The eye-catching variegated crotons, or as it would be more correct to call these plants, the codeie came from indoor collections of flower growers from the east of India, from other countries of the south-east of Asia, and also from the Americas and from Australia. Fans of bright exotic plants, who decided to “tame” the croton, should take into account its habits and preferences when caring for this crop.
In the wild, existing Croton species can grow to 3-4 meters in height. Indoor species are hybrid plants. They are not so tall, but they amaze with the variety of forms and colors of dense leaves that grow densely on erect stems.
Depending on the variety, the leaf plates can be elongated, elliptical, three-fingered, or have other outlines. There are ornamental plants with oddly twisted and wavy foliage. The color of croton leaves is no less diverse. Here, all shades of green, yellow, pink and purple, burgundy and brown are wonderfully combined. The leaves are scattered large and small specks, stripes and stains.
It was the beauty of the foliage, and not the inconspicuous racemes of the culture that attracted attention to the codiame.
Caring for Croton is aimed at ensuring that the plant feels good, and its leaves remain dense, juicy and multicolored for a long time.
How to care for Croton at home? What are the conditions for growth that this native of the fertile tropics needs?
Features of the maintenance and care of Croton
Like other leafy ornamental crops from tropical regions, crotons grown indoors are extremely demanding and capricious pets. Even with proper care for croton at home, these plants:
Most variegated species feels good with a long daylight and a bright enough, but not scorching sun. In such conditions, the home Croton is healthy and beautiful, its foliage retains the pattern and brightness inherent in the variety.
To prevent the sun from damaging the plant, it is better for Croton to find a place on the eastern or western windows, on the deep southern loggia. If the place is only on the south window, it is necessary to provide shading. On the north side, the croton will actively grow and will retain decorativeness only in the presence of artificial lighting.
Choosing a croton placement at home is not limited to caring for it. For croton, it is important to keep warm and observe seasonal variations in temperature.
On summer days, the plant feels good at normal room temperature. Pot culture can and should even be carried out on the balcony, in the garden or on the veranda closed from the wind. The main thing is that when the weather deteriorates or at night the thermometer does not fall below 13-14 ° C.
In winter, care for the Croton, as in the photo, at home suggests keeping at 18–20 ° C in a bright room without drafts and excessive dryness of the air.
If the air is cooled to 14 ° C and below, or when the temperature is above 20 ° C, the plant suffers from a lack of lighting, Croton will surely let itself be felt by stretching the shoots, withering and losing the lower leaves.
The optimum humidity of room air for croton is at least 45%. Excessive dryness of the atmosphere causes the grower to intensively care for the croton flower, in the photo, to prevent the loss of foliage and even the death of the plant. First of all, such a danger is connected with heating, which works in winter.
Simplify the life of the natives of the tropics by using a household humidifier and spraying croton periodically with warm boiled water. Shower, not affecting the ground:
- increases the humidity of the air near the flower,
- helps to establish exchange processes
- improves the appearance of the plant.
In the spring or summer, frequent spraying is not required. As part of regular care, croton is only gently wiped with a damp cloth.
How to care for Croton at home?
From the beginning of spring to the very autumn croton should not remain in conditions of lack of moisture. During this period, care for the croton flower, as in the photo, includes abundant watering, which is carried out when the surface of the soil dries.
In winter, the plant's activity decreases, as does its need for moisture and nutrition. Therefore, Croton has to be watered less often and less. After the topsoil has dried, you can wait a couple more days and only then moisten the substrate. Usually motley foliage signals the lack of moisture, it loses its turgor and noticeably wilts.
Vesta with summer waterings Croton receives complex supplements, which include the main macro-and microelements. Fertilize decorative culture need every 2 weeks. And by the winter such procedure is stopped.
How to care for the croton flower, in the photo, if the plant has already fully occupied the pot volume and has become reluctant to give new shoots? Obviously, in such a situation can not do without a transplant.
Although decorative culture does not favor this procedure too much, it should be done for young crotons once every 1-2 years, and for adult individuals with an interval of 2-4 years, depending on the growth rate of the bush.
When there is no urgent need for transplantation, but the surface of the soil is covered with salts or too compacted, it is better to carefully remove the top layer and, without disturbing the roots, fill up the new nutrient substrate.
As a soil mixture, you can use ready-made soil for large ornamental crops or for garden seedlings. Before planting, the substrate is steamed or sterilized in some other way, then fine expanded clay and crushed charcoal are added to it.
To simplify the care of the croton at home, the pots for the crop are medium sized with a mandatory drain hole for draining excess moisture.
Varieties and types of flower
There are several dozens of codiahs, but the motley look is the most popular among all. Many hybrid varieties have been derived from it that are suitable for home keeping.
Croton is the most popular of the following varieties:
The bush is formed by a lot of dense green-yellow sheets, some of the veins are pink. The leaves are turned in different directions from the shoots, which gives the crown pomp. The shape of the bush is dense, the sheets are tightly attached to each other.
The shape of the sheets is a bit like oak. The leaf plate itself has a base and two blades extending from it. The leaves are green-yellow, with older ones having a more pinkish shade. The reverse side of the sheet is almost completely pink.
The bush is formed from a dense trunk and narrow leaves. Because of these sheets, the crown of the plant is somewhat reminiscent of a palm tree, but the difference is also in the predominance of pink shades.
What you need to know before you purchase the codec:
- In places where the leaf or stem will be cracked, the codiaum begins to emit poisonous juice. Therefore, it is recommended to take care of the Croton in special gloves, as well as to refuse to decorate with such a flower of the apartment, where there are small children.
- This plant quickly dies from irrigation with cold water, also does not tolerate drafts.
- Croton periodically blooms, but after that it begins to look not the best way. If you want to keep its beautiful appearance, it is recommended to immediately remove the inflorescences.
- The flower needs a periodical warm soul. Leaves should be wiped regularly with a damp sponge from dust.
If a beginner grower is not afraid of these nuances of growing, you can safely buy Croton and decorate the interior. Fortunately, the plant copes 100%. Of course, provided competent care.
Interesting! Sometimes its leaves can mutate and change shape for no apparent reason. This is a feature of this flower. This danger does not represent any danger.
