Beijing cabbage is a cold-resistant, annual vegetable crop. The vegetation period does not exceed 2 months, from sowing seeds to the formation of a full-fledged head of cabbage. Growing Chinese cabbage in your beds will provide an opportunity to provide the whole family with vitamins.
Upon reaching commercial quality, depending on the variety, it may have:
- short oval
- long oval,
- dense or loose head.
The average length of a sheet is 25 cm. The structure and color of leaf plates can also vary significantly. The color range is from rich green to light green, the structure is slightly bloated and wrinkled.
Beijing cabbage is grown on all types of protected and open ground as a sealer for tomatoes, zucchini, cucumbers, white cabbage, or as an independent crop.
How to grow Chinese cabbage
Experienced gardeners and beginners are often plagued by issues related to growing new, unusual crops. Beijing cabbage, in this regard, is no exception. Here are just some of them:
Despite the seemingly unpretentiousness, the cultivation of Chinese cabbage has its own nuances and minor tricks, non-observance of which can significantly reduce the yield and nullify all the efforts of gardeners.
Seedlings or seeds
How exactly the way, seedlings or seeds, to plant Peking cabbage depends on individual conditions:
- where and how the plant will develop: in a greenhouse, on ridges, in open ground,
- what is the average day length, planting time (spring, end of summer).
When planting and cultivating Chinese cabbage in a hot and / or dry time, the plant goes sharply in color and heads of cabbage are not formed. In addition, the culture begins to actively produce arrows and with excessive light, including during the long white nights, which are characteristic of some northern regions, as well as Siberia.
Growing Peking cabbage in Siberia and the Urals is quite possible, but it is necessary to artificially adjust the lighting, i.e. choose areas with shading or forcibly cover the planting from the light in the greenhouse.
Seeding is done in March, early April, late July, as well as in the first decade of August. Sowing scheme 20 × 40 cm. For planting in other time periods, only universal varieties are suitable, mainly hybrids, such as “Chinese selective”, “Lyubasha”, “Naina F1”,
Planting of seedlings is carried out in the same time as the seeds, but since the plant has already passed the initial stage of growth (the formation of roots, the appearance of the first leaves), the crop can be harvested much earlier. Landing scheme 30 × 50 cm.
You can not sow the seeds or plant seedlings of cabbage after collecting any cruciferous crops: radish, turnip, mustard, radish, as they affect common pests and diseases.
Sowing of seeds is carried out after warming up the soil, as a rule, this occurs in early May. To obtain the autumn harvest, sowing campaign can be started in the second decade of July. Pre-soaking of seeds is not required. The sowing scheme for growing as a salad culture is 20 × 20 cm, if necessary for the formation of a head - 35 × 35 cm, 50 × 50 cm. The seeding rate is 4 g for every 10 m². The best results are obtained when sowing seeds on ridges with their penetration into the soil by 10–15 mm.
Transplantation of seedlings in the ground is performed in early May. The planting pattern is 30 × 50 cm. When planting, care must be taken to ensure that the root system is not damaged in any way. lump of earth.
To obtain high yields, it is necessary to monitor the compliance of the selected variety with the time span of planting, i.e., early ones should be planted in spring, and later ones closer to autumn and not vice versa.
Peking cabbage care
Care for Chinese cabbage, as well as for any vegetable crop, consists of watering, weeding and feeding plants.
For obtaining good yields, an optimal balance between air temperature and humidity regime is extremely important. Especially true this statement during the formation of the head and outlet.
- in the afternoon from 15 to 19 ° C,
- at night not below 8 ° C.
- on an overcast day 70%,
- sunny day 80%
- at night about 80%.
Ground moisture 65%.
If these requirements are not followed, the leaves are often affected by various diseases, such as gray, white and black rot. As a result, the plant does not develop normally and the formation of a head does not occur.
Despite the fact that the culture needs a well-hydrated soil, it does not tolerate stagnant water.
Beijing cabbage prefers fertile soil, which contains a large amount of nitrogen and calcium. But even if the land of the garden is poor in organic matter and trace elements - it does not matter.
The plant responds well to a variety of top dressing, both of natural origin (mullein), and to feed it with complex fertilizers:
- Autumn - 4.5 kg of manure, 1.5 dessert spoons of double superphosphate and 2.5 dessert are required for each m². spoons of potassium sulfate. In the absence of the last component, it can be replaced with ordinary wood ash at the rate of 1-liter jar per 1 m² of soil,
- Before planting, a solution prepared from bird droppings (water 10 liters and ½ kg manure) or eggshell (30 grams of crushed shells insist for 2 days in 5 liters of water) is introduced. If for some reason fertilizers were not added to the soil in the fall, then before planting, during spring digging, you need to add potassium sulfate, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate, each component is taken in the amount of 1 tbsp. l for each m².
Beijing cabbage has a high ability to accumulate nitrates, so fertilizer is not recommended during the vegetative period. All fertilizers must be applied before the plant is planted on the plot.
- Watering - in dry weather, it is necessary to water daily, it is better to do it with a sprinkling method, in this case the plants get the required amount of moisture and at the same time there is no over-wetting of the soil.
Peking cabbage pests and methods to combat them
In fact, there are not so many pests that affect Peking cabbage:
- cruciferous flea,
- butterfly bowler,
- cruciferous bug.
Given that the culture has the ability to accumulate harmful substances in itself, non-chemical drugs are the most acceptable for pest control. Preferred folk methods that with regular use give excellent results:
- Planting crops between rows of tomato, onion or garlic significantly reduces the activity of the cruciferous flea. As a stronger means, it is recommended to spray the plants and the soil between the rows with a special solution. For its preparation, you need to take green potato and tomato tops. Each component of 200 g and 2 large heads of garlic. Grind all ingredients and leave for about a day. Peking cabbage photo, which is located below, is planted according to this principle - between two beds of onion.
- Careful and systematic removal of weeds, also prevents damage to plants cruciferous cruciferous.
- After appearing in the garden of cabbage butterflies, it is necessary to inspect the lower surface of the leaves as often as possible. Upon detection of clutches, the pest eggs are destroyed. This method, though laborious, but gives good results, significantly reduces the likelihood of the appearance of caterpillars.
Beijing or Chinese?
