A garden is a charming place in which each plant has its own secret, which can only be solved by touching the world of botany. In the place where I live, many people have their own personal plots on which they grow various vegetables and flowers.
I also have such a site. It grows many vegetables: carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, beans and pumpkin. However, not only vegetable crops grow on my site, but also various flower representatives. My sister is very keen on botany, so her flowers always adorn our family site.
She loves peonies and has long dreamed of planting them in her garden. However, my little sister doesn’t know exactly which peonies are the best, how to plant and grow them correctly.
I was also interested in this question, so this article will discuss the most common varieties of peonies, the features of proper planting, care and growing plants, the most useful fertilizers, harmful diseases and pests.
Description and general characteristics
Peony is a perennial herb that has irreplaceable healing properties. For the first time peonies were seen in Asian countries, particularly in China, where people of the ruling dynasty very much idolized this flower.
According to legend, the name of this plant is associated with the great Chinese doctor Pean, who could cure any illness of a mere mortal and heal the wounds of the gods.
In our time, peonies have spread widely throughout the world. These lush flowers are grown in Western Europe, Russia, and North and South America. And breeders breed more and more new subspecies, crossing the most popular.
On the territory of our country, mostly gardeners grow herbaceous peonies, as they do not require careful maintenance and bloom for about 2 months. In addition, many people are attracted by the delicate scent of peony flowers, which is widely used in perfumery.
Peony is a medium-height shrub. Usually its height is within 1-2 meters. Depending on the variety, it can have a woody or grass stem that can withstand the development of a multitude of lush and huge flowers.
As for the color of the petals, everything is very simple, as they can be yellow, red, purple, pink, white and many other shades. As they say, the taste and color ...
Peony flowers are collected from a large number of petals of oval or round shape. The leaves are usually juicy-green grow quite close to each other. And the root system of the plant is strong enough, albeit small.
The most common varieties and types
Peony is one of the most famous plants in the nation, which differs from other plants in its beauty, pomp and elegance. Breeders have long been interested in breeding new types of pions, so now this family has more than five thousand different varieties and subspecies.
However, as in any group, there are “favorites” that have become very popular among gardeners and gardeners.
The most popular varieties of peonies have earned their titles due to many parameters, including beauty, unpretentious care and amazing sizes of flowers. The main and most famous varieties of peonies are the following 3 varieties:
- Tree peony is a large shrub whose height usually reaches 1.5 meters. His trunk lignifies over time, so it is easier for him to tolerate frosts than many other varieties. This variety has large double flowers, the diameter of which is usually 30 centimeters. Petals of tree peony are very beautiful, they can be red, pink, yellow, purple and many other colors. Tree peonies take a huge part in medicine, so on the basis of the roots of this plant make many drugs that can prevent all sorts of diseases.
- Yellow peony is one of the most common subspecies of tree peony. Its height usually reaches one meter (practically, like a tree peony). However, the flowers of this variety are very different, as they have a small diameter (10 centimeters) and grow alone. Petals in this class can be any shade of yellow and any shape. Usually this plant is planted in China and used in Tibetan medicine for the treatment of many diseases associated with the blood system.
- Red peony - one of the most amazing varieties of peony, which has a branched stem and a small root system. The flowers of this plant are medium-sized with jagged edges. Petals shimmer in the sun with all shades of red. Red peony - a variety that is most often used in medicine because of its healing properties. Its roots and petals are used for the manufacture of many drugs to heal the diseases of the food system, diuretic and hemorrhagic.
Features proper landing
Proper planting is an important process on which the further growth and development of the plant depends. Planting a pion is not only a simple, but also an exciting process, since a pion does not require adhering to any transcendental rules, the implementation of which takes you a lot of time and effort.
In order to plant a peony in your plot, you need to follow only the following basic rules that will help your peony to open up and grow into a large and elegant bush:
- The best time for planting pions is autumn, since it is at this time that a small sprout can get the necessary nutrients from the soil. However, some gardeners plant peonies in spring. What is the matter? It turns out that everything depends on the variety and the place of the pion planting.
- The soil for planting pions should be rich in various nutrients, but do not forget that the plant does not tolerate moisture, so close adherence of groundwater is undesirable.
- For planting, the grower must choose a well-lit closed place so that the cold winds do not destroy the newly-established sprout.
- If several bushes are planted at once, then one should not forget to leave a decent distance between them so that they can easily grow and develop.
- Before planting, various fertilizers are necessarily added to the soil, including drainage, organic and mineral.
- In order for the plant to take root in a new place, its roots must be treated with a solution of certain fertilizers, the correct preparation of which can be easily found on the Internet.
- After planting, the seedlings must be watered abundantly and sprinkled with a little wood chips.
Care and cultivation
Care and growing peonies do not take a lot of time and effort, and besides, they do not organize unnecessary material costs. Peonies - the most unpretentious garden plants, which by beauty and elegance bypass many of the most expensive and demanding crops. In order to properly care for peonies and grow beautiful flowering shrubs, you must observe the following basic rules:
- Peonies should be watered abundantly only during the first time after planting. Later, there is no need for irrigation, as the root system of peonies copes with the "extraction" of water from the soil.
- Fertilizing peonies must be constantly, as they are very fond of various feeding. When feeding, it is important to use organic (peat, humus, compost, manure), mineral (potash, phosphorus, nitrogen, magnesium), synthetic and drainage (broken brick, sawdust, river sand, clay, crushed stone) fertilizers. It is advisable to alternate these fertilizers and every two weeks to bring something new.
- Pruning of pions is carried out after they are completely ottsvetut and dry. This procedure does not involve any decorative purposes. Pruning is used only to prepare the plant for winter and for shelter for the winter.
