Potatoes in Russia decided to plant huge areas. Even in private plots, the lion’s share of land is under the authority of the “second bread”. And potatoes are considered unpretentious culture. Few people pay her due attention. After all, as they usually do? They thumped the ground, threw the tuber, once they grazed, tucked, and in the fall they gathered. And what is collected? What has grown.
After all, it is not customary at our ceremony. If the quality is pumped up, then take quantity. How to grow a good potato crop? Good - this is not 100 buckets with 10 acres. This is 50-70 buckets with 1 weave.
Just do not say what is unreal. It is doable on their own. True, have to bow. But instead of 6 acres of land will be enough one. Plus, we will have to process a smaller area, so let's start.
What matters to a good potato harvest? Just a few components. The list is small, but each item is important:
- land preparation
- seed selection and preparation
- landing dates
- care and treatment
Consider everything in detail and try to mention some tricks. All proportions will be considered in terms of 1 hundred square meters of land. That is, on 20 beds 5 meters long.
It is not enough just to dig the soil before winter. Of course, the roots of weeds freeze, and some pests will die. But the potato is a lady, she loves to eat. Therefore, pre-winter fertilization is a mandatory procedure.
Ideally, it should be manure, well-rotted. But now it is difficult and expensive to get it. So we are looking for alternative methods:
- Compost, humus. It will take a lot, up to 100 kg. Plus 2 buckets of the most ordinary ash. All this is scattered around the site and dug up.
- Green liquid fertilizer. It will take 50 liters. Also spill the soil, then dig.
- Siderata. Sowing in August, you can get a good harvest by the end of October. It is mown and tucked into the ground when digging. How many grams of seeds will be required per 1 hectare depends on the plant species. Look at the package.
- Mineral fertilizers. Proportions on 1 weave: 20 tsp. urea, 100 st. l superphosphate, 20 tsp. potassium sulfate. Stir in a plastic container and sprinkle evenly over the area. Next dig up.
As you can see, you can choose the most appropriate option that suits your pocket personally, the degree of employment and ideology. Because some people do not recognize mineral water categorically, and someone does not want to mess with the sideratami.
In the spring, immediately after the thawing of the snow, you need to dump the earth. This will break the upper crust and allow weeds to actively grow. Until the planting of potatoes, they can be cut or weed out. Thus, weeds will not interfere with shoots.
Cut the furrows directly on the day of landing. It is recommended to shed the beds with copper sulphate or Bordeaux liquid. This will be the initial protection against late blight. Potatoes are planted as usual with a spade. Or make a deep furrow, lay out the tubers, then sprinkled with earth.
Tip Potato loves freedom, its root system grows wide. Therefore, the most suitable landing pattern for it is 50 to 50 cm.
Selection and preparation of seeds
Of course, not seeds, but tubers. Aby what plant is not recommended. Because it will grow an unknown something. If you can praise your collection of varieties, congratulations. What to do to those who do not have it? Buy seed potatoes preferably in special stores. You can ask friends. If nothing happens, then we will work with what is available.
Pre-plant preparation begins well before the beginning of May. Potatoes need to be green and germinate. A month before planting, the tubers are laid out in one layer in wide boxes with wet sawdust. Before this, each potato is soaked in a strong solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, then dried. Once a week, the tubers are sprayed with any biostimulant. Strictly monitor the moisture content of sawdust. If necessary, sprayed with water. By the time of planting, the tubers will turn green, strong sprouts and a good root system will appear.
To activate germination, you can make a neat cut of the tuber rind to a depth of about 1 cm. Around the entire circumference, without touching the kidneys. Sections powder with dry ash.
If you occasionally got a good grade tuber, and you want to multiply it, then do not rush to shred it into pieces. Put the potato on sawdust, wait until the sprouts appear. Carefully break them off and plant them in the ground like seedlings. And the tuber will give new sprouts. So you can repeat two more times. If you did everything correctly, then at the time of landing you will have about 15-20 sprouts. They are planted in the same way as tomatoes. With proper care in the fall you get a good harvest of tubers, which can be left on the seeds.
When planting in the hole, it is necessary to throw a zhmenka dry onion peel and a tablespoon of ash. Plant sprouted tubers sprouts strictly down! Do not worry, they are well aware in which direction they grow. But the underground part of the stem will be longer, which will allow more stolons to form. Accordingly, there will be more tubers.
Tip Throw a small piece of dry orange peel into each well. This will temporarily confuse the pests. The aroma of citrus will scare them away.
When to plant potatoes? Each region has its own dates. This is usually the time when the soil temperature reaches + 7-9 ° C. In order not to run with a thermometer in the corners of the site, you need to be guided by nearby trees. Bird cherry blossomed, and the leaves on the birch blossomed? So it's about time, the Zemku is warm enough.
By the way, the optimal seed placement depth is no more than 15 cm. Otherwise, you will have to wait for seedlings for a very long time. When the size of the tubers is slightly larger than a chicken egg per 1 hectare (20 five-meter beds), only 5-6 buckets of planting material will be needed.
Care and treatment
Caring for potatoes is not so difficult. Of course, planting growth is not worth letting it go, but excessive care will be unnecessary. Basic Postulates:
- Weeds Potato planting should be periodically loosened to complete closure of the tops. This should be done every 3 weeks. Along with loosening, sprouted weeds are cut. Cleaning them from the beds is not necessary. Let it remain as mulch.
- Disease. Every two weeks, potato tops should be sprayed with a solution of phytosporin or Bordeaux mixture. Straight through the leaves. This is done to prevent disease planting late blight.
- Colorado beetle. The most important pest. Some sources recommend collecting beetles by hand. But this method only works if your neighbors do the same. Otherwise, you have to collect Colorado all season. And if hectares planted? How long will the pens be? Spraying potatoes with insecticides will still have to.
- Watering. Potatoes are absolutely not exacting to regular watering. It is better to shed it well three times a season to a depth of 40 cm than to sprinkle water over the top once a week. The first time watered after germination. The second - with the appearance of buds. The third - a week after the end of flowering.
- Feeding. The potato is grateful for any feeding. Nitrogen, mineral, green, on leaves or under a root. The main rule - fertilizer should be applied only after the appearance of buds. Then all the food will go to the tubers. If the lady is treated earlier, then there will be a lush thick tops instead of powerful tubers.
