flood of the river in this forest, you can ride a boat: a layer of water reaches a meter. But after the water subsides, the trees dress as foliage, and grasses appear beneath them.
In areas not flooded in spring with the waters of rivers, oak often grows accompanied by other deciduous trees: linden, maple, ash, elm, wild apple, etc. However, it is usually larger than other trees. In the northwestern regions of the country, starting approximately from Moscow, the oak and its companions get along well with the fir, sometimes forming spruce-oak forests, but the oak here does not feel like the owner. It is often supplanted by a more viable spruce under these conditions.
Oak growing conditions
What you should know when growing oak in the garden and what conditions should be created? A mighty oak at a young age needs caring care. Всходы дуба не выносят ни заморозков, ни ярких лучей солнца, ни сильного ветра. На открытом месте они гибнут. Но в зарослях, под защитой широких листьев орешника и черемухи они выживают, растут.
Подросший дубок крепкими веточками раздвигает кроны соседей. Кругом дубка, как говорят лесники, «шуба» из других деревьев и кустарников. Сверху же, как в оконце, льются солнечные лучи и дождь. Когда окрепнет в этих условиях молодой дуб, он быстро перерастает остальные деревья. Для него уже не страшны ни солнце, ни мороз, ни буря.
The shoots of summer oak, or, as it is also called, pedunculate, ordinary, are very sensitive to spring frosts. Till 8 years it grows slowly. Suitable conditions for growing oak allow it to grow at a tremendous pace.
Oak is able to grow from the stump. After the tree has been cut down (of course, not very old), many young shoots soon appear on the stump of the stump. When they are old enough, they can see unusual giant leaves. The shoots themselves are also very strong long and thick. After all, all the juices with which the roots had previously supplied the whole tree now go only to young shoots.
Growth on the stump develops from the so-called sleeping buds. These are unusual buds. They remain alive for decades, but they are not dissolved, as if waiting for the right occasion. These buds are initially formed on a still thin, very young stem. Over time, the stem thickens and turns into a trunk, but the kidney does not "sink" in the thickness of the wood. It grows annually just as much as the trunk thickens, and always appears on its surface. Dormant buds at any time ready to dissolve. They quickly start to grow after a tree is cut down.
These buds also awaken when an oak that has been growing in the forest all of its life, is suddenly free. Its trunk in an open place as if overgrown with greenery, it appears on the mass of short shoots with leaves. This is the so-called water shoots. They also arise from sleeping buds.
Sometimes at the end of spring, when the oak has just blossomed, whole hordes of caterpillars pounce on it and destroy all the foliage. Oaks are completely naked, leafless, as in winter. You might think that the trees have already died. But it is not. After a while they become covered with new foliage. It began to grow in resting buds, which, under normal development, would have only dissolved next year.
Oak tolerates winter in the middle lane of the country. But in particularly harsh winters, he still suffers from frost. On the trunks of oak trees you can see a long, strongly protruding fold, which goes from top to bottom for a considerable distance. This is a trace of a healed wound, a deep crack in the trunk. Such cracks appear in the middle of winter during hard frosts. They are called freezers. The cracking of wood from frost occurs instantly and is accompanied by a loud sound, resembling a shot from a gun. A deep wound on a tree does not heal for a long time. The edges of her strongly swell, swell. And when this wound finally becomes overgrown, a “scar” remains on the trunk. Such a growth, of course, spoils the wood and disfigures the tree. Oaks with frost rush are the most common occurrence in the northern regions. In the more southerly districts, freezers are rarely formed.
What are the types of oak (with photos)
The following are common oak species that can grow in different climatic zones. Find out what the oaks are and how they differ from each other.
English Oak - Quercus robur L. (Beech family).
A large deciduous tree is up to 40 m in height, with a strongly developed crown and a trunk up to 2 m in diameter, in closed plantings the crown is smaller and the trees are more slender. The leaves are large, up to 15 cm long, obovate, pinnate-lobed, bare, slightly leathery. Diseased flowers, male with 6 perianth leaves, 6 (rarely 4-12) stamens, collected in drooping earrings, female with poorly developed perianth and one pistil, 1-3 sit on an elongated peduncle. Fruits - acorns, 1.5-3.5 cm long and 1.2-2 cm wide, immersed in a shallow bowl-shaped plus. Blossoms in April, the fruits ripen in September. It is renewed by seeds and a pneumocoman of dormant buds on the trunk.
It grows in the temperate, subtropical and tropical zones, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. It is a forest tree.
Oak gear Quercus dentata Thunb.
In Russia, it reaches the northeastern boundary of the range. Ornamental plant. The total area covers China, the peninsula of Korea and Japan.
