Forsythia is not in vain considered one of the most important garden plants. This shrub, if properly applied, can become the main element of any composition in the garden landscape. The abundance of bright yellow Forsythia flowers attracts attention and gives joy. It seems that a little sun has settled in the garden. And forsythia blooms before all other shrubs.
Naturally, there will be gardeners who will want to plant this primrose in their garden. From this article, they learn the rules of planting and caring forsythia, in the Moscow region.
Forsythia shrub is also known as Forsythia. The last name was given to this plant in honor of the Scottish botanist Uljam Forsythe. It was this scientist who brought the first forsythia bushes to Europe from his trip to China. Thanks to his efforts, this shrub has spread widely throughout Albania, Yugoslavia and the rest of Europe. Yes, and in Russia it is quite common.
In the southern regions of our country The horizontal begins to blossom in the last days of February. In Moscow, the bushes of this plant bloom around the end of April.
This shrub, the family of olive trees, has one characteristic feature: it begins to bloom much earlier than the first foliage appears after wintering. Forsythia leaves are oblong with jagged edges.
At the time of flowering forzition bushes are completely covered with color. Her flowers are small, shaped like bells. In size, they can reach 2-5 cm. All flowers are located separately from each other. True, in some varieties they can be combined into large inflorescences.
Forsythia flowers are predominantly yellow., but differ in a large tint variety.
Forsythia bush blooms on average for 25 days. And at this time the plant dominates the garden.
Due to its bright appearance, forsythia creates an attractive contrast to the dark green conifers and shrubs with red foliage.
Types and varieties of plants
There are 6 types of forsythia:
- dark green
In Russia, only 3 of them are popular: drooping, intermediate and ovoid.
This type of forsythia is a medium-sized shrub. Under favorable conditions, its height can reach 3 m. The first color of the shrub of this plant gives the 5th year after planting.
Forzition wilted received its name because of thin shoots dangling from the branches.
On a young bush leaves usually have a trifoliate shape, but as they grow, the bush becomes covered with oblong, ovate leaves.
Flowers on this shrub are collected in large inflorescences, each with 6 buds. They appear on the forsythia branches in the very beginning of May. Flowering time is considered short - only 18 days.
The most famous varieties of this species are:
- Variegata A distinctive feature of this variety - decorative foliage. It has a dark center and a yellowish-white edging,
- Forchuna. This variety has very narrow trifoliate leaves and large, bright yellow flowers,
- Artokoulis. This variety is easily recognizable by the burgundy color of the bark and leaves,
- Siebold. The branches of the shrub of this variety spread along the ground. During the flowering period, they are covered with yellow flowers in the form of a bell. The petals of each flower are beautifully bent outward.
Forsythia is dark green
This type of plant is different from other types of dark green leaves. The latter are oblong. They have a glossy surface.
Leaves densely cover a bush, because of which forzition dark green is often used as an element of the hedge. The dense foliage of this shrub creates the effect of complete impenetrability of the living fence.
This type of shrub blooms with large flowers of yellow, located one by one. There are so many that it seems as if they are combined into inflorescences.
This is a thermophilic type of shrub, so in the Moscow region it is better not to plant. If it is kept in central Russia, it is well covered for the winter to protect it from the cold.
This is a hybrid of dark green and drooping forsythia. The height of this shrub reaches 3 meters. He has a lush crown with straight and slightly lowered branches. The leaves of this hybrid can be both oval and oblong. At the edges they have small teeth.
Forsythia flowers in between are large flowers, gathered in inflorescences, each of which contains 6 buds. Flowers have a rich yellow color.
For the first time the hybrid blooms in the 3rd year after planting.. It blooms throughout April.
Hybrid care is easy. It easily tolerates drought and slight cold, so it is quite suitable for planting and growing in the middle zone of our country. But it should be remembered that in order to protect against severe cold in the winter, this shrub is still better to cover.