- Peonies can be propagated in a variety of ways, however, the seed and grafts are more common among gardeners. This is because with the help of these two methods you can reduce the time spent on growing new bushes and preserve certain qualities of the mother bush.
- After trimming the pions for some time, you need to wait so that the remaining upper parts do not develop and grow. Only then can the covering material be prepared. In addition, we must remember that only young plants need to be sheltered, because adults have high frost resistance and easily tolerate the winter.
Peonies are very popular, both among experienced and novice gardeners. In social. networks, in various botanical forums, and just in the articles of the Internet there are many reviews about the cultivation of these beauties. Most of the reviews are positive.
Many people note the beauty of tree peonies, unpretentiousness in caring for any species and ease with any method of breeding pions. Some Internet users talk about the important healing properties of the plant and share their own decoctions recipes.
Novice gardeners have the opportunity to talk about growing peonies with experienced people and get really worthwhile tips that will help in the development of the garden.
Division and reproduction
Peonies are planted in the second half of August - the first half of September. The standard delenka should have from 2 to 5 renewal buds with part of the rhizome and roots up to 10 cm long. If the peonies need to be divided first, first cut the stems to 5 cm and then carefully, partially or completely, dig the plants. Cut the roots to 10–15 cm with a sharp knife, shake off the ground and place in a cool room for 2–3 days. After that, the bush can be divided into landing units.
The remnants of the stems before planting are completely removed. Place the slices sprinkled with ash and give a little dry. If the division of peony formed small parts of rhizomes with 1-2 buds, but they have at least one root, they can be planted. Experience has shown that they are quite viable and are well rooted, so that many small plants with 1-3 stems can emerge, from which large specimens will grow in a few years.
On other methods of reproduction of pions such as: reproduction by stem and root cuttings, renewal buds, layering - you can find out in the article "Peonies - reproduction".
Place to plant and soil
Peonies - a place to plant, soil
For pions, choose an open or shaded area for 3-4 hours per day. But do not place the plants on the south side, where the flowers quickly fade and fade. In the area of planting should not be the roots of shrubs and trees and nearby groundwater.
On one plant it is necessary to take 1-2 m2. The diameter of the planting pit is 70–80 cm. The soil is pretreated to a depth of 0.5 m. Soil composed of 2–3 buckets of manure or compost, garden soil, 1 cup of ash and 500 g of superphosphate that fall into the ground for 2 years is poured into the pit. All a little compacted.
Tips on planting peonies, choosing a place and soil for active growth and flowering can be found in the article "Peonies - soil, planting, care."
Light pits are poured into the upper layer of the pit and planted there a delenka so that the buds are 3-5 cm below ground level. A deep landing can delay flowering for many years.
When planting peonies in a hole, add a couple of handfuls of red brick crumbs and about five rusty nails. Plants from this bloom more abundantly.
If in spring a young peony gave a bud, it must be removed so as not to weaken the plant. In the first year, it is better to cover the landing site with a layer of peat 7–10 cm thick, and remove shelter in the spring.
In winter, peonies are covered with snow, and by the spring they are trampled down so that the plants do not start growing too early and are not affected by frost.
Disease prevention and nutrition
For the prevention of gray rot in April, the soil at the base of the stems around the plants is powdered with ashes, and after regrowth, 2–3 times is treated with fungicides.
If, when planting, mineral and organic fertilizers were applied under the pions, the flowers begin to feed only from the third year.
For example, 40–60 g of complex mineral fertilizer is poured on the pion sites (as well as throughout the flower garden) before the snow melts. Together with melt water, fertilizing goes to the roots of plants. During the budding and after flowering 2-3 times per summer, the peonies are fed with a mullein solution or complex fertilizer, combining top dressing with irrigation.
Care during flowering
Peonies - care during flowering
To get the largest flowers, remove all lateral buds. To prevent heavy flowers from dropping to the ground, especially after rain, plants are set up in advance with support. It is better to remove the flowers from which the petals began to fall, so that the plants look neat.
In the fall, with the onset of frost, peonies cut off all the shoots and remove them from the site. The soil around the plants is treated with a solution of fungicide.
If you want to try yourself as a breeder and bring out your own special peony variety, you will find valuable recommendations on this issue in the article “Peonies: from collection to selection”.
Features of planting in the fall
The time from the beginning of August to the end of October is considered the most ideal time for planting or transplanting peonies in the garden. In order that they pleased with flowering The following year and quickly got stronger, you need to follow simple tips:
- Plant flowers better no later than 1.5 months before the frost. So, the plant is more likely to get stronger faster, because new roots are laid. Due to the fact that the flower is in the resting stage, it perfectly tolerates all the procedures that are done with it.
- It is also considered a great advantage that the rainy season begins in the fall, the dry hot weather is over. These are excellent weather conditions in order for the flower to quickly take root, develop properly and in spring pleased with abundant flowering in the garden.
- The plot on which it is planned to plant peonies should be well lit, since the plant is light-loving.
- The flower does not tolerate drafts and frequent winds. Therefore, it is better to provide a place near the bushes and trees. But, at the same time, the root system should have enough space for growth.
- It is not recommended to plant near the house or hozpostroyek from which heat comes. Peonies react badly to this.
Peony planting in spring
- The landing site is selected every few years. If you transplant often, the flower is subject to constant stress.
- The landing in the spring can be carried out only after the snow has completely melted. Both soil and seedlings are prepared for planting in advance.
- In order for the root system to quickly take root and grow strong, it is necessary to plant a flower only after the day air warms up to not less than 10 ° C daily.
Planting and caring for peonies is not complicated, but, regardless of the landing time, it is worth sticking to the elementary advice of proper landing.