Tree up to 5 (8) m tall and up to 20 cm in diameter, with dark gray longitudinally fissured bark. The young shoots are densely hip-haired. Buds about 1 cm long, densely pubescent. Leaves obovate, up to 30 cm long and 12 cm wide, dark green above, bottom with thick reddish pubescence of stellate hairs, with short and wide lobes, short. The fruit is an acorn, almost sedentary. Plyus hemispherical, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, with narrow-lanceolate, backward flakes up to 1.5 cm long. Acorns hemispherical, up to 2 cm in diameter. It flowers in May-June, bears fruit in September.
In addition, the oaks are summer, winter and evergreen. In summer, reddish leaves bloom early and fall in autumn. In winter oak, leaves with long petioles appear late, but they do not fall off in autumn, and dried ones stick to branches all winter. In oak, growing in France, Spain, Italy and in our Caucasus, green leaves do not dry or fall.
Look at all these species of oak in the photo, where their botanical features and periods of development are shown:
The leaves are good food for the silkworm. Oak wood has long been valued because of its strength and durability and has been used for a long time in shipbuilding, building bridges, residential buildings, in large quantities used for the manufacture of parquet, sleepers, doors, frames, wheels, furniture, etc. Oak riveting for barrels, especially cognac and wine, tannins contained in them give the wine materials a special taste and aroma. Dyeing for wool, silk. It is used in gardening, as well as a mountain-reclamation, slope-strengthening, sheltering, anti-erosion.
Every ten years, a layer of cork bark is removed from cork oak 3 centimeters thick. Cork is used for insulation, making lifebuoys, helmets, soles. From cork waste get benzene, naphthalene, luminescent gas. Other oaks also remove the bark, which is used for tanning leather. The skins are soaked together with oak bark, which is why they become soft, durable and do not rot. The bark for tanning is removed from young oak trees that have not reached the age of twenty.
Oak wood is particularly durable, and oak logs, once in the water, do not rot, but become black and even stronger. Black oak is especially prized in carpentry work.
Tannins, impregnating wood, prevent rotting, therefore, oak is made of barrels and parquet.
Of particular interest are acorns. In the forest, squirrels feed on acorns, making them stocks for the winter. On the way, they lose acorns and sometimes forget about their warehouses, thereby contributing to the spread of oak seeds.
Acorns are very nutritious, but tannins give an acrid, bitter taste to acorns. If you remove these substances, then from the acorns you get a nutritious product, from which you can make porridge, flatbread, fritters and even "nut" cakes. Tannins are easily removed by soaking.
Acorns contain a lot of starch (up to 40%) are used for making coffee substitute, in the hungry years, flour from them was added to the bread.
Gathering acorns should be mature when they fall out of the pluses at the end of September, and even better after the first frost. They are peeled, cut into four parts and filled with water. Soaking lasts two days, and every day the water is replaced three times. Then they transfer the acorns to the pan, pour water (two parts of water on one part of the acorns) and heat to boiling. Then the acorns are passed through a meat grinder and the resulting mass is dried, scattering a thin layer on plywood. After pre-drying in air, the acorns are dried in the stove or on the stove until they are crunched like crackers. Dried acorns are crushed or ground in a coffee mill.
When coarse grinding turns out grits, from which you can cook porridge, from flour - to bake flat cakes. Since the acorn dough does not have the stickiness and viscosity, when turning over the cakes break. To avoid this, the pan with a flat cake on it is covered with another pan of the same size and, when one side is fried, the pan is turned over. The pellet falls from one pan to another, and the other side of it fry. If the cakes are smeared with jam, cottage cheese, jam and stacked on top of each other, you get a delicious cake. Top cakes sprinkled with lightly roasted acorns or sunflower seeds.
When making a “nutty” cake made from flour, acorns will completely replace nuts. Toasted pieces of acorns are slightly sweet, it is pleasant to drink tea with them, like with croutons.
Acorns are used for making coffee. In this case, they do not need to soak. They are peeled, roasted and ground. Acorns are used to get alcohol.
Interesting facts about oak trees.
Scientists, on the basis of archaeological finds in different parts of the world, argue that acorns were the original food of man. And indeed, the expeditions of Soviet archeologists, making excavations of Tripoli settlements 5 thousand years ago in the Kirovograd region, established that the first and most ancient bread was the bread made from acorns. Acorns were found on the ruins of the furnace in the fragments of clay. The most ancient inhabitants of the south of Russia dried acorns in ovens, ground them in flour and baked bread from it. In the middle and subsequent centuries, during the famine, acorns were mixed into the bread. The inhabitants of Lusitania and the tribes of the Indians of California still store and eat acorns. In terms of nutritional value, acorns are almost as good as barley.