Tip To temporarily confuse the beetles, you can sow calendula or marigolds in between rows. Their strong flavor does not allow beetles to find potatoes. Just remember, you have to sow a lot of colors.
Do not rush to dig potatoes ahead of time. It happens that the home, especially the older ones, literally eat up the bald patch: “We must choose the potatoes faster, out, all the neighbors have already dug up.” Do not chase the neighbors. They have their own atmosphere. Not only the good harvest of potatoes is important to us, but its further preservation. And in order for the tubers to be fully prepared for winter maturation, they must have a dense skin.
How to achieve this if all the deadlines have passed? What to do if the forecast promises a cold snap or rain, and the peel on a fresh potato is peeled off with a finger? First you need to mow the tops, leaving hemp about 10-12 cm. They are needed as a guide to know where to plug the forks while digging. Even if the tops are juicy and green, you have to get rid of it. It's a pity, but what to do. Thus, an artificial autumn is created for the tubers. No tops - no food - it's time to get ready for the winter.
And only 7-9 days after the procedure, you can begin to dig. During this time, the skin will thicken enough.
Most of the habit of digging a shovel. It is much harder. Yes, and cut tubers get a lot. Try ordinary garden forks, you may not be able to refuse them. Do not be afraid that part of the tubers will remain in the hole. The earth was compressed enough and turned out in a whole lump. And then do not yawn, harvest.
Do not rush to carry the tubers immediately to the cellar. Let lie in the sun for 3-4 hours. During this time, they dry well, and the sun's rays will kill most of the underground pathogenic bacteria.
Next, the potatoes must be placed in a dark barn for 5-7 days, without access of light. This is how most damage or disease will manifest. And only after that you can sort out the tubers. Those that are intended for seed, it is better to green in the light for about 2 weeks. This will allow them to grow faster in spring.
The rest of the harvest is stored in a dark cool cellar. In order not to hurt potatoes in the winter, the room is treated with whitewash or copper sulphate, then with sulfur checker. Enjoy the fruits of your hands, everyone.
Recently appeared alternative hilling method. It’s too early to talk about serious results. But the reviews about him are the most positive. The method is suitable for those who do not wish to wave hoe, spud planting or dragging a plow.
It lies in the fact that the ground is not raked from the sides of the bush, and poured directly into the center. That is, the stems are not collected in a heap, but on the contrary, are falling apart. At the same time it is not necessary to drag the soil in buckets. You can take a shovel or shovel from the row spacing.
Thus, the lower part of the stems is under the ground, as with the usual hilling. But, due to the fact that they are collapsed, there is more room for the growth of tubers. And the harvest increases by 15-20%.
Someone will say, so throwing a soil with a shovel is harder than moving a chopper. And who said it was easy? In a different way - yes, but not much easier than the usual hilling.
Tip To get started, try on several bushes. Suddenly you will not like the result?
Planting under mulch
The method has already been tested and has both supporters and opponents. Its essence lies in the fact that the tuber is not buried in the soil, and left on the surface. By the way, you can even sod. But above impose a thick layer of mulch. As it declines and sags, they enclose new portions. In the fall, it remains only to scrape the grass to the side and collect clean tubers.
- no need to spud
- yield due to direct contact with humus is 20% higher
- tubers are absolutely clean
- there is no danger of catching disease from the soil
- the mulch layer must be at least 50 cm, otherwise the entire crop will be green
- shrews and field mice also love potatoes
- if the mulch starts to mold, then the whole potato will become moldy
- where to get so much grass?
Of course, this method is not suitable for planting large areas. Because the grass will have to carry stacks for the desired thickness. But you can try on several tubers. Surely, on the site there is a free piece of land for the experiment.
Tip With regard to fertilizing and pest control, with this method they are used in the same way as with the classical method of planting.
Landing in circular ridges
Another alternative landing method. Allows you to save on fertilizer and water for irrigation, but requires a little more space. The essence of the method is as follows:
- On the ground, mark a circle with a diameter of 1 meter. Prepared tubers are laid out on a circle at a distance of 30 cm from each other, then they are sprinkled with a layer of soil of 10 cm.
- With a height of seedlings 9-12 cm bushes spud. Soil digging chopper from the center of the circle.
- The operation is carried out two more times. Gradually, it turns out a kind of bagel - in the center of the fossa, and around the mound with landings.
So you can be sure that all the nutrients go directly to the roots, and do not spread between the rows. The method is not bad, it increases the yield by almost a third. But very labor-intensive. After all, it will not be possible to just drive with plow to pile up the stems. We'll have to wave a hoe.
Useful and interesting facts
- If you uprooted old black currant bushes, try planting potatoes in this place. With little effort from 5 meters long 3 buckets of selected large tubers are gathered. True, only in the first year. Further yield decreases.
- The story is known, when they were already planting potatoes, when suddenly a heavy rainstorm with a large hail began. Accordingly, in the last 4 rows, a decent amount of water was poured into the holes and filled with hail. What a surprise it was in the autumn when cleaning! The tubers were large, clean and smooth. That is, watering directly into the hole at the time of planting significantly increases the yield. The method is time consuming if you plant the whole field. But you can try on several beds and compare the results.
- What to do if you want young potatoes, and you planted only varieties of the usual ripening period? No need to run to a neighbor and buy from her. You need to wear gloves and stomp on your garden. Neatly dig the soil at the side of the ridge. We find potatoes. Carefully tear off the largest ones. The rest fall asleep back and the next day do not forget to shed a bush and feed it. And we ourselves go to another and repeat the operation. So just you can taste the young potatoes, even if they planted only late ones.
- Do not plant the entire plot in one variety. What if this particular year turns out to be a crop failure for him, despite all your efforts? Better plant several types of potatoes and different ripening terms. So you will be sure that even under the most severe weather conditions, you will get your harvest.
How to grow a good potato crop? Observe agricultural practices, have good seeds and not be lazy. As they say in the people: as you sink, and burst.
Growing potatoes for a good harvest
This culture is popular and loved by all. So when the question arises, how many potatoes will grow in the country, I want this figure to tripled. There are several secrets how to increase yields.
The rich harvest of potatoes in a small area - the desire of many vegetable growers
To get a rich harvest, you need follow certain instructions: prepare the tubers for planting, plant properly and care for the growth of the crop. Given all the nuances you can get a big crop of root vegetables.