How to carry out high-quality landing of pions
- Selection of soil for planting peonies is a very important process. For peonies, it is better to prefer loamy soil. If the ground is heavy, it can be lightened by adding peat, sand, and humus. Sandy soil can also be used for cultivation, if you add some humus or clay to it. On peaty soils it is not advisable to grow these flowers.
- Preparation of the pit. The pit for planting should have a conical shape, a depth of at least 70 cm and a width of at least 50 cm - for tall grassy peonies. For undersized, a depth of 60 cm will be sufficient, and a width of 40 cm. This shape of the pit will help the flower to quickly absorb all the nutrients and moisture from the soil.
- Fertilizer when planting. When a bush falls asleep, at planting more than 60% of the entire pit should be filled with nutrient mixtures that can be made independently. At the same time at least 15 cm from the surface should be ordinary land. For the preparation of the nutrient mixture, you can use equal proportions of sand, humus, peat and ordinary land. It also adds about 120 grams of superphosphate, 400 grams. ash and 1-2 spoons of blue vitriol. Thus, the bottom layer will turn out to be nutritious, the top layer will be normal soil.
- Cover the soil layer carefully so as not to damage the roots and buds. Seal the top layer only with your hands. After planting is complete, pour water well - at least 10 liters under 1 bush.
Peony care after planting
Violent flowering and healthy bush directly depends on how timely the care of the planted plant was carried out.
- Watering. Before the budding period, peonies are watered as the soil dries. During the formation of flower buds, the flower requires the most moisture. On average, you need to conduct 1-2 watering per week, pouring at least 20 liters of water under the plant. In order that it is better absorbed and leaves are not damaged, it is necessary to make a shallow groove around the bush. It is advisable to adhere to this mode of irrigation and during the flowering period of pions.
- Requirements for the illumination area. Пионы требуют солнечных, слегка притенённых участков, на которых не менее 4 часов в день есть тень. Для пионов могут стать губительными южные стороны сада или же участки, где очень близко к поверхности протекают грунтовые воды.
- Правильная подкормка и удобрения. Проводится два вида подкормок: для корней и внекорневые подкормки. Foliar fertilization is carried out by spraying the prepared solution on the green part of the plant. This procedure is best done early in the morning. If you spray a peony in the afternoon, it is better to wait for cloudy weather. During the summer, it is better to spend 3 foliar feeding with the use of mineral fertilizers. Such fertilizers will be relevant for young plants. For feeding adults it is better to take a mixture of mullein and bird droppings in the ratio of 1: 2.5. Top dressing is also desirable to carry out 3 times per season. The first feeding is at the beginning of spring, preferably when the snow is already melting, so that the fertilizers enter the ground along with the snow. The second and third feeding - in the summer. Dry fertilizer poured under a bush and carefully watered.
- Pruning to rejuvenate the bush. Pruning is done every spring, all weak and dead shoots are removed. Those that remain are shortened to 10 cm in length. Some gardeners cut the shrub every 10-12 years. This allows you to completely update it.
- In order for the peony to annually please with large and lush buds, it is necessary to pinch the buds of the first year of flowering. The flower does not like weeds, which also can take nutrients from the soil. Therefore, their timely removal is important. To reduce the chances of a plant to be damaged by pests, to maintain the necessary amount of moisture in the soil all summer and to reduce the number of weeds, it is worth mulching in the spring.
- Shelter for the winter. The plant tolerates wintering and is almost not damaged by frost. Covering peonies or not for the winter depends only on the winter ahead. It is better not to tempt fate and not to expose the flower to danger of freezing. For shelter it will be enough just to bend the stalks of the plant and fix them. As a shelter to use a spruce branches or dry leaves. Peonies require shelter with a special canvas and in the spring, until the threat of frost has passed.
Diseases and pests
Peonies are often affected by pests and diseases. This is especially true of decorative types of flowers..
The most common diseases are rust, gray mold, viral and fungal diseases, spots and ring mosaic on leaves. Prevention of these diseases will be quality care. It is important to prevent and overmoistening roots, which can lead to their decay. For this, the plant provides high-quality drainage.
If the plant is already affected, then use special fungicides or Bordeaux mixture as a “medicine”.
Gardeners consider aphid, bronzovka, beetles, caterpillars and root nematodes to be the most dangerous pests of the plant. Experienced growers recommend treating the plant using copper and iron vitriol, karbofos, fufanon, green soap and other drugs.
Peonies: the neighborhood with other plants
Before you start making a flower garden, in which peonies will grow, you should carefully consider the plants that will harmonize perfectly with them both in color and in the structure of the plant itself.
So, white or delicate shades of peonies will be combined with the colors of lilac shade. To this end, the neighbors can choose sage, veronica, catnip, cuff. Perfect for the neighborhood and miniature coniferous plants. In this case, the plants are selected so as not to inhibit peonies and allow the root system to develop normally. Provided that the flower bed is a little pritenny, you can plant a number and hosts.
Growing peonies is a fun, simple task that even a beginning florist can. These flowers will be a bright addition to any garden, flower garden. Will be the perfect complement for any landscape design..
Peonies are semi-shrubs (trees), shrubs, and herbaceous. The height of bushes can reach 100 centimeters. On a fairly large rhizome, powerful cone-shaped roots are located. Several shoots. Occasionally located, incomparably perisparated or trifoliate leaflets are painted in all shades of gray, green, and dark purple. Single flowers are very large (diameter of about 15-20 centimeters), they look great both in the bush and in the cut. Such a plant has a non-capricious character and is very easy to care for. Thanks to its spectacular foliage, even after the flowering has ended, the peonies will delight with their beauty even before the fall. Such plants grow and develop beautifully in the same place over several decades. Today, thanks to the breeders, more than 5 thousand different varieties have been born. For the most part, they were bred due to the crossing of the medicinal peony and the milky-flowered peony. The difference of varieties is in the color and size of flowers, in the duration of flowering, as well as in the height and outline of the bush.
