Happy owners of dacha plots received land in the perestroika period, and this land previously belonged to collective farms. The soil was actively plowed up, after it was planted with agricultural crops, mainly potatoes, as a result, the soil came in clods, and the site became uneven over time. How to level the plot in the country with their own hands, read our article. We also prepared a video and photo instructions, because a smooth surface is the key to a strong house, beautiful landscape design and higher yields.
Why alignment is necessary
An uneven plot only at first glance seems like a minor problem. But if the matter concerns the planting of vegetables, berries, planting a garden or building a house, then all the disadvantages of uneven soil will become obvious.
Filling the foundation, planting a lawn, the location of the tracks and the uneven distribution of weight at home is directly dependent on the evenness of the site. To avoid the trouble of alignment is to take care in the first place.
How to level a site with a tractor or by manual loosening
There are several ways to align the area:
- Loosening walker or tractor, allowing to eliminate irregularities up to 15 cm tall. Further leveling is done manually with a rake: the loosened soil is evenly distributed throughout the territory
- The tractor bucket is capable of capturing large lumps of earth, it levels the soil up to 1 meter in height. Work is performed spontaneously or at predetermined levels.
- Delivery of soil. In this case, the soil is made horizontal by falling asleep in a fresh layer of soil. The method is suitable for sites with a slope where the soil is poured on a lower part.
Tip! The best option is to order a tractor, which may cost the owners of the site at least 1 thousand rubles plus fuel for vehicles. The devices move the soil fertile layer to maximize it. After mechanical leveling, it is recommended to steam the soil.
What is steam treatment and what is it for?
Steam treatment is a unique technology that allows you to keep the area flat in the future. Steam exposure kills weeds and pests.
Simple self-treatment is reduced to scalding of the soil with boiling water, due to which microbes, bacteria and weed seeds are killed in the upper layers. Also, steam exposure can be performed by such substances:
- For large areas - a steam engine that provides penetration to a depth of 30 cm.
- Chemical treatment with sulfur, lime, copper oxide.
- For the ground under the greenhouse fit sulfur balls.
How to level a cultivator
If the site is more than 5 hectares, then it is rational to order the alignment of the cultivator. Attachment performs the alignment carefully, and the cost of renting the cultivator ranges from 1.5-2 thousand rubles. depending on the region.
The cost of leveling the suburban area depends on the characteristics of the territory and region. But the average prices are:
- Evaluation of the scope of work, departure of an employee of the company and consultation cost from 2.5 thousand rubles to 4.5 thousand rubles.
- Uprooting old stumps, perennial bushes from 500 rubles. for 1 unit.
- Direct alignment starts from 45 rubles per square meter.
It is worth adding an additional purchase of soil in the case when it is required to fall asleep, the cost of transportation and fuel, the cost of exporting uprooted plant stumps. The result is a decent amount, so it’s profitable to get an assistant, rent a tractor or a cultivator and do the work yourself.
Learning to align the area less than 6 acres
To perform the alignment on a small area, you should follow this instruction:
- The top layer of turf is carefully removed, discarded to the edge of the site.
- Leveling the soil: mounds and protrusions are excavated, the resulting land is distributed over the lowlands of the site.
- The excess land is packed in bags and used in a greenhouse or exported.
- After 20 days, the soil is compacted and you can start its cultivation.
- For planting lawn grass area should be plowed 3 times with a cultivator, level with a rake and only after that sow lawn seeds.
For the final alignment, they use a simple rake, which spreads soft bumps on the site, I collect stones and plants. For a perfect finish alignment stretch slats or level, passing through the section with a rake.
What to do with fertile land, and how to make up for the losses
When leveling, about 30 cm of fertile soil is removed from the surface, and it must be properly applied. So, if the soil is stored in a sealed package for more than a month, then it loses its characteristics due to lack of oxygen. Leveling helps loosen the soil to create a favorable place for the seeds.
Important! If the layer of fertile soil in the area is less than 15 cm, then it will have to re-buy it. The minimum thickness of the fertile layer is not less than 20-25 cm. You do not need to renew the entire layer, it is enough to mix the existing soil with the new one. Heavy soil is mixed with sand, sour with ash, and lime is used to lower the acidity.