The most famous forzition intermediate varieties are:
- Dense flower. It is a medium-height shrub with a magnificent crown, which is completely hidden under the buds of a light yellow color,
- Wonderful. This variety got its name for a reason - it blooms with very large yellow flowers, which experts recognize as the most beautiful inside the species,
- Lindwood. This variety is famous for the variability of the color of foliage. It is a medium-sized plant, abundantly covered with yellow buds during the flowering period. But they love this variety not at all for the flowers, but for the leaves that are closer to the autumn turn purple with a yellow border,
- Fiesta is an undersized shrub variety. Its height does not exceed 1.5 m. He fell in love with gardeners for two-color foliage. The leaves are predominantly dark green. Against this background, yellow spots appear contrastingly.
- Beatrix Farrand. This is a fairly high grade. The bush can reach a height of 3 m. It has a large dark green foliage, which during the flowering period is completely hidden under the large yellow flowers. In the care of this variety is quite capricious. He does not tolerate drought and does not like the cold. Therefore, when grown in the suburbs, it should be well watered and securely sheltered for the winter.
According to experts, this is the best candidate for cultivation in the gardens of the Moscow region. The fact is that this type of forsythia is best tolerated by cold and requires a minimum of care. At the same time this shrub blooms before all other garden crops. However, the duration of flowering he has the shortest total of 15 days.
Despite the short flowering period, the forsythia ovoid still remains one of the main decorations of the garden, thanks to its elongated foliage of lush green color, which becomes dark purple closer to autumn with an abundance of orange dots.
From this type of shrub hemstars are often created, because its crown is rather dense, and the leaves look attractive on their own.
The reason for the popularity of this species was its beauty. It has a dense crown, from which thin shoots hang in an arc. This shrub begins to bloom in the 3rd year after planting.
Due to its frost resistance, this type of forsythia is excellent for landing in the Moscow region. The only thing that does not allow him to become more popular than the ovoid forsythia is the difficulty of leaving and the poor germination of seeds. But, forsythia can not cover for the winter.
This shrub has a compact crown with a diameter of not more than 1.5 m. Its branches are straight and directed strictly upwards. For the first time this species begins to bloom in the 4th year after planting. The flowering period is 25 days. Despite sufficient frost resistance, European forsythia is not particularly popular with domestic gardeners. All because of quite complex care.
Forsythia shrub: planting and care
As mentioned above, this shrub loves heat and light. This means planting it is necessary in an open area, which is well lit throughout the day. Choosing a place under a bush, you should consider the frost resistance of a particular type of forsythia. If the plant does not tolerate cold very well, then it is better to plant it where there is less wind. Otherwise, you will have to create an artificial windscreen.
This shrub grows best on light and loose soils. He does not like sour soil. This point should be taken into account when choosing a site for planting and, if necessary, add dolomite flour or other substances that reduce acidity to the soil.
When planting plants need to be considered, how much in the future can grow its crown. Most species and varieties of forsythia have a spreading crown, which means that during planting one has to maintain a considerable distance between the bushes.
Immediately before planting the seedlings in the selected area, you need to dig up the planting holes of 60x60x70 cm in size, however, these dimensions can be changed taking into account the size of the root system of a particular hive. At the bottom of the wells need a thick layer pour rubble or pebbles. They will act as a drainage layer. Stones from above need to be covered with a layer of sand at 10 cm and powdered with earth. After that, the root system of the bush can be placed in the planting hole.
After planting, the soil around the seedling should be thoroughly tamped and moistened. From above it can be sprinkled with peat or sawdust. This protects the soil from drying out.
Planting forsythia is best in September. The weather is still quite warm, so the seedlings will take root well. Regardless of the frost resistance of a variety, in the first year young bushes should be securely sheltered for the winter.
As for the care, then the main requirement - timely watering. The plant does not like excess water, but it does not tolerate drought well. Therefore, you need to ensure that the soil around the bush does not dry out. This is especially important in hot weather.
On average, at one bush at a time you need to pour no more than 1 bucket of water. Watering frequency should not exceed 1 time in 3 weeks.
This plant responds well on various top dressing. They need to be given at the beginning of flowering. In this case, the shrub will please with large and bright flowers.
Total fertilizers in the soil under the forsythia bushes are applied 2 times a year. The first time in the spring before the start of flowering, the second time immediately after the end of the flowering period.