To care for codiaeum, you should regularly allocate enough time for this. The plant is capricious, so you need to comply with certain conditions, carefully monitor watering and fertilize the soil. In addition, you will often need to repot the flower, and it should be done correctly.
Codiaeum is not very demanding to the ground. Universal soil can be purchased at the store, while the package should contain the mark "suitable for decorative and deciduous household plants."
The pot must be stable, equally suitable option of clay or plastic. The diameter of the tank is half the crown. Each new transplant will need to prepare the container 2 cm in diameter more than the previous one.
Optimal conditions of detention
Croton is a sun-loving plant. When the content he will need to provide enough sunlight, but under direct rays it is better not to leave. In summer, it is better to put the pot on the north side of the window, and in winter - on the south.
If this is not possible, it is recommended to place the flower near the window sill, where it will be provided with a sufficient amount of light, but the rays will not be able to burn the sheets.
Codium grows very well in the fresh air, so as far as possible it can be taken out on the balcony. However, you need to monitor the lack of drafts, as the color does not tolerate them. The optimum temperature for maintenance in the summer is about 20-23 degrees, in the winter - from 16 and above.
Watering a flower
Watering the soil should also be carefully adjusted florist. The flower does not tolerate overflow, but it also does not like drought. In either case, the sheets quickly react by yellowing and dying.
To avoid overflow, the soil and pot should be equipped with good drainage. Excess moisture will drain into the pan. In summer, the earthy earth should be moistened with plenty, and in winter it is recommended to reduce watering. The earth should always be slightly moist. Watering is necessary with warm water, which was previously settled at room temperature.
It is also important to monitor the humidity of the air. If it is very low, the sheets will quickly turn yellow and dry at the ends.
Be sure to wipe the sheets with a damp sponge at least 2 times a week. This will remove dust from the plant, so it will grow better and look more neat.
Top dressing and fertilizer
Croton fertilizer is also an important step in caring for it. For dressing it is recommended to purchase ready-made mineral composition that is suitable for this type of plant.
15-20 minutes before feeding should moisten the soil. This stage will protect the roots and not burn them. Then apply the solution for fertilizer.
Feed should be done at least 2 times a month. It is necessary to begin to fertilize soil from April, and to finish in November.
To plant pleased lush and beautiful crown, it must be periodically cut. For young codiahs, plucking is applied. Also appearing buds or flowers are removed. This greatly exhausts the codiame, because of which it loses all its beauty. After cutting off unnecessary sheets, it is important to process all cuts with charcoal powder.
How to transplant?
To transplant a flower, its transfer is carried out. Young plants are recommended to transship at least 2 times a year, as they are characterized by intensive growth. An adult Croton will need to be replanted once every two years.
How to perform transshipment:
- Wear gloves.
- Carefully hold the plant, remove it from the pot.
- Lightly shake off excess earth, then place in a new container.
- Fill the voids with fresh soil, not reaching the surface a distance of 1 cm.
When the root system will be placed in a 25-centimeter diameter pot, transplanting is no longer required. It will be enough once a year to remove the top layer of soil and in its place put fresh soil.
In the winter season, almost all the care procedures for the Croton persist, but are reduced in quantity. In winter, the codiaeum is perfectly without fertilizer, but if the florist leaves feeding, it should be reduced to once a month.
Water the plant need less, but you also need to make sure that the soil is not dry and was slightly moist. It is recommended to give up the shower until spring, but it is important to continue washing the leaves. The amount of rubbing is also better to reduce.
Seeds must be freshly harvested. Initially, they must be thoroughly heated in water whose temperature is 60 degrees. After half an hour to remove the seeds, leave for a day to swell.
Then the seeds can be planted in a prepared soil 1 cm deep into the soil. Germination occurs at a temperature of 22 degrees. While no germs are observed above the ground, watering is done through a pallet.
After the seedlings have sprouted with three leaves, they can be seated in a personal pot. The diameter of the container should be about 7 cm.
The apical stalk is easiest to acquire the roots. It should be about 7-10 cm in height. Beforehand, wash off the poisonous juice that appeared on the surface. Then dry thoroughly in air for a couple of hours.
Leaves that are on top, should be shortened in half parallel to the veins. The bottom sheets need to be removed altogether.
Then the cutting is placed in water, the temperature of which ranges from 23 to 30 degrees and is suitable for root germination. The container should be placed under diffused light. The plant can be planted in the soil, the roots of which have reached 2 cm in length.
Caring for a young Croton should be the same as for an adult. However, instead of wiping the leaves and the soul, it requires frequent spraying of a small crown.
Fight against diseases and pests
Most often, the codiaeum is ill due to inappropriate conditions. Therefore, if yellow leaves appear on the leaves or the leaves are curved, and some of them have fallen, you should normalize the care of the flower. Since croton secretes poisonous juice, pests are rare guests on its surface.
To prevent the home plant from dying off, it is recommended to influence several main factors:
- ensure optimum air humidity
- adjust watering
- check for pests.
Of course, such a capricious plant will not suit every hostess. It requires attention and will not tolerate errors during care. However, some professional growers easily find the approach to Croton, and in return receive a beautiful decoration in their home.
Planting and care for the Croton (in short)
- Bloom: the plant belongs to the decorative leafy.
- Lighting: bright sunlight before noon, and after - bright diffused light or light penumbra.
- Temperature: in the summer of 20-22 ˚C, in the winter not lower than 16 ˚C.
- Watering: persistent but moderate.
- Air humidity: high. The plant needs constant spraying and washing of leaves, as well as regular shower procedures (once or twice a month).
- Top dressing: with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer for decorative leafy plants twice a month from April to November, the rest of the time - 1 time per month.
- Rest period: in the winter.
- Transfer: young plants - 2 times a year, adults - 1 time in two years.
- Breeding: seeds, leaf and stem cuttings.
- Pests: Mealybugs, scale insects, nematodes, spider mites.
- Diseases: black fungus, gray mold,
- Properties: the juice of the plant is poisonous.
Croton flower - growing features
The croton flower is a bush with leathery leaves of various forms: asymmetric, oblong-lanceolate, pointed or blunt-pointed, whole-edged, three-lobed, notched, broadly ovate, etc. Young leaves, usually lighter yellow-green shades, eventually become more saturated green and burgundy colors, so your home croton is painted like an elegant autumn forest. A common feature for leaves of all varieties and varieties is a pronounced venation. Croton flowering will not cause you delight, because it is a hanging axillary racemes from ordinary-looking cream flowers.