Growing Chinese cabbage in the open field, subject to a few simple conditions, can be done even by a beginner in gardening. Some difficulties can arise only at the initial stage - the purchase of seeds, because sometimes on bags sold in all specialized stores, you can see different names and the same picture of a vegetable. Everyone knows that Beijing is the capital of China. Therefore, it is logical that Peking cabbage and Chinese are one and the same, however, there are two varieties of this vegetable. One - cabbage salad, or bok-choi, the other - forming cabbages, or pet-sai. Side-choi does not form heads, only leaves that are formed by a rosette around the main bud. For the sake of these leaves, unusually useful from the standpoint of medicine, it is cultivated. In Russia, bok choy is often called Chinese cabbage, and pet-sai is called Peking cabbage. It is also good for health. So, it contains a lot of vitamins A, C, B, PP, there are carotene, citric and ascorbic acids, proteins important for the human body.
So that cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open field does not bring unexpected surprises, let us get acquainted with the appearance of this vegetable. If all the norms of sowing and care are observed, the harvest is a loose oblong head up to 35 cm long. At the base, each leaf has a large, fleshy central core, whitish in color. Its shape is most often triangular, and the dimensions are such that they make up about 20% of the sheet and more. The rest of it is rather tender, pale green, less often green or saturated green, slightly convex, with jagged edges. In the section, the head of cabbage has a yellowish-green color. Seeds in Beijing cabbage are small, similar to tiny balls. This vegetable loves moisture, light and heat, but is able to withstand frosts on the soil to -4 degrees Celsius. This does not apply to young shoots of Peking cabbage, which need to provide positive temperature.
Features of growing
Beijing cabbage has many features. One of them is very fast germination. Therefore, the cultivation of Chinese cabbage in open ground seed is considered the most convenient way of its cultivation. The main condition that must be met is temperature. The fact is that Beijing cabbage gives full heads only in the range of air temperatures from +13 to +22 degrees Celsius. In cooler weather, this overseas vegetable actively forms arrows, at higher ones it does not tie good heads and also throws out flower stalks. Terms of planting in each region should be focused on climatic conditions, taking into account the fact that seeds germinate no longer than a week at an ambient temperature of up to +5 degrees and about 4 days at +13 degrees. On average, spring cabbage is sown in open ground from mid-April to mid-June, but experienced gardeners are advised to sow at intervals of about 2 weeks to have a crop for a long time.
How to sow seeds
Growing Beijing cabbage in the open field in spring is the most convenient way to get a high yield. For beds allocate a well-lit place with a light neutral soil. Seeds are placed in the ground to a depth of no more than 2 cm, and better - from 1 to 1.5 cm. At Peking cabbage, before the formation of heads, very large lower leaves grow, which later die off, but during the growth process they interfere with each other. On this basis, the distance between future cabbages should be at least 30 cm. It is almost impossible to withstand, sowing small seeds, therefore it is necessary to thin out the shoots in the future. For the seedlings to appear faster, and also to protect them from possible frost, it is desirable to cover the crops with foil.
Growing Chinese cabbage in open ground is rarely difficult. After the emergence of seedlings and thinning in the first place in importance is the correct watering. Beijing cabbage loves moisture and with its lack of good heads does not form. However, with an excess of water, it begins to rot. Watering it must be abundant, but so that the water does not stagnate, and in particularly hot days to arrange their plants irrigation rain method. It is important for cabbage and weeding, as well as shallow loosening of the soil. Feed this vegetable 2 times per season with a slurry or mullein solution.
Not only seeds, but also seedlings practiced cultivation of Peking cabbage in the open field at home. This is done for earlier ripening of the crop or for obtaining several harvests per season. Engaged in seedlings of Beijing cabbage begin in the second half of April. This plant does not like transplants and picks, so each seed is immediately placed in a separate cassette or in a peat pot (pill). You can also sow 2-3 seeds, in order to leave the strongest seedling after germination, and remove the rest. As soon as the shoots hatch, containers with seedlings are transferred to a well-lit, but not hot place (medium temperature - up to +18 degrees), so that the shoots are not strongly stretched. Otherwise it will be problematic to land them. On the garden seedlings are planted with a lump of earth, without damaging the root system. The wells make one from another at 25-30 cm. In each add half a glass of ash and a pinch (up to a teaspoon) of complex fertilizers. Sprouts are ready to move to open ground, when there will be 5-6 leaves on each. In the first days after disembarking, young plants should be covered overnight with a film from sudden changes in temperature. Harvest can be collected in 3 weeks.
Growing in summer
Since Beijing cabbage ripens very quickly, its harvest per season can be harvested twice, re-sowing seeds from late July to mid-August. In June, it is not sown, which is associated with the length of daylight hours, which for the formation of heads should be no more than 12-13 hours. Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in open ground in July is not much different from the process in the spring. The only thing that gardeners should additionally do is to artificially shorten the length of daylight for their cabbage, covering the plants with lutrasil. It is also necessary to ensure sufficient watering and prevent the soil from drying out. To get seeds, cabbage is planted in the months when the sun shines for more than 13 hours. It does not matter how high the temperature is.
Shooting cabbage cabbage
Almost all gardeners planted cabbage for the sake of getting heads. But sometimes instead of forming the heads, the plants start throwing out floral arrows, and the harvest does not work. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary with the observance of all norms to cultivate Peking cabbage in open ground. The photo below shows how the rows should look before the last thinning. With this method of planting, extra plants are not thrown away, but used for cooking.
Arrows may appear:
- at too long light day,
- lack of nutrients in the soil,
- insufficient watering in hot weather.
Sometimes the cabbage is naughty when it is transplanted. This happens when gardeners, thinning plantings, try to save excess plants, transplanting them to another place.
Pests and diseases
Growing Peking cabbage in the open field at the cottage or backyard usually takes place without difficulty. Important: it is undesirable to plant this crop after other cruciferous plants (radish, radish, mustard), which reduces the risk of the appearance of diseases characteristic of these crops. Among the pests most often cabbage is attacked by fleas, which can completely destroy the seedlings. To fight insects, bed should be sprinkled with ashes. They love to feast on cabbage leaves and slugs. If they are seen on the site, special traps are arranged for them. Another pest - cabbage, laying eggs on the back of the leaves. If found such masonry, they are destroyed by hand.
What is Chinese cabbage?