Selection of planting material
Selection of seeds is carried out according to the following rules:
- potato should not be rotten or cracked
- root vegetables should be even, firm, without growths and defects,
- for planting choose potatoes of different ripening terms. Early varieties are left for summer food; late varieties are left for storage in winter.
Disinfection of planting material
Can cook home disinfection solution:
- prepare a solution of potassium permanganate 1g, water 10 l, copper sulfate 1 matchbox,
- germinated tubers should be filled with the prepared solution for half an hour,
- then remove it carefully, so as not to damage the sprouts and leave to dry in the sun.
Potato ready to germinate.
Bathing in a nutrient solution
Can be used for planting growth stimulants. Before planting, take germinated tubers for a few days. process them with one of the drugs:
- Protein - 1 ampoule per 1 liter of water,
In order to make a transverse incision, it is necessary to incise the tuber perpendicular to its axis. Uncut remains only a small part, so that the tuber does not fall apart. With the help of the incision, the nutrients are evenly distributed by the eyes, and a strong bush is obtained, giving a high yield.
Ring notch make to a depth of 1 cm so as to gird the tuber notch. In this case, the supply of nutrients comes from the top.
How to prepare seed
To grow a high-quality crop, you need to sort out the seed and remove all rotten, infected with diseases, frostbitten, cracked, soft tubers. For planting it is better to choose potatoes of medium size 50-70 gr.
Also there are the following methods of preparing seed potatoes before landing:
- warming the tubers in the oven or in the sun,
- germination in the light before germination,
- disease disinfection using potassium permanganate,
- wetting of tubers in fertilizer solution.
Potato capricious to watering. Lack or excess of moisture can affect the yield. When the seed got into the wet soil, not recommended for 2 weeks to water the garden. In the future, water in the heat under a bush of 2 liters once a week.
Potatoes do not like cold water. Therefore, watering should be slightly warm water.
In the period of occurrence of the formation of tubers should be watered more actively.
When watering there is a direct danger of overflow, because the planting material does not like active watering.
To get a rich harvest, you need to make additional feeding in the fall, feeding the earth with organic and chemical additives. However, organic matter can not be used if before the earth was strongly attacked by insects or diseases. Bring in additive from humus, superphosphate, potassium sulfate.
Another important procedure is liming. It should be carried out immediately after harvest. To do this, add dolomite flour or ash to the soil.
When planting the tubers in the hole, add 25 kg of humus, 2 kg of ash, 1 kg of superphosphate, 0.5 kg of ammonium nitrate per hundred.
Harvesting and storage
Harvest time depends on the selected potato varieties and the timing of its ripening. Harvest should be properly maintained. The most important thing is that the vegetable does not start to sprout. Therefore, the following spaces are chosen for storage:
- cellar. An important role is played by airing the room to remove excess moisture,
- on the balcony or in the pantry. The main thing that t storage was not higher than + 10C.
It is recommended to store the fruit in wooden boxes. Before storage, you need to sort the potatoes and throw away all the damaged and sick fruit. It is also important that direct sunlight does not fall into the storage room.
Principles of planting potatoes
The most important principle is to create favorable conditions for growth and nutrition planting material and keep it from diseases and pests. Also, the vegetable needs: sun, air, moisture, fertilizer. In addition, there are several secrets of how to grow a rich harvest on their own.
How to plant potatoes in the country
In order to get a rich harvest in a small area, you need to thoroughly approach the choice of potato varieties. One of the productive varieties intended for a small territory is considered to be the “Effect” variety.
It is also important to observe the rules of landing. The following methods are suitable for a small area.
Under the trench
Way good for the area where the soil is sandy and prone to drying out. In the autumn, trenches should be dug 30 cm deep at a distance of 1 meter. In the trench should lay out a layer of hay 15 cm, sprinkle with manure on top, add a little ash.
Sample Potato Trench
During the frost period the layer is compacted. In the spring, planting material is laid out in a trench and lightly sprinkled with soil.
Benefits: The trench saves potatoes from frosts, retains moisture well, gives a high yield.
Recommended for growing under wells. prepare a plot in the fall: fertilize, mulch the soil. In spring, the tubers are planted by digging holes. With the help of a peg and cords create beds at a distance of 80 cm.
Germinated tubers are placed in the hole to a depth of 8-10 cm shoots up. It is recommended to top with compost and ash.
Advantage: The most popular and proven method.
Landing in the hole
Under the ridges
If the soil in the garden is clay or soil, then fit under the ridges. The height of the ridges is small - 20 cm, distance 80cm. Combs can be done with the help of agricultural engineering. Planting material is planted in the hollows located on the top of the ridges.
Benefits: Ability to use professional equipment and save time and effort.
Landing in the ridges
The secret of planting to get a good big crop
To get a big harvest there are a few secrets:
- the best place to plant a vegetable is the southern slope without trees nearby,
- it is better to plant several varieties of potatoes at once,
- breeding sprouts,
- planted in warm soil, watering it with heated water.
How potatoes grow in the ground
Sprouted tuber is planted upward. After this, the sprout actively begins to grow and come to the surface. The soil continues to develop in the soil. At the roots of the roots begins to tie.
To supply the tubers with starch, flowers appear on the bushes. Root crops begin to grow in the soil, and when the green part of the plant begins to dry and wither, you can dig potatoes.
Separate methods of planting potatoes for a big harvest
In addition to the basic methods of planting potatoes, there are the following:
- mitlider method. It lies in the fact that the tubers are planted less often 45 cm wide at a distance of 1 meter. Tubers are planted in a staggered manner,
- Dutch technology. Tubers are planted in high beds 45cm wide at a distance of 80cm. Fertilizers are also placed in the wells. In the process of leaving the soil constantly mulch, water and feed,
- Gulich method. The plot is divided into squares meter per meter. In the center of the squares, the ground is mulched and fertilized with compost. Then planted tuber sprout down, lightly sprinkled with soil.
After germination, earth is poured abundantly and this procedure is repeated four times. A hill should appear from the soil. The method affects the development of the root system.
If you follow all the above recommendations, you can significantly increase the yield. You have a rich harvest!
How to grow a big crop of potatoes
Any technology for growing high yields of potatoes consists of a set of works:
- proper preparation of the site for planting,
- selection of varieties and preparation of seed,
- planting potatoes strictly according to a certain pattern
- agricultural technology
- proper care
- harvesting and storage.