Home flower Croton has earned the fame of one of the most capricious plants. What are the different features care for Croton?
- - Croton sap is poisonous. It causes diarrhea, vomiting, and contact dermatitis, so all work with Croton should be done with gloves.
- - Croton at home needs not just spraying the leaves from the sprayer, but also wiping them with a damp sponge. In the summer, arrange a warm shower for Croton every month.
- - Croton does not tolerate irrigation with cold water and drafts!
- - Sometimes at the beginning of the growing season, croton leaves acquire strange shapes. Nobody knows how this is explained, but croton has a high degree of mutability, and therefore it became possible to breed many varieties and hybrid forms of this plant, and they differ only in what the leaf of a particular croton looks like.
- - An unattractive croton bloom takes a lot of energy from the plant, and if you are not going to engage in breeding experiments, it is better to remove flower buds or flower stalks.
How to care for Croton.
Croton loves bright light, but baths from direct sunlight can only be taken in the morning or before sunset, so in summer it will suit the window sill of the north window, and in winter, when the sun is shining, but not warm - the southern one. If you have the opportunity to bring Croton in the summer to fresh air and bright diffused light, do not neglect it. The most comfortable temperature for croton in summer is 20-22 ºC, in winter - not lower than 16 ºC.
Watering croton it is necessary that the earthen room is slightly damp all the time, but at the same time that the moisture does not stagnate in the roots and does not cause the danger of their rotting. Water for irrigation should not be cold, and most importantly, it must be filtered or at least defended. Humidity of air for croton is of great importance, so you have to regularly spray or wipe the leaves with a wet washcloth, and in the summer time of the year once a month to arrange a warm shower for him, but so that the water does not flow into the pot.
Fertilize croton a solution of complex mineral fertilizers on a pre-moistened soil from April to November twice a month, in winter once a month is enough. For the formation of a beautiful crown croton used pruning (for an adult plant) and pinching (for young Crotons). Pinch the plants that have reached 15 cm in height, and then each time the shoots grow 20 cm. In adult plants, after cutting, sections are treated with sulfuric or charcoal powder. It is desirable to remove flower buds or young flower stalks, because the flowering, which has no decorative value, debilitates Croton, and this affects the health and beauty of its leaves.
Young crotons are transplanted twice a year, mature ones once every two years, and each subsequent pot should be 2 cm in diameter more than the previous one. When your croton occupies a tank with a diameter of 25 cm, it will be its last transplant, but then you will have to select the top layer of soil from the pot every year and replace it with a fresh substrate. The soil for croton should be approximately the same composition: turf, peat, leaf earth and river sand in equal parts. When transplanting, it is advisable not to brake the earthen lump of the croton, but simply to transfer it from the old pot to a new container with a drainage layer about a quarter of the pot volume.
Croton in winter.
When the cold season comes, croton is rearranged from the northern window-sill to the southern one, watering is reduced, but they continue to adhere to the same principle: the earthen room should be slightly damp. Water procedures are also continued - spraying and wiping the leaves with a damp sponge, but they do it not as often as in the warm season, and it is better to forget about the shower until summer. It is necessary to feed the plant no more than once a month, but some professionals are sure that in winter, croton does not need any additional feeding.
Croton breeding seed method.
At home, Croton is propagated by seed, if it comes to growing hybrids, and stem or leaf cuttings. Croton seeds quickly lose their germination, so you need to sow freshly harvested seeds. It should also be borne in mind that the germination process takes a lot of time, and most importantly, the varietal characteristics during generative reproduction are usually not preserved. Large croton seeds before planting need to be heated for half an hour in water at a temperature of 60 ºC and left for a day for swelling. Sowing is carried out at a depth of one centimeter, the temperature required for seed germination, 22 ºC. Until sprouts appear, moisten the soil in the seed tank with lower irrigation. When the seedlings have a third leaf, they are seated in separate pots with a diameter of 7 cm and look after, as an adult Croton.
Vegetative breeding method of croton.
How to propagate croton grafting? The simplest way is to root an apical stalk 6-10 cm long, but if you need several cuttings, the shoot is cut into pieces so that at each segment there is at least one internode with one healthy leaf. It is easiest to root lignified or semi-lignified cuttings. The poisonous milky juice flowing from the slices should be washed off with water, and then let the slices dry in air for three hours. On the upper part of the apical stalk, leaves are shortened parallel to the veins by half, the lower part of the leaves are removed. Then, the cuttings are placed dried and processed by a root in the container with water heated to 23-30 ºC (in order to avoid decay of the planting material), and placed for growing the roots under bright diffused light. When the stalk grows 2 cm long roots, it is transplanted into the croton substrate. In the first decade after transplantation around cuttings transplanted into the ground, it is necessary to create increased air humidity due to frequent spraying. The fact that the cuttings began, you will learn to restore the elasticity of the sheet.
Croton affects mealybugs, nematodes, scale insects and spider mites, and more often than others mites. What makes them so attracted to Croton is difficult to say, but sometimes the struggle with them brings the flower owner to an extreme degree of irritation, and he, desperate to win this fight, simply throws out Croton. But let me remind you: if you follow all the rules of care, neither insects nor diseases are terrible to your plants, and the appearance of ticks is due to the fact that Croton was rarely washed and watered irregularly, therefore blame only yourself for such troubles. You can fight spider mites, cherries and shields by rubbing the ground parts of croton with tobacco solution with soap, which after an hour and a half must be washed off in such a way that it does not get into the substrate.
Croton dropped the leaves.
If the plant has lowered the leaves, then it can not drink. It happens if the roots are cold. Relocate the plant to a warm, bright place, arrange the moisture regime, letting the earthman dry several centimeters deep between waterings, stop feeding the flower, spray the leaves well and put a transparent bag or cap on the plant.
If only the lower leaves of a croton dry, then there is no need to worry: gradual exposure of the lower part of the stem is a natural process for crotons. Dry tips of the leaves indicate that the plant suffers from low humidity, and for Croton, a comfortable indicator of humidity is 70%. If the edges of the leaves dry and brown spots appear on them, it means that the room is not warm enough and croton is freezing. If croton not only dries, but leaves also fall, then its roots clearly lack moisture.
