The desert rose, or adenium, is a deciduous plant of East African origin with thick stems and bright flowers. It belongs to the family Kutrovye (Apocynaceae). At home, the leaves can remain on the plant all year round, if there is enough heat and light. It is noteworthy that Adenium is often confused with another species whose habitat is Egypt. The desert rose, as this annual herb of the Cabbage family is called, is in fact an Anastatica hierochuntica species, and has nothing in common with the Kutrov family. Look at the photo - the desert rose is really a very beautiful and unusual creation of nature.
On adult specimens, the stem, or caudex, becomes swollen, thick, and often bizarre. This gives adenium an extraordinary and amazing look. The leaves are usually bright green. During the dry season, the desert rose is covered with bright flowers. The size of adenium can reach 5 meters, but there are also such varieties that have enough small bowls in an apartment setting. Currently, a large number of desert rose hybrids are bred. They are characterized by a wide variety of flower color - from traditionally red to striped and orange. It is worth noting that adenium is poisonous, children and pets should not be in contact with it. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap after handling the plant.
The natural habitat of adenium is found in African countries, especially in the central and southern regions. It is a succulent. Characteristics of the plant:
- Thick trunk, it is called caudex, reaching a meter in girth in natural conditions.
- The height can reach two meters. When breeding at home, its dimensions are miniature, about 70 cm in height.
- Blooms profusely with five-petal large flowers, the size of which reaches 60-70 mm. A variety of color from white to red and dark purple.
- Flowering time - 3 weeks a year.
Adenium literally translates as a desert rose, this plant has other no less beautiful names, for example, Star of Sabinia, Impala Lily.
However, it is worth noting that the flower is actually very poisonous. Therefore, when transplanting, you need to use rubber gloves, and when getting juice on the skin, rinse with plenty of warm water. Do not buy adenium, if the house has small children and animals.
The desert rose was discovered to the world as a new plant in 1891 during a research mission in the former South Yemen by botanists J. Romer and J. Schultz.
The most common types
It is still argued about how many species of adenium exist, with a variation in the numbers from 7 to 50. Below are descriptions of the most famous varieties.
Obese or obese, is most common not only in nature, but also among gardeners and indoor plants lovers. The size of an adult plant is on average up to a meter, however, there are tall specimens up to 3 meters high. It is chosen for the fact that this variety can bloom at the age of one and a half years. Often sheds leaves in winter.
Somali - quite high representatives of the desert, individual plants will be able to reach 5 meters. Therefore, up to two years, it practically does not develop lateral stems, but later it actively branches out and its shape is very close to the cone.
Arab - a pronounced squat caudex and several trunks, the tops of which are topped with glossy oblong leaves. Have average flowers, flower growers recommend growing this species from seeds.
Socotran - this variety adapts to the soil and the environment. It may look like a normal tree, with an unusual ratio of height to trunk diameter. He has a short period of intensive growth and flowering, so it is rarely specially grown.
Oleifolium - This variety is represented by small squat plants. It differs from others by the fact that it grows very slowly. The leaves, collected by a bunch on a top, narrow and long. Caudex as if spreads on the ground. The plant is valuable in its juice, it is made from drugs that are antidote to bites of scorpions and snakes.
Bohmianum - This species has the largest leaves from the whole family. As a rule, they have the form of a shrub, the caudex can be 55–60 mm in diameter. In addition, it is the most poisonous desert rose. Substances contained in its juice can cause death. It is used by the tribes of Africa for the manufacture of poisonous arrows.
Swazicum - is a low shrub, about 45-50 cm tall. It goes well with field herbs in the garden. Very popular among gardeners due to its simplicity and compactness. In the wild, the growing season is short. From this variety, many evergreen and long-flowering hybrids are bred.
Multiflorum - among the desert roses most floriferous. It has approximately the same thickness over the entire height of the trunk and there is no thickening at the roots. During the year, the flowering period of about 3 months, begins to bloom 4 years after planting. In winter, prefers dry and cool air.
Experts indicate the following methods of reproduction:
You can buy Adenium seeds in many flower shops or online. Since the term of seed germination is not more than 8 months, you need to carefully look at the period of seed collection on the package. It should be added that the color of the flowers of a desert rose may not coincide with that indicated on the package. Of course, bright red will not grow out of pink buds with a white center, however, a couple of tones will definitely differ. The reason is that the pollination of flowers occurs with the help of stamens of other plants and this does not completely preserve the purity of an individual species.
To grow from the seeds of desert roses need such actions:
- prepare the ground. The composition of the mixture: agroperlite (volcanic rock with particles of 2–4 mm) or agrovermiculite (also mountain mica, particles of which are slightly larger from 2 to 9 mm), peat. You can sow the seeds in the finished substrate for succulents or cacti or a mixture of perlite and vermiculite. Moisten the soil with water or add complex fertilizer to it, if planting occurs without using peat, only in perlite mixture.
- Before sowing, seeds should be laid in a damp cloth for 2-3 hours. You can add growth stimulants.
- Seeds, laid out on the prepared soil, do not need to sprinkle, otherwise the material may rot, for planting.
- Capacity should be covered with a film and leave in a warm place. The temperature should be at least 30 degrees Celsius. The most favorable time for planting adenium - from May to September, during this period, the germination rate reaches 80%.