Beijing cabbage is a biennial plant that is grown as an annual. Depending on the variety, it has leaves of a light yellow or bright green color. This plant is a loose head with juicy tender leaves that have a white vein. The edges of the leaves have a beautiful wavy or jagged shape.
The peculiarity of the variety is that it does not have a stalk. A head of cabbage plants are thrown into the soup or pickled, and the leaves are used mainly for the preparation of salads. Asia is famous for pickled Peking cabbage. They call this dish kimchi and many believe that it prolongs life.
How to grow cabbage
Why peking is becoming increasingly popular? This plant is a source of nutrients and vitamins. The main advantage of the variety is that even in winter it does not lose its vitamins and benefits the body.
The most important beneficial substances that are included in its composition include:
- mineral salts,
- vitamins C, A, K, PP, and a group of vitamins B,
- amino acids
- organic acids.
In addition, the "peking" has healing properties. She helps:
- in cardiovascular diseases,
- stomach ulcer,
- strengthens the immune system
- prolongs the life of man.
The right way to plant Chinese cabbage at home
Какой садовод не мечтает порадовать себя и других новыми достижениями и вырастить дома китайскую капусту. Чтобы вырастить это растение из семян можно их посадить сразу в открытый грунт, а можно вырастить сначала рассаду. Planting Chinese cabbage at home in Belarus and Moscow region and in the Urals and in Siberia follows the same pattern.
The only difference is when to start sowing the seeds and the time when the vegetable begins to bloom. If you decide to use the first method, then you should punch the holes 30 cm apart from each other and pour humus into them. Seeds are sown to a depth of no more than 2 cm. Sprinkled with ashes on top and covered with foil. After a week you can see the first shoots.
Seed planting scheme
What to do and how to plant seeds in the country or in the garden to get a good harvest? It is necessary to choose the right time for planting. Duration of cabbage planting:
- spring from April 20 to April 20,
- in the summer from July 19 to August 9.
Growing and caring for seedlings
If you want to get an early harvest, then the “peking” for seedlings should be sown at the end of March. And if you want to enjoy the harvest in the winter, then the seedlings should be planted in the second half of June.
A loose soil is suitable for this plant, because for sowing it is best to use a mixture of humus (1 kg) with a coconut substrate (2 kg).
Seeds are immersed in the ground no more than 1 cm and put in a dark and warm room. When the first sprouts appear after 3 days, they should be transferred to the illuminated place.
It is necessary to care for Chinese cabbage no more than for usual white or color.
In general, the shoots will be ready for planting in a month, when they will have 4 leaves each.
When can be planted in open ground
Before planting seedlings in open ground, it must be hardened. To do this, take young sprouts to fresh air, first for a couple of hours, then gradually stay longer on the street. When they are able to spend a day on the street, then the seedlings will be ready for landing on a permanent place.
As for the soil for this vegetable, it should be well drained and loose. An excellent option would be loamy soil. In addition, the plant of this variety should not be planted on the place where tomatoes and beets were previously grown.
The ground for planting such a wonderful variety is beginning to be prepared in the autumn. To do this, dig up the soil and make it lime. When the soil is dug up in the spring, then humus is added to it.
Growing Peking Cabbage
How to grow and care for peking in the greenhouse
"Peking" feels great in the greenhouse. However, for this it is necessary to strictly adhere to 2 rules:
- Observe the temperature regime from 15 to 20 degrees - so an unheated greenhouse will not work,
- Humidity should be in the range of 70-80%.
If you do not comply with these standards, it may form a peduncle, as well as the plant will be exposed to various diseases.
The advantage of growing Chinese cabbage in a greenhouse is that you can independently adjust the length of the day and maintain the optimum temperature. A greenhouse will also help protect your crop from frost. And if it is heated at you, then you can grow this plant even in winter.
Beijing cabbage in the greenhouse
This plant loves moisture, coolness and light. Particularly sensitive to temperature changes and frosts are young shoots. Therefore, in order to protect them and allow them to bloom, it is necessary to cover with a non-woven cloth.
In addition, the canvas will also protect the vegetable from direct sunlight on particularly hot days. And it also helps to remove excess moisture and hide the sprouts from the cruciferous flea that loves to profit from it. It is useful to make and mulch the soil, which will retain moisture and prevent the emergence of weeds.
Fertilizing effect on it is fruitful. The first feeding is carried out 14 days after disembarkation in open ground.
Particularly useful infusions of chicken manure, grass or mullein. Under each plant poured a liter of this fertilizer. If cabbage was planted in the spring, then fertilizing should be carried out 3 times, and if in the summer, then 2 times.
If you want to get a good ovary, then it is necessary to drop 2 g of boric acid in a liter of hot water and in 9 l of cold water and treat it with a peking solution.
Harvesting and storage
To vegetable lay in the cellar as long as possible, it is better to give preference to varieties that are harvested in September. As well as the more leaves will remain with the head of cabbage, the longer the plant will be stored. In addition, it will lie longer if it is placed in a room with high humidity. In addition, each head is well wrapped in plastic wrap. It should also be every 14 days to inspect each head, remove dried or rotten leaves.
Cabbage can also be stored in the refrigerator or on the balcony. The main thing is that it does not form condensate, and the temperature did not fall less than 0 degrees.
In general, when storing cabbage on a balcony or refrigerator, you should follow the same rules as when stored in a cellar.
You should also be aware that the vegetable will lie in such conditions from 1 to 4 months. If you want it to last longer, you can use the following storage methods:
The first method is sourdough. It is one of the easiest ways to store. The starter recipe is very simple: you need 10 kg of slaw to pour 600 ml of water and add 100 mg of vinegar, 2 tsp. salt and sugar, and also squeezed through a press 2 cloves of garlic. Further under the pressure, all this should be in a room with room temperature for about a day, and then 14 days in the cold.
To dry the peking, it is cut into strips and placed in an oven heated to 100 degrees and opened the door slightly. It will be ready in 4 hours, after which the dried vegetable is placed in cotton bags.
As you can see, Beijing cabbage is a wonderful plant that will look like decoration on any table. Do not be afraid to take up the cultivation of peking, because it is not picky in the care and very helpful. Therefore, each gardener should be allocated a place in his summer cottage Peking cabbage.