Croton sheds leaves.
Often, readers of the site ask the question why the leaves fall off Croton. The first two reasons - chronically insufficient watering and low humidity - we have already named. This happens when the room temperature is too low, as well as from temperature fluctuations or drafts. What to do if Croton leaves fall? First, carefully read the rules of care for the Croton. Secondly, analyze where and how you violated these rules. Third, correct their mistakes and prevent them from continuing.
Croton motley is grown in room culture, the hallmark of which is the ability to change the color and shape of the leaves depending on the conditions of existence. It is this quality that made it look like a base for experiments in breeding, which culminated in the breeding of many varieties, hybrid forms and varieties.
Croton motley (variegatum)
in nature it grows in Pakistan and China, sometimes reaching a height of three meters. Leaves are short. Leaves are green with brown. This species has several forms that differ in the shape of the leaves: appendage, lobed, flat leaf and decorated, which served as the basis for the development of many remarkable varieties:
- – Mrs aiston - it grows with a large tree or a bush with brightly colored maroon leaves with bright pink spots, although there is a variety with golden leaves with almost black fragments and a variety in a yellow-pink range,
- – Petra - in nature it grows up to four meters in height, branches well, the shape of the leaves is oval, lobed or pointed, the color is dark green with a bright yellow border and the same color with contrasting veins and specks,
- – Black Prince - its wide-oval flat leaves of black-green color with a lot of yellow, red and orange spots look very exotic,
- – Disraeli has a bladed leaf shape, painted in the upper part in a green color with yellow veins and specks, and in the lower part - in a brick-brown shade,
- – Excellent differs primarily in the shape of the leaves, resembling oak leaves, the color in the lower part of the leaf is red-maroon, in the upper part - yellow-green.
Also of interest are the following varieties of the Croton variegated: Mollukskaya, "minus", genuinic, oval-leaf, tortoise, curly and spiral. But no matter what variety you purchased, you can believe that it will become the most noticeable decoration of your interior.
Croton care at home
This is a very beautiful plant that requires a lot of attention and the implementation of all the rules of caring for it. To make it easier for you to master the main stages of caring for these unusual plants, consider the main ones in more detail.
Young plants should be transplanted twice a year, mature - once every two years. Pot take two centimeters in diameter more than the previous one. When the root system fills the tank with a diameter of 25 cm, it is no longer necessary to repot the flower, but only choose the top layer of soil from the pot every year and renew it with fresh soil (Figure 2).
Figure 2. The main stages of transplantation
The finished substrate should include: peat, leaf, sod land and river sand in equal shares. When transplanting, you cannot disturb the earthen room, but simply transfer it from an old pot to a new one, having made a drainage layer in a quarter of the volume of the container in advance.
The longest and time-consuming way to get a new plant is reproduction by seeds. This method is recommended only for experienced growers.
If you decide to implement this method, you need to remember that the seeds of indoor species:
- soon after aging lose their germination,
- do not pass parent properties,
- before sowing, they need disinfection and special preparation to accelerate germination.
To disinfect the seeds, they are immersed in hot water for half an hour, then kept in water at room temperature for a day. In the liquid, you can add a growth promoter.
Before sowing, the soil must be sterilized, then the prepared seeds are pressed into the soil to a depth of 1 cm. The soil is moistened, and the container with the crops is transferred to the greenhouse. With high temperature and air humidity, the seeds will germinate in about a month. When shoots appear, they are still carefully watered and hardened gradually. Seedlings with open three leaves are transplanted into separate pots.
The flower sheds leaves in such cases: prolonged insufficient watering and low air humidity, as well as very low room temperatures, temperature differences or drafts. In such cases, carefully inspect the roots of the plant: if they are tightly covered with a lump of soil, then it should be transplanted into a larger pot and fluffed up the soil so that the plant can develop the root system. This is necessary because in restraining the growth of the roots, they will not be able to deliver the necessary nutrients and water to the plant, from which the leaves fall.
Adjust the watering, because the culture is adversely affected by waterlogging and drying. During the period of active growth, fertilize croton with universal feedings. It is also necessary to regularly replace the third part of the old potted earth with a fresh substrate. To increase the humidity of the air every morning, wipe the leaves with a damp sponge.
The author of the video will reveal even more secrets of croton care at home.
Description, types and photos of Croton
Croton (Codiaeum) belongs to the family of Molochai. In vivo he grows on the islands of India and the Pacific, on the Malaysian islands and in the forests of Southeast Asia. In nature, the shrub grows to three meters and is distinguished by leathery leaves of various shapes. They can be broadly ovate, notched, three-lobed, obtuse, pointed, oblong-lanceolate, asymmetrical.
On a young plant, light leaves of yellow-green shades are first formed. As the bush grows, they become saturated green-maroon. Therefore, the codiaum is very similar to an elegant tree in the autumn forest. Croton blooms with inconspicuous cream-colored flowers that make up axillary racemes.
Croton species - photos
In room conditions are grown several types of shrubscharacterized by the shape and color of the leaves. The most popular of these is Croton Motley. The plant is a shrub up to three meters high, on the branches of which there are short-peeled green-brown leaves. The species has several varieties that differ in the shape of the leaves:
- The variety "Excellence" is a plant with "oak" leaves. From above, they have a yellow-green color, and from the bottom color of the leaf is red-claret.
- The variety "Disraeli" is a bush with leaves blade shape. Below they are brick-brown, and above - green with yellow specks and streaks.
- The “Black Prince” variety is a very exotic plant with orange and red spots and veins on its black and green leaves.
- The variety "Petra" is distinguished by pointed, lobed or oval dark green leaves with bright yellow specks, veins and edging.
- Variety "Mrs. Aiston" is a large tree with brightly colored leaves. They can be yellow-pink, golden with black fragments or dark maroon with pink spots.
Croton Varigatum is also very famous among gardeners. The plant is a shrub with a bare trunk at the bottom and green-brown spreading leaves. At the base, the leaves may have a heart-ovoid or oblong-lanceolate form.. Codiaum variagatum is represented by several varieties:
- The flat-leaved Croton is distinguished by slightly wavy oval leaves whose length reaches 30 cm and width - 10 cm.