How to plant peonies
Growing such plants is not a troublesome task, which does not take much time. Special attention should be paid to the choice of a suitable site for planting, since pions will grow on it for quite a long time. In an adult bush, the roots go deep (about 70–90 centimeters) into the ground and therefore after the peony reaches the age of 4 or 5 years, it will be rather difficult to transplant it to a new place. It is necessary to choose an illuminated area, and these plants need direct rays of the sun for 5–6 hours, but they must be done before lunch. Plants react extremely negatively to the draft, therefore they are recommended to be planted under tall bushes or trees. It is not recommended to choose lowlands for planting, since rot on the root system may be caused by stagnant fluids in the soil.
Peonies grow well on loam, the acidity of which is 6–6.6 pH. If the earth is too clay, then it can be corrected by making sand, peat and humus. Clay, peat, and also humus should be brought into the sandy ground. Wood ash, sand, and organic matter should be added to the peat soil.
Planting peonies in the fall
Planting and transplanting such flowers is carried out in the last days of August and the first of September. The hole should be prepared 7 days before planting, and it should be 60x60x60 in size. The distance between the pits should not be less than 70-100 centimeters. At the bottom you need to make a good drainage layer, the height of which should be equal to 20-25 centimeters. It is made of broken brick or rubble, as well as coarse sand. After that, the nutrient mixture is poured, which includes humus, 200 grams of superphosphate, 300 grams of wood ash, compost, 100 grams of lime, 100 grams of potassium sulfate, and the layer should be from 20 to 30 centimeters high. Poet pour soil mixed with compost into the hole. Before planting, the soil will settle, and you can place the rhizome of the plant in the hole. Then it is covered with garden soil and a little tamped. It should be remembered that it is impossible to bury a peony during planting, because in this case it will have dense foliage, but it will not bloom. If you want your plants to be covered with flowers, in this case you need to deepen the rhizome so that the upper bud is at a depth of 3 to 4 centimeters, not more. Also, do not forget that the transplanted plant in the first year does not form flowers and has a sluggish appearance. It may happen that the next year also does not bloom. You should not be afraid in the case when the bush apparently has no signs of disease. The problem may lie in the fact that the peony is simply not ripe.
Planting peonies in spring
As a rule, in springtime, such plants are not planted. If in the spring you have got an excellent planting material, then its experts are advised to save it without planting in open ground. To do this, it is planted in a pot with a volume of 2 to 3 liters and transferred to a darkened cool place (cellar, basement). In this case, the substrate in the pot should always be slightly moist. Experienced growers are advised to lay out chunks of ice or snow on the surface of the substrate, in the process of melting it will cool and moisten the soil. In the last days of April or in May, the peony should be transferred to the garden and put it directly into the dug hole with the pot. Then they bury everything. In the autumn, it is transplanted along with a lump of earth (method of transshipment) to a permanent place.
Peonies care in autumn
In the autumn time, it is time to plant and transplant such a plant. In the case when the transplant and planting is not carried out, you just need to cut off the withered leaves and shoots. The cut parts of the plant are recommended to be burned, as they may contain viruses, pests and bacteria. It is recommended to sprinkle what remains of the shoots with wood ash, while 2 or 3 handfuls are taken for 1 bush.
Spring Peony Care
Watering peonies need not too often. On 1 adult bush leaves 20-30 liters of water, as it must penetrate to the depth at which the root system lies. Especially such plants need watering in early spring, during intensive growth, as well as during the formation of buds and flowering, and in August-September, since it is at this time that young buds are laid. When the plant is watered, it is necessary to plow through the surface of the soil and in the presence of weeds, be sure to remove it. Watering should be done under the root so that the liquid does not appear on the surface of the sheet plates.
How to feed
After the snow cover is completely gone, the soil around the bushes should be shed with a disinfectant solution. For its preparation it is necessary to pour into the bucket of water from 2 to 3 grams of potassium permanganate, this volume of solution is enough for watering 2 bushes. At the beginning of the intensive growth period, the pions are fed with a solution of ammonium nitrate (15 grams of substance per bucket of water). From May 8, flowers should be watered over the foliage of a watering can with a strainer with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer, in the dosage indicated on the package. Conduct such dressing 1 time in 30 days. It is recommended to pour ordinary laundry powder into the nutrient solution (1 tbsp of water in a bucket of water). In this case, the solution will linger on the leaves, and not just flow into the soil. Feed the peonies in this way should be in the evening or on a cloudy day. When the buds are formed and during flowering, it is necessary to feed the plants with a solution consisting of 7.5 grams of ammonium nitrate, 10 grams of superphosphate, 5 grams of potassium salt and a bucket of water. Half a month after the peony has faded, a fertilizer consisting of a bucket of water, 5 grams of potassium salt and 10 grams of superphosphate is applied to the soil. Possible alternate fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers. At the same time, they can be poured dry in a previously prepared groove running around the bush. Then fertilizer moisturize and close up in the ground.
In summer, when flowering is over, the plant will only need to be watered in a timely manner, remember to fertilize after flowering, loosen the soil in time and remove weeds.
Fully cut the stems should be in the autumn when the first frosts come. If you need to do this before the specified time, then after you cut off the shoots, their remnants should rise above the soil surface, on which 3-4 leaf plates must be left. And all because at the end of the summer period, such plants are laid bud replacement, and in order for this to end successfully, the bush must necessarily have several leaves. During the cutting of flowers it is necessary to remember that it is necessary to leave part of the shoot with several leaves.
