Amazing and attractive with its simple decoration of periwinkle, covering the whole green meadow with a dark green carpet. Another name for the flower is carantus. Delicate blue flowers loved by many. Herb or shrub evergreen plants have long attracted the attention of people with their zest for life. It spreads its elastic branches to all sides of the world.
They have glossy leaves, elegant decorative flowers lilac-blue, white, with various transitions of pink, sometimes with a crimson speck of a pharynx. Its leaves are distinguished by their strength and vitality, maintaining a fresh appearance even under the snow cover. In early spring, they look out from under the snowdrifts with their emerald greenery.
The name in Latin Vinca means - to twist around. It can climb high on the supporting walls, firmly clinging to the roots of the smallest protrusions.
Description of the plant periwinkle
Flowers periwinkle planting and care photo flower beds
A plant from the family Kutrovye. Creeping shrub or perennial grass with ground cover flowering shoots. The leaves are opposite, dark green sometimes with golden-cream spots, leathery, glossy. Large blue, white or pink flowers, blooming in spring, sitting alone in the leaf axils. Fruit - two cylindrical leaflets with seeds. Flowers c attract bees, are considered a good honey plant.
Growing quarantine or periwinkle - an occupation for the lazy!
The flower is undemanding, it grows and develops superbly, forming lush pillows of emerald, brilliant leaves with delicate cornflower-blue flowers under the shady tree crowns. Beautiful, abundant blooms in a greasy, moist soil. It looks unusually in the tree trunks of garden trees, on stony hills, as a groundcover in a half shade place, as ampelous in hanging baskets. The variegated varieties are better kept in full sun - their leaves are less expressive in the shade.
Periwinkle planting and care photos in the garden
- To improve the decoration, create a lush flowering carpet is supposed to be fertilized with organic and mineral fertilizers several times a season.
- The overgrown organics mulch before the onset of winter and early spring before the beginning of the growth of new shoots and leaves.
- Mineral fertilizer can be sprinkled in small quantities before or during rain or watering.
- Cut off the damaged, wilted twigs, maintaining decorative, stimulating the formation of additional roots.
- Water the periwinkle more often, and it will respond to you with abundant flowering and a riot of emerald-green foliage.
- It is impossible to call it aggressive, but sometimes it requires growth restrictions, because growing can suppress other plants.
Periwinkle propagation by cuttings photo
Cuttings usually reproduce indoor species or those that winter in cool rooms.
- Cuttings are cut from the young, apical shoots in March.
- Each should have at least two internodes.
- At the bottom, the leaves are cut off, the site is treated with growth stimulants (roots, aloe leaf juice).
- Then they are planted in soil composed of 2 parts of fertilized soil, 1 part of coarse-grained sand, deepening the lower internode in the soil, pressing it tightly with fingers.
- The soil with cuttings is kept moist at a temperature of 24 degrees, providing shelter from bright sunlight.
- When the plants are strong enough, transplanted one by one and cut off the vegetative tops, for better rooting.
- After 2 months planted on the site.
Reproduction by seeds. Sow periwinkle seedling beds located in the penumbra
- Seeds germinate well in moist nutrient soil.
- Sowing is done in spring and autumn in open ground in rows with a distance of 10 cm between the rows, closed up to a depth of 2-3 cm.
- You can plant seeds in peat cups or containers, growing seedlings on the windowsill
Periwinkle seed at home photo
- Caring as for the usual seedlings - watered and weeded.
- In the autumn of next year, the plants will be ready for planting in a flower garden.
- Pink periwinkle seeds are laid out in 5-8 pieces. in pots in february.
- Soil can be taken universal for indoor plants or the usual turf ground.
- Sowing produce shallow, up to 1 cm.
Periwinkle ampel cultivation from seed photo
- Water, cover with a can or a film, preventing evaporation of moisture, creating a microclimate.
- After germination begin to air a little.
- If there are enough seedlings, they can be damaged by removing the smallest ones.
- If you intend to grow a plant in the house, you can put support.
How to plant finished vinca seedlings in open ground, look at the video:
The plant quickly masters the place allotted to it and begins to grow, covering the area allotted to it with a thick carpet. Glossy leaves are very decorative, even after the flowering season, which makes periwinkle a great ground cover.
Reproduction by layering. They are taken from adults, well-grown plants
Reproduction periwinkle layering photo
Creeping periwinkle branches independently take root, rooting in contact with the ground. Cutting a twig with a shears, undermining the cut off part along with the roots, it is transferred to a previously prepared area. The ground should be constantly wet for better rooting. If the roots on the seedling are small, you can cover the plant with a plastic bottle with a cut off bottom - so it will soon take root. Having noticed new sprouts under cover, they take it off.
The reproduction of periwinkles will not cause a lot of problems even for beginner growers. They are well rooted and take root at any time. One has only to maintain the landing site in a wet state, and success is guaranteed.
Vinca minor Vinca minor, Zelenka, hornbeam grass, burial ground
Flower periwinkle variety Vinka minor atropurpurea Vinca minor Atropurpurea photo
Evergreen shrub up to 35 cm in height with vertical generative stems. It grows in the European part of Russia, the Baltic States, in the Crimea, Belarus, Ukraine and the Caucasus on the forest edges, on the steppe slopes. It has a vertically located fruit-bearing and fruitless stems. It blooms in May and August with single dark blue flowers located in the leaf axils. The fruit is formed very rarely.