- The lobed species of codiame is a plant with characteristic three-lobed leaves. Their lateral lobes are shorter than the central one and less pointed. Coloring can be monophonic or motley. In length, sheets grow up to 22 cm, and in width up to 10 cm.
- The appendage Croton has both green and variegated leaves consisting of two plates. The top plate as if hangs down from the bottom, connecting with it with a thin web.
- Decorated codiaeum is widely used by breeders to create numerous hybrids.
Lighting and temperature
To plant pleased with its beautiful leaves, it must be put in a well-lit place. With a lack of light, the leaves turn green and lose their decorative effect.. In the summer, shrubs shade from direct sunlight, otherwise burns on the leaves will appear as spots. In winter, Croton will feel good on the southern window-sills.
Kodiya is a heat-loving plant, therefore the temperature in the room where it is grown should not fall below +16 degrees The optimum temperature is within + 20- + 22 degrees. In summer, the bush can be taken out on the balcony or in the garden, putting it in a place protected from the burning sun and strong wind.
When caring for Croton, we must not forget that the plant loves the high humidity of the air. Therefore, in the spring and summer it should be regularly sprayed.
If the codecium is kept in cold conditions in winter, then it can be practically not sprayed. However, the indoor heating system is very dry air. In this case the plants are cleaned away from the batteries and sprayed several times a day with settled water at room temperature.. It is possible to increase the humidity of the air around the bush with the help of a pallet with a wet claydite or moss placed nearby. Very like the plant and working near humidifiers.
Another prerequisite for the care of the codiaum is regular rubbing of the leaves. It is recommended to carry out such a procedure with a wet and clean soft sponge once a week.
Watering and fertilizer
Croton needs to be watered so that the soil is always a little wet, but the water in the roots does not stagnate. With an excess of moisture in the flower begin to rot roots, and with its deficiency - dry and fall leaves. Therefore, drainage is poured at the bottom of the pot, and the plant is watered abundantly and regularly. In autumn and winter, if the room is cool, it is recommended to reduce watering.
Croton is fertilized twice a month from April to November and once a month in winter with complex mineral fertilizers for decorative leafy plants. Feed bushes necessarily after wateringotherwise fertilizer can burn the roots.
Craton Flower - Transplant Rules
Молодые растения пересаживаются каждый год, а взрослые по мере заполнения горшка корневой системой. Пересадка должна проводиться весной, когда еще не начался вегетационный период.
The composition of the soil should correspond to the soil in which the codiums grow under natural conditions. To prepare such a mixture of earth can be at home, mixing in equal proportions:
- sod land
- sifted sand
Adding charcoal to the soil will prevent the roots from rotting. So that no insect larvae and harmful microorganisms are left in the ground, it is recommended to ignite or shed it with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Croton should be planted in wide shallow pots, at the bottom of which there should be at least three centimeters of drainage. A small layer of earth is poured on claydite., then the roots of the plant are placed, which are sprinkled in a circle with new soil.
The flower is watered, and for the first time it is placed in a slightly shaded place. Care for him is timely watering, spraying the leaves and shading from the sun's rays.
When planting a new plant, the pot should be only 2-4 cm larger than the previous one. Its size depends on the size of the root system. Once grown at home Croton will be transplanted into a tank with a diameter of 25 cmtransplants end. After that, each year you will need to update only the top layer of soil in the pot.
Reproduction by cuttings
With this method, it is easiest to cut off the top of a bush 6–10 cm long and root it. If you need to get several young plants at once, then the shoot is cut into several pieces. In addition, each segment should be with one healthy leaf and one interstitial.
The milky juice flowing from the slice is washed off with water, and the cutting dries out for several hours. From the lower part of the segment the leaves are removed, and on the upper part the leaves are shortened by half parallel to the veins.
Prepared and dried cuttings are placed in a container with water, the temperature of which should be up to 23-30С. In colder water, planting material will begin to rot.
The cuttings filled with the substrate are planted with 2 cm long roots. Care of them consists in frequent spraying of the soil and the process itself. As soon as the elasticity of the leaves recovers, the cuttings are rooted and the plant begins to grow.
Croton Seed Propagation
Sowing is done with freshly harvested seeds, as they quickly lose their germination. With this method of reproduction, the plant loses its varietal characteristics, and the process of germination takes a long time.
Before planting, the seeds are heated for thirty minutes in water with a temperature of 60 ° C, and remain for a day for swelling. In prepared containers with soil seeding is carried out at a depth of 1 cm. Seating boxes are covered with glass or polyethylene and are stored in a warm place with an air temperature of 22 ° C. Until the first shoots appear, moisten the soil mixture with lower irrigation.
After the seedlings appear, the glass is removed and the container with the seedlings is exposed to a well-lit place. After the appearance of the third leaf young plants are seated in individual potswhose diameter should be no more than 7 cm. Care for them is required the same as for adult plants.
Possible problems with croton growing
At observance of all rules of care to a flower no diseases and insects are terrible. Their appearance suggests that Croton does not like the conditions of detention.
Irregular watering, dry indoor air and spraying sprays can lead to spider mites, scutes, or mealyworms on the leaves. In the early stages, you can control pests with folk remedies. To do this, the leaves and stems of Croton rubbed with a solution of tobacco and soap. An hour later, the bush is rinsed under the shower so that water and solution do not fall into the soil. If there are already a lot of pests on the plant, urgent treatment with special chemicals is required.
Why does codiaum shed leaves?
The lower leaves in a small amount, the plant drops during growth. There is nothing wrong with that. However, when leaves fall off a mass, it is worth looking for the cause and eliminating it. Croton leaves may fall off in several cases:
- The plant stands on a draft.
- Low humidity.
- Permanent insufficient watering.
- Sharp temperature fluctuations.
Why leaves dry?
Drying the lower leaves of the flower is a natural process. With the plant, the lower part of the stem is exposed with age. Dry leaf edges and brown spots indicate that the codec is cold, and it urgently needs to be rearranged to a warmer place. Dry tips of the leaves indicate that the humidity in the room is low. If the leaves are not only dry, but also fall off, it means that the plant is too dry and its roots lack moisture.
Why did croton put down leaves?
If the roots are cold, then they stop absorbing moisture, causing the plant to drop leaves. In this case, the flower pot must be rearranged to a warm, well-lit place., regularly water and spray, stop feeding. For some time it is recommended to put on a flower a transparent bag or cap.