Site preparation for planting
Potatoes grow well on light and medium soils, sandy, chernozem, loamy, with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
Heavy loamy soil prevents free access of air to tubers, squeezes them, retains excess moisture, which contributes to the development of rot.
The plot for planting potatoes should be well lit, open. It is desirable that legumes, grain crops or siderats grow on it before potatoes. Cucumbers, cabbage, root crops and pumpkin crops are also good precursors for potatoes.
You can not plant it after sunflower, sorghum, tomatoes and other members of the family of solanaceous, sick with the same disease with potatoes. Potatoes can be planted in their original place in 3-4 years.
In the autumn They dig up a bed and fertilize per square meter:
- Humus or fresh manure - from 5 to 7 buckets.
- Superphosphate - 2 tbsp. l (30 grams).
- Potassium sulfate - 1 tbsp. l (15 grams).
They reduce the acidity of the soil by adding 400–500 grams of dolomite flour or lime.
Selection and preparation of seed
For planting buy zoned varieties of potatoes. Do not expect full returns from seed not adapted to the climatic conditions of your region. Experienced gardeners planted several varieties of favorite vegetables.
By this they stretch the fruiting season and insure themselves in case the weather conditions turn out to be unfavorable for any variety. Therefore, they plant, collect and store different varieties separately.
After 5-7 years, the potato degenerates, the yield and resistance to disease decreases, and the decay deteriorates. Therefore his need to be updated regularly.
Tubers for planting choose without damage and stains, measuring about 5 cm in diameter, that is, 70 grams in weight. For disinfection soak them in a special solution. You can prepare a solution according to one of the recipes (the dosage is given in 10 liters of water):
- 0.5 grams of potassium permanganate, 15 grams of boric acid and 5 grams of copper sulphate,
- 1 gram of potassium permanganate, 10 grams of boric acid, 60 grams of superphosphate and 40 grams of urea,
- 1 kg of minced garlic.
Place the tubers in a vegetable net and lower it into the disinfecting solution with nutrients for 2-3 hours.
Sprouting potatoes lasts 1-2 months. Spread it in a single layer in a warm, bright room, protected from direct exposure to the sun. From direct sunlight, the tubers dry out, and in the twilight sprouts form weak and thin.
With the advent of germs, the seed material is transferred to a cooler room with a temperature of 15–18 degrees. By the time of planting, sprouts on tubers reach 4–5 cm in length. If the soil is still warm, planting material stored in a cold place.
Potatoes belong to heat-loving crops, and they should be planted in the soil heated to 7–10 degrees. According to folk signs, they start planting when the leaves on the birch trees bloom, the bird cherry and the first dandelions bloom.
Do not be late with the work, since starchiness and potato yield are worsened when planting tubers in too warm soil. For various climatic and environmental conditions apply different ways of landing:
- On ridges - if the groundwater is too close to the ground or on heavy soils. Crests form a height of 15-30 cm at a distance of 70 cm from one another.
- In the trench planted potatoes in arid areas, as well as on soils, poorly retain moisture.
- "Under the shovel" - the tubers are placed in the prepared holes.
The beds are located in direction from south to north. The depth of planting depends on the nature of the soil:
- clay - 4–5 cm,
- heavy and loam - 8–10 cm,
- easy - 10–12 cm
Large tubers dig more than small ones, but deviate from the recommended numbers. should not exceed 3 cm. Different planting varieties of early and late ripening:
- Early varieties are planted in such a way that 60 cm between the rows and 25-30 cm between tubers.
- Late, respectively, 70 cm and 30–35 cm.
Caring for potatoes consists of the following types of work:
- Loosening is carried out weekly to a depth of 5–8 cm, and weeds are simultaneously removed.
- Hilling - must be held twice per season. Prerequisite: it should be done in wet ground. In dry areas, hilling is not carried out, limited to loosening.
- Watering should be rare, but abundant, with soil moistening to a depth of 15 cm. After the budding starts, the soil should be wet, so watering begins when the topsoil dries to 6–8 cm. Watering is better in the evening, spending about 3 liters of water on each bush . Excessive flooding should not be allowed: waterlogging causes potato rot.
- Top dressings are necessary at least three (the specified amount of fertilizers is parted in 10 liters of water). The first - after the emergence of seedlings fertilized with urea (1 tbsp. L.). The second is to feed wood ash (2 tbsp.) And potassium sulphate (1 tbsp.) During the formation of buds. The third - in the flowering period, fertilized with superphosphate (2 tbsp. L.) And organic matter: mullein or chicken droppings (1 cup).
Harvesting and storage of the crop
Start digging potatoes when the tops are completely yellow and dry. To delay with this is not worth it: being long in the ground, the tubers lose weight and worse stored.
The best weather for harvesting is dry and sunny, as potatoes dry out faster. Dig bushes should be carefully, so as not to damage the tubers. At the same time sort them, setting aside separately damaged and sick.
Take care of next year's harvest: pick seed potatoes from healthy and productive bushes, divide it into varieties. Optimal for planting are the tubers of the middle fraction, without signs of disease and pest damage.
They are laid out in a sunny, dry ventilated room for landscaping. In green tubers, the amount of solanine increases and protects them from diseases and pests.
Harvest potatoes dry, sort and store at a temperature of 2–4 degrees and a humidity level of 90–92% in wooden boxes (not in bags).
Popular potato growing technologies
Dutch technology. The Dutch potato cultivation method was originally used by large farms.
Amateur gardeners became interested in collecting up to 300–400 kg of potatoes per hundred instead of 100–200 kg in the traditional way.
They adapted it for use on small personal plots and summer residences. Basic requirements dutch technology are as follows:
- the use of high quality varietal planting material
- mandatory compliance with crop rotation,
- autumn and spring soil preparation,
- the use of a certain plantation of tubers,
- a clear schedule of measures to combat diseases and pests,
- compliance with the requirements for harvesting and storage of the crop.
How to grow potatoes using Dutch technology on the plot:
- For planting, select 2-3 or more high-quality potato varieties, preferably with different ripening terms. Well-proven varieties resistant to the nematode, potato viruses, cancer: Cleopatra, Prior, Resi, Condor, Jarl, EBA, Asterix, Mona Lisa.
- Purchase the planting material of the first or second reproduction, that is, the "super elite" or "elite." The optimal size of tubers is 5 cm in diameter. Before planting, seed potatoes must germinate: the length of sprouts should be about 2 cm for manual planting and up to 0.5 cm for machine planting.