Proper cultivation of Peking cabbage
To grow such a culture in the open field can be seedless and transplanting way. When sowing seeds in open ground, the first bore already appear at a temperature of 4 degrees, and the active development occurs from 15 to 22 degrees. At temperatures above 22 degrees, the cabbage begins to go in color, especially if there is an increased light day outside. Based on this, professional gardeners recommend planting lettuce cabbage in a seedling way, which allows to avoid problems with flowering and get a harvest a month later after planting seedlings in the soil.
If we talk about growing seedlings at home for later transplanting it to the garden, then this procedure should be started in early April, so a very early harvest can be obtained. But if the vegetable need for consumption in the winter, then the cultivation of seedlings must be transferred to the end of June.
When growing seeds for seedlings, they should be placed in loose soil. Soil, for example, may consist of one part of humus and two parts of a coconut substrate. It is important to remember that Beijing cabbage seedlings do not tolerate picking based on this, it is recommended to plant seeds of three things in different peat pots. This method will help to avoid damage to seedlings when transferred to open ground.
Sow seeds need to dry, but always in a moist substrate about one and a half centimeters deep. After which the container is placed in a darkened warm place, and when the first shoots appear, the container with the seedlings is transferred to the light. The temperature content of seedlings should not exceed 8 degrees. Water the seedlings must be separated with warm water then when the surface layer the substrate has visibly dried up, and after watering the wet soil should be very carefully loosened.
At the time of emergence of three true leaves in seedlings, weak seedlings carefully pinch off and leave only strong and strong ones. Pulling out weak seedlings is not worth it, so as not to damage the roots of those seedlings that will be transported and grown in open ground.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Seedlings should be planted on the bed when the seedlings have already formed 5-6 leaves. It is important to remember what to plant in open ground Beijing cabbage seedlings need no earlier than three weeks from the moment of emergence.
Ten days before transferring the seedlings to the beds, it is required to quench it, for this it is necessary to carry out the seedlings to the yard and every day increase its stay outdoors, on the tenth day the cabbage should spend the whole day on the street. It is important to remember that 4 days before transplanting the seedlings should stop their watering, so that the seedlings do not start to stretch, abundant watering should be carried out just before the transplant.
Peking Cabbage is a light-loving culturetherefore, it should be planted in well-lit areas. It is best to grow a culture in neutral soil, which should be loose and light. Cabbage grows well in those areas where cucumbers, carrots, onions and potatoes were previously grown. But one should not plant lettuce cabbage in places where tomatoes or beets were previously grown.
Prepare the soil planting culture since the fall, for this you need to make lime or dolomite flour under the digging. In the spring, the plot is re-digged and one ten-liter bucket of compost or humus is distributed to each square meter of land, after which the earth is harrowed.
In order to avoid plant diseases and protect it from pests, at the time of formation of the beds, two glasses of wood ash, two tablespoons of superphosphate and a teaspoon of urea are put into each well. Fertilizer is thoroughly mixed. with soil and watered with water, after which the peat pot with a seedling is planted in the center of the hole and buried.
When planting, it is important to observe the required distance between the holes, so if the plant is grown exclusively for salads, then the distance between the holes should be 15 centimeters, with a row spacing of 50 centimeters, and for forming large heads for winter storage the distance should be at least 50 centimeters.
Diseases of lettuce and pests
Beijing, like any other types of cabbage, is subject to the following diseases:
- black ring spot,
- vascular bacteriosis,
- downy mildew,
- white rot,
Dangerous for this culture The following insects are:
- cabbage fly,
- harmful centipede,
- wavy flea,
- cabbage moth,
- bed bugs
- fire rake
- sprout fly,
- dark nutcracker
- sticky mosquito
Most often, proper adherence to all the fundamentals of agrotechnology is the best way to prevent the onset of diseases and the attack of harmful insects on cabbage. But if the plant has undergone fungal diseases, it can be treated with such drugs as Skorom, Tomaz, Quadris, Fundazol or Horus. If the cabbage began to overcome viral diseases, the plant should be removed from the soil as soon as possible and burned, since it cannot be treated, and removing it from the garden will help to preserve healthy specimens.
In the case of insects well spraying of cabbage with insecticides helps, and in cases with arachnids - with insect acaricides. It is worth noting that when harmful insects appear, the plant should be sprayed several times, observing the necessary frequency, but no later than a month before harvesting.
We grow seedlings
Peking cabbage is resistant to cold. Vegetable seeds germinate, even if the air temperature drops to + 5 degrees. Sprouts quickly appear at a temperature of + 17 to + 25 degrees. I grow Peking cabbage in a seedling way, and my acquaintances as well.
In this case, you will harvest 25 days after planting! I recommend to sow seeds in pots for a month before planting in open ground.
Let's talk about how to grow seedlings of Peking cabbage. Seeds of plants take root in the easy, fertile, drained soil. You can cook it yourself: take 70% coconut substrate and 30% humus soil.
Beijing cabbage, like other vegetables, does not tolerate picks. I advise you to sow the seeds not in a common container, but in separate pots. I grew seedlings in peat tablets; I didn’t remove the plants when planted in the open ground.
Before sowing the seeds in the substrate, it is necessary to moisten it. Seeds should be determined to a depth of 1.5 cm. They quickly "hatch" if they are in a warm place. After 5-7 days you will see shoots, I advise you periodically to bring them to the light. I kept the seedlings at a temperature of + 8 degrees. I recommend to determine it on an unheated veranda.
Care of seedlings, landing on the garden
It is necessary to water seedlings with soft warm water (it is good if it is settled). Add water as the substrate dries. After some time, the seedlings will form 3 leaves. Thinning will be required, only the strongest specimens should be left in the pots. Weakened need to pinch off, while trying not to damage the roots.
Approximately 25 days after sowing seeds, seedlings form 6 leaves, then they are planted in open ground. Pre advise tempering seedlings. Take it out to the yard every day for 10-15 minutes. In order for your seedlings to grow well in open ground, it is necessary to increase the duration of hardening.
3 days before the seedlings are planted on the garden, water is stopped, otherwise the seedlings are drawn out and grow poorly.
15 minutes before disembarking a flower bed, miniature plants should be plentifully watered. My friends ask what the ground should be for Chinese cabbage.
Vegetable culture needs sunlight. She prefers spacious lighted areas. Soil for Chinese cabbage should be:
I planted a plant in loamy soil, I will say that it stuck well. It is important to observe crop rotation!
