To get a consistently rich harvest of greens, you need to figure out how to harvest and how to prepare the seeds of cucumbers for planting correctly. Not every cucumber is designed to give good offspring. For example, hybrids that have the letter designation F1 or F2 on a bundle of purchased seeds are not suitable for collecting seeds, since they do not convey their qualities to the “posterity”.
Important! To obtain seeds, from which cucumbers will grow mainly with female flowers, it is necessary to take fruits from which four-chamber seed walls. And from the three-chamber grow male flowers - barren.
To obtain a good seed, it is necessary to select and leave one or two cucumbers from the plant you like until full maturity. Then, cut off 2-3cm from the place of the stalk (bitter greens will grow from this part), release the rest of the seeds into a glass of water, mix those that have sunk to the bottom, dry and leave for storage, then with proper preparation you will get a good harvest.
Important! Shop cucumber seeds do not need preparation for planting. They even soak in water is not worth it, so as not to wash off the protective layer.
If the store seeds, it is not necessary to sort them, but it is worth sorting home or purchased ones on the market. Crumpled and chopped should be discarded immediately. Then you need to select the hollow, for this you need to prepare a saline solution (for half a glass of water - 1/2 teaspoon of salt) and lower the seeds for 15 minutes. After this time, those that float to the surface, must be removed, and those settled on the bottom must be washed, dried and used.
Important! Selection of seeds in this way is possible only if they are not older than two years. Anything older will rise to the surface for any germination.
Crop of cucumbers grown from seeds that have a shelf life of more than 3 years, will be greater than from last year's harvest. Gardeners have learned how to “grow old” seeds - for this they need to warm up. You can warm up:
- In hot water about 5-6 hours (temperature 50-60 C),
- In the sun - 7–8 days, constantly stirring,
- Near the heating radiator - 1 month
- Near the stove - 1 month.
Warming of cucumber seeds in water.
Disinfection can be done in two ways:
- Wet. For disinfection, the seeds are lowered into a 1% solution of manganese potassium for 20–30 minutes (the solution must be prepared in dark purple, a weaker concentration is useless). Then the seeds should be washed. This treatment kills only those infections that were on the seed coat.
- Dry For dry disinfection used substances TMTD or granozan NIUIF-2. Cucumber seed with one of the drugs is placed in a closed container and methodically shaken for five to ten minutes.
Important! When working with these substances, you must take precautions: the eyes must be protected with glasses, nose and mouth - with a gauze bandage.
To eradicate diseases that remain in the embryo, it is necessary to soak the planting material in special substances:
Soak cucumber seeds in Fitostorin-M
Seed material is soaked in one of these funds for two to two and a half hours, then they must be well dried. The use of these substances can prevent the following diseases:
When using these drugs suppresses not only harmful, pathogenic, but also beneficial microflora. They should be used only when absolutely necessary.
After disinfection, it is desirable to soak the seeds for a day in a growth stimulator.
Cucumbers respond with a good harvest to the use of biostimulants:
Those gardeners who do not want to use chemicals once again, can prepare and apply home remedies:
- Nettle infusion. A small amount of young nettle leaves is poured with warm water, infused for a week,
- Boric acid (20 mg per 1 l of water),
- Zinc sulfate (2g per 1l)
- Drinking soda (1 tsp per 1 liter)
- Yeast. 25 g of dry yeast are dissolved in a glass of warm water and infused for three days,
- Honey. One teaspoon is stirred in a glass of water, you can apply immediately.
- Aloe juice Freshly squeezed aloe juice is mixed with water in a ratio of one to one. Insist 10-12 hours,
- Potato juice. The potato is frozen, then it must be thawed and squeezed juice,
- Infusion of dried mushrooms. Mushrooms pour boiling water and allow to cool at room temperature (one tablespoon of dried mushrooms to one cup of water).
Cucumber seed is aged in any solution for a day. The seeds treated with growth stimulants germinate faster and grow more shoots.
Hardened seeds at low temperatures, about 0 degrees. This is done in order to activate the protective mechanisms of the cucumber embryo, for the accumulation of sugar and growth inhibitors, due to which the cold resistance is increased.
Hardening of cucumber seeds in the refrigerator.
How to harden cucumber seeds
- Method 1. Swollen seeds without removing from cotton pads and saucers, in which they swelled, placed in a refrigerator for 10-11 hours at a temperature of from 0 to +2 degrees. Then you need to move them to the room on the windowsill at the same time. This will have to be repeated for three to five days. It is more convenient to arrange "cold" at night, and "warm" - during the day. You need to make sure that the cotton pads are wet all the time. Should be prepared for the fact that less powerful seeds die.
- Method 2. The prepared seeds are kept on the shelf of the refrigerator with a temperature of about 0 degrees (melting snow) from 3 to 7 days, after they must be sown immediately in the prepared soil.
Important! Hardening is carried out before the seeds begin to actively germinate.
Properly treated seeds germinate before planting, give strong and healthy seedlings.
Even very high quality seeds planted in poor soil will not give a good harvest. Therefore, care must be taken of the quality of the soil. This process is no less important than the treatment of planting material. Cucumbers love light nutritious soil, in the spring before planting, it is necessary to take care of such a zemku. To do this in equal parts are mixed:
- Garden land,
- Rotted sawdust (for aeration),
- Dead manure (nutritional value)
- Sand (regulates humidity better).
Sowing cucumber seeds in prepared soil.
The resulting soil is necessary
- sift (it is more pleasant to work with clean earth)
- Next, the soil must be calcined or steamed over boiling water (for disinfection),
- In conclusion, the soil should be frozen in the freezer.
Important! After the ground is thawed and warmed up, you can sow the prepared cucumber seeds. Only it should be remembered that cucumbers are extremely disliked when their roots are injured, therefore, it is better to sow seeds in separate cups or cassettes.
Provided that everything is done correctly, the cucumbers should ascend in 3-4 days. After the toothed leaves come out with two toothed leaves, it can be planted in open ground or a greenhouse.