The roots of this shrub feel good only with sufficient air flow. Therefore, regular loosening of the soil around it should be an indispensable element of care.
Another mandatory care event is pruning. It depends on the gardenerhow the bush will look like. You can give the plant the necessary shape with the help of a garden pruner.
The first time forsythia is cut off 3 years after disembarkation. In the future, pruning is carried out 2 times a year: in spring and autumn. During sanitary pruning, diseased and dead branches are removed.
Summer pruning is carried out as needed, when the branches expand strongly and the shrub loses its decorative form.
Also, 1 time in 4 years spend rejuvenating pruning. It consists in shortening all branches by 2/3 of the length. Some gardeners completely cut off a bush, leaving a basal stump no more than 10 cm high.
Although some species and forzition varieties are considered to be frost-resistant, experts still recommend covering the bushes of this plant for the winter without regard to species. Do not forget that this shrub comes from warm places and without additional protection from our harsh winters, even frost-resistant varieties can suffer. A few extra hours of work are worth the following year to enjoy the lush flowering of this shrub.
Description and photo
A garden shrub consists of a trunk with rough dark brown bark, numerous shoots forming a lush crown up to two meters in diameter, oval bright green or yellow-green leaves with a length of 10-15 cm, bell-shaped flowers of white, yellow and orange shades, collected in bunches, and also fruits with winged seeds. The height of shrubs, depending on the type and variety, starts from one meter and sometimes exceeds two and a half meters.
Flowering begins in early spring, before the appearance of the leaves, and lasts about one month.
The individual characteristics of the culture are its undemanding to soils, resistance to cold, droughts and pests. The plant is very unpretentious and light-requiring. The forsythia is represented by numerous species, varieties and varieties, many of which emerged through the painstaking and persistent work of breeders. They differ in colors and shades of leaves and flowers, in size and shape.
For cultivation in the Moscow region are suitable the most resistant of them - "Egg" and "European."
Methods of reproduction in the suburbs
Seed method is used only when growing a large number of plants and requires a lot of work, effort and time.
Germination of forsythia is only from 30 to 50%.
After planting the seeds, a strong and strong flowering shrub will be possible only after many years. Using cuttings or cuttings, the garden or summer cottage will receive a new, beautiful, natural representative on its territory much faster.
Half-lignified or green cuttings are cut at the beginning of summer. On each cutting, 10-15 cm long with two buds, the leaves should be cut from the bottom side, put them in a vessel with Kornevina solution or another stimulant for an hour and a half, and then bury it under a slight slope into the soil from equal parts of garden soil and sand . Rooting should take place in greenhouse conditions or under a transparent cover for 30 days.
Allowed to plant cut cuttings directly into open ground, but under a glass or film cap.
The simplest method is reproduction by layering, but it is possible only if there is an adult forsythia at the site. The flexible branch closest to the ground is bent down, fixed with a wire brace and sprinkled with soil. Leaving a tip on the surface. The next spring, the cuttings are cut off from the main bush and transplanted.
Seeds before sowing are stratified for two months. It is recommended to use only freshly harvested seed.
Purchased seedlings should have strong shoots with a lot of buds, without signs of disease and damage. The root part should be in the earthy coma.
Combination with other plants
Close proximity with other cultures is undesirable. The optimum distance between landings is two meters.
Forsythia can be planted in March - April or in September.
It is recommended to pour a layer of fine sand not less than 10 cm thick into the prepared landing pit with a drainage layer, and then a ground mixture of two parts of leafy ground and one part of peat, which is sprinkled on the root part of the seedling. Filling the hole to the top, the soil should be lightly tamped and watered abundantly.
After watering, it is necessary to apply a mulch layer of dry leaves.
With moderate weather and natural rainfall, irrigation can be avoided. In dry summer it is recommended to water forsythia shrubs once or twice a month, but without excess. Enough one big bucket for each plant.
The forsythia needs to be fed three times per season. Before the start of flowering, humus is added to the stem and moistened well. In mid-spring, complex mineral fertilizers will be required for flowering garden plants. The third dressing is universal.