Summing up, it must be said that the leveling of the area of any complexity can be done with your own hands. It all depends on the material capabilities or the desire to loosen and level the soil on their own.
Preliminary preparation of the land plot
Before leveling the surface of the land in the country, you need to carry out some preliminary work.
- Mark boundaries. The easiest way to do this is with pegs. They are hammered into the ground at the corners of the plot, and between them they stretch a string or ribbon.
- Clearing the area. From the surface of the soil you need to remove all snags, remnants of trees, shrubs. If earlier on the territory were already put temporary buildings, then they will need to get rid of.
If the land plot has a large area, then the usual marking with pegs will not be enough. We will have to further break it into separate sectors. This marking is very important if the leveling of the land will be done manually. When using the technique of sectorization will be a hindrance.
Land leveling process
After completion of the preparation, you can proceed to leveling the ground. This work can be done using hand tools. or with the involvement of special equipment.
In a small area with the alignment of the relief can be managed on its own. We'll have to arm with several shovels, a meter, a wheelbarrow and a rake.
After preparing all the necessary tools you need to decide what to do with a fertile layer of soil. Experts recommend removing it before leveling and return to the site after the work, if the land will be leveled manually. When attracting special equipment, it is easier to fill in the fertile soil layer upon completion of all the work. In the event that the dacha is built up, the preservation of the fertile soil layer does not make sense at all.
In dry weather, smoothing the area is easiest: the soil does not turn to dirt.
Features self-leveling terrain
Usually such a job takes a lot of time. However, the process can be accelerated, if you bring in the work of relatives and friends.
When self-leveling cottages first thing you need to remove the fertile layer. On average, this is the top 20 cm of soil. All removed soil will need to be moved to the edge of the dacha. There she will not interfere.
Existing heights need to dig and move the soil into the grooves. Perekanna soil necessary to level rake.
To check the flatness of the resulting surface, you can use various tools. The easiest of them - the usual board. It should be laid on the surface of the soil and see how well it fits to it. However, it is most convenient to use the building level for this purpose.
After the primary work, you need to leave the cottage alone for at least a week. This time is necessary for the compaction of the transferred land..
A week later, the soil must be tamped. The hand roller is best suited for this purpose. It can be replaced with a sealed metal barrel filled with water and laid on its side.
Rink or barrel first you need to roll on the ground along the site, and then across. After that, you must be sure to believe the terrain using a level. If everything is in order, then you can return the fertile layer of soil.
By the way, when leveling small plots of land, as a rule, the set goals can be achieved by simply tilling the topsoil with the subsequent redistribution of the soil.
Use of special equipment
This is the fastest and less time consuming method of leveling the land in the country. True, such work will cost a lot. However, the final result will be much higher than with the manual leveling method.
Before leveling your plot with the help of special equipment you need to make a plan of land work. After that it is necessary to determine with the technique. Her choice depends on the type of irregularities. If they are small, then it will be possible to get around with a motoblock or a cultivator. With great nerves alignment of the site with a tractor is required.
Smoothing the relief of the soil takes place in several stages:
- Removal of the fertile layer. It can be taken out or stored in an unused part of the territory.
- Elimination of defects. All the soil from the hills is cut off and redistributed by means of the tractor along the recesses. In hard-to-reach places, you may have to work with a shovel.
- Leveling the soil after redistribution. Leveling the soil is best with a grader, bulldozer or cultivator.
In cases where the country has a large bias, then the usual alignment is out of the question. We'll have to use the technology of creating tiers.
When creating a multi-tiered territory, the dacha will need to be divided into sectors and tiers. Each tier is processed separately. The number of sectors, their area and height is calculated individually, taking into account the highest and lowest points of the suburban area.
The alignment procedure itself is nothing does not differ from leveling the soil in the country without a slope.
Upon completion of all work, the vertical boundaries of the tiers should be overlaid with stones. And also between the tiers you can make several tracks.
Many people avoid buying land with a bias and in vain. The presence of several tiers allows you to easily implement in the country such landscape solutions as a mini-waterfall or stream.
On the multi-storey territory, the buildings should stand on the highest tier.