Beijing cabbage pleases with a rich harvest if planted after:
Green manure plants are favorable predecessors. I do not recommend planting vegetables after tomatoes and cucumbers, otherwise diseases will overtake him.
Cook a bed in the fall. Dig it to 20 - 30 cm, add lime and a small amount of dolomite flour.
Wait until spring, then again dig the ground to the same depth, add 10 liters of compost per 1 square. m, form the holes for seedlings (the optimal value of 1 piece - 8 cm). The distance between the specimens should be 15 cm.
The recommended row spacing is 45 cm. Before planting seedlings, fertilize the holes: take 30 g of superphosphate, combine with 300 g of wood ash and 10 g of urea. Mix fertilizer with fertile soil, place in the wells and add water.
Carefully remove the plants from the pots. If you chose peat tablets for planting, you do not need to take out seedlings. It should be planted in these tanks. Next you need to seal the soil and make water.
Mulching, watering, insect control, weeding
Miniature plants should be protected from the effects of cold wind and temperature extremes. You should protect them from contact with direct sunlight, otherwise the leaves will wither or be covered with burns.
Peking cabbage seedlings can attack the cruciferous flea. It is necessary to fight this pest. I advise you to straw the soil 2 weeks after planting.
Peking cabbage does not need hilling, but you should loosen the soil near it. Do not forget to weed vegetables, remove dry leaves, unnecessary branches and weeds. Beijing cabbage requires moderate watering. I advise you to make water 1 time in 7 days (at the root).
Watering the plant is best in the morning. Mulching in this case is very useful, as it retains moisture for longer. Use straw or peat, layer size should be 6 cm.
Peking cabbage needs nutrients. The first time I fed her 15 days after disembarking on the garden bed. Used a solution of mullein 1:10. The plant can be fertilized with bird droppings; a solution of 1: 10 should be made. A liter of organic product is designed for 1 bush.
I advise you to fertilize during the growing season. In addition to organic, you can use other tools.
Take 1 g of boric acid and dissolve in 700 ml of water. This solution is not used in pure form, it is diluted with water in an amount of 8 liters. The resulting tool is applied from the spray. I advise you to spray the vegetable in the evening. A shrub fructifies well if it is in a short daylight environment.
After the seeds germinate, the plant forms a rosette of leaves. Further, it accumulates valuable substances and forms fruits weighing 1.5 kg. Shrub, on which there are 9 matured leaves, forms flowers.
Beijing cabbage can be grown in a greenhouse. To make it grow well and enjoy a rich harvest, it is necessary to create an appropriate temperature regime. Овощную культуру выращивают при температуре от + 16 до + 21 градуса.
Если в теплице будет слишком высокая температура, растение будет образовывать цветоносы и в дальнейшем болеть. Уровень влажности должен быть в пределах а 80%. The advantage of a greenhouse plant is that it bears fruit one week earlier.
As for the soil, there are no special requirements, it can be the same as for the bed.
Beijing cabbage can be attacked by such insects:
Insect repellent should be used. In some cases, vegetable culture is overtaken by fusarium wilt, bacteriosis, white rot, mosaic. In order to avoid diseases, it is necessary, first of all, to observe crop rotation. Having found the affected specimens, do not panic.
If the plant has become infected with fungal disease, Topaz or Fundazole should be used. Mosaic and ring spots - viral diseases. They are not amenable to treatment, so the affected bushes are dug up and disposed of away from the garden. Plants tend to accumulate harmful substances, so preventive treatment should be carried out 30 to 50 days before harvesting.
Seedlings. Due to precocity, the rapid formation of the vegetative mass, from an cabbage on average for 50 days, you can get ready-to-eat fruit (forks) weighing up to 1 kg. Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground with the help of seedlings reduces the time of its ripening to 4.5 weeks. When choosing seeds for spring planting leaf varieties are needed, for the cultivation of July - fork. Thus, the cabbage can be grown in the garden.
Grow seedlings better withusing peat pots or pills, for which:
- soil mixture of humus + coconut substrate is stuffed into them in a ratio of 1: 2, in the second variant - turf soil + peat in a ratio of 1: 1.
- seeds are immersed in them up to 1 cm
- for the emergence of shoots boxes with pots placed in a warm place without lighting for three days,
- after germination for the active development of seedlings due to photosynthesis, young seedlings are brought to light at an air temperature of 8 degrees in the room,
- moisture consumption by growing peking seedlings dries out the soil substrate, so its reserves are restored by moderate irrigation. But before planting for three to four days, watering is stopped,
- in the phase of education 4-5 of this leaf (the end of the fourth week of the growing season), the seedlings are ready for planting in open ground.
This method of cultivation has its advantage, given that with a shallow distribution of the roots and a weak central one, it reacts painfully to the transplant. Minor root exposure is enough, and the plant will not be able to fully develop, which will affect the decrease in yield. Favorable for the cultivation of cabbage air temperature, 16-18 degrees Celsius, is observed in many regions of Russia, this circumstance determines the cultivation of its seeds in open ground.
How to grow Peking cabbage in the garden?
Recommended cultivation technology for the field and garden:
- for sowing seeds for spring seedlings - April 14-15, for the summer period - July 20-22,
- Of the existing methods, they often use tape - lower case (rows) and with the sowing of seeds in the wells (2 - 3 pcs.),
- in rows: from autumn, on sites that are well-lit, pick up areas previously occupied by potatoes, carrots, onions, and prepare ridges. When planting, two longitudinal shallow (up to 5 cm) grooves are marked on each ridge, the distance between which is 0.5 m. The seeds are sown in 15-16 cm and embedded at a depth of 1.5-2.0 cm.
- Between the ridges, passages of 0.8-1.0 m are left. When spring sowing, covering materials protect crops from frost.
- by double thinning during the growing season, the distance between plants in a row is brought up to 0.3 m. This creates an area of nutrition that provides a high-yielding biological mass,
- when growing cabbage seeds in the garden, their rows can be arranged along the edges of vegetable ridges to seal crops.
In the hole:
- on the ridges prepared from autumn, each one has dimensions of 0.3 x 0.3 m, 0.5 kg of humus in liquid form is added to the future seedlings as a supply of nutrients, a couple of tablespoons of wood ash with a spoon of urea, and plenty of water,
- seed placement (2 - 3 pieces) is performed at a depth of 1.5 - 2 cm, dusted with the topsoil,
- A covering material is applied from above to ensure a mini-microclimate in the spring.