- Observe crop rotation: plant potatoes on the site no earlier than three years. Preferably, the precursors were cereals. Improves soil fertility autumn sowing of siderats with their subsequent digging.
- The Dutch technology involves the use of a large amount of mineral fertilizers and chemical preparations to combat weeds, diseases, pests. When growing potatoes in small household and suburban areas, it is advisable to use one hundred square meters: humus or compost - 50 kg, with the addition of potassium chloride - 1.5–2.5 kg and superphosphate - up to 5 kg. Bring them under the autumn digging beds. Spend weeds and pests in the traditional way.
- Plant potatoes in the soil, heated to 7-10 degrees. Soil pre-loosen the rake, shovel or cultivator, while removing weeds. Plant in rows from south to north so that there is 75 cm between them. Tubers should be 30 cm apart. Planting depth is 6 to 8 cm. When tuber is falling asleep above the furrow, form a comb 35 cm wide and about 10 cm high. The consumption of seed material ranges from 400 to 1000 tubers per one hundred.
- When sprouts appear, form trapezoid ridges (height 25 cm, width of the lower base - 75 cm, upper - 35 cm), scaling the soil from the row spacing. This contributes to the formation of a strong root system, prevents stagnation of water, the surplus of which flows between the rows, ensures the heating of the ridges by the sun.
- Further care involves the treatment of bushes against the Colorado potato beetle and watering in the absence of rain. Water the first time before the onset of flowering, the second - 10 days after the end of flowering and the third - after 20 days.
The technology of growing potatoes in plastic bags
Inventive gardeners came up with another witty and original way of growing potatoes - in bags.
With a minimum consumption of planting material high yields are achieved: Having planted only one tuber of high-grade potatoes, up to 4 kg of vegetables are obtained from a bag.
It solves several problems at once and has many advantages:
- if the area is small, the bags can be installed in any place that is inconvenient for cultivation,
- if the land at the site is unsuitable for cultivation, the bags are filled with imported soil, loose and fertile,
- eliminating the need for weeding, loosening and hilling potatoes,
- pests do not start: the bear can not penetrate into the plastic bag, and the Colorado beetle starts only in open ground,
- potato yield increases due to the development of lateral shoots and warming of the soil in bags,
- cityless citizens, using this technology, successfully grow potatoes on balconies and loggias,
- it is convenient to use bags with valves - they allow you to remove large tubers for consumption, leaving smaller ones for growing.
How to grow potatoes in bags:
- In order for this method of cultivation to produce a significant yield from a single shrub, plant high-quality potatoes. Prefer early varieties. Best of all they showed themselves: Slavyanka, Molodezhnaya, Svitanok, Nadezhnaya, Shante, Bellarosa. Perform the usual preplant tuber preparation.
- Prepare plastic bags of flour, cereals, sugar with a volume of about 10 buckets. Pour 2–3 buckets of nutritious soil in them (garden soil mixed in half with humus). Sow seed potatoes in it and sprinkle with soil. Place the bags in a well-warmed, sunny place. Keep the soil hydrated.
- After 1-2 weeks sprouts will appear. When they reach a height of 10–15 cm, sprinkle them with nutritious soil. Repeat this procedure until the bags fill two thirds of the height. Water regularly as the soil in the bags dries quickly.
- If you do it right, two months after planting, the tubers will be the size of a fist.
How to grow potatoes under straw
Growing potatoes under straw is an unusual, but noteworthy method. With an extraordinary yield of 400–700 kg per hundred and more, it greatly facilitates the work of the grower.
There is no need for watering - moisture remains under the straw for a long time, it does not require weeding and loosening - the straw plays the role of mulch and inhibits the growth of weeds, instead of hilling it is enough to lay a layer of straw.
By raising the straw carefully near the potato bush, you can проконтролировать процесс формирования клубней. Можно выбрать крупные клубни для потребления, оставив мелкие расти дальше.
Описание процесса посадки и выращивания:
- Грядку, на которой планируете сажать картофель, разрыхлите плоскорезом, одновременно удаляя сорняки. Mark the rows 15 cm wide, loosen them to a depth of 10 cm and form trenches.
- If the soil is not wet enough, water it. Place the tubers in the trench and sprinkle with earth, pouring a small mound. Cover the bed with a 10 cm straw bed.
- When the potato bushes grow up and rise 5–10 cm above the surface, again lay a layer of straw up to 20 cm thick. Try to stack the straw so that it covers the bushes, but does not crush them.
- When pests appear, use traditional means of controlling them.
When laying straw follow the recommendations. Too thin layer does not trap moisture and allows weeds to break through to the surface. An excessively thick layer makes it difficult to warm the soil and prevents the bushes from germinating.
As you can see, the techniques and methods of growing potatoes are varied. But each one of them creates the most favorable conditions for fruiting this vegetable crop, which ensures consistently high yields.
How to grow a bucket of potatoes from one bush?
What is difficult in growing potatoes? Having scooped up a large area, we generously fertilize it with manure. Now we plant good and large potatoes in the ground. With this method, we usually grow a bucket of potatoes from a square meter and consider it sufficient. If we discard the spoiled and diseased tubers, then in the remainder we will get a completely disappointing figure. Continuing to work in the old fashioned way, we break our backs in order to eat our potatoes only at the end of summer - the beginning of autumn. Meanwhile, a bucket of potatoes from a bush is quite a common thing. Harvest may be more. There are several ways to significantly increase it.
What determines the yield?
First, let's look at what affects the final result. Of course, we need to take into account some of the nuances:
- The larger the potatoes, the higher the yield.
- The more root crops are tied, the more promising is the potential yield.
- We need a healthy, intact potato - the less waste the better.
- It is important to wait a certain time to get the harvest. The number of potatoes can be large, but part of it is peas, while other root vegetables can be quite ripe. It is important that all potatoes grow.
How to ensure each of these conditions, analyze in more detail.
There are specially bred large-fruited varieties. For example:
- Idaho potato varieties can be found in fast food restaurants. This variety gives perfectly flat, elongated and fairly large tubers. It has an unusual taste, which is why restaurant potatoes are very different from homemade food. Get 550 quintals of such potatoes from one hectare of land is quite realistic. In Russia, it is successfully cultivated, not only for the purpose of selection. The variety is early ripening, resistant to diseases. Idaho is very nutritious and contains a lot of starch.