Despite the fact that a beautiful tropical tree at home looks steady and strong, it still needs proper care. Careless attitude to a plant can lead to the appearance of pests, diseases, and even to its death.. To Croton pleased his decorative foliage all year round, it must be surrounded by attention and care.
Croton: how to care at home
The croton home plant is characterized by a certain whimsicalness to the conditions of detention. In addition, such an exotic creation can bring its owners a lot of unexpected surprises. Therefore, before examining the question: “Croton plant: home care”, be sure to pay attention to the following points:
- In croton leaves contains poisonous juicewhich, if released into the human body, can cause diarrhea, vomiting, contact dermatitis and other negative consequences. When caring for a plant, it is important to follow basic safety rules and use gloves,
- In addition to the basic leaf spraying using a sprayer, home care for Croton includes mandatory wiping stalks and leaves using a wet sponge. In the summer, you need to arrange croton flower for a monthly warm shower,
- Croton reacts negatively to contact with cold water or drafts,
- During the growing season, the plant may appear strange forms and patterns. There is no scientific explanation for such phenomena. It is believed that the flower is characterized by a high degree of mutability, due to which the world has a large number of hybrid forms and varieties. They are distinguished by both leaf form and color,
- The appearance of the first nondescript inflorescences can take away a lot of strength from the flower. Therefore, if you do not intend to breed unique varieties of inflorescences necessarily remove flowering buds or flower stalks as they form,
Features transplant at home. Winter care
Care of the Croton plant at home includes the mandatory transplantation of young shoots. In the case of young individuals, this procedure is carried out twice a year, with adults - once every two years. In the latter case, it is necessary to constantly increase the diameter of the growing container by 2 centimeters. If the diameter of the pot reaches 25 centimeters, further transplantation cannot be performed, but it will be necessary to remove the topsoil from the tank to replace it with a new substrate. The optimal composition of the soil consists of:
- sod land
- peat land
- leafy ground
- river sand
The consistency should be equal.
When re-planting, it is advisable not to slow down the earthen room, but simply transfer it from the old tank to the new one.
As for the care of the croton in the winter, then first you need to move the pot with a flower to the southern window-sill. Then it is necessary to reduce the intensity of irrigation, retaining the previous indicators of humidity. It is also important to carry out regular water treatments, spraying and rubbing the leaves with a damp sponge. It is important that such events take place much less frequently than during the warm period of the year. Using a warm shower is prohibited. right up to the summer. Mineral complexes should be used as feed. Fertilizers are applied no more than 1 time per month. In addition, some experts are of the opinion that the procedure is generally optional.
Croton - croton flower breeding at home
In most cases, growers plant croton plant seminal method. If you wish to bring a hybrid variety is preferred reproduction using leaf or stem cuttings. It is important to understand that rapid loss of germination is characteristic of croton seeds. For this reason, it is best to sow freshly harvested seeds. It is also necessary to take into account one peculiarity: before the first shoots appear, a long period of time may pass, and the generative reproduction does not allow preserving the varietal characteristics of the croton. When planting large seeds, planting material is better to warm in water at a temperature of 60 degrees Celsius and leave for one day for swelling. After that, you can begin sowing, deepening the seeds one centimeter into the ground.
The optimum temperature range for full germination is 22 degrees Celsius. Until the emergence of seedlings, the soil is regularly watered with the method of bottom irrigation. If the seedlings will give the third leaf, they should be planted in separate pots with a diameter of 7 centimeters. In this case, the care becomes similar to the care of an adult flower.
If we are talking about vegetative reproduction of Croton, then here it is necessary to root the apical 6-10-centimeter cutting. However, if you intend to cut several cuttings, the shoot is cut into several parts so that at least one interstice with one healthy leaf remains at each segment. In a special way, lignified or semi-lignified cuttings take root quickly.
Before carrying out the procedure, it is necessary to wash off the poisonous milky juice with water, after which the sections should be slightly dried in air for three hours. The leaves on the upper part of the apical stalk are shortened parallel to the veins by half, and the leaves from the lower part are removed. After that, the cuttings are transferred to a prepared container with warm water, which is heated to 23-30 degrees Celsius. This will avoid rotting cuttings. When planting material gives two centimeter roots, it should be placed in a special substrate for croton.
First of all, after planting, it is necessary to provide increased soil moisture around the cuttings, using the spraying method. It is quite simple to find out that reproduction was successful: if the cuttings were made, the leaf elasticity will be restored,
What pests and diseases threaten the croton. Combating hazards at home
Like many other representatives of the tropical flora that are grown at home, the croton plant can be subjected to various diseases and pests. Among them:
- Dangerous insects. Very often Croton eat dangerous mealybugs, nematodes, scale insects and spider mites. In most cases, the flower is attacked by ticks. Why this pest loves the Croton so much is unknown. But the struggle with him often causes the grower to put a lot of effort and take many radical measures. Sometimes powerless owners simply throw away the plant, because can not find a suitable solution for the problem. However, it is important to understand that adherence to the basic rules of care will avoid such consequences and keep the flower in good condition. Ticks appear due to the lack of regular baths in the summertime, so if you are a victim of such an attack, blame only yourself and do not repeat previous mistakes in the future,
- Plant leaves down. If the flower has dropped the leaves, most likely, this indicates a lack of ability to take liquid. This behavior is typical for prolonged storage in cold conditions. It is enough to move the pot with a flower to a warm room with an abundance of light and a comfortable humidity regime, and the situation will change dramatically. Refuse to apply dressings and carefully spray the leaves, covering the leaves with a transparent bag or cap,
- The plant dries. If the flower began to dry quickly, and especially when it comes to the lower leaves, do not worry. In most cases, this phenomenon is seen with a gradual exposure of the lower part, which is a natural process for growth and development. Low air humidity often leads to the appearance of yellow leaves. For this reason, care must be taken that in the room where the flower grows there is always an optimum humidity within 70%. If the edges of the leaves dry up and brown spots form on them, the room most likely needs a temperature increase. If the leaves begin to fall off, everything is explained by the lack of an optimal supply of moisture,
- Croton began dropping leaves. If the flower intensively sheds leaves, then this may be due to the following reasons: a chronic lack of watering and an uncomfortable temperature range,
Croton species for home cultivation
There are several varieties of croton that can be grown at home. Among them, the variegated Croton is in great demand, which can change the color and shape of the leaves depending on the environmental impact. Due to this feature, the variety is often used for conducting experiments and breeding new hybrids. Among them:
- Croton variegated variegatum,
- Mrs. Aiston,
- Black Prince,
Depending on the specific species, the characteristics of the content can vary greatly. Nevertheless, the basic rules of care, including watering, lighting, feeding and breeding details, remain the same for all varieties. Considering them, you will be able to grow a truly beautiful and lush ornamental plant that will turn the ordinary interior of your home into a real work of greenhouse art. In this case, the room will be bright, stylish and irresistible.