White periwinkle Vinka Minor small photo Vinca minor Alba grade
Vegetatively propagated well and seeds. In the spring, he needs significant pruning up to 7 cm from the root and feeding with humus or mulching with compost. It grows very quickly and occupies the space allotted to it. Successfully replaces the lawn. It can be grown on vertical walls as an ampelous plant. Often found in gardens.
Varieties of vinca minor:
- Alboplena - white terry flowers,
- Argenteo - large leaves, green with whitish cream specks, inflorescences azure-cornflower,
- Atropurpurea - bright purple flowers,
- Emili - simple white flowers.
Vinca major Vinca major
Periwinkle big Vinca major grassy plants for open ground photo
Its leaves are larger and larger than the first, larger, and five-petal azure-lilac flowers. He also creeps along the ground, rooting in knots, but not as fast as his brother. Under favorable conditions, it blooms twice a season.
Flowers periwinkle large variegata Vinca major Variegata cultivation and care photos
Reaches 25 cm tall. Its leaves are not glossy, but matte. Less common than the small periwinkle in the garden plots. A well-known variety is Variegata, with elliptical rigid leaves with white edging along the edge of the sheet. Sometimes there are specimens with pure white foliage. Prefers open spaces to the sun.
Periwinkle herbaceous Vinca herbacea
Periwinkle herbaceous Vinca herbacea photo
It has a low frost resistance - it can disappear in the winter and grow back in the spring. Differs in smaller elliptical leaves of a saturated green shade, falling on the winter, rough. Creeping stems do not take root in internodes. Rooted only the tip. The flowers are purple, blue or blue-purple, solitary, axillary.
Seeds oblong dark brown with tubercles without a tuft. Distributed on the coast of Crimea. It is localized in glades, slopes, among bushes. Our ancestors laid a woven wreath of periwinkle grassy in the place of a newly built house to protect it from evil and the well-being and wealth of the family.
Periwinkle pubescent Vinca pubescens
It grows under trees in the forests of the western Caucasus. It also loses leaves for the winter, but is more frost-resistant than grassy and requires little shelter. Sprouting, sprouting along the ground shoots rooted in places of contact with the ground. Blue flowers are small, rising on the twigs above the ground, creating the effect of a loose carpet.
Periwinkle pink Vinca rosea, catarantus, lochner pink, pervinkl
Vinca Rose Vinca Rosea Catharanthus Photo
Gentle look, originally from Madagascar, with pink buds, with a pink-purple spot in the center. Stem bare cylindrical. Cultivated on the slopes of Ajara. The crimson throat of a flower attracts insects with long proboscis. Great honey plant.
In our latitudes, it is bred only on window sills. Or used as an annual culture. The most suitable time for annual transplanting is January-March, using containers of large size (maximum diameter 15 cm).
In spring and summer, place the pots in a very sunny place, add liquid fertilizer every 2 weeks when watering. To prolong flowering in autumn and winter, keep the plant as long as possible in a bright place or highlight a little. At this time, the temperature is maintained moderate, and it is necessary to water only in order not to overdry the soil.
There are two varieties: “A small brilliant eye” with white flowers and a dark pink spot in the center, and “Small pinkish” - with 25-cm-high rose petals. These plants can be taken out to the garden area, and with the arrival of cold weather can be removed . It draws attention with an abundance of flowers resembling phloxes against the background of brilliant evergreen foliage. By creating suitable conditions for him, you can admire the continuous flowering for several years in a row.
Pests and diseases
Periwinkles are slightly affected by pests. Stiff leaves, bitter taste repels many insects. In the case of the occurrence of a red tick or a worm, use special insecticides. Sometimes aphids are affected. For its destruction apply a solution of tar soap.
When the room content sometimes dry the tips of the leaves. It comes from too dry air. Spray your pet more often or place the pot on a large tray or pots filled with wet moss or expanded clay. In summer you can put it on the balcony, avoiding places with scorching sun.
Features of the plant
How does the periwinkle flower photo
Different types of periwinkle tolerate harsh winters. The flower has an amazing vitality - it will be cut in the water to the last drop, and if you then stick this shoot into the ground, then it will definitely take root. There is a legend in which he complained about the fate of Goddess Flora, and she gave him large blue-purple flowers and gave an extraordinary name - “Pervinka’. ”
Periwinkle in the garden photo composition
This plant is several thousand years old. Naturally, people from ancient times used it as a medicinal plant. It is recognized as official medicine. Drugs are widely used in the treatment of many diseases. The most valuable is the periwinkle small. Drugs based on it have astringent, antimicrobial, hemostatic, vasodilator, hypotensive, sedative effect. Traditional medicine uses it for dermatitis, tumors, eczema. Periwinkle pink also has medicinal properties. It is used in the treatment of polyps, anemia, stomach ulcers.
All types of periwinkle are poisonous. It should be applied with extreme caution, after consulting with a doctor, not allowing self-treatment.
Periwinkle ampelny photo of flowers
Periwinkle - an excellent flowering groundcover - quickly disguises an unattractive place on the plot, the economic zone or will climb and decorate the shady side of the house or arbor. The British decorate them with stone walls of ancient houses. Looks great among ferns and large plants.
Periwinkle flower in landscape design photo
Its rapid growth and ability to actively spread, unpretentiousness and shade tolerance, malachite-green glossy foliage and charming azure-blue flowers explain its popularity among gardeners and landscape designers. It is placed in rockeries and on natural slopes and hills, which gives sophistication and uniqueness to the garden plot. Its gorgeous, year-round foliage sets off and enhances the beauty of a number of flowers growing. And if to take into account its mystical properties, then he will surely bring happiness, peace, prosperity and protection from trouble to your home.