- Bellarosa is a Slovak variety, cultivated in Russia, Poland, Belarus. It has a high yield and large size. Highly starchy variety (up to 19%). He quickly boiled soft, has a crumbly white flesh. The skin of the potato variety Bellaroza is brownish. With regular watering potatoes can reach 500-600 grams.
- Gala - potatoes grow 400 grams each. And those on the bush 5-6. In addition, the grade is quite early. Up to 80% of all potatoes are large. It is characteristic that it doesn’t seem to say anything about high yields. Outside, the gala is a bush with a height of 45-50 cm.
- Good luck - a variety not only large-fruited, but also fruitful. 25 root crops on a bush with an average weight of 180 grams yield a yield of up to 960 centners per hectare.
- The Rosara variety is also distinguished by its many tubers. 20-30 pieces you dig up easily. Each one has a good size - at least 150 grams. Starchy variety, resistant to diseases. Stems are large, but subject to attacks of the Colorado potato beetle.
- Slavyanka is a Ukrainian variety with very large tubers. Potatoes up to one kilogram in weight are reality. It grows even on poor soils. Starch contains little - 12% of the strength. It is used as a feed crop due to its low taste.
The use of high-quality and modern planting material greatly facilitates the cultivation of potatoes. How to get a bucket from a bush with a good grade, they know in any village. The cost of high-quality potatoes for planting, of course, higher. So why not increase the yield by an order of magnitude?
What determines the number of potatoes on a bush?
On average, a bush produces two dozen potatoes, but there may be five or forty. Back in the eighteenth century, the Russian agronomist Bolotov totaled one hundred potatoes on one bush. If everything is clear with the size of root crops, it depends on the variety and suitability of the soil, the number of potatoes is more difficult to increase. Of course, the variety plays a big role. Also, the number of tubers directly depends on the friability of the soil. In heavy clay, the roots simply have nowhere to develop.
There is a definite dependence of the number of tubers on the number of trunks in the bush. The branching and lush the plant, the more active photosynthesis, the more it stores nutrients in tubers. For a larger number of trunks need a larger number of eyes. Folk methods of selection and preparation of seed material in this case are fully justified.
Before you grow a whole bucket of potatoes from one bush, you must select the appropriate variety. It is desirable to focus not only on the yield, but also on the climatic features of your area. For the middle band suitable middle and mid-early varieties.
A large root vegetable will grow longer. On average, mid-season and late potato varieties are slightly larger than the early ones. Do not wait for high yields if you decide to dig a bush of potatoes immediately after flowering.
Most often, the ripeness of potatoes is determined by the leaves. Agronomists believe that this is not entirely true. The tops may be faded due to lack of nitrogen or heat. It also makes no sense to retain "dried" potatoes. Fading tops draw out moisture from the tubers, and the quality of the crop will decrease.
It is recommended to cut fallen tops a few days before harvesting. Potato still have time to absorb the juice. Check the readiness of the crop can be dug one bush. Maturity is indicated by the density of the peel. It should not peel off with friction.
Additionally, care must be taken that all your rich harvest is not destroyed by diseases and pests. As mentioned above, cutting of withered foliage before harvesting additionally helps protect the tubers from diseases. The main enemy of potatoes is phytophthora. Varieties resistant to it are practically not developed. Chemicals are used to protect the plant. It is also recommended not to plant potatoes in one place using crop rotation. At least 3-4 different cultures should precede the new planting of potatoes. Among the predecessors should not be a tomato and other plants prone to late blight.
There are many proven folk remedies and tips on how to grow a bucket of potatoes from one bush and not lose the crop. Hardening the planting material in a special solution gives good results. Usually use water with the addition of potassium permanganate. The solution should be slightly pink. Boric acid, Bordeaux liquid is also used.
Potato fertilizer gives excellent results and significantly increases the yield. The combination of organic and mineral substances is considered the best for the plant. The old-fashioned potatoes are fertilized with manure, ashes, and crushed egg shells are added. You will find such tips, wondering how to grow a bucket of potatoes from one bush. This is not entirely correct. The benefits of eggshell are not proven at all. Manure can be a source of disease and excess nitrates. Fallen manure is made for autumn plowing at the rate of 400-500 kilograms per one hundred square meters of land. Potash and phosphate fertilizers are introduced in a ratio of 1: 1. The best effect is achieved by fertilizing the soil with organomineral complexes.
Soil preparation, loosening and watering play a crucial role for the potato crop. You practically do not need to dig up a field in spring, if you dug it up before winter. Hilling will remove excess weeds, will prevent the formation of excessive moisture in the soil. Regular watering can increase yields. Tubers well absorb moisture, but the quality of potatoes, its keeping quality at the same time are reduced.
Potato growing experience: 20 bushes - 40 buckets
Experienced vegetable growers have a similar secret. To some, it will seem very unusual.
The bottom line is to properly prepare the planting material, and then give the bush to grow as much as possible. For the experiment will need:
- 20 seed potatoes with eyes. If there are many seedlings - the potatoes need to be cut so that they have 2-3 pieces per piece.
- Mix for processing planting material. A glass of ash, 1 teaspoon of boric acid and one tablespoon of Bordeaux mixture are taken for 10 liters of water. In solution, soak the seed for about 15 minutes.
- In the designated wells throw in a teaspoon of "Amofoski."
Plant potatoes at a sufficiently large distance. We drop lightly. After the sprouts appear, gently part them, handing each earth in a circle.
When the stems grow, the procedure must be repeated, gently bending the tops. It turns out that we divide the bush into several parts, and each will grow as an independent plant. Well, how to grow a bucket of potatoes from one bush, you already know. It is better to dig such a bush with a fork, so as not to damage the tubers. We carefully undermine it from all sides, raising the ground. Potatoes will be very much!
If we add high-quality fertilizers to this method, a good variety, watering and feeding, leaving not 2 peepholes, but all the available ones, we can get a bucket from each sprout.
Theoretically, you now know how to get 5 buckets of potatoes from 1 bush. This bush will take about a square meter. That is, the question of whether or not to divide the potato when planting remains rhetorical. With the same area, you get about the same yield. It remains to choose - what you like more: hilling beds in the open air or sprouting eyes in the room.
Secret 1: Disinfecting Planting Material
Planting material must be decontaminated. This is a useful prevention of disease and pest damage during germination. And the addition of boric acid to the solution will serve as a useful growth stimulator.