- Experienced gardeners recommend using only homemade seeds, this gives confidence that the processing is carried out correctly.
- You can also disinfect the seeds in a solution of streptomycin (500 units per 10 ml of water) for a day, then rinse,
- Well disinfects garlic. To prepare the solution, you need to rub one large chuck on a plastic (sure!) Grater and gruel diluted in 200 g of warm water, let stand for a couple of hours, add another half-liter of water, stir and strain through a frequent sieve. Seeds in this solution are soaked for half an hour.
- To warm up the seeds of cucumbers, they need to be placed in a small rag and put in a bra, so go through the day,
- Sew a belt with pockets, put seeds in it, put it on your body and go through a week,
- Good use for sprouting forest moss. Planting material is placed between two layers, moisturize and wait for sprouts.
With proper preparation of seeds for planting, proper care of plants, a large crop is ensured.
What seeds need preparation?
The quality and quantity of the future harvest depends on competent preparation of cucumber seeds for sowing. For the shoot and the formation of strong and healthy plants need some effort.
The procedure for preparing seeds for sowing in seedlings, in the greenhouse (greenhouse) or in the open ground does not have any fundamental differences. But in greenhouse conditions, a special microclimate, high humidity, special temperature conditions and crowded landings.
Hybrid seeds with the indication on the packing F1, to perform any manipulations on their preparation is not necessary. They are already calibrated, heated, processed with fungicides and stimulants, and have an uncharacteristic color pattern. Such seeds can be simply germinated or immediately planted into the ground.
For sowing cucumbers, you can buy ready-made mixture in the store or make it yourself from:
- 1 part sifted sod or sheet soil,
- 1 part peat,
- 1 pieces of humus
- 1 part sifted river sand.
Instead of peat, you can take steamed (spilled with boiling water) sawdust. For 10 liters of the mixture, 100 grams of wood ash and 20 grams of superphosphate are added. The mixture is thoroughly mixed.
Seed preparation should begin with the selection and calibration.
The remaining seeds are washed under running water and dried on a napkin. After that, the calibration is carried out. Small seeds are separated from large ones. When landing they land at a depth of 1 centimeter, and large ones - 1.5-2 centimeters. In the presence of a large number of seeds, small ones can not be planted.
To protect the seeds from diseases such as bacteriosis, root rot, viral mosaic, powdery mildew, and tracheomycosis, it is necessary to undergo a decontamination procedure.
Seeds are placed in a gauze or cloth bag and dipped in a strong (purple) solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes. After which they are washed with running water.
Small seeds can be sanitized under an ultraviolet lamp for 2-3 minutes.
Disinfection of seeds can also be carried out in garlic husks. Husk for this for 2 hours poured boiling water, filtered. Seeds in the infusion are placed for an hour, then washed.
To increase immunity, seeds can also be placed in aloe juice, diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio for 6 hours.
The enrichment of cucumber seeds with oxygen (bubbling) is used for seed, whose age has reached 6-7 years. This procedure increases the germination energy and increases the number of shoots. Young seed such a procedure is not required.
The seed is placed in a gauze (fabric) bag and sent to a container with a warm growth stimulator solution, for example, Zircon, Kornevin, Epin, Cytodeph, sodium humate (5 drops of solution per 1 liter of water). After that, with the help of an aquarium compressor, a stream of air is supplied to the seeds. The filter is removed at the compressor. The tube is located under the bag of seeds. Air bubbles surround the seeds on all sides. They are aged in water for about 18-24 hours. With a large number of seeds, in the middle of the cycle (after 9-12 hours), the water is replaced with a new one.
After bubbling, the seeds are poured on a paper napkin to dry.
Seeds are laid out in a damp cloth and sent to a transparent bag or on a saucer and put up on a bright, warm place for 1-2 days. When the fabric dries, it is sprayed with water. The seeds will swell and begin to germinate. The length of the roots at the same time should not exceed 2 millimeters. Otherwise, they may break off during landing.
Sprouted seeds can be planted, and it is better to first harden.
Proper care of cucumber seedlings
For sowing seeds taken separate peat pots or cups without a bottom, with a diameter of at least 8 centimeters. Peat pots allow you to plant grown seedlings immediately in the ground, without removing it and without damaging the roots. They easily grow through the walls, and the peat structure serves as an additional fertilizer. You can also use peat tablets, which are then planted in separate containers.
The pots are filled with soil mixture and spilled with a warm solution of potassium permanganate. After dripping moisture seeds are placed in the ground to a depth of 1.5-2 centimeters. Then watered with warm water and sprinkled with soil. Capacities are covered with glass or transparent plastic film.
After the appearance of the first shoots, the seedlings are placed on a well-lit window sill on the south side. The temperature of the air in the room during the day should be equal to 20 degrees, at night it should not fall below 15 degrees.
Watering plants is carried out with warm water. Before the appearance of the first leaves, the earth is irrigated from a spray bottle. After the formation of the first leaves of the seedlings need to be watered with a syringe or a teaspoon. Water should not fall on the stalks and leaves, but to soak the soil.
Feeding of cucumber seedlings is carried out after the appearance of one main leaf. Then it is repeated every 10 days. A liter of mullein, 20 grams of urea or ammonium nitrate is taken on a bucket of water.
A few days before planting plants in the ground, they are fertilized with a solution of ammonium nitrate (5 grams of top dressing in a bucket of water).
Top dressing needs to be carried out in the evening, after watering. The solution should not fall on the leaves. If fertilizing still got on the foliage, it is immediately washed off with water from a spray bottle or a watering can.
A week before planting seedlings in unprotected soil, hardening of seedlings begins. The time spent in the open air increases gradually.
Land should be warmed up to 15 degrees when landing, and air to 18ºС.
Grown up plants are planted on the prepared beds. They are placed in the center or in a staggered manner, on average there are 4-6 seedlings per 1 square meter. The distance between rows should be about 50 centimeters, in a row of 30-40 centimeters, when landing in 1 row - 20 centimeters.
