Blooming forsythia, covered with hundreds of bright yellow flowers, it is impossible not to notice! If the summer resident wants his forsition to decorate his plot every spring, planting and leaving in the open field are the key stages on the path to success.
In Europe, perennial shrubs, one of the first to break the monochrome of early spring, came from Asia and were named after the botanist who brought the first seedlings to the Old World. Today, forsythia is the most popular species for landscaping and creating hedges.
How and when to organize planting and caring for forsythia in the open field at the dacha? What do you need shrubs for friendly growth?
Conditions for planting forsythia in open ground
Forsythia is an amazing plant that changes its appearance every season. In the spring - it is devoid of leaves, but densely covered with flowers branches. In summer, the bush covers the greens, which in the fall changes color to golden or purple. Looking for a place for Forsythia, you should pay attention to areas where the shrub will be clearly visible and lit.
Although Forsythia tolerate staying in the shade, in the sun the bush forms more dense and even. The plant is undemanding to soil fertility, but it develops better on the soil with an alkaline reaction, good drainage. Culture:
- it is undemanding to leaving
- has excellent frost resistance, simplifying the wintering of forsythia in the open field,
- tolerates drought well
- responds well to a haircut and can be used for growing hedges.
There are two options for planting forsythia in the ground: in spring and autumn. In the first case, the young shrubs immediately begin to grow after acclimatization, giving new shoots. Shrubs transferred to the garden in the fall only take root, and come into growth after wintering.
Terms of planting forsythia in the ground
Time for transfer of seedlings to the garden is chosen depending on the region and the quality of planting material. Many nurseries today offer young plants with a closed root system. Saplings grown in containers are transplanted along with an earthy clod, so the roots do not suffer, the shrub easily and quickly adapts to the new place of residence. And the summer resident is guaranteed easy maintenance of forsythia in the open field after planting, whenever it happens: in spring, summer or autumn.
For seedlings with an open root system, planting is better in the spring months, when the threat of sudden frosts is gone, or in the fall, about a month before the onset of seasonal cold weather. During this period, the shrub is acclimatized and will be able to prepare for the winter.
Since the climatic conditions in the regions of the country are seriously different, there is a significant difference in the time of planting and caring for Forsythia in the open field, in the Moscow region and, for example, in central and northern Siberia, where the heat comes later and the summer is much shorter:
- If you delay with the planting of plants in the garden, their adaptation and rooting will be delayed, and the shoots devoted to the summer will not have time to get stronger before the onset of frost.
- Early spring planting threatens to freeze the buds, the tops of the shoots, and in case of severe frosts on the ground - the defeat of growth points and roots.
In the fall, planting forsythia in the ground also depends on weather and climatic conditions and can vary even within one region, for example, as large as the Urals. If in the south gardeners live according to a calendar similar to that used by summer residents of the middle lane, in the north the weather is much more severe and changeable.
Planting forsythia in open ground
Forsythias prefer dry, drained soil and do not tolerate stagnant moisture in the soil. Therefore, at the bottom of the planting pits with a depth of 60 and a width of 50 cm, powerful drainage is made of broken brick, expanded clay or gravel. It is especially important not to neglect this measure in areas with dense, water-retaining soil and where groundwater is too close. An example would be the landing and care of forsythia in the Leningrad region.
On top of the drainage layer poured sand and pre-prepared soil mixture based on:
200 grams of sifted wood ash are mixed into each hole in the ground. Substrate poured a mound, which sides straighten the roots of the shrub. After filling the pit, the soil is compacted and watered abundantly at the rate of 10–15 liters per plant. In the autumn after planting forsythia, care for the shrub is in the thick mulching of the trunk circle. This will help save water in the soil and protect the roots from overcooling.
Mulch will help in the spring, especially where summer is coming rapidly, and the soil dries quickly, becoming covered with a dense impermeable crust.
Forsythia care after planting in the open field
An important advantage of forzition is the lack of standard and the absence of any special care. In the warm season shrubs, rapidly growing with minimal care, need:
- in irrigation, if there is no natural precipitation, and the soil under the plants is completely dry,
- in maintaining the cleanliness and looseness of pristvolny circles,
- in triple feeding,
- in a haircut that helps maintain the health and shape of the crown.
In hot, dry time, the plants are watered once or twice a month, which is loosened, weeded and mulched. Low-lying peat mixed with humus and wood ash can be used as mulch. This composition is the protection of the roots from overheating and an excellent fertilizer of prolonged action. In addition, shrubs respond well to the introduction of full mineral fertilizers before and after flowering.
In the second half of the summer, shrubs should not be fertilized with nitrogen. It will cause active growth of young shoots, which even with proper planting and care for forzition in the Urals, in Siberia and in the middle lane do not have time to mature and die with the onset of frost.
An important part of the care of forsythia is trimming of the bush. For sanitary purposes, the removal of dead, old or damaged branches is carried out in the spring, and the haircut to maintain shape - in early summer, when the mass flowering is completed. More recently, shoots yellow from flowers can be shortened to half the length, and old branches are cut above the ground so that several buds remain at the base.