In Greece, Spain, the famous oak with sweet acorns. Among the oaks growing in our country, especially in the south, there are also those that give acorns completely non-bitter.
Oak is one of the most energetically strong trees in central Russia. In Russia, it has always been considered a sacred tree associated with masculine strength and energy. No wonder men were compared to oak.
This mighty tree is a symbol of tremendous vitality and longevity. Druids also considered it sacred. Oak is an energy donor. By direct contact with him, a person receives the maximum possible amount of vital energy.
The ancient Greeks worshiped the sacred oaks; their main god Zeus was depicted in a wreath of oak leaves.
The ancient Slavs considered forests, groves the abode of gods, and near individual trees (oaks, limes, birches, beeches, ash trees) worshiped deities, considering these trees and places as sacred. Here pagan rituals were performed with sacrifices and fortune telling.
The Slavs considered the oak to be the Perun tree, and the wild boar the wild boar to be the beast of Perun. The fangs of the wild boar were set into the trunks of the oaks, sacrificing to Perun.
They believed that certain actions with sacred trees could attract to their side the formidable forces of nature. And the oak tree is a strong, hardy, perennial tree; even the fire arrows of Perun cannot overcome it. The idols of their gods, especially of Perun, and of Veles, the Slavs cuts from oak.
Later, doors and door-posts were made of oak, regarding them as talismans from diseases and evil spirits. In order not to hurt the back in the harvest, they were carrying an acorn or an oak twig. By the number of oak fruits - acorns - they guessed the weather and guessed the next harvest ("there are many acorns - the winter will be cold, the rye harvest").
See how the oak tree looks like in the video, where all the main points in the life of this plant are illustrated:
What does the English oak look like?
Oak ordinary - deciduous tree, its height reaches 50 meters, trunk girth - up to 2 meters. Grows up on average to 200 years, then expands the rest of his life. On this basis, you can determine how old the tree is. The life expectancy of individual individuals is up to 500 or even more years.
The oldest representative of the species grows in Lithuania near the village of Stemluz. Scientists were able to determine the approximate age of the long-lived - about 2000 years, in historical documents there is his description. Stemluzky oak blooms to this day and periodically bears fruit.
The root system of the oak has a main core, which deepens into the ground, due to which the tree receives reliable support and high viability. Over time, the lateral root processes of the first, second, third, etc. are formed and developed. order, the system acquires a spherical shape. The longest stem of an adult tree can be located 20 meters from the ground and deeper.
The young plant has a smooth light gray bark with a smooth surface, with age it darkens and thickens to 10 cm by the end of the life of the oak, covered with deep cracks.
Crohn pyramidal structure, wide, spreading. A tree with strong branches growing alternately on a powerful trunk.
What a leaf of an oak tree looks like in Russia and in the world is known to everyone: lobed with a characteristic jagged-rounded edge of simple form. Veins slightly protrude from the main plane.
The fruits of the oak are acorns. They ripen by mid-autumn in September-October. They have a rounded elongated shape, brown-brown, sometimes yellowish color. The fruit is recessed into a flat ply on a short stalk.
Buds brown scaly, ovate with a pointed tip. The scales have a ciliated edge.
Oak fruits are tied in spring with the arrival of heat in April-May. Flowering takes place in the same period when the blooming of leaves. Different sex flowers:
- Women's reddish color on a short leg,
- Men have the appearance of yellow-green dangling earrings.
There are 2 types of wood: early and late. Early species dissolves the leaves in April-May, throws them off in the middle of autumn until October. Flowering occurs at the same time. A late representative is activated 2-3 weeks later than a fellow, often the leaves remain on the branches for the whole winter, they fall in the spring with swelling of new buds. Their appearance is almost the same.
Common oak fructifies every 4-5 years to achieve the age over 50 years.
Climate and soil
The family loves a temperate climate: normal humidity, average temperatures. Mixed forests of Russia - the optimal habitat of oak.
For a comfortable life requires rich in minerals and organic fertilizer soil. Wet and deep gray loam forests are optimal for tree development. On such sites, the life span of an oak is maximum, the trunk actively grows and remains for a long time in a live state.
Useful composition of wood and fruits
Oak wood and leaves are a storehouse of various microelements used by man in various branches of medicine and industry:
- Up to 20% of wood and leaves are tannins, they are used in medicine and leather industry.
- Gallic and Egallic organic acids,
- Carbohydrates and sugars, in particular pentosans (up to 14%),
- Trace elements (in descending order): K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn, Al, Cr, Ba, V, Se, Ni, Sr, Pb, B, Ca, Se, Sr.
Acorns as fruits for reproduction also have a number of useful and vital for the development of substances:
- Carbohydrates (sugar)
- Saturated oils up to 5% of the total.