After planting, they are carefully watered with warm water. If necessary for acclimatization, the nonwoven fabric is pulled from above. When the plants go into growth the shelter is removed.
In the future, the plants are provided with proper care, which guarantees a good harvest.
Preseeding preparation of cucumbers: video
Properly prepared seeds and planned care ensures a good harvest of cucumbers. Not only the health and quality of the fruits, but also the quality of the seeds collected in the future, which can be collected for subsequent sowing, depends on these measures. Many gardeners doubt the need for seed preparation, but having tried only once, they do it annually.
Sorting and culling
First you need to select the best and large seeds, reject the deformed, unnatural colors (for example, with spots).
This stage is especially important when buying seeds from hands or using harvested seeds yourself.
Then with the help of a salt solution, empty seeds can be sifted out - the so-called full-weight test. The solution is prepared as follows: mix 2 3 teaspoons with 100 milliliters of water.
You need to keep the seeds in water for about 20 minutes, you can mix a couple of times to speed up the process. Floated seeds can be thrown away - the most fertile will be those that remained at the bottom.
An important point! If too many seeds emerged, it is likely that they were simply stored for a long time and dried out. Seed germination while not losing.
After this procedure, planting material must be washed and dried.
Soak, activate germination
To do this, wrap planting material in a damp cloth or bandage and leave at a temperature of 20-25ºC for 8 hours.
Be sure to ensure that the material does not dry out or is not excessively wet.
This procedure is only suitable when planting cucumbers on seedlings or in the ground in warm weather.
After soaking the seeds, they extremely negatively react to cooling or drying.
Preparing for planting seedlings
The main feature of the preparation for seedlings will be the preparation of the soil. Cucumbers love loose and nutritious soil, therefore it is better to make a seedling mixture on your own - so you will be confident in the composition and vitamin complex contained in it.
More information on when to plant cucumbers for seedlings in 2018
It is necessary to mix in equal proportions:
- garden land (this will prepare the seedlings for transplantation into the garden).
- sawdust (they will ensure the looseness of the soil).
- humus (it will add nutritional value to food).
- river sand (will help the mixture to maintain moisture better).
The resulting mixture should be sifted. After sifting to eliminate harmful microorganisms that can destroy the seedlings, it is necessary to ignite the earth.
To improve, you can also steam the soil by placing it in a sieve over boiling water. The last stage will be freezing - you need to put the soil in the freezer.
The second feature will not be obligatory feeding of seeds, as the prepared mixture is already nutritious and rich in vitamins.
It is also possible to exclude germination of a seed in a damp rag. Planting material will sprout directly in the ground.
Cucumber seeds are planted to a depth of 1.5-2 cm.
Рассаду желательно сажать в торфяные горшочки, чтобы впоследствии при пересадке не вынимать растение. Не стоит волноваться – торфяная тара перегниет в почве и даст дополнительную подкормку.
Preparing for planting in open ground
Some gardeners believe that the seeds are best planted in open ground. However, when sowing directly into the ground on the street is to prepare planting material.
Be sure to harden the seeds. For quenching do not need to wait until they germinate. Simply wrap them in cheesecloth and put them in the fridge, to the shelf nearest to the freezer. Then every day shift one shelf farther from the freezer.
Useful information: after which you can plant cucumbers, and then - not worth it.
Also be sure to disinfect the seeds. Before sowing, it is important to shed the planting site with a solution of potassium permanganate or Fitosporin, in order to prevent both the seeds and the ground in which they will grow, to prevent contamination.
Features of preparation when landing in the greenhouse
As you know, in a greenhouse, a special microclimate, high humidity and greenhouse effect. This increases the likelihood of fungal infections, so the preparation of future cucumbers has its own characteristics.
Be sure to disinfect the seeds. To prevent the fungus and mold from damaging the seedlings, a manganese bath with boric acid must be prepared for the seeds. The solution is prepared simply: you need to mix a teaspoon of boric acid, with a teaspoon of potassium permanganate and pour a liter of boiled water. Insist the seeds in this solution for 3 hours and dry.
The solution should be dark purple, but not brown.
It is necessary to germinate the seeds. This will help to pre-estimate the germination percentage and help the culture to climb better.
Experienced gardeners, telling about how to prepare cucumber seeds for planting, advise to disinfect them in a garlic tincture (pour 100 liters of garlic peel with a liter of water, leave for 2 hours). They like the naturalness of the method and the absence of any chemical effect.
To improve germination, some advise that germinated material be carried closer to the body. To do this, the seeds in a wet package are placed in a calico bag and worn “closer to the heart.” They say that so the harvest grows simply from the heart!
Many experts in gardening advise to use when planting seeds that were stored from 2 to 3 years. Since it is during this period, the percentage of germination of seeds is highest.
Also, gardeners are advised to harvest planting material on their own. They say that it is possible to control the quality at every stage of preparation.
How to germinate cucumber seeds for seedlings?
However, most fans still soak the seeds, trying to speed up the development of seedlings and ensure the germination of seed. If the shoots do not hatch, they can not be planted in the ground, do not take the pots with the substrate and a scarce place on the windowsill.
How to soak cucumber seeds for seedlings? Soft water is used for soaking.: rain, thawed or boiled. Do not use hard chlorinated tap water. Pouring seeds is not worth it, wet cotton fabric works much better.
Some gardeners use cotton wool, but this method is not safe. Tender shoots can get entangled in long fibers, it will be very difficult to remove them without breaking them.
The seeds are wrapped in a cotton cloth or mat that is richly moistened with warm water and then placed in a plastic bag. It will not allow moisture to evaporate and provide the necessary heat. They will sprout in 3 days.
Instead of a package, you can use a glass jar with a tight lid, creating the effect of a greenhouse. A jar of seeds is placed in heat. Do not place it on the heating devices.trying to speed up the spitting process.
To improve germination before germinating cucumber seeds can be soaked in an aqueous solution of growth stimulant. Processing lasts 10-12 hours. The procedure is especially important for expensive and rare varietal seeds, it guarantees almost one hundred percent germination of seed.