Basic rules of care
One of the drawbacks of Croton is considered to be increased demands on growing conditions. The plant is very capricious - it can get sick only because its leaves are dusty. When it is grown, it is necessary to carefully monitor the room's microclimate, to prevent movement from place to place, to protect from cooling, drafts and drying out of the soil. Mandatory element is the formation of the contour of the crown. Decorative foliage and well-being are preserved with increased care and careful observance of all modes of content.
Location and lighting
Croton grows well on eastern and western windows - it provides optimal proportions between brightness and the amount of sunlight. Croton Mammy responds positively to the abundance of evening sunlight. Plants north side additional lighting required fluorescent lamps. On the southern window-sills in the summer afternoon there is a danger of burns of the sheet plates by direct rays of the sun, therefore a slight shading is required.
Adequate illumination is a prerequisite for the well-being of the shrub and the decorativeness of the leaves - the more bright but diffused light, the more colorful the drawing and the richer the color. With a lack of lighting juicy shades fade, the leaves turn green, losing a motley color. The most negative light effect on the variety of Peter, which requires considerable illumination and during the winter holidays.
When using artificial lighting, LED lamps with a warm emission spectrum should be used (conventional incandescent lamps lead to burns of sheet plates). It is preferable to focused light sources, which are located at a sufficient distance from the plants.
Thermophilic Croton is conservative and requires maintaining temperature indicators at a certain level, without sharp fluctuations and drops.
The ideal summer temperature is +20 - 25 ° С. With an increase of more than + 27 ° C, the plant looks depressed, additional spraying is required to increase the humidity of the air.
Temperature indicators in the winter months should not fall below 17 ° C (optimally +18 - 20 ° C). To prevent cooling or sudden temperature fluctuations, the plant pot should be kept away from window glass and heating appliances.
Because of the fear of drafts flower can not be put at the open window. For the same reason, in the summer it does not need to be carried out on the balcony or in the garden. The plant should be in the same place with a constant microclimate.
A moisture-loving plant with large leaves evaporates more moisture and therefore requires constant and abundant watering, does not tolerate even a small drying of the earth in a pot. The consequence of insufficient watering can be drying of the tips of the leaves and their subsequent abscission.
During the active growing season (spring - summer) watering should be done daily or every other day depending on the air temperature. The soil should be moistened, but do not allow stagnant water in the pot. Excess moisture leads to decay of the root system. Для предотвращения нежелательных последствий на дне горшка должен находиться дренажный слой.
In the cold season (autumn - winter) watering should be reduced to 2 - 3 times a week. There is a principle: the lower the temperature, the less watering.
Water for watering should be warm - Croton is afraid of cold water and can lose leaves. Chlorinated water must be defended.
Croton grows well in loose soil, rich in nutrients, with a slightly acidic environment. It may be a ready-made store mix, but it is good for young bushes. Planted in her adult plants, it is worth adding a little leafy land - this will increase the density and provide better preservation of moisture.
The soil substrate can be prepared independently, mixing in equal quantities turf soil, coarse sand and leaf soil (for adult specimens, the third component is taken in double size).
Disinfecting the mixture will help to provide charcoal with fine particles. Ready substrate can be calcined or shed with potassium permanganate - a measure of safety from pests and diseases.
Rules for the care of the plant purchased in the store
Acquired croton is located in the place intended for it and left for 2 weeks in a calm atmosphere for acclimatization. The transfer from the store to the apartment is sufficient stress for the plant, therefore it is impossible to carry out an immediate transplant. If the bush looks good after the deadline, and there is no apparent reason to replace the pot, then the procedure is not necessary. Next, the plant should be treated according to the usual rules for it.
Expediency of flowering
An indicator of proper care for a croton is its regular flowering, which is of no interest in terms of decorativeness: axillary inflorescences consist of small yellowish flowers. But this process requires a large expenditure of power and nutrients from the plant, therefore it is necessary to remove flower buds and forming inflorescences.
Need for transplant
For young, actively developing plants, transplantation is carried out annually, as the roots quickly fill the pot volume and become bare, protruding from the soil. The flower receives insufficient nutrition, its leaves are reduced in size and lose their decorative appearance.
Older specimens are transplanted as needed, trying do not disturb them more often 1 time in 2 years. The last transplant of a croton is considered to be disembarked in a pot with a diameter of 25 cm. Then follow the top layer of the earth every year and fill it with a new one.
Be sure to form a drainage layer at the bottom of the pot (at least 3 cm) that will protect the plant from stagnation of water and root rot. It should be transplanted with extreme care - the slightest damage to the roots is fraught with a long period of rehabilitation. Therefore, use the method of transfer, when the plant with an earthy clod is moved from the pot to the pot.
After transplantation and watering, the plant is placed in a place protected from bright rays, where it restores strength with constant spraying and watering as needed.
Personal Care Rules
Croton's milky sap is poisonous enough - it can cause severe irritation to the skin or poisoning if inadvertently ingested. Therefore, any contact with the plant requires care: it is better to work with gloves and then wash hands with soap and water. Keep the plant away from small children and pets.
To ensure adequate nutrition and preserve the decorativeness, the croton needs regular feeding. At the same time, the complex mineral fertilizer for ornamental plants and organic additives alternate. The composition of fertilizers plays an important role - the dose of individual elements should be regulated. Brightness of leaf color, an important indicator of decorativeness, increases with the presence of potassium and decreases with the presence of nitrogen. Especially from the overdose of nitrogen suffers the motley foliage of the crotons Mammi and Excellent.
Croton follows fertilize between the beginning of April and the end of November once every two weeks , and winter dressings are reduced to 1 time per month with the obligatory half decrease of the summer norm.