- With further care, care must be taken that the soil is not wet. Greenhouse need to be regularly ventilated. You can not leave seedlings in direct sunlight before the formation of the first leaves. After the appearance of four sheets of the plant can be transplanted into the open ground.
The method of seedling cuttings is much more difficult, since the inner part of the plant becomes bare when cut and due to high humidity will be susceptible to infection by microorganisms and rotting. Experts recommend to observe the following conditions before reproduction work:
- Make sure that the plant has a period of active growth.
- The temperature in the room where the cuttings will be located will be kept around the clock in an interval of 25 degrees at night and 30 degrees during the day.
After that you need to start the immediate process.
Soil for rose cuttings should consist of agroperlite, agrovermiculite and peat observing 2: 2: 6 ratios, it is better to moisten it with water without using fertilizers.
Cut a 8–12 cm long stalk from a plant by selecting with a thin bark. You can use a clerical knife, it is least likely to damage the plant. Leaves do not need to clean, they will help to form the roots. The prepared stalk is left warm for 2 hours, but without the sun. Planting seedlings to a depth of 4 cm, and cover the container with film or glass, if possible.
The greenhouse must be ventilated and watered so that the soil is slightly damp, but not wet.
If the reproduction process is correct, then in 3-9 weeks new leaves will appear.
And the next way is breeding aerial roots. It is necessary to cut the bark from the branch of adenium in the form of a ring with a width of 7-13 mm and let it dry for 15-20 minutes. Cut a square with a side of 15 cm from polyethylene and wrap a branch and tie it up with a thin rubber band, for example, for tying up money. Lay the moss around the cut, moisten with water. Polyethylene skirt now need to tie up the cut.
About Once a week you can moisten the moss with a syringewithout removing the polyethylene. At least every 7 days you need to check the state of the cut, it is important not to allow the plant to rot.
If you notice rotting, it is better to immediately remove the tissue that is damaged before the healthy part appears. If the formation of a new bark on the cut occurred, then the procedure can be repeated, once again try to grow aerial roots.
When 4-6 roots appear, it is recommended to cut off the upper part. Then cut the sections with charcoal and also give a new sprout to dry.
Replant the plant in a new pot.
Desert Rose Care
Adenium is loved not only for its unusual look and beautiful flowers, but also for its unpretentiousness, since they do not require frequent watering, special soil or special pots.
The soil for this plant should be loose, light and breathable. Most of all, a mixture of peat, perlite and river sand fits this description, keeping the 6/2/2 ratio. For our cool winters, charcoal can be used as an additive, but not more than 7% of the total mass with antifungal preparations. The ideal option would be to buy special mixes for cacti.
The frequency of watering will depend on such parameters as the age of the plant, the season and the temperature and humidity indicators in the room. In the first years of adenium life, caudex is formed and the plant should be irrigated more often. During the period of growth and flowering, which occurs in the summer, watering should be carried out at least once every 2 days. Especially when the air temperature in the room is about +30 degrees.
In winter, when the plant can discard foliage and a period of rest begins for it, watering is done about once every 9 days. Before watering, you can check the soil moisture with a wooden stick with a length of 10-14 cm, which can be left in the pot. Before watering the wand should be removed and see if the entire length of the stick remains slightly wet traces, and 1 cm from the top of the ground is dry, then it is time to water.
It is important that there is drainage in the flower tank to prevent rotting of the roots.
The conditions under which the desert rose grows well and pleases the eye with bright colors should correspond to the following indicators:
- The period of growth and flowering - up to 42 degrees Celsius.
- The rest period is 13-15 degrees above zero.
- When the temperature drops to +10 degrees, the roots may rot.
Common causes for transplanting:
- If the trunk began to occupy more than three-quarters of the pot, because this plant is quite large.
- More than 2 years have passed since the last transplant.
- There is a suspicion that the roots began to rot.
For transplanting you need to pick up the capacity. Material does not affect the growth process, you can choose ceramics or plastic. But the shape will determine the appearance of the bush. If you plant in a squat and wide pot, the crown will be sprawling and the trunk will grow powerful.
Must be drainage. The size of the pot should be chosen based on the fact that its diameter corresponds to the sum of two barrel diameter.
Recall that in vivo adenium grows quite high and large, so with proper care and at home you can also grow a large "rose of the desert."
The main problems with growing
- Why does not adenium bloom for a long time?
Provide a good light and regular watering, besides during the winter he needs to rest.
- Why can the leaves turn yellow?
Thus the desert rose can begin to hibernate. However, it should be noted that if the plant is watered a little, then this may cause leaf fall.
- The trunk of adenium has become soft, what is the reason?
The reason can be both excessive watering and lack of moisture. In this case, it is better to urgently replace the soil in which adenium is growing, and be sure to correct the irrigation regime.
A few tips on how to create a beautiful form of caudex. Branches of the plant begins at a young age, but more often after flowering. Before the start of intensive growth, you can pinch off the branches, but if you overdo it, you get a broom, which is considered bad for the appearance of the bush.
By following the recommendation and properly caring for a desert rose, you can get the perfect home decoration that pleases the eye with bright colors.
The desert rose is represented by a huge variety of subspecies. Let's get acquainted with the most common ones. Adenium Swazicum (Adenium swazicum) is one of the most hardy varieties of desert roses. Characterized by small size and adaptability to the existence of a city apartment.
Adenium arabic (Adenium arabicum) is used as a garden plant, has a thick and powerful squat trunk. The leaves of the Arab adenium are fleshy and dense, very similar to the leaves of succulents. Interestingly, the color of caudex is very diverse, it can have purple and pink spots.