Preparation for sowing can take a lot of time, so you need to start it in advance. Decontaminated soil, enriched with nutrients, can be stored for a long time, and the seeds must undergo the necessary procedures immediately before sowing. It is impossible to neglect important preparatory measures, because the future harvest depends on them.
Preparation of tanks for sowing cucumber seeds
Preparation begins 3-5 weeks before planting seedlings in open ground. Since the root seedling system Cucumber is very delicate, it is necessary to provide minimal intervention for it. The best option for sowing seeds is the use of special peat pots or pre-stored cups from under dairy products. Such containers are most suitable for plant growth, since the seedlings in them are not affected by root rot. If the containers are used repeatedly, before sowing should be disinfected with 1.5−2% solution of potassium permanganate.
What soil is suitable for planting cucumbers?
For cucumber seedlings, it is preferable to use light soil, which is moisture and breathable, fully enriched with mineral fertilizers and organic matter.
The growth time of seedlings depends on the type and variety:
Usually the seedlings grow within 25-30 days. If the seeds are planted in good fertilized soil, then additional feeding can not produce.
If there is not enough time to prepare the soilNaturally, every gardener gets ready soil, which is already fully prepared for use. Some amateur gardeners prepare their own soil. For its preparation usually use 3-4 component: the usual turf soil, sand, humus or biohumus, peat. The acidity of the planting soil should be in the range of 6.6−6.8.
Cucumbers can be planted in peat tablets, which are placed in plastic containers with a cropped bottom. The tablet is placed in a plastic container., moistened with water when swollen - planted seeds. Already grown seedlings are pushed out of containers, having folded the cropped bottom, and together with peat they are placed in a prepared bed.
How to prepare cucumber seeds for sowing
The easiest and most convenient option is to buy seed in a specialty store. Such seeds do not need additional refinement, and they can be immediately germinated, except for those that are not intended to be germinated. When buying, pay attention to the packaging., which should have the following information:
- Name of the variety
- Possible location of zoning,
- Cultivation method: open or closed ground,
- The time and period of planting seedlings
- The time of landing in the prepared ground
- The timing of the crop,
- Possible uses of fruits: salad, pickling, pickling.
Buying seeds from random sellers should not be.
Temperature regime for the growth of cucumber seedlings
Cucumber seeds germinate at temperatures from +26 to + 28C. After the appearance of cotyledon leaves, the temperature is reduced in the range from +18 to 22С during the daytime, and at night from +15 to + 17С. The best soil temperature is from +18 to + 20C.
After 12–14 days after sprouting, the seedlings of cucumbers are gradually started to be accustomed to a change in temperature. Before planting seedlings at a permanent place, plants begin to harden, so that the seedlings have time to adapt and get used to more unfavorable conditions.
Cucumber is a short day plant. Although breeders have now bred and classified new varieties that are more neutral to the length of daylight hours, the need for good lighting still remains the same. With a lack of lighting, with long periods of overcast, cucumber seedlings are drawn out and exposed to various diseases. If cucumbers are planted early, experienced gardeners use additional lighting with special photo lamps, fluorescent lamps or other similar devices, which are widely presented in specialized retail outlets.
As the leaves appear and grow in size, containers with seedlings pushing so that they do not obscure each other. The best option - the plants should not be in contact with each other.
Frequency of watering cucumber seedlings
Watering is the most important element of the three basic conditions for growing quality and healthy seedlings: good illumination, optimal temperature conditions, timely watering.
The first watering of cucumber seedlings should be carried out no later than 5 days after the appearance of amicable shoots. The temperature for irrigation should not be lower than + 24- + 25С. After the emergence of seedlings with insufficient moisture of the soil should be sprinkling emerged seedlings. If sprinkling is not enough, you can water it very carefully without touching the leaves. The best option - produce watering directly into the pan.
After irrigation, it is advisable to mulch the soil with dry sand or a mixture of humus and soil, carefully crushed into fine powder. This is necessary in order to prevent excessive moisture, as this can cause mold fungi and then root rot. The fungus infects the soil and penetrates the plant, causing the death of all plants.
Periodic feedings cucumber seedlings
If the seeds are planted in properly selected soil, with the necessary set of fertilizers, then additional feeding is optional. So, the period of growth and vegetation of seedlings is a short period - 20−30 days, then the plants have enough nutrients that are initially contained in the soil.
If cucumber seedlings grow in optimal conditions: sufficient soil and air humidity, good lighting, temperature conditions are observed, but the plants do not develop well, leaves have changed color, drooped, then all these signs indicate that the seedlings need feeding.
First of all, when carrying out mulching, wood ash should be added to the mulch. In addition, feed a mixture of various trace elements with the obligatory presence of boron. To find out more precisely what elements are missing, one can compare the signs that have appeared from the pictures in special catalogs. And based on them, make your own or buy ready-made feeding.
Feeding can be done in two ways: spraying or watering. When spraying it is worth paying attention to the concentration of the solution, since with a strong concentration you can burn the plants. When feeding in the form of soil watering, then be sure to pour it with plain water and sprinkle with mulch.
Recommended Depth of Planting in the Ground
Cucumbers can be grown in two ways: seedless and seedling. For seedlings, seeds should be sown no later than one month before planting in a permanent place. To accelerate the emergence of seedlings pre-soaked. In open ground, seeds can be sown when the soil warms up well. For the middle band - this is the end of May. The temperature of the soil when planting soaked or already germinated seeds should not be lower than 13–15 ° C, otherwise the seeds will not grow and decompose. Seed up should be at a depth of 2 cm, per 1 square meter should be somewhere around 5-7 plants. It is advisable to plant different varieties nearby, since the plants are better pollinated, and this contributes to an increase in their yield.
Cucumbers prefer fertile, loose and excellent moisture-retaining soil. It is preferable to apply organic fertilizer directly to the planting holes or furrows, since the root system of cucumbers is not strongly developed. To do this, dig a hole or a trench to a depth of 40–50 cm, settle a layer of organic fertilizers, mix with the soil, then pour a layer of ordinary soil and sow seeds or seedlings. With the subsequent decomposition of organic matter produces heat, which additionally accelerates the development and growth of plants, and at the same time serves as a feed.