Advantages of a smooth ground
Equalized soil in the country has the following advantages:
- The possibility of easy redevelopment. If necessary, anywhere you can put the foundation for construction. It will be reliable from the uniform distribution of the load over the entire area of the earth.
- A smooth surface is better suited for creating a lawn.
- On level ground it is easier to make asphalt and stone paths.
- On a flat area it is easier to grow vegetables, plant fruit trees and shrubs.
It’s difficult to make the surface of the land in the country level with your own hands, but it is possible if you understand the principles of this work and use suitable tools. But for better leveling it is recommended to entrust this work to specialists with special equipment.
Why leveling is carried out
The land in each plot is almost always far from level coverage. But many owners of country houses think to level the land only when they need to make a beautiful lawn. However, this is not the main reason why it is necessary to level the territory and give it evenness. Alignment can be done for three purposes:
- Construction of buildings. In order to distribute the load on the foundation as evenly as possible, it is necessary to build on an even landscape. This is especially important for strip and pile foundations. Possible height difference can be 0.5 meters. When building a house on a monolithic foundation, small irregularities in the surface can be allowed.
- Another important factor will be creating tracks near the house. They play a role not only in the pedestrian zone, but also protect the foundation from lateral ground pressure. The highest load on the base may occur with the onset of spring, when the soil begins to manifest itself outside, and its volume becomes much larger. Of course, to fill in the asphalt path or lay it out of a special tile, it is much easier on a flat landscape, and not on a lumpy one.
- Horticulture and gardening. Small irregularities on the site will not have a particular impact on the growth and formation of fruits on crops. But landing and harvesting will be much easier on flat terrain. If on the surface there are no special differences in height, then it is easier to dig holes and weed the beds. In addition, it helps to reduce water consumption for irrigation of crops.
A flat area is the main condition for the formation of a beautiful lawn on the site. A smooth surface is important for several reasons:
- The beautiful appearance of the plot - flat lawn and lawn look much more attractive than lawns with irregularities and strong slopes.
- On a smooth surface lawn plants take root best.
- In the depressions and various mounds, rain water and moisture can persist for a long time. This results in leaching and damage to the entire site. Strong humidity leads to crop disease.
- Protrusions and characteristic bumps lead to difficulties in the operation of the mower.
- Decorative. Designing design projects requires an exceptionally flat surface. For example, volumetric alpine slides, winter gardens and ponds look aesthetically and naturally if the surface of the site is flat. Create a Japanese garden of stones can only be in a smooth area.
Before you begin leveling the site, you must first prepare the ground well for such a process. First you need to correctly mark the main boundaries of the site. The easiest way to do this is to drive simple pegs into the corners of the leveling area, and then you need to connect them with a rope or a special ribbon. Next, you need to thoroughly clean the site of excess debris, trees, shelters, temporary structures, shrubs - from all that will be interfere with the normal work area.
Already at this stage, you can begin to work with your own hands, and use the help of special machines.
If the area for leveling is small in size, then simply placing stakes on its borders will be enough. If such a territory is medium or large, then in addition it is necessary to divide it into smaller sections. Such an operation should be carried out only when the land will be leveled by its efforts without the use of special equipment. Pegs with ropes will simply interfere when working with large appliances.
For a rectangular area, 9 identical squares are most often distinguished (three rows, three in each). If the alignment area has the shape of a polygonal figure, then additional areas are also added to the square sectors. The delimitation of such sites also takes place with the help of pegs. They are connected with a rope, which should run parallel to the future flat territory. This will be the main guideline for alignment.
The process of leveling the site
When the preparation for such a process is finished, you can proceed to the alignment procedure itself. It can be carried out manually, using special summer tools, and special machines (cultivators, tractors, etc.) can be used for this. It is also possible to cope with such a task in a small area without any special problems using a simple spatula, rake, wheelbarrow and other additional tools that are located in the shed. In case of their absence, you can ask some of them from the neighbors. But in large areas without special equipment will be difficult.
After you need to understand what to do with fertile land. If there is some kind of tilt on the plot, then it is worth not to touch it for a while, but to begin leveling only the bottom layer of soil. After that, fertile soil can be returned to the past. When carrying out the land work with the help of special devices, it will be much easier to purchase a new topsoil, and at the end of work just lay it on top.