Periwinkle in landscape design photo flower beds
Periwinkle is considered a ritual flower of folk rituals - woven into the bride's wedding wreath. All types of periwinkle applies traditional medicine. In the old Carpathian legend, the five-leafed periwinkle flower symbolizes a happy married life.
This is a real sacred plant - the flower of love, or the witch violet. Even in ancient times it was moved from the forest to the lawns, flower beds of palaces. Planted in cemeteries, became a symbol of eternal love and long memory.
Ladies of the court with gentlemen ....
went specifically to the forest edges to admire the blue and white stars, blooming at dawn and hiding at 5 pm. It was believed that periwinkle is eternal, like life is eternal. And still periwinkle personifies love. It is believed that living next to the house, brings happiness and prosperity.
Periwinkle, laid under the pillow, once attracted the suitors to the girls. A sprig of periwinkle, placed in a child's cradle, protects the child from damage and the evil eye and soothes the baby. In ancient centuries, it was woven into wreaths, fortified over the windows, they guarded the house from lightning, the penetration of witches. It is considered a magical talisman of many nations.
The appearance of the flower and its features
Periwinkle is an evergreen shrub reaching 30–35 cm in height or a perennial herb with vertical shoots. On the sides of the stem are dark green leaves with a dense structure and a glossy surface. The flowers can be pink, white, purple, blue with crimson or white centers, they are in the axils of the leaves and arranged separately.
The shape of the petals is rectangular, slightly narrowed to the base. Usually, the periwinkle bloom begins in spring in May and lasts until September, attracting beneficial insects with its scent.
Where periwinkles grow, you will not encounter a single weed, as the flowers grow rapidly and in a short time can cover a large area of open ground with a solid carpet, firmly rooted in the ground with their roots, without giving other plants the slightest chance of existence. The flower has a very great vitality and endurance, torn off, it can be for a long time even without water, and if you then put it in the ground, it will definitely begin to grow again.
Today, about 20 species of such flowers are known in nature, differing in shape and shade of petals, and there are varieties bred by breeders that are widely used for growing in their gardens by many flora lovers.
Varieties of Vinca and its varieties
The most famous species of this plant include:
- Little Periwinkle. These flowers can often be found in the southern part of Russia, the Mediterranean and Asia. The plant is a perennial, has a stalk length of about 65 cm with a lot of twigs and creeping shoots that can grow up to two meters in width. On long petioles there are dark green leaves of oval shape, from 4 to 5 cm long, with a sharp tip and a shiny surface. The flowers are blue in color about 3 cm in diameter, arranged one by one. Flowering begins in early summer and lasts 1 month. Popular varieties of this species: Periwinkle variegated, terry with blue flowers, white-colored, golden-motley, red terry.
- Great Periwinkle. The birthplace of the flower is Crimea, the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. It is an evergreen shrub, creeping along the ground. Leaves are from 5 to 8 cm long, of elongated shape, green in color with small notches on the edges. Peduncles single, with a diameter of up to 6 cm, have a beautiful and pale blue tint. The flowering period begins in May and lasts until the beginning of July. The plant is very unpretentious in the care, can tolerate seasonal cold, wintering in the open field. There are several variegated varieties of Great Vinca, which are less cold-resistant and require shelter during heavy frosts.
- Downed Periwinkle. The favorite place of growth of this plant is the forest of the western Caucasus. Кустик очень хорошо переносит низкую температуру, к зиме обычно сбрасывает всю листву. Одиночные цветы расположены вертикально, их размер не превышает 4 см в диаметре. Лепестки светло-фиолетового цвета, имеют трапециевидную форму с заострением на конце. Зацветает растение в конце весны, цветение длится около 1 месяца.
- Травянистый Барвинок. В природе произрастает в Европе, Малой Азии, Украине и юге России.The leaves are bright green, with a glossy surface, small size. Peduncles have a purple color and reach a diameter of 3 cm. Duration of flowering - from late May to early July. The plant does not tolerate frosts very well, so with the onset of cold weather it needs to be covered.
- Periwinkle pink. The bush, covered with evergreen foliage, has a height of about 60 cm. On straight shoots, in the axils of the upper leaves, there are pale pink flowers with red centers that bloom in late spring and delight in their beauty until early autumn. Today, pink Periwinkle belongs to a separate genus and due to the efforts of breeders, has 8 species and many different varieties.
Some species of Vinca have medicinal properties. Since ancient times, people have used these plants for the treatment of various diseases, and now they have found their recognition in official medicine. Pharmaceutical companies produce Vinca-based products that have a hemostatic, sedative, antimicrobial, vasodilator effect. The most popular for these purposes are two types of Vinca - small and pink.
Periwinkle - planting and care in the open field
Plant so unpretentiousthat can grow anywhere and on any soil, growing rapidly and covering even the most unsightly parts of the yard with a bright carpet of flowers.
It can be planted both on the open and sunny side, and in the shade of various trees.
When planting it is necessary to take into account that the Periwinkle is a perennial and actively growing plant, therefore the distance between the bushes should be no less 35–40 cm.
To care for flowers will not be difficult. It is recommended to provide full watering after planting and in the initial stage of plant development. When the bushes get stronger and begin to grow rapidly, watering can be reduced, and then, in general, stop, because they will be enough water that is contained in the soil. The plant is drought resistant, so even in the driest weather water it should be 1 time in 10 days.