Once in 3 - 4 years forzition rejuvenate, evenly cutting all the shoots in half or two-thirds of the length. Over the summer, the plant will restore the crown, which will be thick, uniform and young, so that next spring to please the friendly bright blooms.
In most regions, the plant winters excellently without shelter. If winters are not snowy, before wintering, forsythia in the open ground is gently inclined to the ground, secured and covered with spruce leaves or dense nonwoven fabric. At the earliest opportunity shrubs throw snow.
Reproduction of forsythia in open ground
The parts of the branches that remained after pruning are an excellent material for obtaining cuttings that will serve to reproduce forsythia. Green shoots are cut into pieces with a length of 10-15 cm so that each has several healthy buds. The lower leaves are torn off, and the resulting stalk after treatment with a root formation stimulator is planted in a greenhouse.
In autumn, another method of forsythia breeding in open ground is possible. In a small school, organized in a quiet place, protected from the wind and flooding, lignified cuttings are planted. For the remainder of the cold season, the seedling will give roots, and 2–3 buds left above the ground will wake up in the spring and form a young shrub crown. Next fall, these plants can be planted in a permanent place.
Planting and maintenance of forsythia (in brief)
- Landing: spring or early fall.
- Bloom: 10-14 days in early spring.
- Lighting: bright sun or partial shade.
- The soil: dry, slightly alkaline or neutral.
- Watering: during the dry season 1-2 times a month. Water consumption - 10-12 liters per bush.
- Top dressing: 1st time - swollen manure in early spring, 2nd time - in April with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer. The third dressing - after flowering with mineral fertilizers.
- Trimming: Early spring - sanitary pruning, forming - in the summer, after flowering
- Reproduction: vegetative - green or lignified cuttings, layering. Seed propagation is rarely used.
- Pests: nematodes, aphid.
- Diseases: monilioz, bacteriosis, wilt, root rot.
Forsythia Shrub - description
The forsythia, as already mentioned, is a small tree or shrub from one to three meters high. The bark has a rough texture and a gray-brown tint. In some species, the leaves are tripled, but in the majority of forsythia they are simple, without stipules, opposite, oval in shape, with notches along the edges, two to fifteen centimeters long. Bell-shaped flowers of bright yellow color. Forsythia blooms in early spring and lasts up to three weeks, sometimes even longer. The fruit is a box with winged seeds.
Features of growing forsythia
Today it is impossible to imagine the city streets, squares and private gardens in Europe without Forsythia, and primarily because it is the symbol of the coming of spring. On the gray, still winter streets, the yellow flame of forsythia flowers suddenly begins to blaze, and the townspeople who are longing for the warmth and greenery, perk up, begin to prepare for spring. Such early flowering of forsythia is a property that distinguishes it from other shrubs. Popularity adds to her lack of care and location. What features in the care and cultivation of this popular among flower growers shrub?
- - Forsythians are light-requiring, but grow in the shade.
- - The soil for the plant is necessary limy.
- - The most spectacular forsythia looks on the background of dark green coniferous plants.
- “In autumn, the green leaves of forsythia turn golden or purple-violet, and it again attracts attention with its bright motley flame.
When to plant forsythia.
Planting and transplanting forsythia is carried out in spring or early autumn, before the start of frost, so that the plant has time to settle down before winter. For this purpose, a site protected from the wind is chosen in the sun or in partial shade - the forsythia is shade-tolerant, but loves the light. The composition of the soil plant is undemanding, but it grows best on slightly alkaline dry soils. If at the site the pH value is shifted to the acid side, it is better to dig up the soil with wood ash in advance.
How to plant forsythia.
Forsythia pits should be 50x50x60 in size so that the root ball after planting is at a depth of 30-40 cm. If you plant several bushes, then dig holes for them at a distance of one and a half meters from each other. Before planting, it is necessary to fill the pit with a layer of drainage from broken brick or crushed stone with a thickness of 15-20 cm, then a ten-centimeter layer of sand, then a mixture of leaf earth, sand and peat in a ratio of 2: 1: 1 and 200 g of wood ash. Forsythia saplings are lowered into the pit, they are added dropwise with earth, which then must be compacted, and watered abundantly. If the forsythia is planted by you in the spring, then in the future it will require your usual care. Autumn planting and caring for forzia is somewhat more complicated: they require mandatory mulching of the site, regardless of the variety of the plant you planted. Covering material should be breathable so that in the winter, during the short thaws, the flower buds are not stunned under it.
How to care forzitsii.