If at a certain site will undergo the construction of a house or other summer houses, then there is simply no sense to put fertile soil there. In this case, you can simply raise the soil to the desired height with the help of powder.
Experts advise to begin work leveling the site in sunny weather without a strong wind, when the earth is well dried. С ней проводить работу будет в разы легче, а отсутствие осадков и сильного ветра поможет не разводить лишнюю грязь на участке.
Самостоятельное выравнивание участка
Такой метод выравнивания площади отнимет много свободного времени владельца. Но дачник может справиться с такой работой самостоятельно либо пригласить на помощь друзей и соседей. In this case, you will not have to spend your money to pay for the rental of construction machines and the work of the masters:
- First you need to remove the fertile layer of the earth (about twenty centimeters). To do this, use a bayonet and a wheelbarrow. Remove the excavated land is best on the edge of the territory where it will not interfere much.
- It is necessary to level the already opened soil, digging up the soil from elevations and transferring it to uneven, understated places. After that, all the land in the area need to level the rake. If necessary, you can buy more land and cover up any remaining irregularities in the area.
- Check the flatness of the landscape, you can use a special building level. Instead, you can use a simple board. Attach it to the ground and see if it is completely in contact with it.
- It is best to give the earth at least one week time. During this time, it is better compacted. Such a period of time, of course, if you hurry, you can not spend. But in this case, the compaction process will have to spend a lot of time and effort.
The next stage will be an independent ramming of the earth. For this you need to use a manual roller or its alternative. It can be purchased, asked from a neighbor or make independently its analogue, for example, from a flat iron can filled with liquid. Run a skating rink along the surface of the territory, across, after checking the evenness of the ground. The final step will be the return of fertile soil to the top of the ground and its subsequent tamping.
Another method of leveling will be lining all sectors of the territory or individual parts with sheets of plywood or some kind of flat boards. Then you can apply a static load on them. You can press on the ground with your weight, just walking on the boards, to impose large stones or heavy reinforcement. For better ground tamping, you can leave this load for several days.
If the dacha is small in territory, and the irregularities themselves are not noticeable, then just enough to redistribute the upper layers of the soil, and then they are well compacted.
An unusual method for leveling the area will be a wooden vertical staircase. To do this, you just need to tie one tight rope to each end of the ladder, and then walk along with such equipment along the section with irregularities. The ladder weighs quite a lot, so it will cope well with leveling the land on the plot.
Use of construction equipment
This method of alignment is faster and simpler, since it does not require the use of physical forces from the gardener. Evenness of the earth with this method will be much better than with independent work. But such an alignment will cost many times more, since in this case you will have to pay for the rental of equipment. You will also have to call on the work of professional builders at a high rate.
First you need to make a general plan for the work leveling and understand what equipment for this will be needed depending on the type of irregularities. The first step for leveling the site will be to remove the top fertile layer of the earth with the help of tractors and then eliminate it to an unused part of the territory. Earth should not interfere with the work.
Then begins the process of removing all irregularities and holes. The ground is removed from the elevations and turns into pits and strong potholes. The plot is leveled by a tractor or a bulldozer, in particularly difficult places the earth is filled up with an excavator or manually, with a shovel and a wheelbarrow. The excess soil is evenly distributed over the entire area of the site for high-quality leveling.
The next step will be leveling the ground. This procedure is carried out by a mini-bulldozer, grader or cultivator. Cultivators can be used in two types: vertical - a lighter and more compact type of equipment, it is needed for leveling and processing all the upper layers of the soil, as well as horizontal, such cultivators are considered larger and more powerful, and can process more dense soil.
Non-standard work situations
If initially the suburban area is under a strong incline, then with its leveling it is possible to create a multi-tiered area instead of flat land, but at a corresponding angle. The principle of operation in this case is the same, but you must first divide the territory into sections not only by squares, but also by levels. If you decide to do a self leveling:
- Each tier needs to be leveled separately, but it is important that it is completely parallel to the other.
- The distances between the tiers and their number should be calculated on the basis of the vertical distance between the lowest and the highest points in the territory. For example, if the slope height reaches 80 centimeters, then you can create several tiers with a total distance of 40 centimeters or three, but with a distance of 25 centimeters.