It is recommended to feed young plants in spring and autumn. For this, high-quality compost, urea and humus can be applied to the soil, at a rate of 35–40 grams per 1 square meter. Adults Vinca practically do not need top dressing.
Despite the fact that the flower perfectly tolerates low temperature, with the onset of the winter period the bushes with a plant are best covered with autumn foliage and spruce branches.
Although the care of periwinkle the minimum is required for the plant to feel comfortable and delight with its flowering for as long as possible, there are some useful tips for caring for it:
- Several times during the season it is necessary to apply mineral and organic fertilizers to the soil.
- Mineral dressing is better to distribute around the plants after they are watered.
- Be sure to cut dry twigs and time to remove the withering buds for high-quality appearance of plants.
- With regular watering blooms Periwinkles will be abundant and long.
- Care must be taken that the growing bushes do not overwhelm other plantings in the neighborhood.
- Variegated varieties are recommended to be planted in well-lit places, since in the shade the plant will be hardly noticeable.
- With the onset of winter, do not forget to cover the periwinkle, as some of its varieties can not tolerate low temperatures.
Periwinkle - breeding methods
Like most perennial plants Periwinkle propagates by seeds, cuttings, layering and dividing the bush:
- Seeds in open ground should be sown in spring or summer, preferably after fresh rain or abundant watering of the soil. It is best to plant the seeds in a nutritious and slightly acidic soil under the spreading trees that can create diffused lighting for young shoots. You can pre-sow seeds in boxes, pre-filled with a special substrate. In this ground it is necessary to place the seeds at a depth of about 2 cm. Then, the sowing of seeds is necessary to cover with some material that does not let the sun through and see that the air temperature is at least 23 degrees. When the first sprouts appear, the temperature is reduced to 20 degrees, and when young plants have leaves, the seedlings are transplanted into open ground.
- Cuttings are usually propagated by the room varieties of Vinca, or those plants that are found in cold rooms in winter. To get a new plant in this way, you need to cut off the young shoots from the bush and bury them in the ground, leaving only the leaves on the surface. After that, the flower will begin to grow very quickly itself and the creeping bushes will soon fill the entire allotted space.
- The division of the bush - the easiest way to breed Vinca. It is best to divide the bushes in spring or early autumn. To do this, you need to dig a plant with roots, carefully divide it into several parts and plant in a new place. If you decide to do this work in the summer, it will be necessary to moisten the ground well before planting.
- Evergreen species of Vinca are best suited for growing flowers by layering. To get a new plant, young shoots of bushes need to be sprinkled with earth, and after they have roots, young flowers need to be separated and transplanted into the planned place with nutrient soil.
Periwinkle, according to our ancestors, is a magical plant that drives away evil spirits. If a wreath woven from periwinkle hang over the windows, he will save from lightning, if picked up over the front door, then not one person with bad intentions will not enter the house, it is also a guard against witches. The plant is used to wash the dead person.
This is a perennial plant, which with its abundant creeping shoots fills the areas and flowerbeds. The plant is not demanding care. Vinca leaves are small, oblong oval in shape. The surface of the sheet is smooth, glossy and has a rich green tint. The flowers of the plant have a pleasant rich purple hue, and has only five petals.
The periwinkle, planted on the plot, fights well with weeds, because its roots are well woven over the ground, and the stems lie flat on the ground, not giving a chance to weeds for development.
Under natural conditions, there are few varieties of periwinkle. But with the help of selection, new varieties and shades of the flower appeared.
Varieties and types
Great periwinkle got its name because of larger leaves than other species. Flowering occurs twice per season in spring and autumn. The height of the stems is about 25 cm.
Periwinkle herbaceous perennial view. The leaves of the plant have an ovoid shape, small, dense with a rich light green tint. This species does not tolerate the harsh winter. Therefore requires shelter in the winter.
Periwinkle perennial view with foliage elliptical shape. Leaves are glossy, dense. It tolerates frosty winters. Shoots reach lengths up to 100 cm. The inflorescences are miniature with a bluish tinge.
Periwinkle variegated has large leaves with light - beige splashes. Flowers pleasant bluish tint.
Periwinkle pink (room type), which grows well on plots and indoors. His second name is Carantus Pink. This shrub has a height of about 60 cm. The inflorescence is about 4 cm in diameter with a scarlet shade or pale pink. Its birthplace is the island of Java.
The plant has healing properties and its tinctures are used in the treatment of gastric ulcers, prostatitis, adenomas and hemorrhoids and cancers.
Periwinkle variegated bright representative, landed on the alpine hills, rocky gardens. This species is growing rapidly. Flowering takes place in the spring. The color of the flowers is light blue. The surface of leaves is covered with yellowish impregnations. Perfectly take root in any conditions.
Periwinkle planting and care in the open field
Caring for a plant does not take much time and effort. And even a novice gardener can do it. The plant survives well in any soil, and with any lighting. But loamy earth with a sufficient amount of humus and moderately moist is preferable.
Moisturizing the plant should be full only after planting until full rooting. In the future, it is necessary to water, even in times of drought once a week. And so the plant is enough of the moisture that is in the ground.
The plant needs periodic feeding in the form of mineral and organic fertilizers. Or another option of feeding is humus, together with leaf earth.
Replant the plant preferably in early spring. The plant is distinguished by its vitality, so there are practically no problems with rooting. It is possible to transfer in the summer, only the weather is better to pick up the rainy.
The distance between the planted plants should be about 25 cm. Approximately 100 pieces of saplings are about one square.