Interesting features of wood
Oak forests serve as a source of unique wood, widely used in various industries due to its unique beneficial properties:
- High strength and density
- High bending strength (95 MPa), compression (50 MPa), tension (118 MPa),
- The treated barrel retains its technical characteristics under high humidity and under water,
- Low shrinkage rate without cracking,
- Well kept in the air
- The service life of structures and products reaches 100 years with proper care.
Oak trunk is a source of solid wood, which is used for the manufacture of building structures and products:
- Massive board,
- Wall and ceiling paneling,
- Window frame elements
The material is durable, resistant to abrasion, hardness. The age of oak directly affects the quality of raw materials: the older the plant, the stronger and more valuable wood. Its color is uniform, interesting texture and pattern of the cut look attractive and calm. Due to this quality, the material has found application in the furniture industry and the creation of interior items.
The use of ordinary oak wood has become widespread in the manufacture of components for:
- Ship building,
- Mining industry,
- Hydraulic structures,
- Production of wine barrels,
- Horse harness, carts, wheels, etc.
The trunk of an adult plant is the raw material for efficient fuel.
Leaves and acorns
When flowering begins, the bees pollinate the trees, collect pollen and nectar, from which valuable honey is obtained.
The leaves contain the natural dye quercithin, which is used to dye wool and black, brown, green and yellow.
Acorns from the forest serve as food for wild boars and domestic pigs. The high nutritional value of fruits is also suitable for humans: the mature material is dried, ground into flour and used for baking. And the acorns processed in a special way are added to ground chicory - a useful drink is obtained, replacing coffee.
The leaves on the young branches, brought from the oak forest, are tied up in brooms that compete with birch trees - in the bath they are just as good.
Научные сведения о полезных веществах и целебных свойствах дерева позволяют использовать материал в качестве самостоятельного или сопроводительного лечения многих заболеваний разного плана.
Описание дубильных веществ как вяжущего и противовоспалительного средства существует не один век. Активные компоненты содержатся в коре. Препараты назначают при патологиях желудочно-кишечного тракта и пищевых отравлениях, при проблемах мочевого пузыря, почек.
Наружно применяют отвар коры и листьев. Tannins in their composition help when there is a violation of the skin: wounds, abrasions, cuts, eczema, ulcers. In addition, decoctions and infusions prescribed for gargling and throats with acute respiratory viral infections, sore throats.
By prescribing concomitant herbal medicine, the doctor takes into account the characteristics of the main treatment, the course of the disease and the condition of the body. Combining factors, the specialist determines how much time and in what form to use natural remedies. Self-treatment can only be preventive in nature.
When to collect material
In the process of life and growth of a tree, the trunk acquires greater strength and density, and material is valuable, therefore suitable for size individuals are chosen for felling.
The bark is harvested per month sap flow, usually in April-May. It is dried in the open air, not allowing waterlogging.
Acorns for planting are harvested in the fall when the fruits reach their maturity. They are placed in artificial hibernation in the refrigerator or cellar until spring, after which they are germinated and determined in the ground. You can hold the collection in the first or second month of spring, when the snow just came down, and the acorn did not have time to take root.
Interesting facts about oak
It would seem that a tree is like a tree, but the oak family is not so simple. Some interesting facts from the life of a stately plant.
- The breed is so diverse that around the world there are about 600 representatives of the oak fraternity. Many of them resemble each other and are distinguished only by advanced biologists.
- 80 years is a serious time, especially for a person’s life. And the eightieth anniversary of marriage life is called the "oak" wedding.
- It is possible to determine how old an oak is in two ways: calculate the number of rings on the trunk section or measure the trunk in girth in centimeters, derive the radius using the formula (circumference / 2π) / 2. New rings appear every year, expanding by 2-3 mm, based on this, we divide the radius by 2-3 mm.
- Oak coal has a significant burning time, but combustible material does not keep up the heat well, and powerful traction is required to maintain the process.
- Expensive building and finishing materials - bog oak. Wood artificially or naturally gets into the water for a long time (up to 100 years), there is a significant increase in the strength of raw materials and the acquisition of black color.
- For reproduction, the plant in most cases uses small acorns, rather than root processes.
- Oak forests create optimal conditions for the life of many representatives of flora and fauna.
- Interesting oak sounds can be heard: the musician Bartholomeus Traubek created a kind of disc using nano-technology.
- Oak forests have healing powers. There is evidence that the leaves and bark secrete special phytoncides that relieve headaches and soothe the nervous system.
- The breed has a high electrical conductivity - in the oaks more often than other trees gets lightning.
- The lifetime of oak products can be several thousand years: in the English county of Norfolk, a monument of the Bronze Age was opened, Sihenge, created in the XXI century. BC.