Planting in open ground
- Before planting, the seedlings are hardened, bringing to fresh air and gradually bringing the time of stay to a day. As the seedlings of phase 4-5 of true leaves approach (within 3-4 days), watering is stopped, but on the eve of planting in the ground watering is done with the calculation of wetting of the entire root node.
- in relation to the so-called “peking” soils, it does not tolerate acidic soils, where nitrogen nutrition is deteriorated due to the high content of hydrogen ions, a deficit of phosphorus and potassium occurs. Therefore, the site is selected on less acidic or neutral, structural soils, with a sufficient content of nutrients in it - these are loamy sod or floodplain soils,
- when planting seedlings use a similar scheme of sowing seeds in open ground with a breakdown of rows and distances between holes (nests) in the light. Pots with seedlings are placed in the center of the planting nest so that their edges are not buried below the ground surface. The soil around them without much effort compacted and mulch sawdust or compost mixture.
Seedlings planted in spring are covered with any material, for example, agrofibre, spunbond, agrospan, etc., which gives a number of advantages:
- protected by a covering material from sudden temperature changes (in the evening and at night - from cooling, during the day, if the sun gets into - from a burn), it quickly and fully takes root,
- during the period of heavy precipitation - from the prolonged overwetting of excess moisture leaked into the soil, which is drained over the surface into the interhill furrow,
- from getting into crops of a dangerous cruciferous flea.
Weeding with loosening
The growing season during the cultivation of cabbage is short - only 55-60 days, so there is no need to spud it - just enough loosening, combined with weeding from weeds.
Total water consumption (transpiration, evaporation from the soil, from the leaves of plants) from the “peking” crops, reduces useful moisture reserves in the soil and requires regular watering:
- the rate of irrigation should maintain the moisture of the arable layer at an optimal level, i.e., not allow it to decrease to the moisture content of the breaking of capillary bonds. In relation to the field moisture capacity, measured using an inexpensive hand-held moisture meter, this will be 80%.
- the frequency of watering depends on the prevailing weather conditions, on average the interval between them is about three days,
- watering under the root of a plant is very effective - saving irrigation water, rational use by the plant itself. It is advisable to use household (garden) drip irrigation system of plastic irrigation hoses, affordable and easy to use,
- in the period of probable precipitation, avoiding their imposition on irrigation, the rate of irrigation can be dispensed: in the morning and in the evening 1 2 of the calculated volume of water.
Top dressing "Peking"
Spending on the creation of biological mass nutrients from the soil, cabbage requires replenishment of soil fertility. To do this during the season you need:
- after two weeks after planting the seedlings in the ground, fertilize with organic fertilizers:
- liquid cow, prepared at the rate of one unit of volume of cow manure, dissolved in 10 units of water,
- chicken droppings in the ratio of water 1:20,
- grass substrate in the volume of one part of the green mass on 9 parts of water. The rate of feeding one plant should not exceed one liter of the prepared solution,
- feeding of crops during the growing season during spring planting is carried out three times, in the summer period - twice,
- enhances the formation of the head (fork) the use of foliar dressing, in the form of a solution prepared from 2 grams of boric acid per liter of hot water and added after cooling 9 liters of plain water. The treatment is carried out on the leaves of "Peking" in the evening.
Pest and disease control
Cabbage pests include: spring cabbage fly with cabbage moth, wavy fleas, bedbugs, aphids. In addition to neighboring pests from other cultures, rapeseed bugs and tsvetoyedov, rep, moths, medvedki, the main danger is the cruciferous flea and slugs.
Among the diseases, Beijing crops can be affected by tracheomycosis (an infectious fungal disease inside the plant), downy mildew, keel, black leg, etc.
The following measures will help to protect against cruciferous flea and slugs:
- processing rows of cabbage with wood ash to germination,
- do not grow peking after crucifers: peas, radish, cabbage, etc.,
- use mixed crops with tomatoes and cucumbers, garlic and onions,
- apply biological pesticides: “Fitoverm”, “Bitoxibacillin”, treat plants with a mixture of ash and tobacco dust in equal shares,
- if necessary, the processing should be carried out with the help of biological preparations of an acaricidal orientation: "Aktelliki", "Aktara", etc., but only no less than a month before harvesting.
Special conditions for the storage of cabbage are not practiced: in the open field in the field or garden, it can remain until the beginning of the October frosts. Usually harvested "peking" summer landing with a tight fork. The shelf life of this crop in natural form exceeds 4-5 months. For this:
- in a dry basement or in a cellar, where the air temperature varies in the range of 0– + 2 degrees, and the relative humidity is not higher than 90%, wooden or paper containers are placed in which forks are pre-wrapped with food film,
- about once a two-week period of time, it is necessary to inspect the storage place, clean the damaged places and change the film to a new one on the broken forks,
- Peking storage with apples is undesirable. Their release (ethylene) contributes to the premature aging of forks.
- in the absence of such rooms, you can use glazed balconies or loggias with the required air temperature,
- separate healthy forks, wrapped in film, can be stored in the refrigerator.
There are various ways of fermentation, salting and other processing. We present a recipe, widely known for its taste:
- 5 kg of "peking" finely chop, add 50 grams of vinegar, 0.35 liters of drinking water, salt and sugar and 1 teaspoon, squeezed out a large clove of garlic and carefully move everything,
- put the received mass into a container treated with hot steam (glass jar, enameled pan), press firmly and put the pressure,
- after 24 hours, the leavened “peking” for the release of gases must be pierced through the entire thickness in several places and left in the living room,
- after another day, it is taken out to a cold place, where in two weeks it will “reach” to readiness.
Types and varieties
In terms of ripening cabbage is divided into three types: early, medium and late ripening.
The leaders of the early varieties are: "Vesnyanka", "Champion", "Lenok", "Asten", medium - "Beijing Express", "Pomegranate", "Vorozheya", "Cha-cha," Brocken ", late-ripening -" Nozaki " , "Russian size", "Monument" and others.
Quality seedlings for planting in the ground
In the Urals, in order to get good seedlings for early Peking varieties, seeds are sown in the last days of the third decade of March. For harvesting cabbage for the winter period, the dates are shifted to the first decade of June. In order not to damage the seedlings of the root system when transplanting into the soil from the boxes, they use cassettes. Many gardeners prefer plastic cups. As the land using soil with wood evils.Oh. It is useful to spill the substrate with boiled water with potassium permanganate. Seed in a cup immersed up to 1 cm, cover and place in the heat.