Periwinkle breeding cuttings and layering
To do this, take the young cuttings and prikopat them into the ground, leaving above the surface of the part of the shoot with a few leaves. Rooting occurs rapidly and the plant grows, covering the soil.
For reproduction of periwinkle by layering, you should drop the escape from the mother plant and periodically moisturize. After rooting, it is separated and transplanted to a permanent place.
Periwinkle seed reproduction
Seeds need to be sown in the spring in the prepared soil of peat and sand and cover with an opaque film. The temperature for germination should be about 23 degrees.
After the emergence of shoots, you must remove the film and accustom the shoots to the light. Dive plants are necessary when they reach a height of about 8 cm.
Diseases and pests
- Periwinkle dry The reason for the defeat of the plant is the shield. In this case, the plant must be treated with an appropriate fungicide. Or the reason may be a shortage of nitrogen fertilizers, feed the plant and it will return to normal.
- Periwinkle does not bloom the reason may be a lack of light, the plant develops well in the penumbra, and flowering occurs more frequently and more abundantly on the sunny side. A second reason may be a lack of compost in the soil.
- From pests the plant can hit aphidTo combat it, it is necessary to treat the bushes with soapy water.
Planting and care of periwinkle (in short)
- Landing: spring, summer, winter.
- Bloom: from May for a month.
- Lighting: shadow, penumbra, bright diffused light, bright sun.
- The soil: well drained, loose and fertile soils of slightly acid or neutral reaction.
- Watering: only in case of a prolonged drought.
- Pinching: to enhance tillering pinch both young and old shoots.
- Top dressing: organic matter in the form of compost and humus, although balanced mineral fertilizers can also be used.
- Trimming: after flowering.
- Reproduction: seeds, cuttings, dividing the bush.
- Pests: aphid.
- Diseases: powdery mildew and rust.
Periwinkle flower - description
Periwinkles - creeping shrubs or herbaceous plants with erect shoots. Brilliant leathery leaves of light or dark green color are located on the shoots opposite. Sometimes the leaves are marked with a creamy border or spots. Large single flowers, most often blue, although they are also white, pink and pure lilac, grow from the leaf axils. Their corolla is funnel-shaped with a long cylindrical tube. Bulk periwinkle blooms in spring, and then its flower stalks rise up, which gives the periwinkle a special attraction. When most of the flowers wither, the periwinkle does not end with flowering, as individual flowers can be seen throughout the growing season. Vinca fruit - two cylindrical leaflets. In nature, there are about 12 species of periwinkles.
When sow periwinkle.
The periwinkle is sown both in spring and in winter, when all plants are already in a dormant period. If necessary, periwinkle planting is possible even in summer, only it should be done on a rainy or at least overcast day. Periwinkle grows best on well-drained, friable, fertile soils of a neutral or weakly acid reaction, in shade or partial shade, although in the bright sun periwinkle will feel good. If the soil on the site is poor, before sowing, bring a mature compost into it under digging.
How to care for periwinkle in the garden.
Planting and maintenance of periwinkle in the open field is so simple that they could not be described. Periwinkle is watered only in the case of a prolonged drought, while the rest of the time, natural precipitation is sufficient for it, even if it is infrequent. With weeds the plant quietly gets on, so remove them only if they annoy you. To enhance tillering, it is necessary to pinch both young and old shoots from time to time. Periwinkle responds well to timely balanced fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers, although organic is preferable in the form of compost, humus and leaf soil. After the end of the mass flowering, the periwinkle needs to be cut, plant residues can be used as cuttings for rooting.
How and when to collect vinca seeds.
If you already have periwinkle growing, you will not need its seeds, because this plant reproduces vegetatively much faster, easier and more reliably - the cuttings take root perfectly, and the bushes easily divide. Yes, and professionals recommend it vegetative methods of reproduction.
originally from the Mediterranean, the Crimea and the Caucasus. Beautiful perennial groundcover evergreen plant, the stems of which rooted along the entire length, forming a curly carpet. The periwinkle leaves are large ovate, glabrous, leathery and shiny, fringed along the edge with cilia. The length of the leaves is from 4 to 8 cm. Single flowers up to 5 cm in diameter on peduncles up to 40 cm in height are painted in a special shade of blue - Pervansh (as the French periwinkle is called). Flowering begins in May and lasts more than a month. View winter-hardy, but in the snow-free winters for the sake of saving the leaves is better to cover it with spruce branches. There is a variegated form of the species with white and yellow variegated leaves, much less cold-resistant than the plants of the main species, for the winter it requires a mandatory shelter.
Small periwinkle (Vinca minor)
in nature it is distributed in the Mediterranean, Asia Minor and in the south of the European part of Russia. This is a perennial creeping shade-tolerant plant, preferring deciduous and pine forests with rich soils, although it grows on rich sandy loams, and on gravelly and stony slopes. The periwinkle has a small branched stem up to 60 cm long, whole, oblong, leathery and shiny, elliptical leaves on long petioles. The length of the leaves is from 3 to 5 cm, they remain dark green even in winter. Funnel-shaped flowers, solitary, blue, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, peduncles up to 20 cm high. Periwinkle small blooms in May or June, flowering lasts about a month. Five-leafed fruits are rarely formed, so more often the small periwinkle propagates vegetatively by rooting shoots and branching rhizomes. Planting small periwinkle cuttings is also possible. This species is able to live for several decades. In culture since 1306. The variety is winter-hardy, but in snowless winters shelter is desirable. The rest of the care of small periwinkle as simple as for any other type. Garden forms of periwinkle small:
- - white color
- - red,
- - red terry - with double flowers of purple tint,
- - variegated - with golden yellow leaves,
- - terry with blue flowers,
- - white-haired with rounded small leaves and uneven white border around the edge. This variety almost does not bloom and is often used to create motley rugs on the slopes,
- - golden-motley with even smaller glossy leaves of bright green color with numerous longitudinal strokes of bright yellow shade.
grows in coastal forests of the western Caucasus. Its creeping shoots germinate in the places of contact with the ground, as a result of which by the autumn almost all the nodes in the upper and middle parts of the shoots take root. Peduncles rise vertically, which creates the impression of a loose cover. Single, up to 3.5 cm in diameter, periwinkle flowers pubescent open in May and bloom within a month. Leaves die off for the winter.