Sanitary pruning is carried out in the first spring month. To be removed dry, frozen, damaged and diseased branches. After flowering, you can re-cut. This time cleaned overgrown shoots.
Forsythia: description, types
Forsythia is a spectacular pystsvetuschee plant, represented by tall ornamental shrubs, reaching a height of 2 m. In spring, it stands out clearly against the other not yet flowered plants with its luxurious sunny yellow flowers in the shape of a bell, densely covering bare branches.
Forsythia is a long-flowering shrub that can sometimes reach 3 m in height (depending on the species). Its gray-brown branches can be drooping, hanging almost to the ground, or completely erect.
There are a considerable number of varieties of this plant, among which the following are very popular:
- European. One of the most popular varieties. Presented by a compact bush with straight branches. It reaches a height of 2 m. The leaves are delicate, thin, elongated, in length reach 5-6 cm. The flowers grow singly, they are distinguished by a bright golden color.
- Giralda In appearance it slightly resembles the European variety, but is distinguished by weak resistance to low temperatures. The bush grows rather high, reaching 2 m. The branches are sturdy, tetrahedral, densely dotted with elegant forms of interlacing yellow flowers.
- Egg-like. The bush is sprawling, with straight light brown branches, on which there are single rather large flowers. The leaves on the branches are bright green, in the autumn period acquire an unusual purple hue. This species is extremely resistant to the effects of cold and is not afraid of drought at all. Ideal for growing in the suburbs.
- Hanging (drooping). Очень пышный куст, отличающийся раскидистой кроной.The branches of the plant are drooping, arcuate, stretching to a height of 3 m. The flowers grow into small florets of a soft yellow color.
- Greenest. An unusual plant, represented by tall shrubs with green branches, on which grow equally green bright oblong-lanceolate leaves. The flowers grow in small, but dense inflorescences of green with a slight green tint. The plant is very gentle, needs a lot of heat. Resistant to drought, but afraid of the cold. Suitable only for warm southern regions.
- Medium (intermediate). Hybrid of two previous varieties. The bush grows quite high (up to 3 m), covered with thick bright green foliage, which does not change color until late autumn. It has a high rate of growth and flowering, good resistance to drought and frost.
The choice of location and landing in the ground
Place for planting should be chosen very carefully, because forsythia does not like drafts, strong wind, as well as shade. It means that the place for landing should be necessarily sunny, quiet, warm.
Equally carefully, one should approach the choice of the soil optimal for planting. It must be light, nutritious and perfectly permeable to moisture. Ideal for growing forsythia is a mixture of leafy soil with sand and humus. All components are taken in equal proportions.
Tip If the soil at the site for planting forsythia does not differ in the necessary qualities, it should help a little. So, a slightly acidic or acidic soil is necessarily lime using lime, ash or coal (wood) and digging. If the soil is heavy, with poor aeration, bring in a sand-peat mixture and add a little manure.
Before planting seedlings, planting pits with a size of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.6 m must be prepared at the site. A strict distance of 1.5-2 m must be maintained between the pits (consider that the plant is very sprawling and it requires a lot of free space).
So, first of all, pour a drainage layer in the pit consisting of gravel or broken brick (layer thickness is about 20 cm). From above we pour out the river sand of a large fraction with a layer 2 times less than the drainage. After that, pour out the previously prepared soil mixture. Now you can lower the seedling. Ensure that the root collar remains on the surface. Pour the rest of the soil mixture on top and be sure to pour the young forsythia.
Subtleties of care
Forsythia care is fairly simple, but should be done on a regular basis. The plant must be provided with moisture, fertilizing, and the soil must be loose. It is also necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the bush and, if necessary, pruning.
Watering should not be frequent, but during the onset of drought, at least once or twice a month, pamper forsythia bushes with water (1 bucket of water for 1 bush), and after watering, be sure to loosen the soil and, if desired, grind it.
Feed the plant should be 3 times for the entire season. The first time fertilizers are applied in early spring. Spread the rotted manure around the tree and gently pour it with water (try not to hook the plant itself). Such feeding will be a "catalyst" of active growth and lush bloom in the future.
By mid-spring, you can make a complex mineral fertilizer, and with the end of flowering, be sure to please the plant with Kemira-universal. This will help ensure that the buds are set for the next year.