Cucumbers like a well-lit place, but you can allow a small partial shade. Plants should be well protected from wind and drafts. To protect the cucumbers from the wind in the open ground, you can use the planting of corn, which is planted on the edges of the beds, leaving the south side open.
For the normal development of plants is necessary air temperature 20−30С. If the air temperature drops below 15 ° C, there is a stall in growth, both of an immature seedling and an adult plant. At any stage of growth frost disastrous for cucumber. Sudden temperature drops during the day and at night also affect plant growth. For our middle zone, it is desirable to cover plants in open ground with film materials, at least at the beginning of the summer period.
Preparing seeds for planting: stock check
There is a sowing characteristics of seeds, including a number of characteristics, some of which must be controlled without fail. First of all, it is about germination. This is especially true if the seeds were purchased from a seller who did not impress you as a reliable person, and also if they were stored incorrectly or for too long. Germination energy is also a property that testifies to the quality of seeds and their vitality.
These parameters are determined simultaneously, and this cannot be done immediately before sowing. Check the stock in advance so that if necessary it is time to replace the seed.
So, prepare the seeds for planting according to all the rules. Fine seeds (onions, carrots, radishes, tomatoes, turnips, parsley) should be 100-200 pcs., Medium (cucumbers, melons, watermelon, beets, peas) - 50-100 pcs., Large (pumpkin, beans, patissons , squash, beans) - 20-50 pieces. With such a sample, the result obtained can be considered quite reliable. But the package does not always contain the right amount of seeds, so, despite the reasonableness of this requirement, it will be necessary to limit to 10 seeds.
When preparing seeds for sowing, use a plate to check stocks (it is very convenient to use Petri dishes), cover it with filter paper or gauze folded in several layers, moisten. Make sure that during the test the substrate remains constantly wet, there should be enough water so that the seeds can swell, but they should not float in it. Spread the seeds and cover with glass.
Different crops require a certain ambient temperature:
- for seeds of sweet pepper, eggplants and cucumbers - from 25 to 30 ° C,
- 18-20 ° C is sufficient for the remaining seeds.
After the entire inspection during seed preparation for planting is done, record the number of seeds and the date of the beginning of the inventory. Every day, inspect them and remove the sprouted, while making sure to fix their number and current date.
Determination of germination of seed germination in preparation for planting
Each culture is characterized by a certain germination and germination energy. They are expressed as a percentage of seeds that sprouted or nod in the time allotted for this, to their total amount of seed. For example, if 90 out of 100 seeds adequately reacted, then germination will be 90%. If their number does not exceed 40-60 pcs., It is necessary either not to use such material (if there is a substitute), or to increase the seeding rate, although it must be borne in mind that numerous non-germinating seeds rot in the soil, which, in turn, will lead to seedlings disease. If you still have to sow poorly or poorly sprouting seeds, then pre-germinate them, and for sowing, select only those that have been planted.
Determination of germination and germination energy of vegetable seeds:
The dates presented in the table may vary, since it is intended to create an optimal regime for germination. But in any case, do not sow the seeds that were not laid at the specified time.
After the situation has been clarified with germination, the time has come for the preplant preparation of seeds. The purpose of this procedure is to rid the material of pathogens, increase its viability and reduce the time of germination.
Methods of pre-sowing seed preparation and selection of planting material
There are several ways of preplant seed preparation. The main ones are:
- selection and calibration of seeds,
- processing with microelements and biologically active substances,
To get a high yield in optimal time, you need to seriously address the problem of presowing seed preparation. Seed preparation for planting should begin with the selection of planting material, which must be calibrated, that is equally large and well executed. Only such material will give the expected result.
If few seeds are needed for sowing, it is easy to manually pick up damaged or empty seeds. With a lot of it is much harder to do this. In this case, resort to a simple preparation procedure: seeds intended for sowing on seedlings or in open ground, immerse in 3% (for cucumbers) or 5% (for tomatoes, sweet peppers and eggplants) salt solution ( use and ammonium nitrate). Pour them in portions, stirring to remove air bubbles, then leave for 3-5 minutes. Вы увидите, что некоторые из них опустились на дно, а другие, наоборот, поднялись к поверхности. Последние не представляют никакого интереса, поскольку, скорее всего они щуплые и весьма сомнительно, что взойдут.
Осторожно соберите их, затем процедите раствор вместе с оставшимися полноценными семенами через сито, промойте их под струей проточной воды и подсушите. Желательно оценить посевной материал с точки зрения размера, так как не исключено, что полноценными окажутся и мелкие, и крупные семена. In this case, before preparing the seeds for sowing on seedlings or in open ground, calibrate them.
You can add the following:
- about cucumber, it should be noted that the use of saline solution is possible for the analysis of extremely fresh seeds. The fact is that during storage they dry up, losing their original density, and therefore float in solution, although they actually have high sowing characteristics. If this is neglected, you can remain seedless,
- pea seeds more than others need to be selected, as they often turn out to be infected with pea weevil. They just need to pour in cold water, mix and after some time, remove the surfaced. The same should be done with the seeds of corn and beans.
Seed preparation before planting: disinfection
After the completion of the first stage of seed preparation for sowing in open ground or seedlings, proceed to the next. All seeds (both purchased and own) must be disinfected, since it was found that in 80% of cases infected seeds are to blame for vegetable diseases and only 20% of them are transmitted through the soil. Externally, the ideal seeds may well be a source of dangerous infections. Therefore, when selecting, pay attention to the color (for example, usually light seeds can change their color) and the presence of any dark spots. It is best to get rid of everything suspicious (including packaging), so that you do not have to deal with diseases and pests later.
The method of disinfecting seeds in preparation for sowing involves heat treatment and chemical dressing. In recent years, seeds that have undergone special training (as a rule, sellers warn about this) are often found on sale, and often coated seeds, such as carrots, are often sold. Both those and others do not need disinfection.