Periwinkle herbaceous (Vinca herbacea)
in the wild it grows in Asia Minor, Central Europe, the Caucasus, the Crimea, Ukraine and the south of the European part of Russia. The vegetative shoots of his creeping, shiny elliptical leaves fall in winter. Violet or blue single flowers on peduncles up to 15 cm high reach 3 cm in size, they bloom from late May to late June. Kind of winter-hardy, but if you have a winter without snow, it is advisable to cover the periwinkle grassy for the winter with spruce branches.
Periwinkle Pink (Catharanthus = Vinca rosea = Lochnera rosea),
or quarantus, or Madagascar Vinka, or pink flower, or cayenne jasmine, or lochner - Quarantus has many names, and although through the efforts of scientists, it is now bred in a separate genus of 8 species, for flower growers it is still pink periwinkle. It is an evergreen shrub up to 60 cm in height with erect stem-bearing stems with opposite sedentary, shiny, entire leaves of dark green color with a white median vein. Длина листьев до 7 см. Розовые, сидячие в пазухах верхних листьев цветки распускаются поздней весной и цветут до осени. Плод – серповидная семянка. Развитие этого вида в культуре резко ускорилось в 1976 году, когда американские учёные стали изучать межвидовые гибриды катарантуса.As a result of their work, such popular varieties were introduced into the culture as:
- – Grape cooler with lilac-pink flowers with a pink eye,
- – Peremint Cooler - With a red eye on white flowers.
Over the past fifteen years, German professionals have joined the breeding work, who have brought out such wonderful varieties:
- – First Kiss breed - compact bushes up to 40 cm in height with flowers of 13 color options,
- – Mediterranen and Cascade Apple Blossom - varieties for hanging baskets, the length of the shoots which with proper care can reach 1.5 m.
Medicinal properties of periwinkle.
Periwinkles are useful plants, they have been used in medicine and pharmacology for a long time, because they contain an alkaloid that prevents cell division. At present, they do not practice industrial cultivation of periwinkle in order to obtain this alkaloid - it is synthesized artificially and is included in the composition of anticancer drugs and immunosuppressants. However, despite the successes of synthetic chemistry, medicinal periwinkle is still in demand to combat cardiovascular diseases: the periwinkle of the pubescent includes cardiac glycosides such as vinin and pubescine that lower blood pressure, periwinkle pink contains reserpine, a valuable alkaloid of the same effect, Periwinkle herbaceous includes rutin, which is often prescribed for hypertension. Small periwinkle is no exception - it also contains cardiac glycosides. In addition, some types of periwinkle include ursolic acid and other active substances. In addition to alkaloids, the plant contains tannins, anthocyanins, organic acids, sugars, vitamins, mineral salts, steroids, and phenolic compounds. Vinca preparations treat cerebral circulatory disorders, osteochondrosis, ischemia, atherosclerosis, vascular lesions, psychosis, schizophrenia, depression, autonomic neurosis, polyneuritis, movement coordination disorder, consequences of meningoencephalitis, as well as complex diseases of the ear, throat, nose - a sensor. , vasomotor rhinitis, reduction of smell, post-influenza neuritis of the auditory nerve, atrophic rhino-pharyngolaryngitis.
In folk medicine, periwinkle has been used since the times of Dioskorida and Pliny the Elder, in China, hypertension was treated with carantus, and in the Caucasus, local types of vinca were used as an astringent, antimicrobial, wound healing, vasodilator, hemostatic, and blood purifying agent. We treated periwinkle with scurvy, colic, halitosis, toothache and headache, fever, sexual weakness, tuberculosis, diabetes, the common cold, women's ailments and much more. Outwardly used for bleeding from the nose, uterus, for lotions for rashes, itching, skin eczema and wounds.
Types and varieties of periwinkle
There are five species belonging to the genus, and as a decorative culture, three of them are most often grown: small, large, and changeable. [!] The popular indoor flower or annual plant of the open ground - carantus (pink periwinkle) does not apply to periwinkles and is allocated to a separate genus of carantus (Latin Catharanthus). Small periwinkle (lat. Vinca minor). It is a flowering perennial herbaceous plant, found under natural conditions, as a rule, in deciduous forests, where it settles under the canopy of trees or tall shrubs. Natural places of growth - the Mediterranean, UK, southern Europe, North Africa.
It is a perennial creeping culture with upright or lodging shoots, the average height of which is 20 cm, individual specimens can reach 40-50 cm. Leaves are dense, leathery, dark green above and silver green on the reverse side of the plate, oval in shape. Single flowers, the shape of which is five petals on a long tube, are colored, depending on the variety, in cold shades, from white to bright lilac. Their average size is 2-3 cm in diameter. B. small This is perhaps the most popular garden periwinkle, known in gardening since the XIV century. A large number of cultural forms have been developed: variegated (f. Variegata), white-flowered (f. Alba), red-flowered (f. Rubra), terry (f. Multiplex). etc. Of the varieties of periwinkle small, the following can be noted: "Illumination" (Illumination) is a variegated variety with yellow-golden leaves, decorated with a green border, and bright lilac flowers.