Together with supplements and in the same way, it is useful to apply various growth stimulants (Zircon, Appin), which improve the condition and increase the vitality of the plant. Their solution can be watered or sprayed bushes.
Any dressing should be carried out after careful watering - this method will save the root system from chemical burns.
It is forbidden to feed newly transplanted or diseased plants - this will increase their stress and cause significant harm. In addition, fresh soil contains enough nutrients, and excess fertilizer will lead to overfeeding.
Fertilizers can be dissolved in irrigation water.
Pruning as a way to form a bush
One of the problems in the care of the Croton can be called pruning, which is neglected by some growers due to the venomousness of the milky juice. Pruning bears three functions - the formation of the aesthetic appearance of the bush, the prevention of plant depletion due to the lack of food for all the shoots and the implementation of hygienic procedures (dry and damaged branches are cut off).
The poisonousness of the plant should not be an obstacle to the formation of the contour of the plant - the work should be carried out with gloves, and the juice itself helps the fastest tightening of the cuts.
The procedure should be periodic in nature - when the required height is reached, all the stems are pinned or cut at the end, which leads to the formation of a thick lateral growth. Photo clearly shows the result of trimming.
Two methods are used to form the ornamentation of the bush: on young crotons - pinching, on adults - cutting.
After each stage, the bush can be sprayed with stimulants and placed in a mini - teplichku.
The pruning process removes inflorescences and flower buds. The flowers do not decorate the bush with their modest appearance, but a lot of energy is spent on their formation, which threatens the health of the foliage.
Pruning and the process of formation, depending on the variety, has its own characteristics. To increase the pomp of the bush of a not very branching Peter Croton, planting in a pot of several plants is possible. When creating a mix mix, each plant is formed separately, taking into account the needs of its neighbors.
Crown formation in young plants should begin in early spring, before the beginning of the active growing season.
At the moment when Croton reaches a height of 15 cm, the first pinching of the upper points of growth occurs. Then they cut all the shoots each time when their length is 20 cm. Such a scheme awakens the lateral buds and promotes active branching.
The scheme of the formation of the bush includes regular rotation of the plant relative to the light sources to prevent one-sided crown.
In adult plants, cut points are processed with charcoal powder. Cut off shoots are used for grafting.
Possible problems and solutions
Any problems that Croton may have will only appear if there are gross errors in the care. To eliminate them, it is necessary to thoroughly examine the negative signs of damage, analyze the conditions of detention and possible violations, and then proceed to the treatment of the plant, adjusting the methods and modes of care.
Croton dry and fall leaves
When the leaves in the lower part of the trunk dry and then fall, the natural aging process is manifested. There is no reason to worry, as all the other leaves are in excellent condition.
If the process begins with the dry tips of the leaves and ends with their fall - this sign of low air humidity indoors - a tropical plant dries from a lack of moisture.
The low temperature of the croton content in room conditions is expressed by the drying edges of the leaf plates, as well as the appearance of brown tints — the flower suffers from cold and soon reacts to this by leaf fall. The same picture arises when a plant is found in a draft.
A long period with insufficient watering leads to mass drying and dropping the leaves. In this case, the roots do not get enough water and can not provide moisture to the whole plant.
All these problems can be eliminated by adjusting the temperature indicators, watering and spraying schedules or removing the flower from the draft.
Leaves lost elasticity
The problem arises from excessive soil moisture - frequent and abundant watering, which does not allow the soil to dry out a bit. Sometimes at the same time rotting of the stem is observed, there is a danger of rotting of the roots. Elimination of trouble is possible when revising the irrigation schedule and observing the dry regime for several days.
The problem arises if the plant itself or its roots are frozen (drafts or temperature drops) - Croton is unable to drink. It is necessary to adjust the watering and rearrange the flower in a warm and quiet place.
Another reason for hanging leaves can be a significant lack of moisture in the pot. When the soil is drying, immediately water the plant with warm water and spray leaves abundantly. Frequent bringing the flower to “wilting” is fraught with complete leaf fall and death.
Changing the decorative sheet plate
For this result, the opposite reasons can lead:
A small amount of sunlight leads to a change in bright, contrasting color to pale, green tones — Croton should be removed from the shadows.
Too bright rays of the summer sun can burn the leaves, brown spots of burns will appear on them - you need to control the lighting and shade the flower during the midday hours.
Ugly Leaves and Loss of Motley Coloring
The need to follow the regime and composition of mineral supplements is due to the influence of some elements on the beauty of the leaves. A large amount of nitrogen leads to the loss of multi-colored color. Too frequent fertilization leads to the appearance of deformed leaf plates. Lack of nutrition is also a cause of the formation of ugly leaves, but they are small in size. In any case, an adjustment of the fertilizer schedule is required.
On a poisonous plant, various pests can appear only in its unfavorable condition due to poor maintenance.
Dryness of the air, insufficient watering and contamination of the leaf plates lead to the defeat of spider mites, scutes, or hairy lice. Pests suck nutrient juices, which can lead to the death of the plant. It is possible to identify tick infestation by thin filaments of the web on the stems and leaves, by a shield - by white spots and sticky secretions, shaggy lice cover the leaves with a whitish coating. Affected croton must be removed from other plants to prevent the spread of parasites.
The problem can be solved by washing with soap and tobacco solution, wiping the leaves with a sponge with vegetable oil (effective against larvae of the shchitovka) or processing (in advanced cases) with insecticides. At the same time, correction of croton conditions is required.
But it is better not to allow defeat than to eliminate its consequences. Therefore, plants should be regularly inspected for pests.
Arise as a result of errors in the care for indoor growing.
Poorly picked up soil with low acidity is dangerous by the development of root rot. When it leaves look pale, gradually turn yellow and fall off. The roots are softened, the plant may die.
With abundant and frequent watering, red - gray spots appear on the leaves. This is a characteristic manifestation of a fungal disease - anthracnose. Over time, all above-ground parts are damaged, the nutrient supply is disturbed and the plant is threatened with death.
In case of any disease, the plant is separated from the others, the maintenance regimens are adjusted and fungicides are treated.
Care croton requires careful attention to it and compliance with all rules of cultivation. The result is a healthy, bright and ornamental plant in the apartment.