Care forsythia is not much different from the care of any garden bush. With sufficient rainfall in the summer, the plant does not need watering, but if summer is dry, then forsythia will have to be watered at least once or twice a month at the rate of 10-12 liters for each bush. After watering, you need to loosen the soil and remove weeds, and you need to loosen it to the depth of the spade bayonet to ensure air access to the roots of the plant. After loosening, the trunk circle is mulched with compost or dry soil. They fertilize forsythia three times per season: in early spring, a thick layer of rotted manure is laid out around the tree trunk, but not close to the branches and trunk, then it is plentifully watered. Manure will be for the plant at the same time and mulch, and organic nutrition. In April, full mineral fertilizer is applied to the soil at the rate of 60-70 g per 1 m². After flowering, when the plant lays flower buds for the next year, forsythia is fed by the Kemira-station wagon at the rate of 100-120 g per 1 m².
Forsythia is often propagated vegetatively. For example, green cuttings about 15 cm long, which are best cut in June. The lower leaflets are removed, and cuttings, after having been treated with a root formation stimulator (with a root, epine, or heteroauxin), are planted under a greenhouse in perlite or sand. You can root lignified cuttings, cut in October, and planted them directly into the ground in the garden, leaving above the surface two or three buds. It is only necessary to cover the cuttings for the winter with dry leaves. In the spring, when you remove the cover, the cuttings taken will go to growth, and by the fall you will receive beautiful seedlings. Forsythia is also propagated by layering: in the summer or autumn, lower the lower young shoot to the ground, first drag it at the base with wire and cut the bark on the side that lies on the ground, fix it, sprinkle it with fertile soil, and the shoot will soon form roots. In the spring, cut off this branch from the bush, and the next year the young plant will bloom.
Forsythia propagates in a generative way, that is, by seeds, but this is already a conversation for specialists.
Young forsythia bushes subject only to sanitary pruning - they remove frozen, dried or broken shoots. In adult plants, in the spring the frozen ends of the branches are cut, the main pruning is carried out in the summer, when flowering is over: the withered branches are shortened by half, the old and dried ones are cut at a height of 4-6 cm from the soil level, and then side shoots will flow from them. Pruning also helps to regulate the thickness, height and shape of the bush - cupped or spherical. If you need to rejuvenate your mature forsythia, it is best to cut all branches to a height of 4-6 cm, or at least 2/3, in order to increase the growth of young shoots. But do not abuse such haircuts, because as a result the bush will grow stronger, but it will stop blooming. It is necessary to rejuvenate forsythia so that it does not lose its decorative qualities no more than once every 3-4 years.
Pests and diseases forsythia.
This shrub is resistant to pests and diseases, but is sometimes affected by wilting, moniliosis and bacteriosis. Wilting is treated by spraying with a two-five percent solution of basezol, but there is no salvation from bacteriosis, and the bush will have to be dug up along with its roots and destroyed. Moniliasis is expressed by the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. In the event of illness, you need to cut and clean out all the affected areas to healthy tissue. There are troubles in forsythia due to nematodes, then it is necessary to disinfect the soil with a carbonation.
Forsythia after flowering and wilting
To protect the forsythia from the winter frosts, the near-stem circle is covered with a ten-centimeter layer of dry foliage, the branches are bent to the ground and pinned, and they are thrown from above by lapniknik. In early spring, the shelter is removed, the branches unfasten, dry leaves are removed from the trunk. Young plants for the winter entirely covered with fir branches. In snowy winters, forsythia hibernates well without shelter, but who knows in advance what kind of winter will come out?
Types and fortsytsiya varieties
The most common species in culture in our latitudes is European forsythia (Forsythia europaea). It is a low (up to two meters) straight-growing shrub with entire, oblong leaves up to 7 cm long. Its flowers are solitary, bell-shaped, golden-yellow in color.
very similar to the European, but more sensitive to low temperatures. It is of the same height, its stems are also mostly straight, but tetrahedral, yellow-brown. The leaves are elliptical, dark green, up to 10 cm long. It blooms in May with large, delicate, light yellow flowers with twisted petals.
Forsythia hanging, or drooping, or drooping (Forsythia suspensa)
shorter shrub - up to three meters tall, with a sprawling crown, arcuate, drooping, thin tetrahedral branches of reddish-brown or olive color. The leaves on old shoots are simple, on growths are trifoliate. The flowers are large, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, golden yellow, clustered in several pieces. Several forms of forsythia are grown in culture:
- – variegated (forsythia variegata) - bright yellow flowers, yellowish motley leaves,
- – Forchuna (forsythia fortunei) with narrow trifoliate leaves, dark yellow flowers in bunches,
- – purplish (forsythia artocaulis) - with dark red shoots and leaves at the time of disclosure,
- - and others: Zimbold's forsythia, deceptive forsythia, Forchuna's hanging forsythia.
Forsythia viridissima forsythia dark green
- tall, up to three meters high, shrub with upwards directed green branches. Leaves densely growing, simple, oblong-lanceolate, serrated in the upper part, very dark green, up to 15 cm long, up to 4 cm wide. Bright flowers of a greenish-yellow shade are collected in small bunches. Drought resistant.