"Gertrude Jekyll" (Gertrude Jekyll) is a compact (about 10 cm) variety, featuring dark green glossy leaves and lots of small snowy white flowers. "Ralph Shugert" (Ralph Shugert) - oval dark green leaves with a narrow silver-green stripe on the edge and large purple flowers. Azurea Flore Pleno (Azurea Flore Pleno) is a terry variety, distinguished by its delicate light green foliage and lilac-blue flowers. "Atropurpurea" (Atropurpurea) is a beautiful variety with bright pink and purple flowers. "Burgundy" (Burgundy) - a variety similar to the previous one, with dark burgundy flowers. "Blue Drift" (Azure Snowdrift) - delicate purple-blue flowers and light green leaves. "Valley Glow" - bright green glossy leaves and white flowers. B. “Illumination”, B. “Gertrude Jekyll”, B. “Atropurpurea”
These are just some of the most famous varieties. In fact, to date, a very large number of periwinkles of various colors and sizes have been derived. Periwinkle large (lat. Vinca major), like the previous species, is often grown in culture. Compared to the small, it is larger in size: the shoots reach an average of 40 cm and their maximum length is 90 cm. The dark green leaves are oval-heart-shaped, and the flowers have five petals and a long tubular corolla. The diameter of a single flower is 3-5 cm, the color of wild specimens is usually pale lavender. Less frost-resistant, compared to small, species found in nature in southern Europe and northern Africa. B. large. In culture, a variegated form (f. Variegata) is especially common, on the basis of which many varieties are selected: “Expoflora” (Expoflora) - glossy bright green leaves with a bright border. “Maculata” (Masculata) - the middle of the leaf plate - light, darker to the edges. "Reticulata" (Reticulata) - the leaves are similar to the previous species, the flowers are painted in bright lavender, brightening to the middle. Wojo’s Gem (Vjojo Gem) is a very interesting variety with leaves decorated with contrasting spots. B. “Expoflora”, B. “Wojo’s Gem” Periwinkle changeable (lat. Vinca difformis). This species is rarely found on the territory of our country, because does not differ in frost resistance.
The homeland of the periwinkle is volatile - the Mediterranean coast and North Africa, so it is advisable to grow it only in the southern regions with mild winters. Under natural conditions, the periwinkle is changeable — a rather large (about 50 cm) plant with creeping shoots, oval bright green leaves and pale lilac flowers reaching 4 cm in diameter. The shape of the petals is asymmetric, a bit like a spiral. The most famous varieties: “Jenny Pym” (Jenny Pym) - an unusual color of petals: rich pink at the edges and white in the center. "Ruby Baker" (Ruby Baker) - a variety similar to the previous one, with large dichromatic flowers. "Alba" (Alba) - white flowers against the background of glossy bright green leaves. "Snowmound" (Snow Mountain) - another belotsvetkovy grade.
And what is the use?
Europeans did not just consider periwinkle a symbol of eternal life (and it doesn’t matter that they often landed it in a cemetery). The peculiarity of the flower is that it is almost impossible to destroy it. He survives in a vase with already dried flowers, while there is at least one drop of water. Calmly winters under the snow, retaining the green color of the leaves and first blooming with spring.
The same vitality gives the flower and people, and its secret - in the composition. In addition to the traditional essential oils of medicinal herbs, organic and tannic acids and minerals, periwinkle contains unique alkaloids. Some of them (anticancer vinblastine, vinorelbine and vincristine) are included in the List of Essential and Essential Medicines.
What is so useful grass periwinkle? Medicinal properties and its contraindications are still being studied, but a lot of medicine is official! - has long been actively used.
- Vinca flowers are excellent in lowering blood pressure. Soviet doctors spoke about this feature back in 1956 at the XIV All-Union Congress of Therapists.
- Treats all kinds of bleeding - nasal, intestinal, uterine.
- Strengthens and soothes the nerves, it is recommended for neurosis and psychosis, depression and even schizophrenia.
- Helps to suppress toothache, removes bad breath, stops bleeding from gums.
- It also lowers intracranial pressure, helps relieve headaches and cope with migraines.
- It lowers blood sugar levels and is used for diabetes.
- Increases the potency in men and is used in the treatment of impotence.
- Treats pain in the stomach, stops diarrhea, helps with dysentery.
- When applied externally, the periwinkle decoction heals the rash, sores on the skin, eczema.
- Washing "violet" tincture make the skin soft and gentle, even the complexion.
- Used periwinkle in the treatment of malignant tumors.
Unlike other poisonous medicinal herbs (the same hemlock and bergenia), periwinkle has very few contraindications. But only if you follow the exact dosage! The instruction prohibits drinking weed only with diagnosed heart diseases and strong pressure surges. And doctors add - during pregnancy and lactation, it is also better to remove this phyto-medicine out of sight.
Periwinkle: planting and caring for a flower
Soil is suitable for any plant, even sandy. However, if the soil is heavy, growth activity will decrease slightly. The development of periwinkle occurs fairly quickly, during the season it can capture with its branches up to seven square meters. Do not lose vigilance - such thickets can harm “neighbors”, or even completely push them out of the garden.