Somali Adenium (Adenium somalense). This type is characterized by large size and powerful, extended base of the trunk. The first one and a half years it grows very quickly, reaching during this time one and a half meters in height. The ambient temperature when growing Somali adenium should not fall below 12 ° C.
The most popular among florists and lovers of desert roses has acquired Adenium monkey (Adenium obesum). Other names of the species - Adenium fat, Adenium fat. It is characterized by a large variety of leaf and caudex shapes, as well as flower color. Breeders successfully use this and create more and more new Adenium obesum hybrids.
The most favorable areas for growing and breeding adenium are considered tropics and subtropics. Outside of these belts, a flower requires special care. Constant heat is the main condition that the desert rose needs. The plant is very demanding and lighting. Ideal location in the apartment - at the window facing south. This will provide a constant hit on the leaves of the rose in direct sunlight. Water the plant should be rare. In winter, reduce the flow of water, but at the same time, do not overdry the soil, keep it sufficiently moist. Soil for planting roses should have drainage and be slightly sour. When buying a mixture for your future roses, choose a soil for succulents and cacti. Every summer feed adenium fertilizers. In order for the desert rose to grow in a more interesting and bizarre form, use one secret. Remove the upper part of the plant's root system from the soil, while leaving a little more than half of them in the ground. Thus, the roots will be slightly open, and as a result of growth together with the trunk will begin to form an interesting shape.
Desert rose - a plant that multiplies, as a rule, seeds. They ripen in pods. Germination can be accelerated by spraying and occasionally heating the pot from the bottom. After a week, the first shoots will appear, and after a month, when several true leaves form on the seedlings, you can begin transplanting. The desert rose is propagated by cuttings, but specimens grown by this method may not have such thick and powerful tuberous stems as when grown from seeds. Pinch a process 7-10 cm long from the stem and dip it into the solution with fungicides and hormones, for example, into the Epin solution. Then plant the stalk in a small pot filled with a slightly moistened mixture of perlite and peat in a 1: 3 ratio.
A young plant usually grabs a small pot. But as it grows, adenium needs to be transplanted to a larger tank. To carry out this procedure is necessary only in the warm season. First make sure that the soil is dry, then carefully remove adenium from the pot. Remove old dead roots and any rot. Cuts formed in the process of transplanting, process solutions - fungicidal and antibacterial. Put a rose in a new pot and put soil in it. For about a week, refrain from watering to prevent root rot, since adenium is very susceptible to this disease. Also, be careful and careful not to damage parts of the plant.
Desert rose in your garden
If you want to decorate your garden or yard with adenium, try to find the most sunny place for this. The desert rose, planted in the penumbra, has elongated thin elongated stems and is more susceptible to disease. Land on a plot intended for planting should not be too wet or prone to flooding. Если в вашем саду нет места с сухой почвой, то сделайте насыпь не менее 20 см над основным грунтом. Также важно, чтобы пустынная роза росла вне досягаемости автоматических систем полива и опрыскивания. Вместе с этим видом можно высаживать разнообразные теплолюбивые почвопокровные растения.It is important to know the optimal composition of the soil mixture, which is ideal for planting adenium in open ground. Preparing it yourself will not be difficult.
This mixture includes:
- peat - 2 parts,
- coconut fiber - 2 parts,
- sand - 2 parts
- perlite - 1 part.
The first couple of years the desert rose grows very quickly. At this time, it is important and necessary to provide the soil with organic and mineral nutrients. Later, the growth rate slows down, and this is normal. In spring and summer, liquid fertilizer should be applied every two weeks. And during the fall, the intensity of fertilization is required to be reduced.
Keep this wonderful flower. A desert rose will help decorate a room or liven up the look of your garden.
How to care?
Adenium belongs to the light-loving plants.
It is advisable to adhere to the light regime close to the natural habitat of adenium. A common flower in the equatorial zone. In the period from autumn to spring, the plant needs a light day for 13-14 hours, so you have to do an artificial highlight.
How to water?
At the time of active growth, adenium requires large amounts of water.. Watering depends on temperature. When the cold comes, it is worth reducing the watering of the flower. Excessive moisture will cause disease or death of the root system. In summer, adenium should be watered when the topsoil is completely dry after the previous watering. If in the winter in the room where the flower is cool, watering should be limited.
During the care of adenium at home during the summer period, provide regular watering - watered immediately after the soil is completely dry. In winter, watered carefully and little. If the plant overwinters at a temperature of 15 to 20 ° C, then watering is carried out only after the soil dries.
When wintering in a colder place, watering is either very rare, or stops watering altogether. In winter, young shoots of adenium are watered in a very limited way.. After spring awakening, the plants should be watered for the first time, preferably 2-3 weeks after the appearance of buds and the beginning of adenium growth.
What and how to feed?
The flower begins to give fertilizer in early spring and until autumn.. It will be sufficient to add the necessary substances at intervals of one month. Carefully monitor the concentration of the solution, it should not exceed 2%. You can also spray the leaves, but then the fertilizer should be three times weaker.
Well suited mineral-organic species. Often organic fertilizers, such as chicken or pigeon dung, are used as fertilizers. The frequency of fertilizing mineral supplements - once a week. Concentration is worth taking one fourth of what is written on the package. Organic fertilizers are used every 3-4 weeks.