They follow the seedlings in the same way as in many other regions of Russia: irrigate them if necessary, carefully loosen around seedlings, feed them with fertilizers in liquid form.
The soil for the ridge is prepared in autumn, when digging, humus 3.5 kg per square meter is introduced. After spring warming up, ridges with a half-meter height are formed with a distance between them of 0.5 m, so that the temperature of the soil in them is higher than on a flat surface. Planted in late May, to protect the seedlings from the disease "kilo", use boiling water and potassium permanganate, pouring over the ridges. Wood ash (1 teaspoon) is added to the planting nest of the seedlings, after planting - gently moisten the hole.
Beijing cabbage in the Urals - growing in a greenhouse
Growing "peking" in a greenhouse is more favorable in the vicinity of other crops (tomatoes, cucumbers, dill, parsley, etc.), except cruciferous, i.e. on compacted beds. Between the rows they keep 20 cm, and in the light - 10 cm. They sow “peking” in greenhouses in the Urals from the first decade of March in order to get June products.
A large variety of vitamins, macro-and micronutrients in Chinese cabbage defined it in Asian countries as “longevity vegetable”. List of diseases“peking-petsay” helps to fight with is extremely wide:
- strengthening immunity, the fight against vitamin deficiency,
- cleansing the blood as a result of splitting foreign proteins, stimulating new blood cells,
- suppression of anemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, gastritis, gastrointestinal ulcers,
- fighting depression, stress, nervous disorders,
- treatment of liver obesity, weight loss, the withdrawal of excess cholesterol,
- in diabetes, it normalizes sugar, triggers antitumor processes.
It is recommended to refrain from consumption when gastritis and pancreatitis are neglected.
The advantages of growing Chinese cabbage as a valuable dietary vegetable are obvious. The soil conditions and climatic factors available in many regions of Russia, including the Urals, Transbaikalia and the Far East, make it possible to massively cultivate a culture rich in nutrients by gardeners and gardeners on their land plots without acquiring foreign products that are sometimes not tested by the quarantine service. Including her in everyday diet, you and your loved ones take the path of health and longevity, which is convincingly proved by the examples of residents of the Korean Peninsula, China, and Japan.
Chinese cabbage varieties
In the world of breeding there is a huge number of varieties of Chinese cabbage. The harvest of such vegetables can be obtained in any climatic zone, but subject to certain rules.
For example, early varieties feel better in greenhouses. In the southern regions of our country it is necessary to shade the plants, which will create a shorter daylight hours.
Next, take a look at the most popular varieties of Chinese cabbage:
The early ripe grade, differs in fine tastes, pleasant aroma. Fruits are used to make salads and other dishes, suitable for heat treatment. Cylindrical vegetables, elongated with dense, friable leaves of light green color. The growing season in the variety of Victoria within 2 months.
Early variety, can be grown throughout the warm period. Under favorable weather conditions, the fruits of the crop ripen after 40 days from the moment of planting the seedlings in open ground. Heads of cabbage are small, their mass does not exceed 1 kilogram. Variety endures stressful situations, suitable for cultivation in Siberia.
Shade-tolerant early ripe variety, has a growing season of 40-42 days. This cabbage has rather large and wide leaves, tasty pulp. The maximum weight of a head of cabbage is 1.5 kilograms. Sowing of seeds for seedlings is carried out in the second decade of April, in the open ground the seeds are sown from mid-May.
Mid-season variety, has large fruits weighing up to 2.5 kilograms. The shape of the head of cabbage is elongated, have tight-fitting dark green leaves. Pomegranate is resistant to many diseases, especially necrosis. The first harvest of cabbage is obtained in 70-75 days from the date of sowing the seeds.
The variety is suitable for cultivation in greenhouses and open ground. This is an unpretentious plant, resistant to sudden temperature changes. Heads of bright green color weighing up to 2 kilograms. Beijing Express can be used for cultivation in Siberia.
Ultra early variety, ripens after 35 days from the date of sowing seeds in the greenhouse. The heads of cabbages are small, juicy, suitable for making salads.
The mid-late variety with a vegetation of 70 days is quite capricious in the care, so this vegetable is best grown in the southern part of our country. Heads are dense, weighing up to 2 kilograms.
How to grow seedlings of Peking cabbage
Cultivation of the culture in question may occur using seedlings or by direct sowing of seeds in open ground. Chinese cabbage is considered to be a cold-resistant plant, its seeds can form sprouts at an air temperature of + 4-5 degrees, but intensive development is possible in the range of + 15 ... + 22 degrees. When warming the culture throws inflorescences. A similar phenomenon often occurs in conditions of extended daylight.
Because of the need for a shortened daylight, it is recommended that the crop be grown from seedlings in early spring or late autumn. Иногда целесообразно создать особый световой режим. В таком случае первый урожай плодов получают уже через месяц с момента высадки растений в открытый грунт.
Когда посадить пекинскую капусту для рассады
Planting seed of Chinese cabbage should be carried out about a month before the expected planting of seedlings to a permanent place. For early harvest, seedlings are sown in the last decade of March or early April. When growing seedlings to obtain a crop of winter consumption, sow the seeds of grains at the end of June.
Seed preparation for planting
Purchased seeds of Chinese cabbage do not need special preparation, they can be planted immediately into the ground without soaking. In the case of using their own seed materials, seeds need preliminary germination, which will allow their germination to be determined.
To do this, they are placed on wet gauze, folded in several layers. Next, the seed container is placed in a warm place and waiting for the sprouts to appear. Germination begins after 3-5 days from the time of sowing.
If this does not happen or the seedlings will be rare, other seeds need to be taken.
Preparing the soil for sowing
In practice, several variants of soil mixtures are used for sowing seedlings of Peking cabbage:
Sod earth and peat in the same proportions with the addition of 10 grams of wood ash and complex mineral fertilizer (for every 10 kilograms of the mixture).
2 parts of humus and 1 part of coconut substrate.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
The culture under consideration is experiencing a poor transplant, so seed sowing should be carried out not in a common box, but into peat pots (2-3 seeds per container). Seed material is buried in the nutrient substrate to a depth of 1.5 centimeters. After this, the seedlings are installed in a warm, but dark place until germination.