- When leveling construction equipment to each tier must correspond to a special race.
All created levels can beautifully impose large stones, between which you can spend a few small tracks. You can also create a small waterfall or a simple stream. They for greater reliability should be sealed. For example, protect stones from the ground with a waterproof fabric. With such a territory planning, residential buildings should be built at a higher level.
Ways of land leveling
Exists three ways leveling plot. The size of the plot will depend on what method will be used. So, we list them:
- The first method - manually - is usually used when leveling small areas of land to 8 acres. To do this, virtually no cash costs - only time and effort. From the necessary tools you will need a pitchfork, shovel or rake. Manual alignment is as follows: you need to remove the top layer of soil (10-15 centimeters) and fold it to the edge of the plot (with a shovel and fork). After that, move the land from the hills to the pits (usually there are many such places). And the final step will be the return to the place of the top layer of soil and its leveling (rakes will be needed here). After carrying out the above actions, let the site stand (two weeks is enough) and use as intended
- The second method is leveling the plot with cultivator, motoblock. Suitable for areas with a slight slope. Cultivator - a device for processing and leveling the land. Motoblock is the so-called "pedestrian tractor." Managing the tiller, a man goes behind the machine and regulates the process with control knobs. In this case, there is no need to remove the topsoil. The alignment of the walker is as follows: first, a flat board is attached to the back of the fixture (it must be screwed to the universal mount). After that, you can proceed to the process of leveling the land. Motoblock initially loosen the ground, and then aligns it with an attached board
- To the third alignment type - with the help of technology (bulldozer or tractor) - resort when necessary to level a large area. In this case, it occurs in two stages: first along, then across. Bulldozers and tractors for leveling equipped with special knives, with which they remove the upper part of the soil and move it
Leveling the lawn area
The alignment of the plot under the lawn occurs in the same way as the alignment for small plots - manually. In this case, you will need a shovel, pitchfork and rake.
The alignment process itself is as follows: 10-15 centimeters top soil is removed and folded at the edge of the site (all this must be done with a fork and a shovel).
Next you need clean the ground from elevations to the pits, and at the end return the top layer of soil into place and level the rake.
A slight drawback is waiting, because after all the above actions, you need to wait a couple weeks to land. If there is no desire or opportunity to wait, then you can land tamping roller.
If the plot little, you can align it yourself without spending money.
But if you lack the necessary knowledge, experience and capabilities, you should refer to land surveyors. As for the cost of services, depending on the organization and the equipment used, prices will vary.
For example, it is possible to order alignment in winter time, on average, for 200 r. for 1 square meter. Land leveling with a bulldozer will cost about 50 r. for 1 square meter. Consultation and travel specialist can do from 500 to 1400 r.
How to level the land plot with your own hands, you can see in this video:
How to level the land? Issue price
Any earthworks associated with taking out or pouring the earth, moving it to the desired distance. The complexity of such work usually depends on the initial terrain, the area of the planned territory, as well as on the final result we want to get. Therefore, some part can be done by hand, armed with a shovel and other tools, and to do the other part you will need equipment and experienced specialists.
As in any other business, you can contact a specialized organization that will provide you with a full range of services and their cost. Based on this, you can weigh and analyze everything. And then decide what is best for you and what services you can afford.
Cost may vary depending on the season of work, their complexity. In winter, the price may be higher by about 200 rubles. per cubic meter because the ground is frozen and it is very hard to work with it.
You will also have to pay for the consultation and departure of a specialist, which will cost 3000-4000 rubles.
If the site needs to remove trees and shrubs and stumps, the average cost for this work is about 500-1000 rubles. and more per unit depending on the diameter of the trunk.
For leveling the site with a bulldozer you will have to pay about 40 rubles. for 1 square. m. If there is enough cultivator for leveling and loosening, then the price to make from 30 rubles. for the quarter. m. If you need to pour the site, you also need to buy the soil and pay for its delivery.
Also, do not forget that in addition to payment for the work you will need to pay for the rental of equipment and its delivery to your site. Usually the cost is calculated for 1 hour of work.
It is advisable to hire specialists and equipment, if you have a large area, which is very difficult to align manually, and the lack of free time does not allow you to do this work yourself.