Форзиция промежуточная (Forsythia x intermedia)
является гибридом форзиции поникшей и форзиции темно-зеленой. Растет до трех метров в высоту, зацветает на четвертом году жизни. Листья у нее продолговатые с зубчатым краем, но бывают и тройчатые, длиной до 10 см. The dark green color of the leaves persists until late autumn. Bright yellow flowers are collected in bunches of several pieces. It blooms in April and May. Hardy, drought-resistant, very fast growing. Grades:
- – Beatrix Farrand - the height of the bush is up to 4 m, the flowers are bright yellow with dark yellow stripes at the base,
- – Denziflora - low shrub up to one and a half meters tall and about the same in volume, the flowers are pale yellow, twisted. Blossoms in May from two to three weeks. Afraid of frost
- – Spectabilis - one of the most beautiful varieties: a bush of only a meter height, but a crown in diameter reaches 120 cm. The leaves are green during the warm season, in the autumn - purple and bright yellow. The flowers are dark yellow to 4.5 cm in diameter bloom in late April.
Snow forsythia, or white (Forsythia abeliophyllum)
reaches a height of 1.5-2 m. The leaves are oval, up to 8 cm long, in summer the underside of the leaves acquires a purple tint. The flowers, as the name implies, are white, with a yellow throat, pale pinkish in buds.
Forsythia ovata forsythia
low shrub - from one and a half to two meters tall. The branches are spreading, grayish-yellow color. Leaves up to 7 cm long, bright green in the summer, acquire a purple hue in autumn. Single bright yellow flowers up to two centimeters in diameter. It blooms before all other species of forsythia, grows rapidly, hardy and drought-resistant. Popular varieties:
Forsythic species and varieties
Most often in our gardens is grown European forsythiawhich is a shrub up to 2 m high, foliage without teeth, its length is up to 7 cm, single flowers, bell-shaped forms, golden-yellow.
Forsythia Giralda This species looks very similar to the previous one, but its foliage is longer and the leaves are darker. It also tolerates frost worse, so it is not very suitable for growing in cold areas.
Hanging forsythia or drooping this bush grows up to 3 m, its crown grows widely, the branches are drooping. It has quite large yellow flowers that form bunches. There is a variegated form, as well as a form with purple branches and leaves, while they are young.
Forsythia is dark green or greenest it is a tall plant whose shoots grow up to 3 m. The foliage is dense, simple, oblong, of a rich dark green color, rather long, the flowers also have a green tint. It tolerates drought.
Forsythia average or intermediate This is a hybrid species, obtained by crossing Forsythian species, wilted and dark green. The maximum height of this plant is close to 3.5 m, the foliage is oblong, with prongs, long, the foliage color is saturated green. Flowering occurs by the 4th year after planting, the flowers form bunches of yellow color. Well makes frost and heat.
It has a lot of varieties due to its popularity:
Forsythia white or snowy relatively low species with oblong ovoid foliage. In summer, the bottom of the foliage turns purple. The flowers are white, but have a mouth of yellow color.
Forsythia oval or ovoid also a low species - 1.5-2 m. The bark on the branches of a yellowish shade, and they themselves are quite sprawling. Foliage 6-8 cm, green in summer, and by the fall on it appear purple tones.
Forsythia planting and care in the open field
Today, forsythia is widely used to decorate city streets and its own gardens, primarily due to the fact that in early spring, before the leaves appear on the branches of the bush, yellow flowers bloom.
Forsythia should be planted in spring or early autumn, with the expectation that the bush should have taken root before frost, so be guided by the conditions of your place of residence. Light areas that are not blown by the winds are good for planting, and partial shade is also suitable, but the sun is still preferable.
The composition of the soil is also not critical, as long as the substrate is not too wet and has an alkaline reaction. If the earth in your garden is sour, then you need to dig it up with ashes in order to shift the reaction to alkaline.
The height and width of the pit for planting should be approximately 0.5 m each, and a depth of 60 cm. When planting several plants, make sure that there is at least 1.5 m between them. A 20 cm drainage layer is put on the bottom of the planting hole, then 10 cm of sand, then put mixed leaf soil, sand and peat and a ratio of 2 to 1 and 1. Fill the pit so that after planting the root system of the seedling was placed at a depth of 35 cm.
Next, the seedling is placed in the hole and sprinkled with earth, after which the soil is slightly trampled and watered well. In the autumn, in addition to these procedures, you should also cover the area with mulch.
As the design of the garden plot, you can also use lilac, it is easily grown during planting and care in the open field. Recommendations for growing this plant can be found in this article.
Care for this garden plant is easy. If in the summer from time to time it rains, then it is not necessary to water the bush. If there is no precipitation, then once a couple of weeks it is necessary to pour a bucket of water under each bush.
After rain or watering should loosen the soil and get rid of weeds. You can cover the plot of mulch from the compost, and the problem of weeds and loosening will disappear.
Forsythia top dressing
Fertilizers are applied 3 times during the growing season. The first time in the spring around the bushes poured compost, but so that he touched the shoots, and spend a strong watering. This fertilizer will serve as a source of organic matter, and mulch.