When to transplant peonies
In the wild, these plants can grow in one place for more than 50 years. Those hybrid varieties that were created using medicinal peony can be grown in the same place for no longer than 10 years. Then the bush must be dug, divided and planted in a new place. And in this way you can quickly and easily propagate peonies. But it is worth remembering that only those bushes that are at least 4 or 5 years old are suitable for breeding, and they should fully bloom 1–2 times. Remember that the older the plant, the more powerful and overgrown with rhizome. Therefore, in order to simplify the transplanting process and prevent the flowering quality from reducing, replanting and at the same time sharing the bushes, experienced gardeners advise 1 time in 3 or 4 years. Transplantation should be carried out in the first autumn month.
In the autumn, you should gently dig in the bush, while stepping back from the rhizome by 25 centimeters. After that, it is gently loosened with a fork and pulled out of the ground. Remove the remnants of soil from the root system using a peg, and then wash it. The jet of water should not be very strong, as this may contribute to the injury of delicate buds and eyes. The green part should be cut almost to the root. The root should be put in the open air and left for some time. During this time, it should drain the water, and the rhizome will become wilted and acquire more elasticity. Old, rather thick roots should be cut off, leaving 10 to 15 centimeters. The cut should be done at an angle of 45 degrees. Conduct a thorough inspection of the rhizome and only then begin to divide it. It is recommended to insert a wedge into the middle bush, having driven it with a hammer. As a result, the root system itself is divided into several parts. Often in the middle part of the rhizomes of old bushes there are voids, as well as rotting areas. They should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected with a strong solution of manganese potassium. After this place the cuts should be treated with a fungicide. On each of the delenok there should be a part of the measles cervix with developed 3 or 4 eyes, and the presence of several roots is necessary. Try delenki do approximately equal in size. So, too large delenki can be ill for a long time, and small ones can quickly die.
How to transplant peonies
Delenki planted in the same way as the plants themselves. And this method of landing is described above. On the surface of the ground, where the ponies were planted, should be poured a layer of mulch, which should be about 7 centimeters, peat is perfect for this purpose. It will only be necessary to remove the layer of mulch after sprouting pions with a red color break through it in springtime. Transplanted flowers within 2 years will form the root system, and in order for this process to be successful, it is necessary to prevent its flowering. During the first year after planting, absolutely all buds should be removed. And in the second year you should leave only 1 bud. When it bursts, you should cut it as short as possible. This is necessary in order to consider how this flower corresponds to its variety. In that case, when you saw that the correspondence is not entirely complete, it will be necessary to remove the buds during the third year, leaving only 1 of them. So, it is necessary to act as long as the flower does not fully comply with its variety. Be patient, because it can happen both in the third and the fifth year after landing.
Propagation of pions by seeds
Peony can be propagated by delenki, and this is described in detail above. You can also use seeds for this. However, the seeds often do not retain their varietal quality, so this method is used only by breeders. And another disadvantage of this method is that the first flowering can occur only at 4–5 years of life. If you want to try to grow a new variety, sowing seeds that should be fresh should be carried out in August directly into loose soil. Their shoots will seem in the next spring period.
Reproduction root cuttings
This method of breeding pions is the most reliable. In July, it is necessary to separate not a very large segment of the rhizome, on which the sleeping bud is located. Then they plant him. Rooting should be completed by September. However, this method is only good for those who are not in a hurry. The fact is that the development of such a pion is extremely slow. So, the first flowers on it appear only at the age of five.
What to do when the peonies have faded?
As a rule, flowering ends in the last May or first June days. Remove from the bush all the withered flowers, and after half a month, feed the plant with potash-phosphorus fertilizer. After this, provide the flower with systematic watering. With the onset of August, watering should be increased, since the pion at this time needs more moisture, because it has a bookmark of replacement buds.
Preparing for the winter
After the yellowing of foliage and shoots begins, it is necessary to water the peony each time less and less. After the frosts begin, cut off the part of the plant above the soil surface. In this case, the stems after cutting should be almost invisible. In the event that in the autumn time you planted or transplanted pions, then the soil surface over rhizomes should be mulched. The layer of mulch should be about 5-7 centimeters and peat is recommended for this purpose. В этом случае еще не набравшие сил пионы очень хорошо перенесут зимовку. После появления в весеннее время первых росточков слой торфа рекомендуется удалить.
Зимуют данные растения в открытом грунте. Взрослые экземпляры являются морозоустойчивыми, а молоденькие ― рекомендуется на время зимовки накрывать.
Pests and diseases
Наиболее часто данные цветы болеют серой гнилью (ботритисом). As a rule, the disease develops in mid-May. You can learn about its presence by rotting shoots, but other parts of the plant can also be affected, and a grayish mold appears on their surface. The development of gray rot can provoke a large amount of nitrogen in the soil, prolonged rains, as well as too close a bed. The affected pion areas should be cut and destroyed (burned) away from other plants. For preventive purposes, it is recommended to treat the plant with a solution of copper sulphate (50 g of substance per bucket of water), and garlic water can also be used (10 g of crushed garlic cloves per bucket of water). You should handle the bush itself, as well as the surface of the soil around it.
Rarely does a plant become infected with powdery mildew. This fungal disease affects the leaves of the plant. You can learn about the presence of the disease on a whitish bloom on the surface of the leaf plates. You can get rid of this disease with the help of a soap solution. For its preparation it is necessary to combine a bucket of water, 20 grams of copper sulphate and 200 grams of laundry soap.
Quite large and fairly light flowers. Stamens can be located both in the central part of the flower, and between the petals. As a rule, there are about 7 rows of petals. Varieties: Miss America - this medium early variety has large (up to 25 centimeters in diameter) flowers with a pink color, which changes to white after full disclosure, rich yellow stamens are also visible, En Bury Cousins - the height of the bush can reach 65 centimeters, this early The variety has a cup-shaped flowers with a diameter of 17 centimeters, which have a pinkish-coral color.