Leveling the land on a plot with their own hands
Alignment free from buildings and rather big in size area is better to do, using the services of the company. However, this type of work can be done independently. There are several ways to properly align the plot.
If you think that you can simply level the plot with a tractor, then this is a big mistake.. After such work, the surface will appear smooth only from a certain distance. In fact, it will be attended by numerous dredging and mounds, which is unacceptable if you plan, for example, to create a lawn. Therefore, this work - draft.
To align with your own hands, you will need a level. It can be building or homemade. To create a level, you will need a hose and two pipes (glass or plastic), which are fixed at its ends and have divisions. Typing in the water hose, you get a wonderful level that works on the natural properties of water.
Before embarking on leveling, it is necessary to remove the vegetable soil, including the house, if you are planning to build it. It is better to use sand for bedding, especially if the soil is clay. After leveling it, a layer of fertile soil is taken from above, taken earlier.
However, the question arises, how to create a smooth surface?
One way is to use wooden pegs and level.
The sequence of works is as follows:
- We examine our site, which we plan to level, and determine on it a point of average height, relative to which we will level. However, if you want to raise the platform, you can select the highest point as the level of the earth's surface.
- We drive a peg into a point so that it sticks out about 10 cm above the surface of the highest point.
- Then we divide the grid of squares of 1 × 1 m from it (it is possible more often or less depending on the steepness of the relief). We begin to do this from our peg, and their tops should be located in the same horizontal area. That is what you need and level.
- Having broken the entire grid, you will clearly see where to pour the ground, and where to cut off the excess. With the help of a shovel and a rake you can easily cope with this work.
However, the considered method is suitable for small areas and to create a horizontal platform.
And if you want to keep the overall slope of the site?
Then we must do the following:
- Determine the direction of the slope, the highest and lowest points.
- We drive a row of pegs along the top and bottom of the slope, aligning them horizontally.
- Stretch the rope or line in pairs between the upper and lower pegs. Thus, you will have a flat surface with a slope formed by stretched ropes. You will need only with a shovel and rake to correct the surface of the earth.
If you have a cultivator, you can plow the land in several directions and flatten it with a rake while at the same time pulling out weeds.
Before the leveling begins, it is necessary to prepare the land for this process. The first step is to somehow mark the boundaries of the territory. The easiest way to do this is by hammering the peg into the corners of the land to be leveled, and then connect them with tape or rope. The next step will be cleaning the land from debris, snags, trees, shrubs and temporary structures. In general, all that will interfere with the alignment.
Marking the boundaries of the site
Already at this stage, you can do the work with your own hands, and with the help of suitable for this business machines.
If the leveling area is small, then simply placing the pegs on its borders will be enough. If such a territory is of medium or large area, then its additional division into several smaller sectors is necessary. This operation is performed only when the land will be leveled using the manual method. After all, pegs with ropes will simply interfere with the work of large-sized equipment. For a square plot of land, 9 identical squares are standardly allocated (3 rows, 3 in each). If the territory is for the alignment of the polygonal shape, then additional sectors are added to them. The distinction is also made with the help of pegs. And they are connected with a rope, which must be hung parallel to the future flat section. This will be an approximate guideline for alignment.
Plot delimitation with pegs
Ways and features of leveling the suburban area independently
This leveling method takes a lot of time. But the summer resident will be able to cope on his own or with an assistant. And do not have to spend extra money to pay for the rental of construction equipment and the work of craftsmen.
From the very beginning it is necessary to remove a layer of fertile soil, not less than twenty centimeters. This will require a spade and a wheelbarrow. Remove the excavated land is best on the edge of the site where it will not interfere. It is necessary to level the already opened ground, digging up the ground from the elevations and transferring it to the places of deepening. After that, it should be leveled rake. If necessary, purchase additional soil and close the remaining terrain defects.
The need to level the land
Soil cover is almost always far from ideally even cover. However, many owners of suburban areas think about leveling the territory only when it is necessary to equip the lawn. However, this is not the main reason for which it is necessary to give the landscape “smoothness” and evenness.
This question can be considered in three aspects.
Building. In order for the load on the foundation of the house to be distributed evenly, it is very important to carry out building on a flat area. This is especially true for pile and strip foundations. Allowable height difference is 0.5 meters. When building a house on a monolithic basis, the presence of irregularities is not so significant.