Such processing, undoubtedly, will affect the yield, as the planting material will become much more sustainable. Tubers can be processed in two ways - either soaked for 2-3 hours in disinfectant-nutrient solutions, or be treated by an aerosol method (that is, simply speaking, spray the tubers from a spray bottle).
- Recipe 1- disinfectant
- Recipe 2 - disinfecting and nourishing
- Recipe 3 - disinfecting and nourishing
- Recipe 4 - for aerosol treatment
Planting material must be decontaminated
Warning: aerosol treatment is done when the sprouts have not yet “nod”. If the sprouts are already there, it is advised to soot the tubers first, and then spray twice with the diluted composition.
Secret 2: swimming in the nutrient solution
If 2 days before planting, sprouting potato tubers should be watered with a special nutrient solution, this will accelerate the emergence of shoots and the beginning of the formation of tubers. Such a simple way can increase the yield of potato bushes up to 10-13%!
- Nutritional Solution Recipe
If you have to plant unsprouted tubers, such nutritional bathing is carried out one day before planting.
Secret 3: Stimulating Incision
The yield of the potato bush can be increased by cutting the planting material in a special way. This will take time and some effort, but the result is worth it - the yield increase may exceed 12-13%.
Special stimulating cuts on tubers are advised to do before germination of eyes (about 1.5-2 months before landing). Then already germinated tubers are germinated.
Due to this incision, not only the eyes located in the upper part of the tuber, but also in the middle and even in the lower parts, are moving into growth. But with the standard germination technology they never germinate at all!
A transverse incision is made on the tuber perpendicular to the axis. The incision is deep: only a small part of the tuber remains uncut - about 1 cm, the bridge between the halves seems to be:
The cross-section of the tuber. Photo from board74.ru
As a result, growth substances begin to be distributed evenly over all eyes, and each tuber gives a strong shrub with many stems. You can also conduct your experiment - part of the tubers to incise, and part of the germinate in the usual way. Then compare the results and determine how the “operation” affected the yield. Data from the experimental station of the Moscow SA of them KA Timiryazev showed a 17% increase in yield, and the experiments of the children's group “Ecologists-researchers” in the Olonets station for young naturalists — more than 20%.
This incision is also made to stimulate the growth of the maximum number of shoots. The potato tuber is incised around the entire circumference to a depth of the phloem layer - 1 cm (this is easier to do by attaching a limiter to the blade of the knife at this distance).
The annular cut may be transverse and longitudinal.
Annular incision of the tuber. Photo from ya-fermer.ru
When an annular incision of the tuber is blocked nutrient and growth substances to the apical part of the tuber, these substances are sent to the side of the lower kidneys, which stimulates their activation and germination. As a result, the number of stems increases, which directly affects the number of tubers in the bush.
Experiments have shown that with a transverse annular incision on the lower part of the tuber, those eyes that would remain inactive are activated and germinate, and with a longitudinal annular incision, the shoots in the stolon part do not develop, but in the apical part they begin to develop noticeably more actively.
The effect will be greatest if the “ringed” tubers are kept for 25-30 days warm - at temperatures of +14. +18 degrees Celsius (which is quite feasible both in a private house and in a city apartment). Ring cuts are worth doing when early forcing potatoes.
Warning: In order to prevent the transfer of diseases from a tuber to a tuber, it is recommended to select only healthy roots for cutting, and periodically disinfect the knife during treatment with potassium permanganate, Lysol or formalin.
Secret 4: geographic
Many experienced gardeners believe that the most "fruitful" direction of potato furrows on the site is from North to South.
Direction of potato furrows in the area - from north to south
Then in our latitudes the sun will warm and light up one side of the rows - the eastern, and in the afternoon - the other, the western. This will allow the entire plantation to receive a maximum of light and heat, and, therefore, will have a positive effect on the increase in yield.
Secret 5: and still watering
Very detailed and interesting different opinions, technologies and benefits of irrigation of potatoes are discussed in the article Do I need to water the potatoes and comments to it.
Regardless of belief, if you have the opportunity to water, then it should not be neglected. Moreover, potatoes are not cucumbers, and it is enough to water them 1-3 times during the whole season. And if during the period of flowering and the formation of tubers hot dry days fell out, watering one hundred percent will increase the yield of potato bushes!
How to water a large plantation of potatoes, in the next video shows and tells an experienced gardener Gennady Myagkov
Stimulates and accelerates the formation of tubers.
- Recipe 1
- Recipe 2
A warning: During the flowering period, organic fertilizing is not recommended - this can trigger an outbreak of diseases and stimulate weed growth.
The following video will show how you can feed potatoes with dry fertilizers and solutions.
Secret 7: tricky breakdown
This secret is 137 years old. And it belongs to the famous Russian gardener Richard Ivanovich Schroeder. According to his advice, if 14-20 days after flowering the stems are broken at a height of about 10-15 cm from the soil, the harvest of the potato bush will increase significantly. The break should be such that without losing integrity, the stem, however, would not be able to rise anymore.
What's the secret? And the fact that the nutrients rushing to the top of the stems, reaching fracture, "unfold" and go straight to the tubers. Plant, However, не вянет, процесс фотосинтеза не прекращается — то есть, жизнедеятельность картофельного куста продолжается.
Предупреждение: такие надломы будут эффективны на здоровых кустах. Если же растения поражены болезнями и вредителями, положительных результатов ждать вряд ли стоит.
Секрет 8: двойной урожай
Early planting potatoes are dug up at the beginning of June, the largest tubers are carefully chosen, and small ones are left on the roots. And ... immediately again put on their own place! A half-bucket of water is poured into the prepared hole, and the roots of the bush are placed right in the soil slurry. Spud and observe - in 5-7 days the bushes take root and until the fall they manage to please the owners with another crop. Try it))
Double potato harvest
In the summer cottage notebook
- The best location for the potato plot is the south slope, which is closed from the northwest. And, of course, not obscured by anything. Then the harvest will be maximum.
- If you want to protect yourself in case of a crop failure, plant on the site several different varieties of potatoes - some sort will certainly please. In addition, you get different in starch content of tubers.
- If you want to upgrade a potato variety, multiply it with sprouts.