Without a doubt, the sunny part of the garden will be the most favorable, but the plant will also feel well in the shade. If you need to disguise the unattractive places of your cottage or low buildings - periwinkle to cope with this task perfectly. It is surprising that even a flower shaded by trees grows beautifully.
If you want to plant periwinkle on the site where you will only come for the weekend, then this amount of watering will be enough. Moreover, the usual rains are not canceled. Growing a flower in the hot southern regions, you can water the plant a little more often - the periwinkle will be more beautiful and lush. But there is no need to make fertilizers so that the periwinkle carpet does not increase oily greens.
The advantage of growing periwinkle in the garden, its types
The leaves have a glossy surface that shimmers in the sun. In April, the bushes begin to be covered with numerous flowers, and the combination of rich greenery and motley color of petals turns any garden into beautiful multi-colored flowerbeds.
Growing this plant in the garden has its advantages:
- due to the fact that the soil surface is covered with a lively green carpet, the weeds are not able to break through it,
- the root system well protects the soil from moisture loss and erosion,
- Vinca leaves and stems act as an insulating cover on the soil, helping to preserve heat in the winter and coolness in the summer,
- the green cover of the plant is a living mulch, with the result that when the site dies off, the level of humus increases.
In landscape design mainly apply two types of perennial:
- Small periwinkle - is widespread in temperate climates, but can grow well in the northern regions. Such a variety tolerates frost well, sometimes it does not even need shelter in winter.
- The periwinkle is large - it is more thermophilic and is grown most often in the southern regions. He feels comfortable in a mild climate, where the temperature rarely drops below zero.
Periwinkle is often used in modern medicine and pharmacology. One of the active elements of the flower is an alkaloid, which blocks uncontrolled cell division. Means, which include periwinkle, are used in the treatment of cancer processes. In addition, nootropic preparations are made from the plant, as well as immunosuppressants.
Periwinkle - a wonderful flower, from whatever side you look. Its beauty, undemandingness, agreement to live on any soils and in different conditions, the ability to look harmoniously in group plantings with annuals and perennials, originality not only in a horizontal position, but also on vertical supports, and in hanging pots - all these qualities ensure the flower popularity and demand from landscape designers. Periwinkle will be a wonderful decoration of the garden, if you are a busy person. After all, it is completely independent and very beautiful plant that does not require special supervision.
Periwinkle use in design
The periwinkles are used as decorative leafy and beautiful flowering plants in rocky gardens, as ground cover plants in shady places of parks and squares. Spectacular in wide borders.
The periwinkles are excellent ground cover plants. Small periwinkle, for example, is capable of forming extremely dense homogeneous carpets. Once having captured a suitable bridgehead, he no longer gives way to it. Only new conditions can “shake” it, for example, a sharp change in illumination.
Vinca coating well decorated and at the same time strengthened bare steep slopes. It can coexist here with the bushes, without interfering with their growth, and the dense needles will simply “wrap around”. Periwinkle can act as an ampelous plant, hanging from the retaining wall, it is a neighborhood of stones. The variegated forms are able to serve as colorful spots in the foreground of flower beds, solo along with flowering perennials and shrubs, create background thickets at the foot of higher plants.
This plant breeds vegetative and seed method. Many varieties are grown from cuttings. Planting a plant is best done in early spring, but you can plant it in late summer or late autumn and it depends on the type of flower.
The composition of the soil, where the periwinkle will be grown, has special requirements:
- periwinkle large and small grows well in neutral or slightly acidic conditions,
- The quality of clay soil can be improved by setting up peat, compost or rotted manure,
- mineral fertilizer can be applied to a soil with a low nitrogen content,
- In order for planting and rooting of large and small periwinkle to be successful, it is recommended to fertilize the soil with fertilizer containing phosphorus.
All kinds of plants usually propagated by cuttings, because its stems spread along the surface of the earth and after a while they begin to take root. After that, it is recommended to breed such a shrub. It is best to do this in early spring or late autumn, while the root system is in a dormant state.
Before planting periwinkle in open ground, it is necessary to determine the area of the site where this plant will be grown. You should also choose the grade of periwinkle, which will be planted, as they differ in the growth rate of the stems and the development of the root system. The average distance between the bushes should be 10-15 cm. To prevent soil erosion, cuttings should be planted in a checkerboard pattern.
Both large and small periwinkle are quite unpretentious to sunlight, the place for landing, you can choose any.
Top dressing and watering
Periwinkle loves to be timely fed, as thanks to this, its flowers and leaves are able to show all their beauty. It is usually fed with organic and mineral fertilizers. The best option is to use compost, humus and leaf earth.
Caring for a flower includes watering, but you should know that periwinkle does not really need it, it usually suffices from natural precipitation that falls even in small quantities. Still, sometimes it is necessary to water it, and also to wash the dust off the leaves.
Weeding and nipping
This flower does not bother to find weeds next to it, and it gets along well with them, but still in order to enjoy the beauty of this plant, their should weed. To increase tillering, as well as for more abundant flowering, it is necessary to nip both young and old shoots.
How can periwinkle be used?
Very often this plant used as a medicine. There is even a pharmaceutical tincture of such a flower that helps with certain diseases.
The healing properties of vinca help with the following diseases: migraine, diseases of the stomach and intestines, hypertension, vascular spasms, etc. However, despite its therapeutic characteristics, this flower is still decorative, with which it decorates houses and buildings in the country.
So periwinkle is pretty unpretentious plantwhich even without regular care can grow and blossom.