In the middle of the spring using a full mineral supplement, bringing 65 grams per square meter. When flowering is over and flower buds begin to form, Kemiru wagon is introduced at 110 grams per square meter of land.
Forsythia in winter
Preparing forsythia for the winter, a thick ball of dry leaves is poured around the bushes, and the branches are bent to the ground and attached to it, and a spruce branch is laid up.
With the arrival of spring, the shelter is removed, so that the kidneys do not get caught. In snowy winters, shelter can not be constructed.
Forsythia breeding cuttings
Propagation of forsythia is better in a vegetative way. For this, green cuttings of 15 cm length, which are cut at the beginning of summer, are well suited. Lower foliage from them is cut, and the cuttings themselves are treated with a means to enhance the formation of roots. Green cuttings are grown in greenhouse conditions in the sand under diffused light, occasionally moistening the soil.
In the autumn, woody cuttings can be rooted, while they are stuck right in the garden, so that a pair of buds are above the ground. As the cold weather approaches, cover the cuttings with dry foliage, and in the spring they should start to grow and by the autumn you can transplant them to a permanent place.
This culture is not very often sick, but still subject to certain diseases and pests.
Fusarium wilt occurs due to infection with a fungus. Symptoms of this disease are yellowing foliage, weak bloom or his absence, the general weakness of the plant, on the shoots and leaves can be seen that the vessels are blackened by fungus. While the disease is not developed, it is necessary to conduct several sprays with a 5% solution of foundation.
With bacteriosisthe foliage turns soft and turns black. It is impossible to save shrubs from this disease.
Monilioz can be determined by brown spots on foliage. When a symptom occurs, it is necessary to cut off all diseased parts, touching healthy tissue.
Sometimes found downy mildew. Wherein leaves are deformed, on them a gray patina appears. Patients must be trimmed and treated with Bordeaux mixture. In order to protect the bush from this disease, it is necessary to make phosphate-potassium fertilizers in time.
It happens that forsythia does not bloom. There may be a couple of reasons for this - too frequent anti-aging pruning (note that if you spent rejuvenation, next year flower buds will come from nowhere and there will be no flowering either), lack of nutrients, frosting of flower buds in winter.
Among pests nematodes appear most often and are probably the most dangerous. These small worms slow down plant growth, make roots thin and cause a general weakening of the bush, also affected areas begin to turn yellow, but it is worth noting that the majority of nematodes strike the roots, so the underground part will turn yellow.
Nematodes do not tolerate dryness and high temperatures, but with a garden plant it is not possible to carry out a standard procedure for keeping the roots in warm water, as is done with indoor cultures. Therefore, there remains only the introduction of poisons, for example, Nemafos, Phosphamide.
Forsythia (Forsythia) is a small tree or shrub of the Maslin family, about 2 meters high. Some species of this plant reach a height of six meters, there are also babies less than a meter tall.
Forsythia leaves are simple or trifoliate, oval-shaped, with notches at the end, 2–15 cm long. In spring and summer they have a rich green color; in autumn, the color of most varieties changes. Foliage acquires burgundy, purple, purple, gold hues, surprises with several bright colors of different intensity. Forsythia in the spring is particularly attractive. Even before the leaves appear, the bushes become bright yellow thanks to numerous flowers, which wrap the plant in 3–4 weeks with a continuous veil.
After flowering, fruit boxes are formed with seeds. For their occurrence, usually, cross-pollination of different plant forms is required.
Popular species and varieties
The genus Forzition has 13 species, there are many varieties and hybrids of the plant.
- The most common European forsythia. Shrub of about two meters in height with yellow flowers, bells and elongated leaves of about 5 - 7 cm.
- A drooping forsythia has a drooping, spreading crown. Its branches reach a length of 3 meters, and yellow flowers with a diameter of 2 - 2.5 cm are collected in small inflorescences.
- Forsythia dark green is a large drought-resistant shrub up to 3 meters high. Some leaves reach 15 cm, and yellow flowers have a greenish tint.
- Intermediate - a hybrid of drooping and dark green. Parents gave the plant their best qualities: resistance to lack of moisture and low temperatures, as well as a beautiful appearance. In this forsythia, the foliage retains an intense green color throughout the vegetative season. On the basis of this species created interesting varieties. For example, "Beatrix Farrand" with inflorescences of light yellow shades and with a dark yellow border at the base of the flower bell.
- A distinctive feature of the snow forzition - white flowers with a yellow core. Its branches reach a length of 2 meters, and the leaves - about 8 cm.
- Oval is one of the most winter-hardy species up to 2 m high. It blooms a little earlier than the others. Intense green foliage in the fall becomes orange-purple color.
Plant for the site is selected taking into account the terrain features. Prefer zoned species and varieties that have adapted to local weather conditions, topography and soil properties.
Description of Forsythia
Bright spring shrub in early spring immediately attracts attention. Against the backdrop of a nature that has not yet awakened, the delicate golden bell-shaped flowers of forsythia remind of the arrival of spring.