Another, not unimportant moment is the arrangement of the paths along the perimeter of the house. They perform the role of not only the pedestrian zone, but also protect the foundation from lateral ground pressure. The greatest load on the base occurs in early spring, when the soil is thawed and its volume increases. Of course, pouring the asphalt path or laying it out of the tile is much easier on a flat, rather than distorted surface.
Horticulture and horticulture. Minor slopes of the summer cottage have no special effect on the yield of fruit and vegetable crops. Однако выполнять посадку, уход и сбор урожая все же проще на ровной местности. Если на поверхности отсутствуют перепады по высоте, то легче выкапывать лунки и пропалывать грядки. Кроме того, значительно сокращается расход воды для полива растений.
A flat surface is one of the basic conditions for arranging a lawn in a garden plot. A smooth surface is necessary for several reasons:
- Aesthetic appeal - a flat green lawn looks more beautiful than a lawn with pits and hummocks.
- Lawn mixes take root on a smooth surface.
- Watering or rainwater may be stagnant in the hollows and valleys. This leads to "soak" and damage to the lawn. Excessive moisture often causes illness.
- Bumps and protrusions on the grass cover make it difficult for the lawn mower to work.
Decorative. For the implementation of many design decisions require a flat surface of the earth. For example, volumetric alpine hills, ponds and winter gardens look beautiful and natural, if the rest of the surface of the site is flat. Create a Japanese rock garden to turn out only on a smooth area.
General recommendations for leveling the dacha
Land leveling is a difficult process, time-consuming and of physical strength. It is better to entrust a number of measures to create a smooth surface to professionals, and some work can also be done independently. Here are a few recommendations that will help to plan the workflow and get the desired result.
- First of all, it is necessary to decide on the purpose of the site and its individual zones (a place for building, garden arrangement, a swimming pool, etc.). At this stage, it is advisable to coordinate your plans with a specialist in the field of land works. The surveyor will analyze the soil composition, check the location of groundwater and make recommendations for further exploitation of the site.
- Before alignment, it is necessary to determine the slope of the relief and the direction of the flow.
- The whole complex of land works involves moving or pouring the land. The complexity of the activities depends on the area of the equipped territory, the initial relief and the desired result. Part of the work (alignment of a small platform under the garden) can be done with a shovel and rake, and for other manipulations you need to involve special equipment.
- Raised topsoil is not advisable to store more than 3-4 weeks. This can lead to the death of beneficial aerobic microorganisms that are involved in the enrichment of soil with oxygen.
- Alignment area should be performed in dry weather.
How to level the land with their own hands: a flat and inclined surface
Before leveling the soil at the dacha, it is necessary to conduct preparatory work:
- Clean the surface of stones, debris, uproot stumps and roots.
- Remove the plant layer of soil from the whole area.
Tractor for leveling the plot is not quite suitable. After its work, the surface will appear flat only at a certain distance. Holes and knolls will remain on the ground, therefore this technique can be trusted exclusively with rough work.
To align the suburban area with your own hands you will need the following tools and materials:
- construction level (can be made independently from a watering hose and two transparent plastic tubes),
- wooden pegs
- shovel and rake,
- pitchfork and skating rink.
Consider how to level the plot in the country:
- Inspect the site and determine the average height of the point. From it it is necessary to make a start at alignment of a site. If the surface needs to be raised, then when working, the highest point on the site is taken into account.
- Drive a peg into the selected point. The height of the peg should be 10 cm above the highest point on the site.
- From the peg landmark break the grid of squares. The optimal size of squares is 1 * 1 m. If the relief has a significant slope, then the number of dimensions of squares should be reduced (50 * 50 cm).
- The tops of the squares should be located in a single horizontal plane. To check it is necessary to use a level.
- After splitting the entire plot into sections, you will clearly see where you need to add land, and where - remove the excess.
- Remove the excess land and pour into the pits.
- Leave the site for 2 weeks - the land should "settle". Then remove the pegs and level the area with a rake.
This method is suitable for small horizontal sections. If you plan to maintain a bias in the territory, then you need to act differently:
- Peg the lowest and highest point. Determine the direction of the slope.