Often growers buy ready-made supplements. In specialty stores you can find good fertilizers for adenium..
We will talk about some of them.
How to apply mycorrhiza?
This drug is made by watering or spraying the plant. If vaccination passes through the soil, it is necessary to make a couple of small holes near the plant and pour the preparation into them. Often mycorrhiza is used when transplanting to a new place.. Since the vaccine helps the plant to adapt faster. After vaccination, development and growth are accelerated.
How to plant?
Grafting is an effective method for breeding adeniums. Grafting is useful for combining a beautiful flower with an caudex of unusual shape for growing several types of flowers on a single plant, and can also improve the shape of a plant.
Now the number of these plants in the collections of our lovers is growing very quickly and many, starting with the cultivation of adenium from seeds, try more complex ways of reproduction of adenium. To increase the decorativeness of the flower, it is grafted. On one plant can bloom flowers of different shades. For example, an adult adenium is taken and branches of other varieties are grafted onto it. It is best to inoculate in the spring when the plant has an active sap flow phase.
Seedlings are picked after a few pairs of true leaves appear. There are no strict rules for picking. Therefore, if you want small adeniums to grow faster, you can produce it at the age of 1-2 months. It is recommended to pick a sprout at the age of three months. At this point, the root system and the plant are already quite well formed.
We offer you to watch a video on how adenium picking is performed:
Cropping and crown formation
To the crown was thick and more branched, growers resort to the formation and pruning of adenium. Often this is a necessary measure, because in most plants the development of the apex is predominant and does not allow other shoots to develop except the central one.
About pruning and the formation of adenium said in a separate article.
Adenium transplant costs in early spring. The main thing during this process is not to damage the roots. From the old soil to clean them need to carefully, it is better to rinse under a small stream of water.
If the root is accidentally damaged, it must be immediately treated with a special preparation and given time to let the root dry. After transplantation, the plant is not immediately watered, adenium takes time to get used to a new place.
If your adenium is stunted, do not rush to replace it.because There are many reasons why the plant does not develop, and in the case of adenium, the cramped pot is the most recent of them. Unfortunately, beginner adenium growers consider the opposite and instantly transplant adenium into a larger pot, thereby aggravating the problem.
How to prepare for the winter?
In winter, you need to be especially careful in the care of adenium.. Since this plant needs a light day at about 13-14 hours, and in winter it is very difficult to do this, they resort to flower stagnation. Stagnation is the slowing down of all processes in a plant.
To do this, change the conditions of detention:
- reduce the temperature
- air humidity and increase the intervals between irrigation.
The acceptable temperature of the content of adenium in the spring is +11 .. + 12 degrees. If it is above +15, then it will be necessary to stop watering for a sufficiently long period of time in order to enter into stagnation. The minimum temperature should not fall below +5 degrees. If you contain adenium in a negative environment, the plant may die.
Between watering should dry the soil. The frequency of watering will depend on the temperature, and be 7-20 days. Sometimes practicing flower maintenance with just one irrigation over the entire winter.
See photos of the flower "Desert Rose":
Flowering "Desert Roses"
Many factors influence the first bloom, but usually adenium blooms in the second year. There are species that can bloom only after four years, and there are cases when seedlings aged 7-8 months suddenly bloom. Adenium inflorescences of various colors:
The shape of the flowers resemble a gramophone.
More information about the bloom of adenium at home and what to do if it does not bloom, we wrote here.
Diseases and pests
The most common parasites on adenium:
- root and mealybug
Most often, the flower strikes the root scarlet. He likes dry and light soils. White plaque, which covered the roots - is a witness that a parasite wound up on the plant. We noticed bright wax excretions on the leaves, which means that a mealy bug settled on adenium. Such drugs as Fitoverm, Aktar will help from it.
It is also very harmful to the plant viruses, introduced by a tick, which all the time introduce a flower in a state of illness. Virus in a plant causes distortion of leaves, flowers. Unfortunately, this adenium is not treated, it must be destroyed.
Read more about the diseases and pests of adenium written here.
Optimal conditions for room adenium
Adenium is a small indoor tree or shrub that able to pull up only to 35 cm. The trunk can be very thick, the leaves are also rather large, velvety. The flowers are very large, may be white or raspberry color. The similarity of flowers with a rose allowed to christen it "desert rose". If you are going to grow it at home, then immediately note that it needs a number of mandatory conditions for growth.
Location and lighting
In order to find out when the flower of adenium with the example of its own flower, it is important to grow it with the right light. Adenium is often referred to as a solar plant, since it takes root best on the southern windowsills. but An overabundance of light is also not always beneficial for a plant:
- after winter, adenium is better to shade and not allow the direct rays of the sun to fall on its trunk, which can cause burns from it, but when the flower gradually gets used to intense light, the sun will stop threatening it,
- if the duration of exposure to sunlight on the window sill, where there is adenium, exceeds five hours, the plant is also better to shade so that it does not dry out.
Temperature conditions: summer-winter
Adenium has two vegetative states - a period of active growth and a period of sleep. It is logical that the first comes in spring and summer, when the plant for good growth needs high enough temperatures - from +25 to + 30˚С. It will be nice if in the summer you take out the flower on the terrace, protected from moisture.
But as soon as the temperature and the duration of daylight decrease, get ready for the fact that adenium will start to dry up a little and go into a period of rest.