Country of origin of the plant - China. Different species have a wide geography of distribution in the Balkan Peninsula, in Japan and Korea. You can grow shrubs in the Leningrad region, Moscow and even Siberia. But in the latter case, they will need careful shelter for the winter.
Forsythia or Forsythia european grows to a height of 1-3m. The width of the shrub grows up to 2 m. After a violent bloom, oval-shaped leaves of 4 to 13 cm in length bloom. Forsythia is cold-resistant, resistant to pests and easily cultivated in the middle lane.
Forsythia shrub flowers close up
How to plant a shrub?
Bushes are planted in prepared pits of 50x50 cm and a depth of 60 cm. Pits are filled with a drainage of broken brick or crushed stone with a layer of 20 cm. Then they pour a layer of sand of 10 cm and a nutrient mixture of sand, peat, and leaf earth in the ratio of 1: 1: 2 with the addition of ash (200 g).
When planting, you need to bury the root by 30-40 cm. Sapling sprinkled, compacted soil and watered.
When a group of planting several bushes pits have at a distance of about 1.5 m from each other.
In the case of spring planting a bush, it does not require special care. When planting in autumn, mulching with a “breathing” material will be required so that when thaws the kidneys are not lost.
Freshly planted forsythia cuttings
Rules of departure after landing
Shrub unpretentious care and not picky about watering. It is necessary to water a plant only in a drought 1-2 times a month, at the rate of a bucket of water for 1 bush. Moist soil should be loosened and weeds removed. To ensure the air to the root system, loosening is carried out on the spade bayonet. The adjacent area is mulched with compost.
The plant needs additional nutrition three times a season. In early spring, around the contour of the circle of the trunk circle, rotted manure is thick and watered. In April, the soil is fertilized with mineral fertilizer, contributing 70 g per 1 m2.
At the end of flowering begins bookmark flower buds. During this period, forsythia also needs feeding. Use the drug Kemira universal at the rate of 100 g per 1 m2.
Young plants do not require pruning, only in spring they remove frozen parts.
An adult plant is cut in summer after flowering. Dry and old branches are cut at a height of 5 cm above the ground. Faded branches are cut in half. Trimming give the bush a decorative shape. Once every 4 years, rejuvenation is performed, cutting the bush to 2/3. Pruning stimulates flowering and prevents the bush from stretching.
Extraordinarily beautiful forsythia bush near the house
Reproduction by cuttings
A common breeding method is vegetative. Engaged in cutting in June. Sprigs 15 cm each cut and remove the lower leaves. Treat with a stimulant. For landing, perlite or sand is prepared and planted in a greenhouse. Sometimes rooted cuttings harvested in October. Planted in the garden, plunging into the ground to the second or third bud. Buried twigs for the winter are covered with fallen leaves. With the arrival of spring, the cuttings will begin to grow, and in the autumn there will be seedlings.
Good forgetion roots ingrowth. In the summer or early autumn, young branches are attached to the ground.
At the base of a sprig of wire. In the area of the crust that is in contact with the ground, an incision is made. The shoot is fixed to the ground and sprinkled with soil. After a short time rooting will occur. Spring cut off from the bush and deposited. Flowering occurs in a year.
Forsythia green cuttings ready for transplanting
Sowing seeds in autumn
Seeds are harvested in the fall after aging. In the last decade of March, they are placed in containers with soil, watered and covered with film. Shoots will be after 4-5 weeks. When the seedlings grow by 5 cm, they are deposited in a greenhouse or in open ground.
Young forsythia bushes with flowers
When sowing seeds will bloom for 5 years.
Diseases and growing problems
The plant has resistance to disease. However, wilting, monilioz and bacteriosis are sometimes observed. For the treatment of wilting apply spraying 5% of baseol. Bacteriosis, unfortunately, is not treated. The bush will have to be destroyed.
The disease moniliozom manifested brownish spots on the foliage. Fight are cutting places of defeat.
A nematode forsythia is defeated. To eliminate the disease, the soil is treated with a carbation.
Application in landscape gardening
Forzition shrubs are decorative and planted in large alpine hills, hedges and individual plantings. When planted with muscari, it creates an attractive yellow-blue bloom. It goes well with conifers. Planting single shrubs on the background of blue and green fir trees and juniper gives a beautiful composition.
With a small investment of time, you can grow a decorative forsythia on your plot, which can be done by beginning flower growers.
The Forzition genus belongs to the Maslinov family and is predominantly shrubbery.
The height of the species is mainly up to 3 m, the bark is brown-gray, texture, the foliage is simple, opposite, oblong, ovate, with teeth, from 2 to 15 cm.
Planting a forsythia in a permanent place - video
A beautiful branchy shrub, reaching a height of about 2.5-3 m, blooms in April-May with luxurious bright yellow bells. Forsythia, planting and care in the open field for which are absolutely simple, immediately attracts attention. Against the background of other not yet woken shrubs and trees, it looks very elegant, flowering lasts almost a month.
The most interesting and popular types:
This species is most common. Height - up to 2 m, flowers - rich yellow.