How to transplant seedlings of Peking cabbage in open ground
Seedlings of Chinese cabbage are moved to the open ground with peat pots. In the future, these containers will dissolve and provide additional nutrients for plant development.
Transplantation of seedlings to a permanent place is recommended to be carried out in the phase of the emergence of 5-6 true leaves (approximately three weeks from the moment of emergence).
10 days before the expected planting time, the plants are quenched in the open air, gradually increasing the time. Seedlings can be planted in a permanent place after they spent the day on the street.
There are several schemes for planting Chinese cabbage in the open field:
- If the plant is used as a lettuce culture, between individual seedlings leave a distance of 25 centimeters in both directions.
- To form a head, you must comply with the scheme 35 * 35 or 50 * 50 centimeters.
This requirement is valid for planting seeds in seeds immediately in open ground.
When using seedlings observe the scheme 30 * 50 centimeters.
In order to get a good harvest of fruits and to prevent rifling, the planting of a vegetable should be carried out in early spring or autumn.
Sowing the seed in the ground
To grow Chinese cabbage in a seedless way, it is necessary to choose the right plot. Ideal predecessors of the culture in question are:
It is not advisable to sow the seeds in the soil where the close relatives of the cabbage (mustard or radish, radish) were developed before.
Seeding is carried out in the previously dug up soil. On the bed make the landing holes in a pre-selected pattern of 35 * 35 or 50 * 50 centimeters. 10-15 grams of wood ash and 0.5 kilogram of organic matter (compost or humus) are added to each well.
Next, the nutrients are thoroughly mixed with the ground and spend sowing seeds of 2-3 pieces per well. Now you need to pour the soil with warm water and cover the area with plastic film.
At the end of the week from the time of sowing seedlings should appear. At this point in the hole you need to leave the most developed sprout, the rest pinch.
The timing of planting Chinese cabbage
The term of sowing seeds in open ground depends on the air temperature. The ideal conditions for the development of this cabbage is considered to be the temperature regime of + 16 ... + 22 degrees. Exceeding or decreasing the recommended values results in the formation of flower stalks.
For a seedless growing method, two favorable sowing dates are used from April 25 to May 5, from June 25 to July 15.
Care for cabbage in the garden
Growing Chinese cabbage requires the gardener to adhere to certain rules. Newly planted seedlings must be covered with agrofibre or any other nonwoven fabric. This allows:
- protect crops from possible frost or sudden changes in temperature,
- shading plants from the scorching rays of the sun,
- protects the cabbage root system from rotting during prolonged rains,
- allows you to hide the seedlings from pests, cruciferous flea.
Two weeks after the planting of the seedlings on the garden, the area is covered with mulch from broken straw and peat. There is no need for hilling a culture, a thick layer of organic matter will retain soil moisture and will hinder the growth of weeds.
Further activities for the care of cabbage are periodic watering and dressing, identifying and protecting vegetables from diseases and pests.
Watering and feeding
Chinese cabbage needs regular abundant watering. It is recommended to moisturize the soil once a week with warm water. Liquid should be poured under the root of the plant.
Water on the leaves causes sunburn.
For the best development of plants, watering should be carried out in the morning or in the evening after sunset. In the latter case, it is recommended to use warm water infused throughout the day.
The first top dressing is brought in soil in two weeks from the moment of disembarkation of seedling. For this purpose you can use the following solutions:
- 10% mullein infusion (1 kilogram per 10 liters of water),
- 5% infusion of bird droppings (500 grams of organic matter per 10 liters of liquid),
- infusion of herbs or nettles.
During dressing cabbage fertilizers for each bush is used 1 liter of solution. For spring culture, three such feeding is necessary. Plants planted in the summer, fed twice during the growing season.
Non-root dressings help to improve the yield of Chinese cabbage. To prepare such a substance in a liter of boiled hot water is diluted with 2 grams of boric acid, then the volume is adjusted to 10 liters with cold water. Processing of cultures is carried out in the evening on the leaves.
Diseases and pests of lettuce
Beijing cabbage, like other crucifers during the growing season, can be affected by various diseases and pests.
To get started, let's get acquainted with the main diseases of this vegetable:
- Black leg affects the emerging sprouts of cabbage seedlings. The main symptom of the appearance of the disease is considered to be blackening and narrowing of the stem of the culture, which complicates the access of nutrients to the leaves and the death of plants. To prevent the development of black legs need to disinfect the soil and seed material, follow the rules for caring for seedlings. The development of this disease is promoted by low temperatures and high humidity, as well as thickened planting of young plants.
- Bacterial keel disease causes swelling of the root system of cabbage. As a result of such exposure, the cells are deformed and poorly pass nutrients. The affected plant turns yellow and begins to dry out. The development of the disease is promoted by high soil moisture and poor-quality seeds, as well as sour soil. To prevent the development of the disease before planting seedlings the earth is calcined in the oven, and then shed with a solution of potassium permanganate. Wood ash or lime is additionally added to the acidic soil.
- Gray mold fungal disease affects the aerial part of the crop during the ripening period of the fruit or during storage. Symptoms of the disease is the appearance of brown spots on the leaves of cabbage. After some time, a grayish raid forms on the affected areas. Defeating the disease will help spraying plantings fungicides, for example, the drug Amistar.
Among the pests of Beijing cabbage are:
- Small bugs, flea. These insects jump over the leaves and suck the sap from the plant, which leads to a slow wilt and stunted culture. Especially dangerous are fleas for young cabbage with delicate leaves. These parasites must be eliminated immediately at the first sign of their presence. For spraying plantings, you can use drugs such as Karate or Decis.
- Cabbage scoop parasitizes plants in the form of a caterpillar. At first the larvae are yellow, then their color changes to green. Caterpillars live on the outer side of the leaves, they gnaw them before the holes appear. As a result of the vital activity of parasites on cabbage, excrement appears, which provoke the appearance of putrefactive areas. Processing of cultures is carried out from May to June, using for this purpose such chemical means as Festal, Karate, Decis. Pupae of the cabbage scoops overwinter in the upper layers of the soil. For their destruction requires deep autumn plowing beds.
Beijing cabbage is considered quite demanding in the care of the plant. To get these vegetables you need to have a basic knowledge of their cultivation. Use our tips to practice, and you get a good harvest of Chinese cabbage.