So that he can have a good rest and prepare for another period of growth and flowering - it is important keep temperature regime for it not higher than + 15˚С, but not lower than + 10˚С. It is also unacceptable that the root system of the adenium is supercooled, since this may cause its death.
Features care "desert rose" at home
The peculiarity of adenium care is that it will vary significantly depending on the season. It is important to take into account this factor with regard to watering and fertilizing, the excessive application of which can stimulate the flower to grow even during the rest period.
Watering mode: summer-winter
Summer adenium needs plenty of moisturewhich is important to make immediately after the drying of the topsoil. It is very neat to water the plant at the time of spring awakening: it will need the first watering only two or three weeks after the appearance of the first buds.
If in winter you have the opportunity to keep adenium at a temperature below + 15˚С, then it is extremely rare to water it - no more than once every two months, although many water it only once during sleep. If adenium winters at a higher temperature, then it should be watered more often, but only when the soil is completely dry in a pot.
Since the hot habitats of adenium are the hot and tropical countries of southern and central Africa, the plant loves high humidity. To support it, the flower must be regularly sprayed from a small sprayer. This should be done throughout the entire growth period, although during the flowering period moisture should in no way fall on the buds and blooming flowers.
In winter, adenium does not need spraying, but the humidity in the room where it will stand must also be high. If he lacks moisture, he will die.
The question of how to feed adenium is very important, it is necessary use only special mineral fertilizersintended for flowering houseplants. Top dressings are carried out in the spring, summer, and at the very beginning of autumn, until the flower begins to die. Feed no more than once a month.
It is also worth noting that for feeding plants it is very important to use low-concentrated solutions of not more than 1.5-2%. Otherwise, you risk to burn the roots of adenium or cause its excessive growth, which will lead to the loss of decoration.
Not everyone knows that Adenium - a poisonous plant. He is poisonous juice of leaves, which can remain on the hands. So that this does not lead to poisoning, after spraying, pruning or transplanting plants, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water.
In no case do not allow children and animals to contact with adenium, as poisoning with flower juice can have very serious consequences for them. In this regard, it is better to grow adenium on high windowsills or special supports.
Pruning adenium at home is equally important, as it allows you to create an attractive plant shape - tree or shrub.
To remove side shoots or shorten them only in early spring, so that the plant can cope with injuries and prepare for a rest period. Consider that the growth process in adenium is rather slow, therefore excessive shortening of shoots is contraindicated.
Young plants adenium transplantation is required annually, while adults can grow for several years in one pot. It is worth noting that only with prolonged growth in one pot and full enveloping of the roots of an earthy coma, its flowering is possible. That is, before seeing the beautiful flowers of adenium, it is necessary to give him time to adapt.
In choosing a pot for adenium, you should follow these rules:
- The color of the pot is better to choose light - it will not be excessively heated under the influence of sunlight.
- The depth of the pot should be small, but it is better if it is wide enough in diameter. Otherwise, with the growth of adenium, the pot will turn over on the weight and volume of the plant.
- leaf soil
- sod land
- coarse sand.
In order to make it easier to replant adenium, it is watered abundantly, so that the soil itself will fall off the roots of the plant. However, after a transplant, it is better not to water it for 4-7 days to give the root system the opportunity to dry out a bit.
Methods of reproduction of adenium at home
Planting adenium can be carried out in different ways - from the seed and before the use of layers. However, in order to achieve good flower growth, it is important to use each of them correctly.
When breeding this flower in the first place is to figure out how to plant adenium from seeds. This should be done from late February to early March. To make the seeds grow faster, it is important to soak them in a solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour, then wash and hold in a warm zircon solution for another four hours.
When sowing the seeds are just scattered over the soil and sprinkled with a thin layer of it. If the temperature in the room stays at a level not lower than + 33-35 ˚С, the first shoots will appear for a week already. If you do not take into account the requirement regarding temperature, seedlings can not only stretch out, but in general disappear.
In order for young shoots to become healthy seedlings, they will need to be highlighted with fluorescent lamps. It is also important to adhere to the temperature regime (+ 18˚С) and regularly ventilate the room where the seedling box is located.
When the first two leaves appear, young adeniums will need the same care as adult plants. When four leaves appear, they dive into separate pots and continue to grow as an independent plant.
The reproduction of adenium by cuttings presupposes the presence of a plant at home or among friends, from which these cuttings could be prepared. Making the stalk take root is not so easy, as they often simply rot.
For this kind of breeding spring or summer time is best. The cutting for this purpose is cut off with a length of 12-15 cm and slightly dried with pretreatment with charcoal.
For direct rooting, it should prepare a soil mixture of charcoal and sand, which can also be diluted with perlite or small pieces of expanded clay. To the base of the stem does not wilt, when planting it is important to sprinkle the root collar with charcoal or sand.
Also, for cutting to germinate, it will be necessary to maintain the temperature at + 25 ° C and bright lighting. He will not need frequent watering. If conditions are met, rooting should occur within 4-5 weeks.
On any adenium during growth, air slips are formed that can be used for propagation. For this purpose, an escape is chosen with a thickness of at least 2 cm and a shallow incision is made along its circumference.
This place should be slightly dried, treated with special root growth stimulants and wrapped in sphagnum and opaque polyethylene. For 100% formation of sphagnum roots, it is important to periodically wet (but not abundantly).
Approximately within a week, the first roots appear on the cuttings, after which it must be cut off with a sharp knife from the main plant and planted in a pot with soil mixture as for an adult adenium.