In appearance it is similar to the European one, but it suffers from cold worse. Graceful yellow flowers bloom in May.
Spreading crown up to 2.5 m in diameter. The flowers are quite large (up to 3 cm), bright yellow. It has such varieties: deceptive, motley, Forchuna and others.
A small shrub with leaves, acquiring a purple shade by autumn. It can be successfully grown even in regions with severe winters. Known varieties: Tetragold, Spring Glory and others.
- White (snow)
A low (up to 1.5 m) shrub that stands out among other types of color that is unusual for forsythia.
Drought-resistant, but very thermophilic shrub, suitable for cultivation in the southern regions. Yellow-green flowers are collected in small bunches.
Вырастает в высоту до 4,5 м, ярко-желтые цветки раскрываются в апреле. Разрастается очень быстро.
Principles of forsythia landing
Planting takes place in August and early September so that the plant can start before the onset of winter cold, or in spring. Places for this bush are selected sunny, although it can grow normally in partial shade. Planting forsythia in open ground is made taking into account the fact that the bushes must have enough space for full development.
The landing pit is shaped 50x50 cm and 60 cm deep. Drainage is laid on the bottom (broken brick, expanded clay), then compost or mineral fertilizers are added (with a predominance of potassium and phosphorus). To the composition of the soil, this culture is completely undemanding.
Care after planting forsythia reduces to abundant watering of seedlings and mulching with dry fallen leaves. For the winter - be sure to cover the materials that allow air. The following spring shelter is removed.
Rules for plant care in the open field
To get a beautiful healthy plant, do the following:
- water only in a very dry time (waterlogging is detrimental to the plant) - 1 bucket per plant,
- feeding, starting from the third year after planting, at the rate of 100 g of complex fertilizer per bush - 2 times a year: after winter and after flowering,
If the plant lacks nutrients, the number of flowers, their size and color saturation decreases, the bush loses its decorative effect.
- it is desirable to mulch the circle to preserve moisture and prevent the growth of weeds,
- pruning is done correctly and in time - after flowering (removal of flowering inflorescences) and early spring (main),
- carry out weeding and loosening of the soil around the bush.
Trimming and shaping forsythia
Since the care of forsythia in the open field necessarily includes pruning, it should be done according to all the rules.
- The first three years after planting do not touch the plant.
- Starting from the 4th year, sanitary and formative pruning of forsythia is made in spring. The first involves the removal of dead and old branches, thinning the bush for better lighting.
- Additionally, to give splendor, slightly shortened shoots (3-4 cm). For greater decoration with a haircut, you can give the bush a ball shape.
During the flowering period, forsythia is not pruned.
The thickest unwanted branches are cut out “on the ring”, and those that have only faded are shortened a little.
How to prepare the plant for winter?
At the end of the season, attention should be paid to preparing the forsythia for winter. Around the middle of September, watering is completed so that it can be covered by the onset of stable cold weather.
More frost-resistant types of this culture can be simply powdered with snow. And, for example, an ovoid forsythia requires a complete shelter for the winter, otherwise there is a risk of freezing of flower buds or the death of the whole plant.
Methods of propagation of forsythia in open ground
This flowering shrub has 3 ways of reproduction: seeds, layering and cuttings. How to propagate forsythia, each grower chooses independently. But the seed method is used extremely rarely, because it is rather laborious and does not always give the expected results (germination rate up to 40%).
For this, seeds are collected in the fall, and stored in a dry place in winter. In March, seeds are sown in shallow boxes and covered with foil. The first shoots will appear in a month. The film is removed, the sprouts are watered moderately. Such plants will bloom no earlier than 5-6 year. The most common second and third options.
A good effect is obtained by reproduction by layering. For this, suitable shoots are selected (closer to the ground), fixed and covered with earth. You can pour a little. Already in spring, young saplings are ready for separation from the adult bush, and in a year, with the observance of all the rules of agricultural technology, they should bloom.
In some varieties, the natural rooting of shoots occurs on its own, without outside participation. Shoots fall to the ground and germinate.
Cutting is also quite popular among gardeners. After the plant ottsvetet, cut cuttings, having 2-3 internodes. The leaves located at the top are shortened by half, at the bottom - completely removed. For better rooting, they can be treated with a growth stimulator.
Planted at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other, creating a mini-greenhouse. With regular watering the roots are formed by the end of the fifth week. In winter, seedlings are mulched with a thick layer of compost or dried leaves. In spring, young specimens are seated in permanent places.
Lack of flowering: reasons
Sometimes it happens that the bush grows well, grows, and the flowers do not appear. The reasons why forsythia does not bloom may be different.
- Nutrient Deficiency
Despite all the simplicity, shrub requires periodic fertilizer, on very poor soils, it can not bloom.
It must be remembered that the flowers are formed on one and two-year shoots, so if you cut too much, the flowering will move not one year. Pruning old branches is also better to carry out gradually.