Heat treatment is a simple and effective method of preseeding seed preparation. Warming up, carried out according to the rules, guarantees complete purification of seeds from harmful microorganisms. First of all, it is shown for those who lose their germination more slowly than they get rid of the infection. These include cabbage seeds, tomatoes, eggplants, Physalis and beets. Despite the fact that the latter does not have a high heat resistance, it is necessary to resort to warming up, since chemical dressing is less effective because of the uneven surface of beet seeds.
Gardeners are available only one method of heat treatment in the preparation of seeds for sowing in the ground or on seedlings - keeping in hot water. So that you do not have to choose the seeds from the tank one by one, put them in a gauze bag and put them in a thermos with hot water. The disadvantage of this treatment is that complete disinfection requires a sufficiently high temperature, as a result of which up to 30% of seeds may lose germination. But this can be considered the selection of the most viable material. To reduce the risk, you must strictly adhere to the recommended mode, so you will need a thermometer and a clock.
Warming mode of vegetable seeds:
To avoid irreversible effects after being in hot water, immediately immerse the seeds in cold water for 2-3 minutes.
Warming is recommended for those seeds that were stored in the refrigerator. This will significantly increase the rate of their germination.
Another available method of disinfection is seed dressing in potassium permanganate solution, although it is not able to rid them of the infection that has penetrated inside. Therefore, seed treatment with a solution of potassium permanganate ensures the destruction of only those pathogens that are on the surface.
Before you prepare the seeds for planting seedlings or in open ground, keep in mind that seeds of different vegetable crops require different processing modes. But regardless of this, it should be carried out at room temperature and be completed by washing the seed with clean water.
The mode of disinfection of vegetable seeds with potassium permanganate solution:
Before you prepare the seeds for planting, you need to prepare a solution. To prepare a 1% solution in 1 liter of water, dilute 10 g of potassium permanganate, for a 2% solution, 20 g. In order not to spoil everything and not be left without seeds at all, greater accuracy must be observed. In this regard, it is desirable to have a pharmacy scale in the house so as not to increase or decrease the concentration of the solution, since increasing the dosage will destroy the seeds, and a decrease will not allow to achieve the expected result. But there is a way without weighing to prevent mistakes in the calculations. Potassium permanganate can be measured by volume, for which you should use a regular teaspoon, which holds 6 g of the substance. To get 1% solution, 1 tsp. without top (remove a hill with a knife) dissolve in 3 glasses (600 ml), and for 2% - in 1.5 glasses of water (300 ml). The liquid will be almost black, but this is exactly what you need. Otherwise, decontamination will not take place.
Attention should be paid to the following: there is no complete disinfection even when stuck material is processed, which is particularly susceptible to tomato seeds. To ensure a full result, separate them by rubbing the lumps in their hands. For this reason, a more efficient way to process the seeds of tomatoes is to warm up.
Seed preparation for planting seedlings: soaking in water
Having disinfected the seeds, dry them and can start sowing on seedlings or in the ground. But for greater reliability, it is worth making a soak. It is shown for plants whose seeds germinate with difficulty. These include onions, sweet peppers, parsnips, carrots, parsley, etc. When soaking, the seeds swell from moisture, causing the shell to burst easily, and germination and germination accelerate.
If you seriously approached the operation called “Preparing seeds for seedlings or for planting in the ground”, you must adhere to the following rules:
- Approximately two-thirds fill a gauze bag with seeds and dip it in water, the amount of which is determined by the culture. For plants such as carrots, parsley, beets, beans, peas, parsnips and celery, the amount of water should be 80-100% of the seed mass, for cucumbers and melons - 50-55%, for watermelon and cabbage - 50-60% , and for tomatoes - 70-75%.
- Quickly germinating seeds (peas, beans) soaking is enough for 2 hours, slowly germinating (parsley, carrots, onions, celery) - 36-48 hours, and most other crops (tomatoes, cucumbers, all kinds of cabbage) need 8-12 for swelling hours Keeping seeds in water for a longer time is not recommended.
- The water temperature should also be determined: for heat-loving plants - 18–20 ° C, and for cold-resistant plants - 15–18 ° C.
- In the process of implementing this method of preparing seeds for sowing, mix planting material and change water 3-4 times, especially if its color changes.
- After completing this stage, dry the seeds, and then you can sow them in the seedling boxes or continue the preparation and put them in germination.
Preparing seeds for sowing seedlings: soaking in solution
Soaking seeds will be even more useful if you do not fill them with water, but with a solution containing biologically active substances (epine, humate, zircon, aloe juice).
Epin is a substance of plant origin that combines the properties of a growth stimulator and a universal adaptogen. After treatment with this solution, plants more easily and quickly adapt to such adverse factors as lack of light, lack of moisture, excessive moisture, overheating, overcooling, etc. Epin is sold in 1 ml ampoules (50 drops), which must be stored in the refrigerator.
It should be used as follows, and more than 10 times to heat and pour the drug is not strongly recommended. So, prepare the seeds for sowing by soaking in a solution of epin:
- Remove the vial and hold it at room temperature for 20-30 minutes (you can warm it for several minutes in your hand).
- When the contents of the ampoule become transparent, shake it, pour 2 drops of the solution into 100 ml of water, mix and fill it with seeds that must be disinfected beforehand.
- Leave the seeds in the solution for 12-24 hours, stirring occasionally.
- After this time, drain the solution, then dry the seeds and sow or germinate them.
In its chemical composition, humate is a sodium or potassium salt of humic acid. In its action, it resembles epin. They are united by the fact that in plants after being in a solution of epine or humate, sensitivity to negative circumstances that may accompany the process of growing vegetables decreases, and their resistance to diseases increases.