Pruning a plant is an important stage of care, on the correct implementation of which its viability and the abundance of flowering will directly depend. Forcing pruning is desirable in the autumn period at the end of flowering. All old branches should be cut, leaving only a small stump, while young ones should be cut only by a third. Do not forget also to regularly cut the branches that reach to the ground, because they have a habit of sprouting.
Well, and finally, a few words about the "wintering" of the plant. Of course, some forzition varieties are resistant to cold. Nevertheless, it is better to protect the plant from its effects by feeding the soil in the autumn period with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer, and then mulching it with a layer of soil containing sawdust. It is better to cover the bush with spruce branches, branches, etc.
That's all you need to know about forsythia to successfully grow it in the open field in the suburbs. Good luck!
Golden Asiatic is propagated in the fall, cuttings or layering (weeping forms), less often with seeds. Reproduction by layering - the easiest way, because the falling branches of forsythia, in contact with the ground, can take root on their own. But in order to propagate forsythia with layering as you need, in the fall, lower its lower branches to the ground, slightly cut the bark in the place that you will be dripping, fasten the branches and sprinkle them with soil by 10-15 cm. and in a year a young Asian will bloom.
It can be propagated by cuttings: green or lignified. Green cuttings are cut in early June, kept in a solution of stimulants ("Kornevin" or "Appin"), then rooted and covered with a film. By autumn, the plant takes root and is ready for wintering. Do not forget to sprinkle the soil with dry foliage or straw to a height of 15-20 cm for the winter.
Reproduction of lignified cuttings is also not particularly difficult. In the fall, thick branches are cut into cuttings of 15–18 cm in size, then they are instilled into the ground, deepening by 8–10 cm, so that several buds remain on the above-ground part. Then plantings carefully wrap foliage. In addition, you can buy ready-made seedlings of the plant.
Forsythia saplings are planted in the fall, choosing sunny, windless places and taking into account the characteristics of each variety. However - she can feel great in partial shade, so it also looks appropriate under the windows of a country house. Golden Asian loves light and fertile soils. The ideal soil mixture for it consists of humus, leaf soil and sand in the ratio: 1: 1: 2. Pits for planting make the size of 60x60 cm and deepened to 70-80 cm, respecting the distance between them in 1-3 meters, depending on the size of an adult plant. The pits for a quarter fall asleep drainage layer - rubble or broken brick. Then carefully place the seedling in the hole, sprinkle it with a prepared soil mixture and water it abundantly.
Every autumn, forsythia bushes mulch with fallen leaves or straw, and flexible hanging branches bend down to the ground, fix and carefully cover with spruce branches. In the spring, the mulch layer is removed, the branches are released, and a thick layer of humus or manure is poured under the bushes (but not very close to the base of the stems) and mineral fertilizers are applied at a rate of 70-80 grams per square meter. m. During the growing season forzition is not watered. It tolerates drought better than an excess of moisture, so it only needs watering during particularly dry months.
But the most important event in the care of forsythia is its annual pruning. Consider that the heavily cut bushes bloom very badly, so only the tops of the young shoots are trimmed, and when ornamental trimming, only the stems that are strongly knocked out of the overall composition are cut. After wintering, dry forsythia branches are cut to healthy wood, and after flowering is completed, slightly less than half of the flowered off shoots are shortened.
With proper care, forsythia will greet you every spring with golden clouds of bright yellow flowers, and in the fall to turn the garden into a beautiful fairy tale, because its autumn leaves are extremely decorative.
Forsythia growing conditions
Shrub is very unpretentious, but still have to comply with several conditions:
- Forsythia likes sunny plots, but tolerates partial shade.
- Low alkaline soils are preferred, acidic soils are recommended to be alkalized with lime or dolomite flour.
- To achieve a high decorative effect of your landscape composition with the participation of forsythia, plant juniper or other low-growing conifers next to it.
- Keep in mind that in autumn forsythia leaves turn purple-violet or golden in color, which can also be used effectively in your garden.
- It is preferable to choose a place protected from strong wind.