Для прививания надрезы осуществляются и на той части растения, которая будет прививаться, и на той, к которой будут прививать. Учтите, что прививать адениум можно не только к представителю своего вида, но и даже к растению «олеандр». To fasten the two parts of the plant, you can use either just pieces of cloth, or a special spray.
Consider that adenium shows a good survival rate only in cases when, after grafting, it is kept at a temperature not lower than + 30˚С, good lighting and high humidity. Remember: direct sunlight can leave burns on the plant.
Features of growing adenium
On the window, adeniums rarely grow above 60 cm. But this does not mean that they grow slowly. In three years of life, the stem at the bottom reaches 6-8 cm in diameter. Most of the representatives of this glorious genus are short and thick shoots, flowers are large, tubular with a five-blade limb. In the lobe buds, the corollas are tightly twisted, they open at the end of spring and adorn the plant all summer.
Like most succulents, adenium loves heat and light. In spring and summer, the plant needs direct sunlight for 4-6 hours daily. At this time, the optimum temperature for it is 23-28 degrees. The ideal place of residence is the windowsills of a southern orientation, although it grows well in bright ambient light on any window except the north.
In the fall and winter, when most of the exotic animals retire, the adenium also needs to rest to gain strength for lush flowering. That is why in October you need to rearrange the pot in a cool place with a temperature of 12-15. At the same time it should be bright. In a sleeping plant, shoot growth stops and leaves foliage partially or completely. During sleep, he does not need watering, feeding, just need to ensure that there are no sharp fluctuations in temperature and drafts.
It is noticed that if adenium rested in coolness and without watering, it would wake up in March, and if occasionally, but it was watered and kept warm, the sleep would last for several more weeks.
Adenium: planting a flower
Adenium is best grown from seeds, since the stem thickening - the calling card of this plant - is not always formed when propagated by cuttings. Seeds are easy to get through the online store or from fans of exotic plants, which recently appeared a lot. The seeds are quite large, freshly harvested and have high germination capacity, but they lose it quickly. Therefore, it is necessary to sow as soon as received by mail. Season does not matter much, although experts recommend planting in February and March, so that the plants will grow over the summer.
Before sowing, it does not hurt to disinfect seeds in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, it is possible to stimulate the germination of zircon by dissolving it in warm water and dropping seeds there for 2-4 hours. And you can wrap in a damp napkin and sow after sprouts hatch. Prepared seeds sprout in about 10 days, without preparation - in 21 days.
Sowing is carried out in boxes filled with air-and moisture-permeable substrate with a neutral reaction (pH 7). To obtain such a composition, it is necessary to mix either vermiculite and peat, or perlite and sand (in the ratio 2: 1) with the addition of charcoal (5-10%).
Before sowing, the soil is moistened and the seeds are laid out from above, without digging in, but only slightly sprinkling them. Then cover with a thin food transparent film and put in a warm place (24-28 degrees). With the advent of shoots the film is removed.
Seedlings protect from direct sunlight and the midday sun, drafts and low temperature (below 18 degrees). With the formation of 2-4 true leaves are planted in pots with a diameter of 5-6 cm. Usually this happens 2-3 months after sowing. Flowering occurs in 2 years.
Propagation by cuttings has both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages - flowering begins earlier than that of seedlings, and when breeding hybrid varieties, all breeding achievements remain. The disadvantages balance the advantages: we have already mentioned the thickening on the stem, which is formed several years later than that of the seedlings, or not at all, and the second drawback is the difficulty of acquiring cuttings in the Russian outback.
However, if you have a desert rose growing in your home, it is easier to propagate by cuttings. Usually cut them in spring or summer from the tops of the shoots. The optimum length is 10-15 cm. The cuttings easily rot, therefore the sections are powdered with charcoal and slightly dried. Rooted in the same substrate as when sown. Pure calcined and cooled sand is poured around the cutting, and pieces of charcoal are placed to prevent rotting. At a temperature of 25-30 degrees rooting lasts for a month. Periodically, the substrate is moistened with a spray bottle, preventing the soil from drying out. Plants bloom from cuttings after 1.5 years.
Adeniums grow very quickly, so young plants are recommended to be replanted every year. In this case, the pot does not need to buy a large, for growth. Its diameter should be equal to the crown of the transplanted plant. Transplantation is usually carried out in the spring or late summer. Drainage is placed on the bottom 1/6 of the height of the pot, which provides good aeration.
While the plant is young, you need to decide how you want it to be - a tree or a bush.
To give bushiness in young plants pinch the point of growth. After 45-50 days, intensive branching begins. If they form a plant with a tree, they cut off all the twigs by a third and shorten the stem. All these operations are carried out only in the spring, at the beginning of the growth of shoots.
Photo 3: Formation of adenium flower with a bush (1) or a tree (photo 2)
Adenium: care for an adult flower
In the third year of life, adenium becomes an adult, abundantly flowering plant, that is, that same desert rose, for which you have worked so much. Now the plant needs another pot. Due to the fact that the roots of adult adenium grow horizontally, the pot he needs is not deep, but wide. And a prerequisite - drainage holes at the bottom - the more, the better.
How to fill the pot? The soil mix still needs to be neutral, well permeable to air and water, but more nutritious than younger ones.
plants. You can use the purchased substrate for cacti or prepare it yourself from equal parts of sand, turf and leaf land with the addition of charcoal (10% of the mixture). Leaf land is better to take from under the linden, birch, hazel, and the sand, it is desirable to use small river.