Heavily thickened bushes, too, are usually not pleasing with an abundant amount of flowers: in time, not remote shoots take over part of the nutrients. Plus, this branch has many branches that do not have enough sunlight.
- Wrong care in winter
Especially important for delicate varieties. The freezing of flower buds (in the absence of adequate shelter) will inevitably lead to the fact that in the spring forsythia does not bloom.
Planting and further care of the forsythia will not cause much trouble if you protect it from possible pests and diseases.
- Wither - with this disease, the branches begin to wither for no apparent reason. It is necessary to fight with it, spraying the branches with a foundation.
- Bacteriosis - unfortunately, this disease is incurable. Characterized by a sharp yellowing and wilting of the entire bush. Affected specimens must be immediately excavated and burned in order to avoid the spread of the disease.
- Monilioz - dark spots are formed on the leaves. Infected shoots are removed, the rest of the bush is treated with Bordeaux mixture.
Forsythia perfectly fit into the overall landscape composition. They can be planted in the center of the flower beds, complementing juniper. In the foreground planted lower flowers or ornamental plants.
Forsythia: plant features and rules for caring for him on video
You can learn more about forsythia from the video:
Plant an unusual shrub (sometimes a tree) called forsythia. From the Latin Forsythia beauty is also called Forsythia. Externally, it is a decorative flowering shrub with bright yellow medium-sized flowers. In the spring it is covered with a golden cloud of fragrant inflorescences.
The plant is compact, but can reach a height of 3 meters, depending on the variety. Bell-shaped flowers bloom in early spring and delight the eye for almost a month. In Europe, the beauty is found everywhere, being an integral part of urban design. It is worth paying attention to it and our gardeners.
Forsythia growing conditions
Shrub is very unpretentious, but still have to comply with several conditions:
- Forsythia likes sunny plots, but tolerates partial shade.
- Low alkaline soils are preferred, acidic soils are recommended to be alkalized with lime or dolomite flour.
- To achieve a high decorative effect of your landscape composition with the participation of forsythia, plant juniper or other low-growing conifers next to it.
- Keep in mind that in autumn forsythia leaves turn purple-violet or golden in color, which can also be used effectively in your garden.
- It is preferable to choose a place protected from strong wind.
- It is desirable to mulch the soil with a layer of needles or other mulching material.
When and how to plant forsythia
Forsythia photo landing
Forsythia should be planted or transplanted in early autumn or spring, when there is no likelihood of night frost. It is important that the plant during the autumn planting has time to take root before the period of rest and wintering begins.
- For planting prepare a pit, somewhat larger than the size of the roots of the acquired seedling. Usually it is a pit with a diameter of about 60 cm and a depth of half a meter.
- The distance between forsythia bushes is at least 1.5 meters.
- If at the selected place there is a possibility of flooding with melt water, make a drainage: the pit is somewhat deepened and the broken bricks, gravel, small stones are laid out on the bottom, and from above - sand and garden soil.
- When autumn planting will require a mandatory shelter for the winter with a thick layer of fallen leaves or straw (30-40 cm). It will be possible even to pre-heat the lands in the near-wedge zone, but in the spring it is necessary to remove the shelter so that the roots do not sprout.
The first two weeks of forsythia are regularly watered as the land dries in the holes. But too zealous, too, is not worth it: flood the plant is harmful.
Pruning and shaping forsythia
Forsythia tolerates pruning, but you should not abuse it. Young bushes only subject to sanitary pruning, removing frozen, dry and diseased twigs. Only on the 3-4th year, you can proceed to formative pruning, giving the bush the desired shape: spherical or rectangular. Remember that you can cut no more than a third of the length of the branches so that the forsythia continues to bloom. Cutting up to 6 cm at the tips of the branches, you risk nothing and you can safely experiment.
If the bush is already old, it can be rejuvenated by a radical pruning, leaving only a third of the length of the branches. This will stimulate the active growth of young branches. But such an operation can be performed no more than once every three to four years.
Forsythia in the fall Preparing for winter
Young bushes can freeze, so do not be lazy to cover them, raking the ground and falling asleep leaves. The branches should be bent and pinned to the ground, covered with spruce branches. In winter, it is good to get on top of the snow. In early spring, the shelter should be removed, the branches should be freed from spruce branches. It is important to do this on time (before the start of sap flow), so as not to disrupt the natural development cycle of the plant. Adult bushes do not bend down to the ground, but the shelter of the roots is still necessary.
Forsythia in landscape design
Forzition in landscape design photo
Forsythia is often planted together with evergreens: conifers, boxwood, periwinkle, holly, etc. Blooming in early spring, the bush looks spectacular against the backdrop of greenery.
Shrub forsythia planting and care Photos with flowers
It is possible to plant lawn grass under the forsythia, which will also be an excellent backdrop for golden bush flowers. And next to break a flower bed with primroses or known to all daffodils.
How to plant forsythia Purple and forsythia photos
Forsythia is planted next to the purple Canadian, such joint plantings look fantastic: delicate purple and bright yellow flowers create a great combination.