- It is desirable to mulch the soil with a layer of needles or other mulching material.
When and how to plant forsythia
Forsythia should be planted or transplanted in early autumn or spring, when there is no likelihood of night frost. It is important that the plant during the autumn planting has time to take root before the period of rest and wintering begins.
- For planting prepare a pit, somewhat larger than the size of the roots of the acquired seedling. Usually it is a pit with a diameter of about 60 cm and a depth of half a meter.
- The distance between forsythia bushes is at least 1.5 meters.
- If at the selected place there is a possibility of flooding with melt water, make a drainage: the pit is somewhat deepened and the broken bricks, gravel, small stones are laid out on the bottom, and from above - sand and garden soil.
- When autumn planting will require a mandatory shelter for the winter with a thick layer of fallen leaves or straw (30-40 cm). It will be possible even to pre-heat the lands in the near-wedge zone, but in the spring it is necessary to remove the shelter so that the roots do not sprout.
The first two weeks of forsythia are regularly watered as the land dries in the holes. But too zealous, too, is not worth it: flood the plant is harmful.
How to care forsythia
What all forsythia fell in love with was its unpretentiousness. Usually, the precipitation of shrubs is enough. Only in conditions of abnormal heat the plant will need help, sometimes watering a bucket of water under each bush.
Particularly attentive gardeners can take care of forsythia plantings, making organic fertilizers in the fall: rotted compost or humus scattered on the ground with a layer of 10-20 cm will be an excellent shelter for the winter, a source of nutrients for future development. In spring, plants can be fed with phosphorus-containing mineral fertilizers to stimulate flowering. For example, natroamofoskoy (a tablespoon per bucket of water, the flow rate of 1-2 liters of solution under the bush). At the end of flowering, fertilizing with Kemira-Lux or potassium nitrate according to the instructions is desirable. This will help prepare the plant for the next season of flowering and wintering.
Pruning and shaping forsythia
Forsythia tolerates pruning, but you should not abuse it. Young bushes only subject to sanitary pruning, removing frozen, dry and diseased twigs. Only on the 3-4th year, you can proceed to formative pruning, giving the bush the desired shape: spherical or rectangular. Remember that you can cut no more than a third of the length of the branches so that the forsythia continues to bloom. Cutting up to 6 cm at the tips of the branches, you risk nothing and you can safely experiment.
If the bush is already old, it can be rejuvenated by a radical pruning, leaving only a third of the length of the branches. This will stimulate the active growth of young branches. But such an operation can be performed no more than once every three to four years.
Pest and forsythia diseases
Forsythia is sick and affected by pests extremely rarely. However, the danger still exists.
- The appearance of brown spots on the leaves indicates the development of moniliosis. Sanitary pruning of all affected parts and treatment of the shrub with a fungicide will be required.
- The appearance of nematodes is recognized by the fact that the bush ceases to grow and even fades. Need tillage carbation.
- If the bush began to wither sharply, immediately treat it with a five-percent solution of foundationol.
- If you notice signs of rot that are rapidly spreading, this is a sign of bacteriosis. Save the diseased shrub will not work, you need to dig up and burn as soon as possible so that the disease does not spread to neighboring plants.
Forsythia in the fall Preparing for winter
Young bushes can freeze, so do not be lazy to cover them, raking the ground and falling asleep leaves. The branches should be bent and pinned to the ground, covered with spruce branches. In winter, it is good to get on top of the snow. In early spring, the shelter should be removed, the branches should be freed from spruce branches. It is important to do this on time (before the start of sap flow), so as not to disrupt the natural development cycle of the plant. Adult bushes do not bend down to the ground, but the shelter of the roots is still necessary.
Forsythia in landscape design
Forsythia is often planted together with evergreens: conifers, boxwood, periwinkle, holly, etc. Blooming in early spring, the bush looks spectacular against the backdrop of greenery.
It is possible to plant lawn grass under the forsythia, which will also be an excellent backdrop for golden bush flowers. And next to break a flower bed with primroses or known to all daffodils.
Forsythia is planted next to the purple Canadian, such joint plantings look fantastic: delicate purple and bright yellow flowers create a great combination.
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