In the central part of the flower are the modified stamens, which form something similar to a pomponchik. Petals can be located in one and several rows. Varieties: Carrara - a bush in height reaches 80 centimeters, this medium-flowering variety has white flowers, whose diameter can be 16 centimeters, Hot Chocolet - a bush in height reaches 80 centimeters, in such a medium-early variety, the diameter of a maroon flower is 16 centimeters.
Such plants are the so-called transitional form from Japanese peonies to terry peonies. The wide petals below are arranged in 2 rows and have a rounded shape, while those that are located in the center are not so long and form a ball. Varieties: Rhapsody - this mid-early variety has a bush 70 centimeters high, petals located on the edge have a pink color, and those that are located in the central part are creamy-yellowish, flowers have a diameter of 16 centimeters, Snow Mountain has a bush height of this early variety 75 centimeters, and the diameter of its cream flowers - 17 centimeters.
Terry bombed, hemispherical, spherical
Petals are connected in a hemisphere, and after full disclosure the flower is a ball. Varieties: Pink Cameo - the height of a bush of such a mid-late variety is 80 centimeters, and the diameter of pink-cream flowers is 16 centimeters, Monsieur Jules Eli - the bush of this early variety has a height of 90 centimeters, the diameter of fragrant pinkish-purple flowers is 20 centimeters.
Petals of this variety are very similar to rose petals both in size and in structure. They are wide, large and rounded. Varieties: Solange - in this late variety, whitish-cream flowers have a diameter of 17 centimeters, heavy shoots that need support can be up to 70 centimeters high, Henry Boxstox - a bush of such an early variety reaches 90 centimeters, and rich red flowers have a diameter 16 centimeters. This group has a subgroup - semi-likelike. Such flowers have stamens in the central part. Grades: Goody - the height of the bush of this medium early variety is 70 centimeters, and the diameter of saturated crimson flowers is 16 centimeters, Ballerina - this early variety has a powerful bush, the diameter of white-creamy-green flowers is 18 centimeters.
Crown spherical and hemispherical
Petals are placed in 3 tiers: the upper tier is a ring of petals, and the middle tier includes narrow petals (narrower than those of the lower and upper tier). Most often, the petals of the lower and upper tiers are colored the same, while the middle one may have a different color. Varieties: Nancy - the height of the bush of such an early variety reaches 80 centimeters, and the diameter of the peach-pink flowers is 17 centimeters, Aritina Nosen Gloria - the bush of this very early variety has a height of 70 centimeters, and its lilac-pink flowers reach a diameter of 20 centimeters.
Conditions Required by Grassy Peonies
The main thing you should pay attention to when choosing a place to plant a grassy peony is a fair amount of light. All grassy peonies are sun-loving plants, but able to put up with a slight shade at noon. Insufficient lighting affects the quantity and quality of flowers, so grassy peonies are best placed in well-lit places. In the shade, these perennials do not bloom at all, but the attractiveness of the bush is always maintained.
Grassy peonies love protected and warm places. New varieties have increased beregostability, do not fall under the weight of inflorescences, but even they should be placed on sites protected from active drafts. It should be remembered that, like roses, peonies need to ensure free circulation of air around the bushes. Peonies are placed away from large plants, buildings, objects of small architecture - so that plants grow and breathe freely.
It is better to select the soil for peonies from among fertile and well-developed substrates. For these perennials loam is best suited - loose, fertile, fresh (or at least not too dry). Herb peonies prefer a slightly alkaline or neutral reaction (the optimum pH is between 6 and 6.5).
Plants are able to put up with slightly acidic, but not extremely acidic soil, the reaction of which can be adjusted beforehand by introducing lime. Peonies do not tolerate moisture, they will not fit areas with high groundwater levels, lowlands, places where there is a risk of stagnant water in spring. Compacted soil for this perennial will not work.
Planting Grass Peonies
Preliminary soil preparation is carried out a few weeks or a month before planting seedlings. On high-quality fertile soil for pions, digging deep enough and applying organic fertilizer to the soil (plants do not like manure, therefore they add compost or leaf humus to the soil). But usually the soil for planting pions needs to be improved qualitatively.
There are quite a few options for preparing earth mixes, each of which provides peonies with a sufficient level of nutritional value and the “correct” texture of the soil:
- The soil removed from the planting pits is mixed in equal proportion with compost, peat and sand, complementing them with a standard portion of full mineral or phosphorus-potash fertilizers recommended by the manufacturer, with a handful of wood ash. If necessary, adjust the texture of the soil with additives of clay or sand.
- Planting pits are filled with different soil mixtures: at half or two-thirds of the height, a mixture of garden soil with sand, peat, humus, taken in equal amounts is poured into the planting pit, adding to them the double superphosphate (200-250 g) can be replaced with double the maximum the amount of bone meal), iron sulfate (enough tablespoon per planting pit), wood ash (a few handfuls or 3-4 cups) and potassium carbonate (half a tablespoon). Top of the landing pit filled with ordinary garden soil without impurities.
- The pit is filled with a layer of a mixture of compost, humus and a double portion of mineral fertilizers, dredge 20-30 cm, on top of the drainage, and for planting and backfilling the planting wells use conventional soil, which is supplemented with organic fertilizers.
Given the size of the rhizome and the dislike of plants for injuries of the roots, planting pits for grassy peonies are dug as well as for planting large trees and shrubs - about 60-70 cm wide and deep. On wet soils or in places where there is a risk of stagnant water, a high layer of large drainage is laid at the bottom of the planting pits (at least 20 cm).