Usually, potassium or sodium humate is sold as a powder, but sometimes there are solutions that vary in their concentration. The most suitable is ballastless humate produced from peat, as it is completely dissolved in water. Such a tool should not be prepared in advance, it is better to do this immediately before use, after reading the instructions. The solution for soaking seeds may have a concentration of 0.01% or 0.005%. First you need to prepare a 1% solution, for which, in 100 ml of water, dissolve 1 g of dry matter, put it in a refrigerator and use as needed. To prepare a 0.01% solution of 1 ml of the liquid obtained (for convenience, take a syringe), pour in 100 ml of water, and if the amount of the latter is increased 2 times and pour the same amount of humate as originally, you will have 0.005% - niy solution.
As in the treatment with epin, the seeds soaked in humate must be pre-disinfected. The dwell time is 24 hours, and the optimum temperature is 26-28 ° C. In order to evenly wet the seeds with the working solution, sometimes mix them. After the expiry of the due date, pour them into a sieve and rinse them under running water. Then proceed as follows: either dry them and sow in the seed boxes, or put on sprouting.
The humate is suitable not only for preparing seeds for planting seedlings or planting them in the ground, it works well if you water the crops, and be sure to take a fresh solution, and not the one in which the seed has been soaked.
Zircon is called a drug that is made on the basis of chicoric acid, derived from echinacea. It stimulates rooting and accelerates seed germination.
Prepare the solution according to the enclosed instructions and dip the seeds into it. For sweet pepper, 2 drops per 300 ml of water and 16–18 hours of exposure are sufficient; for cucumber, corn, and pumpkin, 2 drops per 300 ml of water are also needed, but a 10-hour soak is required. The water temperature should be 23-25 ° C.
Of course, the list of various growth stimulants is not limited to the presented substances - there are more than 50 of them (solutions of heteroauxin (0.03-0.06%), succinic acid (0.001-0.002%), gibberellin (0.001-0.1% - ny) and others), but a characteristic feature of epin, humate and zircon is their environmental friendliness. Moreover, they are not only safe, but also useful for plants.
Aloe juice has the same properties, but, unlike the above preparations, it is not compatible with all vegetable crops. It is recommended to soak the seeds of tomatoes, eggplants, lettuce and various types of cabbage for 24 hours. However, for the seeds of onion, celery, sweet pepper or pumpkin crops, this tool is not suitable.
For processing, select the leaves of a three-year plant. If there are even minor defects (yellowed or dried out tips, not enough intense coloring) they will not work. Cut off the lower leaves and keep them in the refrigerator for 3-7 days, then chop and squeeze the juice, which then pour the seeds (as in previous cases, they must be decontaminated beforehand). When the allotted time expires without rinsing, sow them in boxes or in the ground, or leave them for germination.
Some growers prefer to soak the seeds in a solution of wood ash. To do this, first prepare the hood, the gulf of 160 - 200 g of dry ash 10 liters of water. After two days of exposure, carefully drain the liquid, while ensuring that the suspension remains at the bottom. This solution can be used by placing the seeds in it for 4-6 hours. After processing, they will be ready for sowing after a little drying.
When soaking seeds in a solution of biologically active substances observe a certain mode. For example, the air temperature should be above 20 ° C, since as it decreases, the treatment efficiency decreases.
How to prepare seeds for planting seedlings: bubbling
The effect of soaking can be enhanced by further enriching the water with oxygen. This type of seed preparation before planting is called bubbling. It has a positive effect on the seeds, accelerating germination and enhancing the growth of seedlings. To the greatest extent, this procedure is recommended for slowly germinating seeds, in particular for crops such as carrots, dill, parsley, onions, celery, spinach, leeks.
At home, for this purpose, you can use a conventional compressor, through which air is injected into an aquarium with fish. Prepare a sufficiently tall vessel, fill it halfway with water, pour in the seeds, lower the compressor tube to the bottom.
Using this method of preparing vegetable seeds for sowing, pay attention to a number of important points:
- water cannot be replaced by another liquid, in particular a solution of epine or humate,
- bubbling always precedes seed disinfection,
- if the water gets a different color when bubbling, it is necessary to replace it,
- processing efficiency increases if water is used for the first 2-3 hours, and then replaced with a 0.4-0.5% solution of potassium nitrate and phosphate (take the substances in equal proportions), but 1-2 hours before the end of the procedure, instead of him in the tank again fill the water
- after bubbling, treat the seeds with potassium permanganate solution (it is not recommended to warm them up), dry to a flowability state and sow. If for any reason this is not possible, sprinkle them in a thin layer in a well-ventilated room. The effect of bubbling persists even after several months. But keep in mind that seeds treated in this way (this applies equally to wetted ones and to sprouted seeds) cannot be sown either in overmoistened or dry soil, because tender seedlings will die due to lack of oxygen (in the first case) or water ( in the second).
Some technical details:
- The ratio of seeds and water in the vessel should be 1: 4 or 1: 5.
- The water temperature should be from 20 to 24 ° C.
- The time of bubbling is reduced by 30%, if not ordinary air is supplied to the container, but oxygen (working with it, care should be taken; moreover, this option is not recommended due to its insecurity).
- The optimal duration of the bubbling of seeds of various crops varies:
- watermelon - 24-48 hours,
- eggplant - 24-27 hours,
- peas -8-12 hours
- melon - 15-18 hours
- onions - 14-24 hours
- carrots - 15-18 hours
- cucumber - 15-18 hours,
- sweet pepper - 24-36 hours,
- radish -8-12 hours
- parsley - 12-18 hours,
- tomato - 10-17 hours,
- leaf lettuce - 10-12 hours,
- beets - 12-13 hours
- celery - 18-24 hours
- dill - 12-18 hours
- spinach - 17-24 hours.
The main methods of presowing seed preparation: germination and vernalization
Wet seeds are ready for germination. Spread the seeds in a thin layer on a moistened cloth, cover with a napkin and leave in a room in which the temperature is maintained at 25-30 ° C. This process is quite laborious, but thanks to it you will select only the most viable seeds that will sprout quickly.