- Potatoes reproduce quite easily by cuttings. To do this, freshly cut stems 20-25 cm long are quite suitable. It is enough to remove the leaves and plant the cutting in moist soil, leaving 5-8 cm above the surface. A week of regular watering and the cutting has taken root! You can spud and wait for the harvest)
It’s hard to imagine life without potatoes. Therefore, while there is land and a wonderful gift of nature - edible nourishing tubers, the question of a good potato harvest will always be on the agenda.
And finally, I would like to remind everyone of a once very popular song, the words of which "I suppose we all respect potatoes, when we smash it with salsa" almost every inhabitant of our country knows:
That's all about potatoes for today. We are waiting for your secrets, the potato has many more secrets))
We grow potatoes ... seedlings
To grow at least a few super early potato bushes can be seedlings. And I get it ... from ordinary seedlings! Closer to spring, the potatoes in the vault begin to germinate. Usually, we remove sprouts from the tubers and discard them. And in vain! After all, this is free planting material from which full-grown potato bushes will grow!
I do that. I lined the box with paper. At the bottom I put a small layer of chicken manure. It will decompose and heat the improvised garden bed. So, potato sprouts will give roots faster. I pour a layer of earth, on top - a layer of sawdust. I put sprouts torn from a tuber directly, bury it in the ground, but not completely, water it plentifully and tidy up the box in a dark place. When the young leaves appear, I move the box to a bright place and watch that the substrate remains slightly moistened.
From unwanted seedlings obtained excellent planting material.
By the time of planting in the open ground, the potato bushes will already be quite large, with a well-developed root system.
The first crop I gather in mid-June, as soon as the potatoes bloom.
First watering the bed. Then I find the largest tubers in the ground with my hand and carefully separate them from the roots, trying not to damage the plant. I start with two tubers from each bush, with time their number increases. After each harvest, I tamp the soil a little with my hand, watering and spuding potatoes. At the end of flowering I dig up all the bushes with a pitchfork. It turns out a solid benefit and savings: the harvest earlier and costs less. After all, I received seedlings from potato seedlings!
Planting potatoes ... cuttings!
Another interesting way to get a high crop of potatoes is cutting the seed material. It is suitable for citizens who devote their garden only two days a week, a weekend. This method is used when there is not enough planting material, or if they want to breed a rare variety of the minimum number of tubers. I get potato tubers from storage in early March. For a week they are lying on the windowsill in the heat. Every day I spray them with warm water with the addition of aloe juice (1 teaspoon of juice per 1 l of water).
This procedure enhances the immunity of potatoes. After a week, the tubers come to life and germinate. It is important that chunky hedgehog eyes appear, and not pale brittle whips. After that I prepare the container for planting and the substrate. Any containers will do - boxes, buckets, pots with a depth of at least 10 cm. I put the sprouted potatoes on the bottom, I fall asleep with steamed sawdust and coarse peat, I moisten well. Then I clean in a warm place until the shoots "stick out their noses." As soon as sprouts appear, I transfer the containers to a bright place. After the formation of the second sheet, I proceed to the "surgery". Cherenku in the usual way. Rooting cuttings either in water or in cups with soil. Sections on the uterine plant powder with coal, and on the handle - root.
I noticed a long time ago that cutting potatoes produces larger tubers.
The point here is this. When the potato tops cracks, the consumption of nutrients by the stems decreases. But more nutrition get tubers.
By the beginning of May, I usually have 15-20 centimeter seedlings. If the soil at the site is ready for digging and processing, potatoes can be planted in a permanent place. I do not pay attention to the temperature of the soil and the classic "potato" signs in this case. For planting seedlings, we make earthen crests so that air can flow better to future young tubers. Carefully load the potato plants into the holes located at the top of the ridge, and bury them together with the above-ground part with a small layer of soil. Watering when planting is not needed.
Further care - as for the usual planting of potatoes: hilling, loosening between the rows, watering, feeding. If all the agricultural technology is in order and the weather does not let you down, in September each bush will give you up to a kilogram of seed tubers. They will be landing next season. And all the planting material will be young and strong. Experienced gardeners know: one of the secrets of successful potato cultivation is periodic rejuvenation of seed material.
We grow potatoes ... in bags!
For those who do not have a summer cottage or it is very small, a way of growing potatoes in bags is suitable. Any suit - even from under the sugar, even from under the ground! The main thing is that with this method you can even get a potato crop on the balcony! In this case, I use one very effective way of processing the planting material. Peeled garlic pass through the press. Pour garlic mass with warm water in a proportion of 10 liters per 1 kg of garlic. Insist 2 hours, and then soak tubers in the infusion for 5 hours. Garlic stimulates the active growth of seedlings, protects it from rot and disease. After processing, lay the potatoes in a bright place for germination. When sprouts appear, I fill a layer of soil at the bottom of the bag. Lay out the tubers - 2-3 pieces in each bag.
As the seedlings grow, I pour in the ground so that only the top pair of leaves is visible. Periodically watering. Such a compact "garden" is very convenient, since the bags can be moved to another place if necessary. Potatoes do not have to be processed by the Colorado potato beetle. And the harvest from the bag is very easy to collect!
Plant potatoes ... before winter!
I admit honestly: at first I did not believe in the success of this experiment. But nevertheless tried - and it turned out! If you want to please yourself with an especially early harvest of potatoes and are not afraid of additional troubles - plant it before winter! To begin with, soak the tubers selected for planting in the sun for a month. They should turn green!
What happens when this happens? The starch content in tubers decreases, but the amount of solanine and sugars increases dramatically. Solanine is poison, green potatoes can not be eaten can be poisoned. But such tubers perfectly withstand frost! Cut deep grooves in the ground for planting. Lay green tubers on the bottom and sprinkle the bed with earth. Top, add a layer of sawdust in 10-15 centimeters. Spread the fir or pine spruce branches on rows of potatoes with a comb. Arrange poisoned bait for mice and cover with a thick plastic wrap on top. In winter, occasionally throw snow on the garden bed. With this pre-winter planting method, new potatoes will appear on your table already in June!
How else can green potatoes be used? We found out that it is not suitable for food. But great for growing cuttings of plants!
In a potato tuber, make several round depressions and insert, for example, cuttings of roses into them. The top of each cutting can be sealed with wax from a candle or covered with a second tuber. Potatoes with cuttings, put in a plastic bag and so store, if necessary, up to six months. Sometimes roots appear right in the potato, and you just have to dig a tuber with rooted cuttings into the ground.
Experiment with unusual ways of growing potatoes - and you can boast to the neighbors of its early and rich harvest!