Planting pits filled with selected mixtures, allowing them to condense and settle before planting. If the preliminary preparation was not carried out in time, then when filling the landing holes, it is necessary to shed and tamp the layers to avoid shrinking of the soil during planting.
Landing periods for peonies are limited due to a rather early flowering period and the dying off of the aerial parts for the winter. Plants are transplanted only after the flowering and ripening of the kidneys of renewal and fruit, in early autumn (the first and second decade of September) or at the end of August.
The distance when planting for grassy pions is not less than 1 m. Only such a distance allows the bushes to develop freely and not to bend, to form them thick, elegant and symmetrical.
Peonies do not like transplanting; therefore, caution and careful handling of roots when planting new bushes is the key to their health and longevity. Plants are set on a sand cushion so that after shrinking the soil it is slightly buried, focusing on the buds: they should be located 3-5 cm below the ground level. A stronger penetration will lead to a lack of flowering, and to plant health problems, and a higher planting will increase the risk of freezing.
Usually, planting is carried out at the soil level or slightly above that, after filling the holes with soil, watering and shrinkage, it allows to obtain the desired depth. When planting, the soil is carefully filled and manually compacted so that there are no voids between the roots.
Completing the planting pions traditional abundant irrigation. With the onset of resistant primorozkov plants necessarily mulch for the winter.
The rhizome of an adult peony bush. © Adriana
Humidity and watering requirements
Herb peonies are quite stable and unpretentious, require minimal watering during the flowering period.
In fact, there are only two mandatory watering:
- watering at the end of June allows peonies to form high-quality renewal buds,
- In late August, watering stimulates the build-up of strong adventitious roots.
But if there is an opportunity, it is possible not to be limited to only two waterings. Watering at the stage of budding and flowering, as well as during the period of active growth of leaves, allows you to get more effectively and luxuriantly flowering bushes. Watering is carried out only during droughts, compensating for the lack of natural precipitation.
Waterlogging, the plant does not tolerate stagnation of water, therefore one sustained irrigation per week is sufficient. After flowering, the peonies can not be watered, but these additional procedures allow you to keep attractive greens longer. The main thing - do not overdo it.
When conducting any irrigation for grassy peonies, it is important to make sure that the soil is wetted to the full depth of the roots. Usually, it is necessary to use not standard 10 liters for each bush, but 2-3 buckets of water. Peonies are watered only in the evening, on days with high night temperatures, not cold water. You can simplify watering by additionally setting up communications for “point” watering at the root or creating watering holes.
Rejuvenation, trimming and tying bushes
Grassy peonies are durable, can delight for decades, but due to thickening and growth, the quality of their flowering with age, as a rule, deteriorates, it begins to suffer on the bushes older than 7-10 years. Shrubs of varietal peony grass are best divided regularly, with a frequency of 1 every 5-8 years. The separation of the bushes is carried out only in the late summer or early autumn.
The varieties of peonies with unstable shoots, as well as bushes growing in open areas, with the beginning of flowering under the weight of heads without timely garter quickly fall apart, lose their attractiveness. Luxurious flowers wallowing on the ground - not the most pleasant sight. Therefore, at the beginning of growth of peduncles and at the stage of budding, the pions are tied up so as to prevent the branches from bending, bending over, breaking.
There are special supports that are installed on the bush, but you can tie peonies to simple pegs installed around the bush, grasping the bush with soft twine or cords using a circular method at the budding stage and raising the circle as the flowers bloom and grow.
The removal of flowers from peonies is carried out in different ways, depending on whether the flowers are cut into bouquets or left on a bush to reveal the full decoration:
- Branch bouquets are cut off before their blooming, after the outer petals are painted in a color characteristic of the variety - in simple and semi-double varieties, or after disclosure, the lower petals are folded in - in densely-doubled varieties. Any herbaceous peony can remove no more than half of all the flowers, because pruning all the shoots leads to disruption of the process of laying the renewing buds. Cut off the flowers with legs up to 40 cm long, always leaving in the bush escape with 2-3 leaves. Cutting peonies is carried out in the early morning, only on fine days, immediately putting flowers in the water and cool. For bouquets, sections are updated under water.
- For larger and better flowers, you can remove the side buds, leaving only the central one on each shoot.
- Fading flowers are cut off after the start of dropping the petals. It is impossible to leave wilted flowers on a bush, because it greatly increases the risk of spreading diseases and plant infection. If you want to ripen the seeds, then on the bush leave 1-2 flowers from among the first, removing the rest. Cutting off the flowered peduncles is carried out not to the base, but leaving the leafy part of the shoots to form the buds.
- On new peony bushes, the first two years after planting, it is not advisable to allow flowering to form a powerful rhizome and strong renewal buds.
Pre-winter pruning of pions is a mandatory measure. But to spend it too early is not necessary. Pruning the bushes of peonies is better to postpone until the onset of stable primorozkov. The plants remove all aboveground parts, leaving the hemp 3-4 cm above the kidney regeneration, almost at the level of the soil. All cut parts of grassy peonies are burned without leaving the plot and not using it for composting. It is advisable to powder the remains of the bush with wood ash to prevent the spread of diseases.
Top dressing for grassy peonies
In order for the plant to be pleased with a large number of flowers, to fully show its varietal properties, it is necessary to regularly replenish the level of nutrients in the soil. Grassy peonies are fed in a standard way for all flowering plants, contributing three seasonings during the season:
- At the beginning of active growth. For the first feeding, it is preferable to use nitrogen fertilizers to stimulate the rapid growth of shoots and leaves.
- At the stage of budding. For the second dressing use full mineral fertilizers in a standard amount.