Another of the most basic methods of presowing seed preparation is vernalization (cooling). This, of course, will require a sufficient amount of time, but will provide an increase in the cold resistance of plants and the production of an early harvest. Place the container with sprouted seeds scattered in a thin layer (do not wait until everything germinates - 3-5% is enough) put in a refrigerator (you can bury it in the snow or put it on ice). For different crops, appropriate regimes are recommended, for example, for cabbage is 10-15 days at a temperature of 0-3 ° C, and for carrots, onions and parsley - 10-15 days at a temperature of -1 - + 1ͦ С,
When preparing seeds before sowing, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that vernalization is recommended for a limited list of vegetables, in particular for the named ones. This is explained by the fact that some crops (radishes, beets, radishes, etc.) are susceptible to marksmanship, and cooling down can intensify this negative phenomenon.
The method of preparation of vegetable seeds for sowing: hardening
Повышению холодостойкости и устойчивости растений (особенно теплолюбивых) к перепадам температур, которые нередко отмечаются весной — в пору активного посева, способствует закаливание семян.
Чтобы подготовить семена к посеву, закаливание можно осуществить двумя способами:
- Выдержать семена при переменной температуре. Для этого положите их в мешочки, залейте водой и оставьте на 6 часов (для огурцов) или 12 часов (для помидоров), потом дайте жидкости стечь и поместите семена огурцов на 12 часов сначала в тепло (15—20° С) потом в холод (—1—+3° С). If positive temperatures are the same for all crops, then negative temperatures vary: for tomatoes 1 - + 5 ° С, for eggplants, sweet peppers, melons, watermelon - -1-2 ° C. The processing time is also different: for cucumbers, this is 5-7 days, and for the rest - 10-12 days.
- Subject short-term freezing of seeds: for cucumbers enough stay in the cold (2-5 ° C) for 2-3 days, and for the rest - 3-5 days at a temperature of +3 - -3 ° C.
Plants grown from hardened seeds begin to bear fruit 12-15 days ahead of time, and, as a rule, the crop is more abundant.
How to prepare seeds for sowing seedlings: drazhirovanie
There are many advantages of such methods as drazhirovanie seeds, the essence of which lies in the fact that they are covered with a special mixture of adhesive component and nutrients. To do this, use peat, humus and sod land, which must be pre-dried in the sun or in the oven on a baking sheet (moisture should not exceed 10%) and sift through a sieve with 3 mm cells.
Before preparing seeds for seedlings or for planting in open ground, use a strained aqueous solution of mullein (1: 4) as a glue component, polyacrylamide of 0.02% concentration (sold in the form of gel or powder, additionally included in 16% nitrogen), 2% starch paste, 0.5% sugar solution. To enhance the efficiency, mix it with potash and nitrogen fertilizers (1-2 g each of ammonium and potassium nitrate and potassium sulphate per 1 liter), add the following microelements (40 mg manganese sulphate and boric acid, 10 mg of copper vitriol, 300 mg of ammonium molybdate acid , 200 mg of zinc sulphate per 1 l).
For 10 g of seeds, take 40-100 g of dry mix (particle diameter for carrot seeds should not exceed 0.15 mm, for tomatoes - 0.25 mm, for beets and cucumbers - 0.5 mm) and 300-500 ml of adhesive solution . At the enterprises for drazhirovanija special installations intend, and in house conditions the usual glass jar will approach. Calibrate and decontaminate the seeds before proceeding to the coating. After that, sprinkle them with adhesive. So that it evenly covers the seed from all sides, vigorously rotate the can, placing seeds and liquid in it. When they begin to separate from each other, pour in small portions of the dry mixture, without ceasing to rotate the container, so that the substance covers the seeds from all sides. After 2-3 minutes, moisten them again and powder them again. Continue to do so, until the seeds turn into 3-4 mm pills sized for small seeds, 5-6 mm for medium sized seeds and 10 mm for large ones.
In conclusion, scatter them in a thin layer and dry if you plan to sow immediately, or leave at a temperature of 30-35 ° C for 5 hours (avoid direct sunlight, otherwise the shell may crack) if you intend to store them for a long time. In addition, it must be borne in mind that pelleted seeds require light, aerated, well-warmed and optimally moistened soils. Compliance with these conditions is very important, because in dry soil the seed coat will not collapse for a long time, and in too wet soil there will be insufficient oxygen for germination. In both cases, seed germination will suffer. The coated seeds have several advantages: firstly, the seeding rate is reduced, therefore, the seed is saved (by about 30-40%), secondly, it is much easier to do, that is, sowing becomes less laborious, which is especially important for small seeds parsley and carrots, thirdly, shoots will be uniform.
Some seeds, such as parsley, carrots, onions and beets, difficult to germinate (for this reason, they are called torso) due to the fact that they are covered with a very strong shell, which is hardly destroyed.
Methods of preparing seeds for sowing: sanding (with video)
To facilitate this process, the seeds can be subjected to sanding (stratification), which is carried out in the following sequence:
- Pour the seeds into gauze bags and immerse in water (temperature 15-20 ° C) for about 1 hour. Stir them several times during this time so that the wetting proceeds evenly.
- After that, remove, gently squeeze out the excess liquid, sprinkle into the sowing boxes or on plates with a layer of 3-5 cm, cover with a wet sacking and leave for 4-5 days to swell. The room temperature should be 15-20 ° C.
- Mix the seeds with dry sand in a ratio of 1: 5 or 1: 7.
- Fill the boxes 1-3 cm with moistened sand, cover with linen or burlap. Distribute the seeds evenly (layer thickness - 2-3 cm), cover with a cloth and pour lightly moistened sand with a layer of 1 cm. In this form, place the box on ice or in a refrigerator. The ambient air temperature should be approximately 0 ° C, but fluctuations from -1 to 3 ° C are possible.
- After 3-4 days, remove the cloth with the sand and sift the seeds. If they are too wet, dry them and start sowing.
Remember that when sanding, the weight of the seeds increases due to the absorbed moisture, which must be taken into account when determining the seeding rate.
All of these methods, how to properly prepare the seeds for planting, are not strictly mandatory. For each culture, you need to choose only those that are really necessary. It is easiest and quite effective to combine disinfection with any kind of stimulation.
Watch a video of seed preparation for sowing, where all the basic techniques are shown: