Zucchini - all beloved vegetable, both among the chefs, and among the gardeners. Non-capricious nature of this culture makes its breeding possible for novice gardeners. Putting not so much effort, you will gather a good harvest. This culture adores care and attention. The seedlings of zucchini grown homemade, brings wonderful fruit. We'll talk about growing methods, choosing seeds and caring for house plants.
Zucchini is a bush plant with a hard skin, like a pumpkin. He belongs to the genus Pumpkin. Vegetable with lengthened fruits yellowish, grassy, snow-white or dark-marsh color, inside with not firm pulp. Vegetable is edible, it can be consumed in raw, fried, stewed, pickled and canned. This culture comes from the Oaxacan Plain in Mexico, where in the 16th century, together with the rest of the goods unusual for the Ancient World, it appeared in the European Continent, and initially grew in greenhouses as a strange plant. It was only in the 18th century that its immature fruits appeared on the table for the first time.
Since then, the vegetable due to low nutritional value, fast digestibility and excellent taste properties are known in every kitchen. It is used to prepare dietary meals, injected into the feeding of infants and sick people, used in the form of salads, first courses and blockages for the winter.
Types and varieties
Squashes consist of two types of vegetable crops: white-fruited (regular) and zucchini. He has cut leaves with white spots, which inexperienced farmers take for plant disease powdery mildew. Culture has a variety of coloring fruits of yellowish or greenish shades.
By the look of the bush, squash is divided into shrub and shrub half, which produce a small thread, and by the shape of squash, they are often elongated or convex. However, there are varieties of crops with fruits of other forms. Culture is divided into thosethat ripen early, middle and late.
In addition to the variety of species of zucchini there are modifications grown by foreign scientists - breeders. Positive factor of imported hybrids - thin skin and a small amount of seeds. In addition, they will be able to survive longer on the bushes and have an attractive appearance. Our crops varieties are more suitable for preservation, and the frost resistance of our varieties is higher.
Now we will introduce you to the excellent types of culture of domestic and foreign origin, which will certainly be interesting:
- White. This variety is not demanding, quickly ripening, high-yielding, ripening in about a month and a half. It has the fruits of elongated round shape, light almost white shades. It is medium in size, with a compacted and rather saturated middle of a light and cream color. The view is suitable for cooking, salting, pickling and does not spoil for a long time.
- Helena. The early ripe grade growing by a bush which has one weaving. Fruits of a smooth wheat shade with yellowish pulp of the extended form. Well suited for culinary dishes, for corking and pickling.
- Yellowy. Early ripening, fruitful, bush zucchini. Can be used for breeding in open ground. It has small edges and yellowish fruit in the shape of a cylinder. This is a universal variety with increased carotene content. For this, it is appreciated in the preparation of children's and dietary dishes.
- Aeronaut. This is a type of zucchini that grows a bush of small size, with small processes. The flowers are feminine, vegetable with a smooth surface and a thin dark skinned green shade with the presence of bright spots, in the form of a cylinder, with creamy flesh not sweet to the taste. This crop has great yield indicators, for which it is in great demand among farmers. Will be suitable for cultivation both in greenhouse conditions, and on personal plots. The aeronaut is suitable for cooking in cooking and pickling.
- Kavili This vegetable grows bushes. Very early, prolific hybrid, which throughout the season brings a good harvest. The fruits are elongated in shape, green in color. The middle is white, delicate in taste. Kavili is suitable for breeding in a greenhouse, greenhouse, as well as front garden, immune to powdery mildew.
- Zebra. Early ripe, resistant to cold, bush zucchini, not occupying much space, with a small main process, with fruits, elongated in shape, and small edges of a greenish hue. They have large, dark-green stripes located along the entire length and rich yellowish, glucose-free pulp. This species has a high yield, suitable for food, as well as salting for the winter.
- Sangrum is an early ripe bush crossed species. Suitable for planting in home gardens. It has a large amount of glucose in fruits that are white or green in color, oblong in shape.
- Negro is an early type of crop that produces high yields. Great for landing in open ground. Fruits are gray-green. The flesh is very juicy, tasty, green. Vegetable is not susceptible to diseases such as powdery mildew.
- Kuand is a zucchini that grows large and small bushes. This vegetable is mid-season, brings a high yield. Cylinder-shaped fruit, light and green, with fuzzy stripes. Suitable for breeding in the greenhouse under the film and front gardens. The species is immune to powdery mildew and decay.
- Black handsome. This species grows bushes and gives a big harvest. The garden does not take up much space, is well suited for cultivation in the open field with a long fruiting time. This vegetable with fruits of a very dark and green hue, which seems black, and the flesh is white, savory taste, dense and tender in texture. Culture is used for cooking and blockage.
- Gribovsky 37 is a mid-ripening bush that weaves heavily. This vegetable has oblong-shaped fruits with faceted strips of a light green color with a hard crust. Well fit for cultivation in the backyard. This is a versatile, time-tested culture.
- Variety of squash Spaghetti. These are absolutely original zucchini. Their pulp after boiling for half an hour, turns into a full-fledged side dish, in appearance similar to spaghetti. Very famous variety Raviolo with elongated fruits of yellow color.
Lovers of not only the taste of zucchini, but also their decorativeness, it is necessary to consider more closely such types as:
- Miracle is orange.
- Yellow banana.
- Crossed variety Festival.
- Winter delicacy.
- Crossed variety marshmallow.
These varieties are distinguished by the beautiful coloring of the fruit, they diversify any personal plot.
To get the early fruits of vegetables, planting seedlings in the spring is performed at home. Due to the fact that during this period it is still pretty cool in greenhouses and greenhouses. Zucchini seeds are placed in the ground, located in cups, approximately 21 days before planting in open ground. In regions closer to the north, the seeds of zucchini are planted in late April or early March. The most important thing is not to allow the seedlings of zucchini to grow significantly. To this end, intensive lighting during the day and low temperature at night are necessary. So, let's find out when to sow squash for seedlings, and how to competently do this.
Dilute seedlings of early varieties of zucchini at home is not so, simply due to the fact that the seedlings are often strongly pulled out. In this regard, they need to grow soso that in the process of moving excessively sprouted seedlings do not break, and when picking, the roots of the zucchini are not so badly damaged. Thus, they are hard to withstand it and inevitably get sick for a certain period after such a procedure.
Before sowing zucchini, the seeds of the crop will certainly germinate, and for the seedlings they choose the seed material that has sprouted in the first place. Grains must be taken with a reserve. It is allowed to sow three grains in small paper glasses. Capacity must be filled with soil partially. In case all three are sticking out, save the two most enduring rudiments. The raised sides of the cup will not allow the elongated seedlings to break; in the case of planting squash in the ground, the container should be carefully notched without damaging the ground.
Landing in the ground
In the groove on the garden it is desirable to plant two seedlings. Before the planting stage, the zucchini seedlings will already grow by two - three full leaflets. Within a week, as soon as the bore holes have recovered from the pick, it is necessary to save one of the most hardy sprout. Another pinch. Such a choice is important, because the early squash can be obtained exclusively from the most hardy seedlings.
Planting seedlings of early varieties is carried out exclusively in the compost soil. It is made from dried, past season grass fragments. It is practical to apply the tops that are left over from last year’s potatoes. It is possible to add to the fertilized soil compost left over from the previous season.
Place for landing should be selected in a suitable bright place of the land plot. It is useful to distribute the compost near the bushes of viburnum or currant, as well as young fruit trees. A compost bed, having spent the season near such plantings, will well charge the soil with useful elements. Over the summer period, a large number of worms will breed around it.
In order for air to penetrate well into the compost bed, it is possible to make it from bundles of dried weeds, Jerusalem artichoke, asparagus, corn. In this case, because of the growing bushes of zucchini to sort the bed in the summer period will not work.
The yield level of the fruit of the plant in this garden is almost always greater than, for example, when breeding zucchini on unfertilized soil. Compost, disintegrating, transfers heat and a large amount of carbon dioxide, which gives warmth-loving courgettes only benefit. Bushes ripen earlier, and fruits ripen earlier. Additional fertilizers are not required for breeding zucchini in the fertilized area.
Requirements for lighting and soil
In the open ground, seedlings of zucchini are planted 35 days after aging, initially quenched by the ordinary method. When frosts are expected, the garden bed should be insulated with material made of polyethylene or glass, until the time when the cold is minimized.
Planting seedlings in an open area of land performed in the morning or in the cloudy, warm period. When landing in the groove, it is necessary to carefully ensure that the pots are closely compressed with earth and placed two or three centimeters beyond its surface. The introduction into the groove before planting an organic-mineral solution of the following composition is considered effective: a humus half-tool or five grams of urea, twenty grams of superphosphate material and ten grams of potassium chloride. After planting seedlings zucchini in an open area of land requires moisture (one or two liters of water directly under one bush).
- Attention! Vegetables adore daylight. Therefore, quiet, sunny places are most suitable for breeding in an open area. After the planting is completed, the culture is returned to the last leg only after three or four seasons. It is recommended to plant squash on the place where such vegetables as potatoes, beans, cabbage, garlic and onions used to grow.
But after such crops as cucumbers, squash and pumpkin, zucchini is desirable not to sow. Understanding all the details when planting squash for seedlings, how to take care of them and plant on the land, you can get a bountiful harvest.
How to grow
Many plants have their own characteristics in cultivation. Zucchini is no exception. It has both advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages include:
- demands for light and temperature (must be planted only after frost),
- for a good harvest, zucchini must be constantly fertilized,
- after planting, constant watering is necessary,
- it is undesirable to grow each year in the same place.
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- lack of need for agricultural technology,
- have a relatively short period of maturation,
- fruit useful for nutrition. Suitable for both children and people with impaired metabolism.
In addition to excellent taste, the fruit has a number of medical properties: improves the functioning of the heart and blood vessels, and is also useful for the gastrointestinal tract.
This variety is a hybrid and early maturing, characterized by short shoots and medium sized fruits. Such zucchini dense white flesh. Well suited for Siberia.
Universal and is very popular among gardeners. The main advantage is resistance to spring frosts and high yields (up to 10 kilograms of crop can be harvested from a meter). Well-proven in the climate of central Russia, and also suitable for the Moscow region.
Like Tsukesha, very popular. May produce high yields, even in bad weather. Fruits even in the shade, and the fruits can reach up to 3 kilos in weight.
The name of this variety was due to its pulp, which during the heat treatment breaks down into fibers.
The variety has long shoots that are sent in the right direction.
It has a high yield. Great for transportation and long-term storage. But growing requires more space, because the bushes are large. Great for both the Urals and the Moscow region.
It gives a lot of ovaries, fruits of salad color ripen early, have a delicate taste. You can store for a long time.
Watch the video! Comparison of 6 varieties of zucchini!
Suitable for those who can allocate a lot of space in the garden. The first step is the selection of seeds of this variety, which is suitable for a particular area. The choice must be made in favor of those plants that have proven themselves in previous years.
For better growth of seeds, they need to be soaked for 24 hours in a growth stimulant solution. Sowing is made only after frost and at daytime temperatures of + 18-20ºС.
Seeds should be sown in prepared pits to a depth of 4-5 centimeters. Also a handful of humus and ash is put in the pits. Before sowing, you need to take into account the plot, because the seeds love moist and nutritious soil. In order for the seeds to grow properly, it is necessary to put 4 seeds at a distance of 10 cm from each other and then sprinkle them with earth.
In the future, in the hole is left only one more developed specimen, rarely two. On top of the seeds poured water.
Stalks of zucchini can grow up to 1 meter in length, so the holes should be located not less than 80 cm from each other. To restrain the growth of weeds and retain moisture around the overgrown zucchini, it is necessary to mulch the ground. Straw or cardboard is more suitable for this.
When the fruiting period comes, watering increases. For the active appearance of new ovaries, it is necessary to remove the leaves at the bottom of the bush. Pollination is an important factor in the accelerated growth that bees, wasps, and bumblebees produce. In case of insufficient pollination, it is recommended to spray the plant with water and honey.
Planting seeds for seedlings
It is the most simple and elementary. This method can take a long time in planting and caring for seedlings, but in the end it gives a good harvest. Seed preparation begins 20-30 days before planting in open ground. Overgrown seeds are planted in soil mixture from turf land, peat, sawdust and humus.
As soon as the seedlings reach the age of one month, it must be transplanted either in the heifer or in the open ground under the film.
Important! Transplanting seedlings should be done with a lump of earth, so that the root system is not damaged.
This technology of cultivation of zucchini is crucial - because the fruits will be stored much longer.
Growing in a barrel (or bag)
This method is quite popular. To implement this method, you need a 200-liter barrel. At the bottom there is a hole for removal of excess moisture, drainage of cones and brushwood.
In the middle of the barrel a pipe is installed with a plurality of aperture, which is filled with a nutrient substrate. The top of the barrel is filled with garden soil. Squashes should be planted on both sides of the pipe with a nutrient substrate, while maturation occurs faster than in open ground. The advantages of this method are space saving and active work of the roots.
Grow zucchini in the greenhouse is quite difficult. Seedlings should be planted either in the afternoon, or in cloudy weather, and 3-4 weeks earlier than in the garden.
In the greenhouse, holes are made 50 centimeters wide and 30 centimeters deep, located at a distance of 80-90 centimeters from each other. 500 grams of peat compost are added to each well, a seedling is planted, and then the hole is covered with soil and watered.
The temperature in the greenhouse should be from 15ºС (at night) to 25ºС (in the afternoon). Caring for seedlings in the greenhouse includes loosening the soil, feeding, weeding, moderate watering and regular airing. In case of intensive growing of leaves, it is necessary to tear off 3-4 leaves in the middle or lower part of the stem. В противном случае, влажность воздуха может увеличиться, и растения сбросят завязи.
Watch the video! Почему не завязываются кабачки
Includes a variety of activities:
- timely feeding,
- regular watering followed by weeding and loosening between the rows,
- pest and disease control.
There are times when flowering has begun, but there are no pollinating insects. In such cases, you need to pick a male flower (no ovary on the back side), expose the pistil and mark open female flowers with it. In addition, you need to timely collect ripe fruit.
Watering squash is carried out in the evening, while the water must be heated in the sun. In hot weather requires daily watering, and after the leaves cover the ground - once every 5-6 days. Watering is necessary at the root in order to avoid wetting the fruits themselves. Otherwise, the fruit can quickly rot.
Tip! If the leaves are sluggish from the heat, they are watered only in the evening and through the nozzle with small holes.
All varieties of zucchini love organic. An effective way to feed is the preparation of herbal infusion for seedlings planted in the ground. After mowing or weeding, the barrel is filled with them. In the barrel you need to add water and stir daily. After a week, this content is diluted with water at a ratio of 1: 8. Watering this infusion is made after 2 weeks, as the seedlings were transplanted into open ground. A week later, this procedure is repeated.
In addition to herbal infusion, for squash use slurry from manure. Manure is diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10, insisting on the sun for three days. In the future, this liquid is watered on the roots of plants, protecting them from falling on the stems and leaves. But before you start feeding plants, the area is watered.
The insects who love the pumpkin family include whitefly and aphid. Besides them, problems arise with slugs.
Aphids appear in warm and humid weather. It can damage flowers and ovaries, leaves and stems, sucking the juices out of them. To combat such a pest, you can resort to the popular method. Triple treatment once a week with a solution of 300 grams of dishwashing liquid or laundry soap per 10 liters of water can eliminate pests. If this method did not give a positive result, then insecticides such as Phosphamide, Karbofos, Metaphos or Decis can be used.
The whitefly is capable of causing great harm not only to the zucchini, but also to the entire garden. Their greatest activity is observed in the second half of summer. Insects settle on the underside of the leaf, leaving behind a sugary sticky discharge. After this, black fungi develop, which lead to leaf wilting. Whitefly is easy to rinse with plain water, but if it does not help, then use the insecticide Komandor. The proportions of 1 g of the drug per 10 liters of water is enough to treat a plot of 100 m2.
The fight with slugs is the most unpleasant. They are harvested by hand, but if there are a lot of them, then small plates of dark beer are placed on the site. The smell of beer slugs begin to crawl, then they are collected.
Common diseases of zucchini are black mold, bacteriosis, powdery mildew and anthracosis.
Mealy dew infects the stem, leaves and fruits with a gray friable bloom, after which the leaves dry out and the fruits stop growing. This disease appears with sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity. When a disease is detected, the site is treated with a 10% solution of fungicides - Bayleton or Topsin.
Black mold leaves behind rusty spots on fruits and leaves, which eventually crumble and dry. Leaves remain in the holes, and the fruits cease to develop. When identified, diseased plants are removed from the garden and burned.
The peculiarity of growing zucchini is that they must be planted in different places every year. This will reduce the likelihood of empty flowers and diseases. Careful watering, good care and periodic observation will guarantee high yields. To avoid various complications in the cultivation, the emergence of diseases and weeds, it is necessary to constantly monitor the courgettes and take timely measures.
Watch the video! How to grow zucchini. Useful tips for a good harvest
BETTER MUSHROOM VARIETIES
In order to use fresh vegetables straight from the garden from mid-summer to late autumn, breeders brought out new high-yielding varieties of zucchini and hybrids of different ripening times. These varieties are perfect for use in central Russia and Siberia: zucchini can be grown both in the Moscow region and in the Urals - the climate is great for this.
ZUKINI KABACHKOV VARIETIES
The main varieties of this type are Aeronaut, Tsukesha, Zebra. They can be attributed to the early maturing. Already on the 47th day after the emergence of seedlings of the Aeronaut variety, it is possible to harvest. Zucchini fruits have an elongated cylindrical shape, the surface is dark green, smooth. The average weight of zucchini zucchini is 1.1-1.4 kilograms.
Vegetables are grown both through seedlings and by sowing seeds in open ground. When growing seedlings, it is better to use a separate container for each plant (peat pots, paper cups, carton packs for milk, etc.) measuring about 10x10 cm.
Before sowing, squash seeds are prepared in the same way as when growing other vegetable crops, and sown in April - early May. Soil mixture for seedlings prepared from peat, humus, sod land and sawdust in the ratio of 6: 2: 2: 1. For enrichment with microelements, 0.5 cups of ash, 5-6 g of ammonium nitrate or 7-8 g of urea, 10 g of potassium sulfate, 15-20 g of superphosphate can be added to the bucket mixture. Or you can use the finished soil mixture, such as "Exo", from a specialized store.
The filled pots are spilled with hot water or a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate and sown seeds to a depth of 2-3 cm, flat, so that the sprouted root “looks” down. Before the appearance of the first shoots, the ambient temperature is maintained at between 18-25 ° C, and then reduced to 15-20 ° C. Remember that seedlings need a lot of light, otherwise the plants will be weak and will begin to stretch.
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Watering is carried out as necessary to prevent drying of the upper layer of soil, water at room temperature. The first feeding of plants is carried out 7-10 days after the appearance of the sprouts. To do this, use: solution of mullein (1:10), 50 mg per plant, solution of urea (0.5 hl. Per 1 liter of water), 0.5 cups per pot, solution of the preparation “Bud” (2g per 1 liter of water ) 1 cup for 1-2 pots or a solution of any specialized growth stimulant.
After another 10 days, a second fertilizing is carried out with a solution of mullein with the addition of 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 15 g of potassium sulfate per bucket of solution. Or in 1 l of water part 1 h. nitrofoski. Spend 1 cup of solution on 1 plant.
Plot for growing choose solar, protected from the wind. The best predecessors for the zucchini are green and leguminous crops, potatoes, early cabbage and cauliflower, onions, and garlic. You can not plant a vegetable on the site where previously grew cucumbers, squash, pumpkin. The zucchini is returned to its original place in 3-4 years.
WE PREPARE THE EARTH TO THE EXTENT
In the autumn after harvesting the predecessor, the soil is harrowed with a rake, and after two weeks they dig it. Under digging bring rotten manure or compost - a bucket per 1 sq.m., 30-35 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potash fertilizer per 1 sq.m.
In early spring, the soil is loosened with a rake, and before planting, seedlings are dug up and 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate are put into it per 1 sq.m. In addition, on sandy soils (per 1 sq. M.), 1-2 buckets of crushed dry clay and 3 kg of sawdust must be added. If the soil is heavy, clay, then 1 sq.m. add a bucket of river sand and 2-3 kg of peat, sawdust, humus. To peat soils per 1 sq. M. add a bucket of sod land and 2 kg of compost or manure.
Since the plant is rather large, the distance between the rows should be at least 1-1.5 m, and between the holes - at least 1 m. In each well before planting, add 1 tbsp. organic fertilizer, such as "Effecton" and mix well with the ground. Then each well is watered with a solution of the fertilizer "Agricola-5" (1 tbsp per bucket of water) - 1 l each.
Seedlings are planted early in the morning or in cloudy, warm weather along with a lump of earth from a pot. Buried to cotyledon leaves. If there is a threat of frost, then metal arcs are installed above the garden bed and covered with film. Or you can cover each plant with a plastic bottle. The next day after planting, it is necessary to loosen the soil around the seedlings.
After young plants will have 4-5 leaves, they spend a slight hilling. Water zucchini solely under the root, with warm water at the rate of 5 l of water per plant before flowering and 10 l at the fruiting period. To obtain a bountiful harvest, zucchini is fed weekly with Mitlayder No. 2 mixture (6 kg of nitrophos, 1 kg of urea, 1 kg of potassium sulfate, 1 kg of magnesium sulfate, 15 g of boric acid, 15 g of molybdic acid).
If this is not possible, then make the first dressing before flowering. In 10 liters of water dilute 40-50 g of superphosphate, 20-30 g of potash nitrate and 25 g of ammonium sulphate. Under each plant contribute 1 liter of solution.
The second dressing is carried out before the start of fruiting. In 10 liters of water diluted in 40-50 g of superphosphate and potassium nitrate. Consumption rate on one plant - 1,5 l. For feeding, you can also use a solution of mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:20) at the rate of 2 liters per plant in the first dressing and 4 liters in the second.
Supporters of organic farming can grow zucchini on compost beds, which are made from dry plant residues (potato tops are best suited) and half-ripe last year's compost. No feedings in this case is required.
To combat pests and diseases, squash is sprinkled with wood ash and treated with non-toxic preparations (Narcissus, Zircon, Charm, and others). And to attract pollinators during the flowering period, every morning plants are sprayed with a weak solution of honey.
In order to harvest a good harvest, it is also important to break off large leaves in time and remove ripe fruit. If this is not done, the formation of new ovaries slows down.
HARVEST COLLECTION COLLECTION
The first harvest of juicy fruits can be taken as early as 35-45 days after planting young plants in the ground. Vegetables are used for cooking side dishes, vegetable stews, salads, various preparations for the winter from zucchini. For storage, the fruits are removed from the bush along with the stalk, wrapped in a plastic bag, small holes are made in it and stored on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator or basement.
Choose a site for landing
Place for growing zucchini is of particular importance. Considering that this vegetable is warm, and the light-requiring plot for its planting should be protected from the winds from the north and be sufficiently illuminated.
You can not grow zucchini annually in the same place, as well as after cucumbers, pumpkins and squash (at least 3 years). The best predecessors in this case are cabbage, beets, carrots, peas, tomatoes, potatoes, green and spicy cultures.
Squashes are demanding on soil fertility. Therefore, starting from autumn, the site is subject to deep digging (by 25–35 cm) without breaking lumps, as well as refueling with organic matter. If the soil is acidic, it is lime. In spring, the soil is loosened with a rake, and organic and mineral fertilizers are applied according to its composition.
Squashes can be grown in both open and closed ground. But it is necessary to take into account that this vegetable requires a lot of space - the distance between the rows and in the row is 70 cm (although for some varieties 40–50 cm is allowed).
In the open ground, it is recommended to use the so-called warm bed. It is made high, and the leaves of raspberry, Jerusalem artichoke, carrot tops, beets, last year's grass, compost or humus are laid down under the digging. In this case, a bed with planted plants is recommended to mid-June (depending on climatic conditions) to cover with foil or non-woven shelters. During the day, in good weather, the beds must be aired.
Preparation of plant seeds for sowing
Planted zucchini can be dry seeds or seedlings. Determine the choice of landing method is easy. If your goal is to get a harvest as quickly as possible, the seedling method will be optimal. But the fruits grown seedlings have one drawback - they can not be stored for a long time. Therefore, if you need to store these vegetables, it is preferable to choose planting seeds in the ground. In both cases, pre-sowing seed preparation is important.
Healthy zucchini seeds are flat, oval, milky white or cream in color
As preparatory procedures, freezing, warming and seed dressing are recommended.. These activities can increase the resistance of plants to cold and disease. However, at present, on the packages with seeds, you can find a warning from the manufacturer that they have already undergone such training, therefore, it is not necessary to repeat it.
Be sure to soak the seeds before planting in the groundwhich is carried out in several stages:
- Warm up the seed bag on the battery, this will increase their germination. Reject empty and visually ugly seeds.
- Soak the seeds in warm water. When they swell, place between layers of cloth (using gauze can break off tender roots). The optimum temperature for germination of seeds - 25 C.
- When the shoots reach several centimeters in length (as a rule, in 4–5 days) plant them into the soil.
Terms of planting germinated seeds directly into the ground may vary depending on climatic conditions. On average, these are the last days of May or the beginning of June. The optimum soil temperature is 10–12 C.
Before planting the ground must be watered. 0.5 kg of humus and 2–3 seeds are laid in the earthen hole (depth 10–12 cm), then they are sprinkled with earth 3–4 cm and mulched on top with peat (2–3 cm). Then the extra plants are thinned.
Seedlings of this vegetable is prepared in late April - early May. Trapped seeds are traditionally placed in individual paper cups or peat pots filled with the substrate. Also of interest are alternative methods for obtaining seedlings in so-called snails or roll-ups.
Video: Planting squash seeds in a snail
After the emergence of sprouts, the first dressing of seedlings is made (0.5 tablespoons each of superphosphate and urea spoons per 1 liter of water). In addition, each plant should receive no more than 1.5 Art. spoons of this solution. The second is done in 10–12 days. The composition of the solution is somewhat different - for 1 liter of water at 0.5 st. spoons of ash and nitrofoski (1.5 tbsp. spoons for each bush). For irrigation, only warm water is used - 100 ml for each plant every 4–5 days.
Transplantation of seedlings into the soil is carried out in 25-30 days, when at least three leaves are formed. It is deepened into the ground to the seedbed leaves. Before the onset of sustainable heat, it is recommended to plant the transplanted seedlings with film or non-woven materials.
Non-traditional planting and growing methods
Summer residents who are faced with the problem of lack of free space on their site, invented a rather original way of growing zucchini. Their unusualness lies in the fact that zucchini are planted not in the ground in the garden, but in various devices: bags, barrels, compost heaps. And also there is a vertical landing method.
Grow zucchini in bags is not difficult. To do this, use plastic (large bags for garbage) or polypropylene bags (in such sell sugar, cereals) with a volume of 100-120 liters. Organic residues, compost, sawdust are laid on the bottom and then powdered with earth. Bottom in the bag make several small holes to avoid stagnant water. Squash planted seeds or seedlings, watered. In case of cold weather, cover with a trimmed plastic bottle. At the same time the plant does not require special care and a significant amount of fertilizer.
Squashes in bags allow you to save space on the dacha
Likewise, zucchini can be grown in 150–200 liter barrels. A pipe (with a diameter of not more than 0.3 m) with small holes is vertically installed in the center of the barrel. At the bottom of the barrel is laid drainage in the form of cones or brushwood. Then lay out successively layers of humus, hay, earth, a mixture of sawdust and peat, and finally the soil on which the zucchini will grow. Plants are planted in the wells on both sides of the irrigation pipe, through which it is subsequently irrigated.
Squashes growing in a barrel can be an ornament to your site
Squashes can be grown even on the site of the compost pilecontaining the remnants of last year's hay, vegetable tops, husks from grain. To accelerate the decomposition of these products can be using special microbiological solutions.
Video: Growing on a compost pile
Vertical method of planting courgettes suitable for climbing varieties of courgettes (for example, Profit F1, Ambasador F1). Заключается он в том, что плети растения пускаются по шпалере, прикреплённой к земле или стене.
Кабачки на шпалере выглядят очень эстетично
Описанные выше способы посадки обладают рядом преимуществ. Прежде всего, за растениями гораздо легче ухаживать. И также снижается риск поражения растения заболеваниями и вредителями. In addition to saving space on the site, these "beds" are mobile - they can be moved from place to place. In this case, the greenhouse effect, which occurs inside the bags, barrels and compost heap in the process of decay of organic residues, contributes to the yield in the earlier periods. Another plus of these methods of planting - the fruit of the zucchini always look attractive, because they do not come into contact with the surface of the earth.
We grow zucchini on the balcony
Grow zucchini at home is difficult, but possible. For this, it is necessary that the balcony or the loggia have a southern exposure and are protected from frost, since the zucchini is light-requiring and is afraid of frost. The best temperature for growing is above 16 C.
Squash on the balcony - an outlet for lovers of this vegetable
Each plant is allocated a separate pot, a volume of 10-15 liters of soil. Capacity for planting should be chosen high - 35–40 cm, because when the obstacle reaches the stem root, the growth of the aerial part of the plant slows down. As the soil can be used humus, but be sure to provide drainage in order to avoid stagnation of water (for example, expanded clay or gravel). It is necessary to arrange the pot so that no objects and designs create a shadow. It is also worth taking care of the support to which in the future the zucchini will be tied up.
Not all varieties of zucchini are suitable for growing on the balcony. Preference is better to give shrub early ripe hybrids (Kavili). You can sow the seeds immediately in the tank, but it is better to soak them in the water for 3-4 days and plant the seeds that have already proklyuvnuysya.
If the selected variety is not self-pollinating, it is necessary to ensure the access of insects to the balcony, and sprinkle the sprouts with a solution of honey. If there is no possibility for this, then the plant can be pollinated manually - with a brush, transfer the pollen from the male flowers to the female ones.
It is necessary to water a plant regularly, under a root. During fruiting watering increase. And regular soil loosening will ensure sufficient oxygen supply. You can feed the zucchini with complex water-soluble fertilizers.
You can collect the fruits when they reach a length of 20–25 cm. It is important not to overdo the fruits on the plant. This leads to a decrease in its productivity and early aging.
Which varieties to choose for planting
There are two varieties of this vegetable: white-fruited zucchini and zucchini, having a more diverse color of fruits (yellow, green, variegated, striped). It is believed that zucchini are more resistant to diseases and enter the fruiting stage much earlier. They have a special yield, which is associated with the predominance of female flowers.
In terms of ripening varieties of zucchini are divided into:
- Early ripe (super early). Fruits ripen 30–50 days after planting. These varieties are suitable for cultivation in the Urals and Siberia.
- Mid-season. Fruits are formed on the 50–60 day.
- Late-ripening The fruits of these varieties are harvested at the end of August or in the fall (more than 60 days after planting).
While giving preference to one or another variety of this vegetable, one should take into account that the difference in ripening time between varieties is insignificant, but it is strongly manifested in the yield of this vegetable. The most popular high-yielding varieties and hybrids are briefly described below.
Photo Gallery: The most productive varieties of zucchini
Choosing a sort of zucchini, do not forget about the influence of such factors as:
- resistance to low temperatures
- disease resistance
- self-pollination ability
- features of transportation and storage,
- destination of fruits
- fruit taste.
Rules of growing and care
In the cultivation and care of zucchini are not too whimsical. It should only follow some rules.
- Watering is one of the determining factors for the full development of the plant and its fruits.. Irrigation mode depends on the development stage of the zucchini. Before flowering, sprouts are watered once every 5–7 days at the rate of 5 liters of water for each bush. At the fruiting stage, the irrigation intensity increases up to two times a week using the same volumes of water.It is important to remember that watering zucchini with cold water is impossible. The optimum water temperature for irrigation is 22–25 C.
- Feeding zucchini 2-3 times during the summer: the first is in the phase of 4–5 leaves with a solution of slurry or bird droppings, the second is at the stage of flowering and the formation of fruits by mineral fertilizers. It is important to remember that zucchini does not tolerate chlorine. Carefully read the composition of the fertilizer used.
- Care of the bush. In climbing species of zucchini, the main stem is pinched when buds appear, and side trunks - when they reach a length of 40 cm. In order to improve ventilation and illumination, it is recommended to remove the lower leaves of the plant.
- Caring for the soil is in its loosening and removal of weeds. The first loosening is carried out immediately after the planting of seeds or seedlings. Subsequent loosening is carried out after rain or watering to prevent the formation of a soil crust. They contribute to the preservation of moisture and provide ventilation of the soil.
- Harvesting. Terms of fruit ripening depend on the varieties of zucchini you choose. Harvesting is necessary regularly with a frequency of 2-3 days. It is important to remember that if you skip the harvest, the fruits outgrow and grow coarse, and the growth of young ovaries also lingers. This adversely affects the level of yield.
What are sick vegetables
Like other representatives of pumpkin crops, zucchini can be affected by pests and various diseases. This may adversely affect the degree of yield, the appearance of the fruit or the destruction of the plant. Therefore, it is very important to recognize the disease in time and take measures to eliminate it.
Consider what symptoms of disease damage you may encounter when growing zucchini:
What is zucchini and how to grow it in the open field
Zucchini (Cucurbitapepo) - an unpretentious fast-growing annual plant of the pumpkin family, is a shrub with large sprawling leaves of five blades, characterized by a developed underground part, reaching within a radius of 80 cm and in a depth of 50 cm, branched stem system. This vegetable originally from Mexico appeared in the greenhouses of the Old World at the end of the XVI century as a strange exotic plant. Only two centuries later the zucchini got on the table of Europeans and quickly became popular due to its delicate taste and dietary properties.
There are two main types of it: zucchini and ordinary, which are all distinguished by color. In the first case - dark green fruits, in the second - white or yellow. According to the shape of the bush, this culture is subdivided into bush and half-brush (having a long whip). By the time the fruits appear, they are divided into 3 types: early, middle and late degree of ripening.
The white-fruited zucchini is shaped like a cylinder and tender pulp
Squash peculiar to cross-pollination. Therefore, it is not recommended to grow several varieties simultaneously.
Early ripe varieties
Zucchini early ripening can get the first harvest in forty - fifty days. This, of course, is beneficial for commercial cultivation, as well as in northern latitudes. And in the south you can grow as a second crop, after harvesting early vegetables. These varieties are good for eating without heat treatment.
Tsukesha - a variety of zucchini zucchini with shiny fruits of the color blue spruce. Its taste does not become worse during growth. Easily withstands lower temperatures at the beginning of the growing season. This variety is well transported and stored. It has universal application. With timely watering and fertilizing, the yield is up to 12 kg from one plant.
Chaklun is a variety of bush forms with a maturity of 40–45 days and long-term fruiting. Well resists fungal diseases and rot. The fruit is smooth, round shape of a pale green color. If you do not rip in time, their shape resembles a pear and “ribs” appear. Creamy sweet taste in fruits weighing up to five hundred grams is especially juicy. Well proven in marinating, squash caviar.
In order to save space, varieties of zucchini, growing in the form of a bush and not having long lashes, have been successfully selected. However, good vegetation requires at least 1 m 2 for each bush.
Spicy zucchini does not have long lashes
And also bush varieties are used as an ornamental culture. Since both the flowers and the stem system are similar to wild-growing liana, orchid and other wild plants in Africa.
In addition to the varieties already described, Iskander F1, Chaklun should dwell on some more:
Pharaoh - bush variety with dark green fruit-cylinders with a delicate flesh of orange color. Differs in resistance to diseases and duration of storage.
An aeronaut is a compact bush with few lashes. The flowers are mostly feminine. Zucchini has a cylindrical shape with pronounced ribbing, dark green color in a light speck, grows well in shelters, and on open beds. Creamy flesh is distinguished by its tenderness of taste, used in salads, replacing cucumbers. Squashes of this sort grow in a special way - first upwards, and then they lean towards the ground. It will save their pests.
Spaghetti - squash squash with oval fruits. The flesh is juicy cream, orange color. This variety needs a lot of sun, and in the shade and on the highly moist soil the ovary will disappear. Young zucchini of this variety tastes no different from the usual. But if you cook a fully ripe fruit, the pulp will be divided into orange fibers, resembling thick spaghetti. The storage time in the cellar is up to five months. Zucchini well withstands diseases. Ovaries are formed continuously, even if you do not collect the fruits daily. To get fully ripe fruits for long storage it is recommended to leave only 5–8 ovaries on the bush.
The pulp of ripe squash Spaghetti is very similar to the famous Italian pasta
The yield of these varieties does not depend on weather conditions, the presence of pollinating insects, etc. Among the self-pollinated varieties there are also early ripening (Iskander F1, Kavili F1, Parthenon F1, Suha F1, Sangrum F1) and unique in their appearance (Athena Polka F1, Medusa F1, Squash F1).
The squash tree F1 is a bushy crop with lashes up to 5 meters long, capable of curling over supports or trees. The fruits are well kept on the whips until ripening. The grade is steady and to differences of temperatures, and to a lack of moisture. The plant does not give barren flowers and fruits until late autumn. The term of ripening is 70 days after seed germination. The fruit is small in size, up to 14 cm long, light green in color, thin-bodied. But in the process of maturation the skin becomes stronger and thicker. It has good taste and is suitable for processing.
Variety The cabbage tree has powerful and long lashes
For those who are attracted to the zucchini of irregular shape, we suggest paying attention to the Pear-shaped, Mystery-club-shaped, as well as round-shaped, Ball, Mother-in-law, and Khlebosolnaya, Cook, and Botsman hybrids.
The watermelon varieties are very interesting in their shape, they are very similar in appearance to this melon plant. The huge fruits of the Amazing Giant variety, growing to 10 kg in weight and a meter long, can be stored for over a year. Fruits of the form Ascent of a bizarre form, as if a sculptor worked on them.
It should be noted that each group has strengths and weaknesses:
- Hybrid varieties are known for their highest yields, but seeds must be bought annually.
- Traditional varieties have the most tender flesh, so they are not stored for a long time.
- Zucchini, being in a cool place, retain freshness for more than a month, but their yield is much less.
Therefore, gardeners are usually planted in areas zucchini several varieties.
Planting seeds in open ground
It is possible to grow this crop in open beds, as well as from seedlings, so immediately from seeds.
In the first case, the ripening of fruits comes earlier, but such zucchini is not stored for a long time and you need to quickly process or eat everything. To obtain long-storage zucchini, seeds are sown in the period from early May to 1st decade of June, when the temperature of the earth at a depth of 10 cm will not drop more than 12–13 degrees.
- Soak the seeds in warm water. You can add 1 tablespoon of wood ash solution to the water.
- Put them in a wet cloth for several days at room temperature.
Hardening is considered a reliable method of seed preparation - changing the temperature mode alternately: 12 hours in the cold, 12 hours at room temperature.
In the autumn, dig and feed the soil at a rate of 1 square meter of 10 kg of compost or humus, 50 g of superphosphate and wood ash each.
In the last decade of May, level the ground and prepare the wells (no more than three per square meter). Add organic matter to each of them (1 tablespoon of rotted manure and ash). Stir with the ground and pour.
Put 2–3 seeds in the hole and cover with a layer of earth 5–7 cm, if the soil is light, and a layer of 3–5 cm in heavy soil. When the seeds germinate, leave in each well one by one. The rest can be transplanted. In order to enjoy the delicate taste of fresh zucchini all summer, seeds are sown in 2–4 receptions with an interval of 5–6 days.
Grow zucchini from seedlings in order to obtain an earlier harvest.
In this case, the following sequence of actions:
- Prepare the seeds, as in the first method.
- Prepare the soil for seedlings (50% peat, 20% humus, 20% sod land, 10% sawdust).
- Spread the prepared soil into peat pots.
- Pour hot water to disinfect the soil. If you want to reduce its acidity, add chalk or ash.
- At a depth of 2 cm lay the seeds. Cover the pots with foil.
- After sprouting the seeds, open the containers and temper, transferring to a cool place with good lighting for a week and then back to warm. This procedure will prevent excessive stretching of sprouts.
- Water the seedlings regularly with warm water.
- Feed seedlings twice: 10 days later with organic matter (for example, dissolving 100 g of mullein in 1 liter of water, at a rate of 50 ml per pot) and after another decade 200 ml of nitroammofoski solution (1 teaspoon per 1 liter of water).
- A month after the emergence of sprouts, seedlings can be transplanted to the beds, carefully removing them from the pots along with a clod of earth, trying not to disturb the delicate root system. The seedling should be immersed in the soil to the cotyledons.
After sprouting the seeds, we leave in each pot one sprout, choosing the strongest
The principle of planting seedlings is the same as seed. Observe the distance between the holes and do not forget to add fertilizer to them.
Dive seedlings zucchini is not required.
Adding an article to a new collection
In this publication we will highlight the relevant issues of growing zucchini. When, at what distance and at what depth to plant squash in open ground. Can I plant them in June. How to feed zucchini after planting and how to water.
Zucchini is a guest from faraway Mexico who got acclimatized in our latitudes. At first, in Europe, only the seeds of this vegetable were eaten, then the Italians ventured to try the flesh and were satisfied. And today, the most unusual dish of zucchini, perhaps, are the stuffed flowers, which are particularly popular among residents of Provence.
Despite the simplicity of the vegetable, there are still some features of planting and cultivation, which are important to consider if you want to get a rich harvest.
Growing zucchini seedlings
To grow zucchini seedlings, you can buy soil in a store or mix 1 part sawdust, 2 parts of sod land, 2 parts of compost and 6 parts of peat. Some are not sophisticated and use a 1: 1 mixture of sand and peat for sowing seeds.
Pots with seeds, it is important to put on the sunny window sill, otherwise the seedlings can grow weak. Before the appearance of the first shoots, it is desirable to maintain the temperature in the room at 18-25 ° С. About a week later, the first sprouts are hatching, and after 25-30 days the plants are planted in open ground.
Directly in the open ground zucchini must be planted with an earthy clod, as the roots of this plant do not like too much anxiety. That is why many gardeners use peat pots when growing zucchini seedlings.
There are early squash, as well as varieties and hybrids of medium and late ripening. To keep your table empty until autumn, you can choose several varieties for planting, or plant seeds of one variety every 10 days. After all, squash can be planted in June.
Sowing seeds and planting zucchini seedlings in open ground
It is desirable to start cooking the soil for zucchini in the fall, digging to a depth of 20-25 cm and adding 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulfate to 1 square meter.
Squashes should not be planted next to other plants of the pumpkin family, and it is not recommended to grow them in the same place for several years in a row. But after the potatoes, beets, cabbage, carrots, onions or greens zucchini will feel very good.
In the open ground can be planted as seeds (early May), and seedlings (May-June) squash, if you want to get an earlier harvest. But it is still better to postpone landing for a time when the threat of recurrent frosts has passed.
Предварительно необходимо выбрать в огороде теплое солнечное место и подготовить почву, как следует взрыхлив ее на глубину около 10 см, а также внеся 15 г аммиачной селитры на 1 кв.м.
При выборе и подготовке участка под кабачки необходимо учесть, что овощ недолюбливает кислые почвы с высоким уровнем грунтовых вод, а также плохо реагирует на внесение хлорсодержащих удобрений.
When sowing, the seeds (preliminarily soaked in water without chlorine for several hours, and then germinated in a damp cloth) are buried by 3-4 cm.
In the open ground zucchini planted every 50-70 cm, so that plants do not experience nutrient deficiencies and do not interfere with each other. Some gardeners are lowered into a single planting hole for 2-3 seeds, and after the emergence of seedlings thinned plants, leaving in each well one of the most powerful and well-developed.
How to distinguish zucchini seedlings from pumpkin or cucumber
Sometimes gardeners rearrange the seedlings from the window sill to the window sill, wanting to provide all the plants with enough light, and then ask the question: "How to distinguish the seedlings of zucchini from the pumpkin and cucumber?" Unfortunately, this is not very easy, however there are some special features.
At the zucchini The first true leaf is usually very thin, and the stem is long and painted in a pale green color.
Have pumpkin the stem is thicker and shorter. At the same time, he, as well as the young leaves are painted in a dark green color. In addition, pumpkin leaves are usually somewhat larger, denser and rougher in texture than that of a zucchini.
At the cucumber the most noticeable feature in the phase of cotyledonary leaves is the thinner stem. When real leaves appear, the zucchini and pumpkin begin to grow rapidly, and the cucumber, as a rule, lags significantly behind.
Care for courgettes in the open field
Watering squash should be at the root as the topsoil dries, usually no more than once every 10 days, on average, consuming about 10 liters of water per 1 square meter. Due to excess moisture, the tip of the zucchini may start to rot. But if the summer was drought dry, and the zucchini is thirsty, their stems can crack and suffer from root rot. Therefore, it is always better to focus on weather conditions. Water for irrigation should be heated to 22 ° C or pre-held in the sun, since cool water from a well or column can be one of the reasons for the rotting of the ovaries.
Some gardeners are advised to stop watering at all 7-10 days before harvest, arguing that in this case, zucchini is less susceptible to rotting.
If you are abundantly watering zucchini in a greenhouse or greenhouse, do not forget about airing, because the plant is not too fond of high humidity (more than 70%). It is also desirable to maintain the temperature at 24-26 ° C during the day and 15 ° C at night. If you do not follow these simple rules, plants can express their dissatisfaction by starting to drop ovaries.
In order to ensure a decent harvest, it is necessary to attract as many pollinating insects to the garden. This can be achieved in different ways. For example, during flowering, some gardeners sprinkle zucchini with a solution of sugar (100 g per 1 l) and boric acid (2 g per 1 l). Or left between the beds of the tank with honey diluted in water (1 tsp. Per 1 cup of water). But there is an even simpler way. Plant marshes between the beds, which will attract pollinating insects, provide additional protection for squash from nematodes affecting the roots and will please you with abundant flowering.
When the plants appear 4-5 true leaves, bushes need to pile up to cause the growth of additional lateral roots. Also, before the leaves close together, the soil under the zucchini should preferably be gouged and weeded several times as necessary.
Pustad on zucchini - what to do?
Male flowers that are not able to form the ovary, popularly referred to as barren flowers. However, this is not always a problem, because such flowers fertilize flowers of the female type and soon fall off. But sometimes the number of barren flowers significantly exceeds the number of female flowers. In this case, you should pay close attention to their green pets.
The causes of a large number of barren flowers can be:
- adverse weather conditions
- sour soil
- improper planting or sowing of seeds,
- sowing fresh seeds, which are prone to the formation of barren flowers,
- excess nitrogen fertilizer
- insufficient number of insect pollinators.
In order to cope with adverse weather factors, in cold wet weather, zucchini shelter for the night, as well as pollinate female flowers with a brush. In heat, pollen grains sometimes lose their ability to fertilize. To avoid this, the plants are watered with clean warm water and sprayed with a solution of boric acid (10 g per 10 liters of water).
But most often the cause of infertility zucchini become cucumber mosaic virus and powdery mildew. Vectors cucumber mosaic virus There may be insects (aphid, ants, Colorado potato beetle), so it is best to treat the planting with special preparations, for example, Aktara or Aktellik. It is also important to pickle the seeds before sowing and be sure to disinfect the garden tools.
To disinfect the instrument, you can use a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate, 5-10% solution of ferrous sulfate, Pharmaid, as well as various alcohol-containing agents
For prophylaxis powdery mildew It is important not to over feed plants with nitrogen fertilizers. And in the case of signs of disease, it is necessary to quickly remove the affected leaves and spray the squash with a suitable fungicide (for example, Topaz or Fundazole).
In order to reduce soil acidity, you can use hydrated lime (0.5 kg per 1 sq. m - with a significantly increased acidity, 0.3 kg - with an average degree of acidification, 0.2 kg - with a slightly increased acidity).
Top dressing of zucchini in open ground
Feeding zucchini possible as ready-made fertilizers purchased in the store, and folk remedies. To provide zucchini with essential trace elements, you can use a mixture of 5 g of superphosphate, 2 g of urea and 1 l of water. The first feeding is carried out ten days after the emergence of shoots, the second - a week later.
You can also feed zucchini mullein. To do this, it is diluted with hot water (1:10), allowed to stand for 3-4 hours, then bred again (1: 5), after which you can water the plants under the root. Feeding with mullein possible as at the stage of growing seedlings, and after its planting in open ground. Pre-plants must be watered abundantly.
Zucchini also positively reacts to wood ash, which can be introduced when planting seedlings (about 1 tablespoon to each hole), as well as under digging (1 cup of ash per 1 square meter).
Egg shells can be used as an alternative to ash in feeding zucchini.
From folk remedies, fertilizing with yeast has proven itself well, which also helps to attract some pollinating insects. 30 g of yeast and half a cup of sugar are poured over 3 liters of water and left in the sun until signs of fermentation appear. After which the infusion is diluted with 10 liters of water and watered with the composition of the plant. Sometimes, instead of yeast, dried bread crusts are used, which insist on the same recipe.
A significant amount of nutrients to your zucchini will give and infusion of weeds. Prepare it easy. To do this, you need a barrel, which is filled with weeds by 1/2 or 3/4, topped up with water and, covered with polyethylene, left in the sun for 1-1.5 weeks. Before use, the infusion should be diluted with water 1:10.
Now that you have read our tips on planting squash in open ground (seedlings and seeds), and also learned about some of the features of caring for these plants, it's time to choose planting material. The best varieties of zucchini with photos and descriptions can be found in our previous materials.
The choice of location and compatibility of zucchini with other cultures
Squashes are grown in various parts of the garden or vegetable garden, where there is enough sun. For their planting are great areas where previously grew cauliflower and cabbage, onions, carrots, tomatoes, beets, corn and legumes. Strongly advise not to plant squash after growing pumpkin (cucumber, squash, pumpkin) on this site. It will be possible to plant the culture again after at least three years. It must be remembered that growing next to cucumbers and pumpkin can only be if you do not leave the fruit on the seeds.
The rapid growth of zucchini suggests a sufficient amount of heat and light. Therefore, they are planted in sunny areas without drafts. Due to lack of sun, fewer ovaries form, fruit ripening occurs later.
In what soil to plant plants
Squashes are demanding to the soil. Grow poorly on sour soil. Preparation of the site begins in the fall and consists of digging with the introduction of organic fertilizers (5 kg of compost or humus per 1m 2). If the acidity of the soil is increased, it is necessary to propel it. In the spring, loosen the soil to a depth of 10 cm by adding 15 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m 2.
Preparation and procedure for sowing zucchini seeds
Although the cultivation of zucchini is not a difficult process, for a good fruiting will need to create a number of conditions. This culture will actively develop in warm sunny areas that are protected from the winds. It is necessary to provide for the possibility of regular and abundant watering.
To increase the harvest of zucchini, you need to choose the right place for their cultivation. It is best to prepare the bed in advance in the autumn, but this can be done in the spring, about a week before planting. Culture loves fertile rich soils with neutral acidity.
It will not grow on poor lands, therefore, when digging, it is necessary to apply appropriate fertilizer. Their type and quantity depend on the size of the site and the qualitative composition of the available soil.
The composition of sandy soils need to add the following components per 1 m²:
- 2-3 kg of sawdust or compost,
- 2 tbsp. l ashes
- 1 tbsp. l phosphorus additives (superphosphate),
- 1 bucket of peat and sod garden land.
For the cultivation of zucchini in the open ground with a predominance of the peat component will require the introduction of such fertilizers per 1 m²:
- 2 kg of compost or humus
- 1 bucket of turf land,
- 2 tbsp. l wood ash,
- 1 tsp. potash (potassium sulfate) and phosphate fertilizers.
If the soil is loamy, add 1 m²:
- 3 kg of peat,
- 2 kg of sawdust and rotted compost,
- 2 tbsp. l ashes
- 1 tbsp. l phosphate fertilizers.
Chernozems are diluted with such components (per 1 m²):
- 2 kg of sawdust
- 2 tbsp. l wood ash,
- 1 tbsp. l superphosphate or other nitrogenous fertilizer.
At first, all components, except for mineral granules, are spread evenly over the surface of the bed. Then they dig it to a depth of at least 25-30 cm, level it and spill it well with mineral fertilizer diluted with warm water (about +40 ° C). To retain moisture and heat, the bed is covered with plastic wrap until it is seated.
Crop rotation and compatibility with other cultures
A competent agrotechnical cultivation of zucchini excludes their placement on the same site earlier than in 3-4 years. They will feel good and develop well after many garden plants. It is impossible to plant this crop where melons, cucumbers, pumpkins, watermelons and other melons have grown. Specific bacteria left over from previous relatives can affect squash plantings. The best predecessors for squash squash are: potatoes, onions, carrots, cabbage, grains, green herbs.
Preparation of zucchini seeds
Sowing zucchini engaged when the air temperature does not fall below + 10 ... + 12 ° C, this time in most regions falls on the end of May and the beginning of June. In the northern regions, landing dates often shift to early July. To improve the germination and speed up the time of harvest, it is necessary to prepare seed material in advance in a special way.
The technology of seed preparation consists in the following manipulations:
- seeds are carefully picked, discarding empty and damaged,
- soaked for a few minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, the emerging specimens are thrown,
- seeds that have settled to the bottom of the tank are removed and re-soaked in a solution of any growth stimulant (Appin, Zircon, etc.) for 20-30 minutes,
- then the seeds are filtered, rinsed with lukewarm water and wrapped in a damp cloth for swelling for several hours,
- the swollen, but not yet germinated seed is placed in a refrigerator for 2 days stratification (at a temperature of about 0 ° C),
- then the bundle is placed in a well-lit warm place (on the windowsill) for a few days, the fabric is periodically moistened,
- when the roots reach a length of about 0.5-1 cm, the seeds can be planted.
Sprouted seeds should be planted as soon as possible, it is impossible to delay this process. Because the roots grow quickly, then when they land they can interlace with each other and break off. Damaged seed sprout will not give.
The procedure of sowing zucchini in open ground
When a stable and warm temperature is established outside, the time for planting comes for the zucchini. In order to obtain an earlier harvest, it is recommended to grow this culture in a seedling manner. Sprouted seeds are sown in individual containers (peat pots, plastic cups, etc.) in advance, about 2-3 weeks before the expected date of planting in open ground. Then they are placed at home on the windowsill or in the greenhouse.
The grown seedlings are planted in the ground on the plot when warm weather sets in, and are covered with agrofibre or film.
Agricultural cultivation of squash in a seedless way involves sowing directly into the ground. At a distance of not less than 0.7-1 m, wide and shallow holes are made from each other, in each of which you need to add a little wood ash and humus (2-3 tbsp), then shed light pink solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection. In the hole place 2-3 seeds, after the sprouts appear, leave 1 the strongest, and the extra ones are removed.
If the threat of frost persists, the crops are covered with foil. You can cover each seedling with a glass jar or a cut plastic bottle.
Agrotechnics cultivation of zucchini in the open ground
With competent agricultural practices, the number of days from planting to picking the first fruit can be reduced and a fresh, useful harvest can be obtained much earlier. Proper cultivation technology will provide not only early vegetables, but also greater yields.
The subsequent care of planting squash consists in the following procedures:
- timely and regular watering,
- weeding and thinning green mass,
- dressings (before budding, during flowering and pollination, during ripening and harvesting).
Care for squash before flowering
In order to obtain a larger number of flower pods, it is necessary to take proper care of the zucchini. After germination and before budding, young plants are fed several times. Use mineral nitrogenous and organic fertilizers. Nitrophosphate is used as a substance containing nitrogen, it is diluted with water (30 g per 10 l). The best organics for feeding will be a mullein, which is diluted with hot water in a ratio of 1:10, then allowed to brew for 3-4 hours. After breeding in a ratio of 1: 5 infusion water the plants.
At 1 bush enough 1 liter of fluid. Nutrient water composition is poured directly under the root, avoiding solution on the leaves. The best effect can be achieved by alternating different types of fertilizers.
How to feed zucchini during flowering?
To attract insects that pollinate plants during flowering, it is recommended to spray the leaves and flowers with a sweet composition (use a solution of honey or sugar - 1 tsp per 1 cup of water). To improve access to the buds, it is advised to remove several leaves from the center of the bush.
Flowering zucchini fed with a composition prepared from 10 liters of water, 1 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium nitrate. Each plant consumes up to 1.5 liters of solution. You can insist 60 g of wood ash per 10 liters of water, then add to the liquid the drug Effecton (according to the instructions) and water this mixture of bushes at the rate of 1 l per 1 plant.
How to care for zucchini during fruiting?
An important point in the cultivation of vegetable marrow cultivation are fertilizing during fruiting. For this purpose, such compositions of mineral complexes are used:
- in 1 bucket of water, dilute 2 tbsp. l universal fertilizer (Agricola vegeta and others) and 2 tbsp. l Nitrofoski, then pour under the root (2 liters per bush),
- 1 bucket of water is dissolved in 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfate, double superphosphate and urea (1 l per 1 bush).
Feeding zucchini organic matter (mullein) is carried out according to the previous scheme. During the harvest period, the crop needs foliar fertilizers with growth stimulants (2 liters per 10 m²), the bushes are sprayed at intervals of 10-12 days.
Until the fruits began to ripen, the plants are watered once a week. At 1 bush you need to spend about 2 liters of water. You can combine humidification with dressings. Water only warm solution, because the cold water from the cold ovary rots. With the onset of fruiting, watering is increased to 2–3 times a week. At 1 bush will already go from 3 to 5 liters.
But too much zucchini doesn’t like excessive moisture, when growing foliage it should be well ventilated. Therefore, while between rows of leaves do not close, at least three times weeds are removed between the rows. If this procedure is not carried out in time, then without damaging the sheet plates it will not be possible to do this. Thickened and overgrown plantings are susceptible to various fungal diseases and pest attacks.
Болезни и вредители, методы защиты и профилактики
Тыквенные культуры достаточно часто поражаются различными грибковыми заболеваниями, а также подвергаются нападкам насекомых-вредителей. Zucchini care includes a number of preventive measures, which consist in observing crop rotation, timely and thorough removal of all plant residues.
Most often squash suffer from the following diseases:
- Mealy dew. The disease is manifested loose grayish-white bloom, which eventually turns brown. The leaves curl and dry, the fruits stop growing and deform. The reason is the sharp temperature jumps and an excess of nitrogen. Spraying with colloidal sulfur or fungicide solution helps (Bayleton, Topsin-M and others). If necessary, the procedure is carried out twice with an interval of 2 weeks.
- Black mold. Symptoms are round or angular yellow-rusty spots, which eventually turn black-brown, then the leaves crumble and crumble. Fruits stop growing and shrink. The disease is not treated, damaged bushes need to be destroyed.
- Bacteriosis On the leaves are formed oily spots, darkening with time. Fruits become vitreous, ulcerate and rot. The provoking factor is warm and humid weather. Aid treatment Bordeaux fluid (1%).
- Sclerotinia (white rot). White fungal patches cover all the green parts of the plant, including the ovaries, which first soften and then dry. The fungus often affects excessively thickened plantings, as well as during prolonged wet and cold weather. The affected bushes are immediately removed and burned.
- Anthracnose. Brownish-yellow round spots appear on the leaf plates, which turn into holes after drying. Then the whole green mass is affected, the fruits dry out on the vine. The development of the disease provokes wet, but hot weather. Spraying with Bordeaux liquid (1%) and dusting with finely ground sulfur (20–30 g per 10 m²) are used to fight.
Pest insects can inhibit culture:
- Gourd aphid. It damages the entire green aboveground part, which gradually dries out. Spraying with the extract of potato tops, onion, garlic, hot hot pepper, dusting with tobacco dust and processing with a solution of household soap (300 g per bucket of water) help. When a large number of pests appear, insecticides are used (Decis, Karbofos).
- Whitefly. Insects leave a sticky sugar coating on the back of the leaf plates. The traces of their vital activity become a breeding ground for the development of fungal infections, leading to wilting of the foliage. The spots are washed off with plain water, the ground under the bushes is loosened 2 cm deep. In case of severe damage after harvesting, the plants and the soil beneath them are sprayed with insecticidal preparations (Commander).
- Slugs Insects eat flowers, leaves and stalks of zucchini, spoil the presentation of the fruit and suffer infections. As a preventive measure, scaring crops (mustard, garlic, lavender) are planted nearby. Arrange various traps and collect pests manually. Ground mustard, pepper, ground egg shells, and pine needles are scattered around the bushes. Copper sulphate or superphosphate is used as a last resort.
Harvesting and storage of zucchini
Harvesting zucchini is carried out as the fruit grows throughout the season. The most useful and tasty are immature vegetables with a length of 15 to 25 cm, while they still have a thin skin and tender small seeds. Harvesting such specimens stimulates the bush for the rapid growth of other fruits and the formation of a larger number of ovaries.
Young zucchini intend for quick consumption, they can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 2 weeks.
Few know how to harvest properly. You can’t just pluck the fruit, the stem is badly damaged and an infection can get into the wound. Experts recommend cutting vegetables with a sharp knife. Not quite ripe zucchini pruned at the base of the stalk, more ripe tail left at least 5-7 cm.
Vegetables intended for long-term winter storage should be allowed to fully mature. The degree of maturity and when it is time to remove the zucchini for storage are determined by the thick hard crust and the corresponding booming sound when tapped. After cutting, the ripe fruit is left for 5-7 days to lie on the garden bed so that they can warm up well in the sun, and the skin hardens even more.
A thick bark will prevent the entry of harmful bacteria into the vegetable and will contribute to longer storage. Periodically, the fruit must be turned. To increase keeping quality, the ends of the remaining stalks are dipped into melted paraffin.
Store zucchini in a dry cellar or basement with good exhaust ventilation. Fruits spread on shelves lined with paper or straw, hung in nets (you can for the remaining long stalk) to the ceiling or placed in boxes, pouring vegetables with sawdust (they should not touch). If you can not keep the harvest in a special room, you can store zucchini in the apartment. To do this, they are placed in a dry and dark place (under the bed, closet, in the closet, at the balcony door).
Some fruit can be stored in the refrigerator. Wrapped in a pre-perforated polyethylene, they are placed in the vegetable compartment. Properly grown and well ripened zucchini can last up to a fresh crop. But in spring, the seeds inside the fruit begin to root, and the flesh acquires a bitter taste.