An adult plant is transplanted every few years, changing the composition of the soil. To prevent it from caking, they mix up soddy soil with sand, expanded clay or broken brick with a diameter of 1-3 mm, the share of which can vary from 30 to 70%. Some use peat as the main ingredient, mixing with pieces of foam and sand. Drainage is still laid on the bottom and transplanted into a wide pot with many drainage holes.
At the plant, the lateral and secondary roots are scanned and shortened, the diseased areas are removed by carefully cleaning out the rot with sterile tools. Wounds and cuts do not process anything except charcoal, since adenium does not like chemistry, the plant soon itself tightens the damage. When transplanting the stem slightly raise, placing a little higher than in the previous pot.
Before transplantation and after it for 3-4 weeks, adenium is not watered, in order to give the opportunity to heal damaged roots.
Actively care for this handsome man only in spring and summer. If after hibernation shoots began to grow too quickly, they are pruned. Water only with settled water at room temperature. It is important not to fill the plant, that is, water when the soil dries. Watering should be abundant, so that water comes out through the drainage holes. Seedlings and young plants are not afraid of overmoistening, and adults suffer from excess moisture.
The reason is that, by nature, adenium stores water in a thickened stem in order to survive a long drought. Over time, the stored moisture becomes more and more. And if there is still an excess of water in the soil, the roots may rot. Even in the summer between the watering substrate in adult plants should dry well, otherwise the leaves lose their elasticity, the stems shrivel and darken. For the same reason, after watering after 15-20 minutes, water from the pan must be poured. And some flower growers do watering only after the stems start to wither.
In the autumn-winter period, watering should be reduced to a minimum, young plants should be watered once every 2-3 weeks, adults -1 once a month. When leaving the dormitory, the first watering is done very carefully, in small portions. It is usually carried out 2-3 weeks after the plant starts growing.
To desert rose justified its name, it must be fed. Provides lush bloom complex mineral fertilizer with an equal amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and even better, if it includes trace elements. In the spring and summer, the fertilizer is applied with each watering, reducing the dose indicated in the instructions, 3 times, it turns out about 1-2 g / l of water. In the dormant period from autumn to spring, the plants do not feed.
Adenium is rarely ill, only if it is overdone with watering, held in a draft or too low the temperature with frequent airing in winter. Pests are more dangerous for him. True, even here there are no particular difficulties in restoring order, as the same insects that afflict most houseplants damage it. It is a mealybug, scab, spider mite.
Worm is easily identified by a white bloom-like bloom on leaves and stems, where the female usually lays her eggs. Plaque is removed with a napkin, then the plant is washed with a soap solution or pyrethrum extract and placed in a cool place.
Shchitovki tightly adjacent to the leaves, covered with a waxy bloom like a flap, and suck the juice. In damaged plants, leaves fall prematurely. The pest is wiped off with a napkin moistened with soapy water every 5-6 days. The procedure is repeated for three weeks.
Spider mite often moves to adenium from other plants. Damaged leaves are covered with small yellow spots, with excessive reproduction a transparent cobweb is formed. It is easy to get rid of a spider mite with a decoction of cyclamen tubers, which saponin destroys the pest completely in 1-2 sprays (50 g / 0.5 l of water). Of chemical drugs, you can use a 0.2% solution of the drug Rogor. Only the flower should be treated not in the room, but on the balcony or the landing.
Adenium flower - note for florist
As a houseplant most often grown obese adenium (A. obesum). He earned it a good character, the ability to adapt to different conditions, without reducing the duration and pomp of flowering.
Each flower of a deserted rose decorates a tree for a week.
As in many exotic plants, the periods of rest and flowering of adenium are pronounced: after sleep, the plant wakes up, begins to bloom, sometimes even before the leaves bloom, and in October it falls asleep again. If you choose the right soil and care, following this periodicity, you will understand why adenium is called the desert rose.
If you want the plants sown at the end of winter to begin to bloom faster, after the emergence of the seedlings, illuminate them with fluorescent lamps.
Adenium seedlings grow very quickly, in six months they already have a thick stem.
With all the attractiveness adenium is a poisonous plant. Therefore, planting, transplanting, cutting a flower should be done with gloves!
For adenium, plastic pots of light color are more suitable, they better reflect the sun's rays, less overheat.
In the summer of Adenium can be taken out into the fresh air - a balcony, loggia or garden, protecting a small canopy in rainy weather from excess moisture in the pots.
During the budding period, the plant should not be moved to a new place, the pot should be turned.
In the heat of adeniums respond well to the shower from the spray.
Adenium or rose in the "bottle"
There are decorative and leafy houseplants, flowering plants, and more recently dwarf plants, formed in the form of bonsai. But the fascinating flower Adenium, which is also called the desert rose, has all these characteristics. It is both decorative and leafy, and flowering (some species even with fragrant flowers are), and sometimes even resembles bonsai.
It is a slow-growing shrub or small tree with a fleshy trunk, which has a thickening at the base - caudex. most of it may be underground. In total, there are 10 species of adenium in nature. They may have different leaves - some have rounded, others may have elongated and pointed at the ends. The color of the leaves can be both pale and bright green, glossy. The differences in these plants have flowers. They can be large and small, terry and ordinary. And it is already not necessary to talk about the color palette, it is so diverse - from white to purple.