- On the top of the slope drive a row of pegs. The same should be repeated at the bottom of the site.
- Pair the upper pegs with the lower ones. For this you can use a fishing line or rope.
- From the tense ropes should get a flat surface with a slope.
- Adjust the flatness of the site: move the excess land from the mounds into hollows and pits on the site.
- After 2 weeks, it is necessary to check the leveling quality, if necessary - pour the ground.
- Plow the land in different directions with a cultivator and level the surface with a rake.
Alignment of the site with the help of special equipment: the price issue
The use of technology for leveling the plots is justified in case of a large area of land, a considerable amount of work, in the presence of reinforcement, old slabs, stumps and other obstacles. And also, if the height differences on the site are more than 200 mm.
For work use: mini-equipment (mini-bulldozers and mini-excavators), tractor, cultivator, bulldozer and grader.
A full list of services for assessing the condition of the soil and leveling the site can provide a specialized company. The cost of the work varies depending on the area of the site, the season and complexity (the presence of obstacles):
- consultation and departure of a specialist to the place - 3000-4000 rubles,
- removal of trees and shrubs - 500-1000 rubles / unit (depending on the diameter of the trunk),
- leveling with a bulldozer - 40-80 rubles / m2,
- cultivator work - from 30 rubles / m2,
- equipment rental - 1500-2000 rubles for 1 hour of work.
Important! The cost of leveling the site in winter will be about 200-300 rubles / m2 higher - working with frozen soil is much more difficult
The technology of leveling with special equipment depends on the degree of unevenness and the type of equipment used. If there are significant ravines and holes, pretreatment with a bucket is required. With the help of technology, the pits and trenches are buried with soil, and the excess soil after work is distributed throughout the territory.
The cultivator performs the final leveling of the ground. For work use a horizontal and vertical cultivator. Horizontal has a compact size, easy to use and can work with a light loader (processing of the upper horizontal layers of soil).
Vertical cultivator more powerful and bulky. This technique is indispensable for the processing of virgin soil. The cultivator is equipped with vertical "forks" that make turns inside the soil. An additional advantage of the cultivator is the cleaning of the soil from weeds.
How to level a plot with an excavator: video
Features create a flat area under the garden
When arranging the beds for planting vegetables, they follow the general rules for leveling the land. However, in this case, the requirements for the evenness of the site are not so high and all the work can be done independently.
Method 1 - suitable for small areas.
- Remove the fertile topsoil and lay it on the edge of the plot.
- To level the site: remove the soil from the hills and cover it in hollows and pits.
- Return the fertile soil layer to its place, evenly distributing it over the entire area of the site.
- After 1-2 weeks, the plot can be used as intended.
Method 2 - for sites with a large area.
- Plow the ground twice. The first time - in the longitudinal direction, the second - in the transverse.
- Pass twice with a cultivator, choose the roots of weeds from the soil.
- "Rolling" plot. You can use a heavy plank or barrel filled with water.
Sequence alignment plot under the lawn
The overall look and durability of a green lawn depends on the quality of leveling the lawn area. The whole process of creating a flat surface can be divided into several stages:
- Plot layout. Along the perimeter of the site under the lawn, place metal or wooden pegs in increments of about 60 cm. Stretch the cord between the pegs.
- Clean the area from stones, branches, debris and weeds. Saltpeter can be used to remove stumps.
- From the site to remove the top layer of soil, move it outside the marked territory.
- If the lower soil layer is solid, then it must be plowed with a tiller or manually dig up.
- Land from elevated places to move to lower places.
- Remove the sod back into place.
- After 2 weeks, install labeled pegs at the site (the label is applied at a height of 10 cm). Place the pegs at 9 points and align them with a long bar.
- Adjust the surface: add land or remove surplus.
- After the end of the leveling area to break in the garden roller. The tamping equipment can be made independently from a metal barrel with a lid, cement mortar and pipes.
Tip! Rolling is best done in two directions (longitudinally and across the section). This will remove the "air pockets"
Aligning the site (lawn, building or gardening) is a crucial process that cannot be neglected. Before leveling you need to correctly calculate your strength. In a small area, all the work can be done independently, and for the arrangement of a large area will have to use special equipment.