- At the peak of flowering. This dressing can be replaced by two procedures - at the beginning of the blooming of the first flowers and at the end of flowering. For these dressings, it is preferable to use phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
If grassy peonies are cut or grown with unknown winter hardiness, then instead of classical top dressings, you can start top dressing with nitrogen or full fertilizers, in June with organic or full mineral fertilizers and in September with potash-phosphorus fertilizers.
The beauty of inflorescences and the general condition of plants is favorably affected by spraying with growth regulators and foliar dressing. Such procedures are carried out only in the summer and no more than 1 time per month. Especially good for foliar feeding young plants react.
Young bush of grassy peony. © proflowers
In addition to basic care procedures, a few more agricultural practices should be included in the program for the care of grassy peonies:
- soil mulching, with obligatory updating of the mulch layer in spring (it is desirable to use organic fertilizers or a mixture of soil and organic matter up to 10 cm thick),
- weeding, regular weed removal,
- loosening the soil to maintain its permeability, which is desirable to carry out after each irrigation or heavy precipitation.
Wintering Grassy Peonies
Despite the fact that garden peonies are considered winter-hardy plants, we should not forget that their renewal buds are high and not protected by a sufficient layer of soil. Peonies winter well only under snow, so it is better to take timely measures and create a light shelter that guarantees successful wintering even in snowless periods.
Ponning is very dangerous for peony, therefore leaves or straw are not used for shelter. It is best to create a thick layer of peat or compost mulch over the bushes trimmed for the winter (minimum - 5-7 cm). But such a shelter is considered mandatory only for young and varietal peonies, the acclimatization of which (in the past) is unknown. Purchased in local nurseries plants in adulthood can not hide at all.
Весной спешить убирать слой мульчи не стоит: укрытие убирают только после появления красноватых ростков и начала развития побегов. Проводить процедуру снятия укрытия нужно аккуратно, ведь молодые ростки очень хрупкие. После снятия укрытия почву вокруг куста обязательно рыхлят.
Обрезка пионов на зиму. © Cheryl
Pest and disease control
Gray rot is particularly prevalent on grassy peonies, which is considered the main cause of the loss of these herbaceous perennials. The slightest deviation in the characteristics of the soil in the direction of compaction, acid reaction or an excess of nitrogen dramatically increases the risk of hitting the bushes. But apart from gray rot, the common diseases of garden plants are rarely found on grassy peonies — from spotting to stem and root rot, powdery mildew, and even rust.
For unstable grass peony varieties, the most reliable way to avoid problems is timely and regular prevention. An annual treatment with copper sulphate solution (from rust with a rich mixture, from powdery mildew with colloidal sulfur) or a systemic fungicide is enough to protect plants from infection. Fighting on infected bushes is a long and not always successful process. To cope with this problem, systemic treatments with fungicides and prophylactic treatments in the early spring are required.
Pests on grassy peonies are less common. But aphids, mites and thrips can cause no less harm than diseases. To combat insect pests better systemic insecticides with frequency and concentration recommended by the manufacturer.
Propagation of grassy peonies
Like any other peonies, varieties of herbaceous peonies can be propagated using the seed method and vegetative methods.
The easiest way to get the offspring of grassy peonies, fully preserving all the characteristics of the original plant, with the rejuvenation of the bushes and the planned separation. Only those grassy peonies are divided, in which at least 7 full-fledged shoots develop and a full bloom has occurred for several years.
The optimal time for separation coincides with the landing time - from the second half of August to the end of September. Before you begin to dig, it is necessary to cut off all the shoots of the plant, leaving not very short, about 15 cm long, hemp on all stems.
Splitting a grassy peony bush. © Adriana
The procedure itself is slightly complicated by the fragility of the pions root system:
- Shrubs are dug very carefully, with a large earthen clod, trying not to damage the young and old roots. It is best to remove the bush, first digging it over a wide radius, and then removing a very large earthen bed.
- Depending on the condition of the soil, it is gently shaken off or washed off with a gentle stream of water, exposing the rhizome for inspection. After removal of the main soil, the bush is carefully examined and left to dry for several hours.
- A dried bush with a sharp knife or other sharp tool is divided so that at least 2-3 shoots, 3 renewal buds and strong new roots remain in each part (the optimal size of the separated rhizome is about 10-15 cm). Both large and small delenki, as well as bushes entirely, do not take root well and require careful maintenance.
- Each delenku inspect, removing the damaged areas of the roots. All sections and scraps on the plant must be treated with ashes or special preparations for treating wounds. Before planting, it is better to soak the plants in solutions of fungicides, and then on rooting stimulants, but such treatment is not considered mandatory. Soaking is carried out before cutting.
- Planting delenok grassy peonies carried out by the same rules as the landing of pions in general. The plants separated at the end of summer are well acclimatized and actively grow, but they bloom only in the second or third year after transplantation (even if the bushes produce flowers in the first or second year, it is better not to allow them to bloom so that in the third year to get larger flowers).
Also, grassy peonies are propagated by another vegetative method - root cuttings or individual stems with buds and roots. Small shrubs of rhizome with one dormant bud at the base of a single shoot are separated from the bushes. This procedure is best carried out not in the early autumn, but in July, immediately shortening the shoot to 2 - 3 leaves.
Rooted seedlings, as usual cuttings on seedlings beds (without a cap, but with constant care). In winter, the plants are covered with a thick layer of mulch, and then the peonies are grown for several years, receiving flowering plants only in the fifth year after rooting.
Seed propagation is a method that is used only in the selection of grassy peonies and is very rarely used in private gardens (unlike tree-like counterparts and species plants). But if you want to try your hand at breeding new peonies, then it is better to plant the crop under the winter. Peonies bloom only in the fourth or fifth year.