Among these kinds of beautiful flowers there are Adenium Obesum, or, as it is called, "fat". This species has gained immense popularity among gardeners for its unpretentious, early and abundant flowering. Under good conditions, it blooms in 1.5-2 years, it happened in my third year. It has thick gray-brown stems that taper towards the top, as if resembling the shape of a bottle. The shape of the leaves is different, it is either lanceolate with a pointed tip or oval. The foliage itself has a smooth structure and a glossy dark green color.
It was such a handsome man that I decided to make at home. Seeds sent to me from China by mail. They came very quickly, in the spring of 2012. While they were on the way, I carefully studied the information on how to sow them correctly and how to grow adenium in the future.
And here I am holding a treasured envelope with seeds. There are several ways to prepare seeds for sowing, I chose the most, I think, the right and suitable for me. First, adenium seeds were soaked in fungicide (everyone chooses his own, since there is a huge amount of them), and it is possible in ordinary, pink manganese, literally for 20-30 minutes. He did this in order to protect future shoots from possible diseases. Then the seeds for another three hours soaked in a growth promoter (they are also a huge amount). So that the seeds did not sink into the containers, I first shook them in gauze. If there is no gauze. You can use any other material or even cotton pads.
After the seeds were processed, I proceeded to plant them. Prepared small (500 ml capacity) plastic cups. They made drainage holes with a needle. Each seed was planted in a separate cup, made it intentionally, so that when the plant goes into growth, the neighboring shoots do not interfere with it, and it grows stronger. Naturally, no picking is required. In my opinion, such seeding and planting are most good.
In the spring and summer, adeniums should be watered often, as the soil dries quickly, especially when there is a strong heat. Waters, these plants drink a lot. Need to keep an eye on that. so that the soil is always slightly wet. Sometimes in the evening I also spray the plants. In the winter period, the opposite is true: the plants hibernate at a temperature of 10-15 degrees, almost all the leaves fall on them, and there comes a period of rest. Watering at this time they need to be very careful not to pour. Personally, I water only when I see that the trunk of the plant begins to wrinkle. But in this case, I moisten the soil very moderately.
I used the following substrate for sowing adenium seeds: I added vermiculite and chopped coconut fiber to the prepared soil for cacti, mixed everything and scattered them into cups. Densely not tamped, so that the seeds are not rotted. In the middle of the cup I made a small depression 1 cm deep and put a seed in there, then leveled everything. Top sprinkled with warm water from a spray bottle and covered with glass. You can use a regular plastic bag to create such a mini-greenhouse.
Before seed germination, the cups can be kept in the dark, as I did, as long as it is warm. As I sowed in the spring, the seed tanks stood near my battery. When the seeds began to spit up, it happened about a week after sowing, I rearranged the cups under the lamps so that the adenium seedlings stretched to the light and grew faster. The glass was removed not immediately, but after 5 days, and all this time gradually taught the seedlings to the air. Since before sowing the seeds were soaked in a growth hormone solution, the seedlings grew very well and amicably, and most importantly, they were all strong and healthy.
Every month the plants grew higher and the caudex became thicker and wider. So imperceptibly a year has passed. Adeniums were cramped in small cups, and I decided to transplant them. When choosing a container for transplantation, it was guided by the characteristic growth of adenium roots.
They mostly grow in breadth, so I chose a wide and shallow pot for transplanting. Substrate did the same as when sowing seeds, only added there a little horse humus. In the wide and spacious capacity of the plant immediately went back to growth.
When buds begin to hatch on the plant, their hibernation period ends. But even after you saw that the kidneys began to hatch, watering can begin no earlier than in 1.5-2 weeks.
Что касается освещения, то адениумы очень любят рассеянный свет. Летом от прямых солнечных лучей их нужно притенять, а то листочки от палящего солнца могут быстро сгореть. Зимой, в период покоя, свет им необязателен, но это только в том случае, если вы эту зимовку устраиваете. Если у кого-то на подоконниках тепло и сухо, то можно досвечивать адениумы, не вводя их в спячку.
I feed fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers, but only mainly in the spring-summer period, during active growth and flowering. From mineral fertilizers I use a mixture for succulents, I breed according to the instructions, I fertilize once 8 months. With the same periodicity I apply organic fertilizer in the form of horse manure, I grow it with water in the ratio of 1:15 and insist for several hours. In winter, I feed adeny-minds only once with mineral fertilizer.
In the spring of 2015, my Adenium turned three years old. I made another transfer-handling in a large container. In advance in the soil added mineral fertilizers. And put his favorites in the brightest place. The result was not long in coming. Soon a bunch of buds appeared on one of the plants, to which I was incredibly happy. I have been waiting for this moment for three years, and I was impatient to see with my own eyes, and not in the picture, the beauty of this amazing flower.
But the buds did not open for a very long time, apparently, this is also a feature of this plant. Flowers blossomed closer to summer, indescribable beauty! These gramophone notes of delicate white and pink color decorated my window sill for 1.5 months, some flowers fell, but others hurried to replace them.
Having grown adenium from a seed and brought the plant to flowering, I realized that it is unpretentious, not capricious, but, on the contrary, very easy to maintain and therefore even a novice will do.
© Author: Pavel Konstantinovich ZIMIN, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Sarov
© Author: Author: A. Trofimova (csx) Photo of a site about breeding adenium at home Adenium at home