Narcissus - Amaryllis family. Homeland - the Mediterranean. Flowers - single, tubular or crown, simple or terry. Color - white and yellow.
Leaves - basal, light green, linear. Seeds - black, shiny. The fruit is a tricuspid box. Onion - elongated.
According to modern classification are divided into 8 groups:
- Tubular (Trumpet). Single flower. The length of the crown is equal to the length of the petals or longer. The color of the flowers is predominantly white and yellow. Bulb - more than 5 cm in diameter. The variety breeds well. It differs in the shape of the crown. Suitable for planting and cutting.
- Large-cupped. Flower - single. Crown - from 1/3 to the full length of the petals. Some varieties - bright bezel on the edge of the crown. Varieties differ in the length of the peduncle. Bulb - large. Suitable for planting and cutting.
- Small-cupped. Flower - single. Crown length - no more than 1/3 the length of the petals. Coloring flowers - mostly white and cream. Suitable for planting and cutting.
- Terry (Double). Flower - double, on the stem - one or more. Flower crown - terry, of different colors. Suitable for planting and cutting.
- Triandrus (Triandrus). The stem is 25 cm high. There are two or three flowers on the stem. Crown - small. Suitable for landing.
- Cyclamine (Cyclamineus). Flower - single. Petals - bent back. Crown - exceeds the length of the perianth. Suitable for planting and cutting.
- Jonquilla (Jonquilla). Late bloom. The leaves are dark green. Flower - one or more on the stem. Crown - cupped, no more than 2/3 of the length of the petals. Suitable for planting and cutting.
- Tazetta (Tazetta). Flowers - from 2 to 20 on the stem, clustered in racemes. Crown - small. The leaves are dark green. Suitable for planting and cutting.
1. How to choose bulbs
Prepare planting material in advance. The best time is the end of July - the middle of September. Buying earlier is not worth it - probably it is not sold out last year's material.
- Pay attention to the onion scales. Dense onion scales - a sign that it is perederzhali in the soil, it leads to deterioration.
- The bulb must be hard and heavy. The surface is clean and smooth. If during the inspection there is a softness and deflection of the bulb - this is the first sign of beginning rotting.
- Root base should be dense, without damage and signs of rot. Should not be soft.
- Inspect for external damage, without gum ache and foreign odor:
- Sweetish smell - a sign of the disease, which will soon manifest itself. The outer layers of the bulb will darken and it will become soft.
- Dark gray or brown streaks are traces of gray-blue mold.
- From the purchase of such bulbs is better to refuse.
- There is no other way out - to process a dark solution of potassium permanganate or fungicides. Minor defects and cuts can be processed gently with green paint.
- Found such bulbs in their area - it is better to destroy them. The main thing is to isolate from the rest of the planting material.
- Pay attention to the size of the germ.
- For the simultaneous flowering of daffodils - choose bulbs of the same size.
- For distillation, select the largest bulbs.
Dig out the bulbs, for subsequent planting, you need when the narcissus leaves turn yellow and easily separated from the stem.
Only not in the sun, its rays can cause burns on the planting material. Bulbs cleaned and divided into sockets. Before planting, store at a temperature of 10-15 °.
2. Timing for planting
As a rule, autumn is the best time for planting. Dates of autumn planting of each region are different, given their climatic conditions. In the north, usually August-September, in the south - closer to October.
Given the conditions necessary for a successful wintering and rooting of plants, you can decide on the planting date:
- On rooting the bulbs need 3-4 weeks at a soil temperature of + 8 ° - + 10 °.
- Too early planting provokes the appearance of disease and rot.
- Planting daffodils is better later, but it is good to cover with a layer of sawdust or leaves.
- In regions with a harsh climate, it is desirable to cover all the daffodils as soon as the soil begins to freeze. In regions with a mild climate, cover daffodils planted in light sandy soil and hibernate badly. These include tatsaltnye, zhonkillievye, terry.
- In snowless frosty winters - additionally cover with lutrasil or spunbond. Do not use instead of non-woven covering material - plastic wrap.
If in the fall to plant daffodils, for some reason, failed, you can plant them in the spring. It is only necessary to properly maintain planting material for several months.
Spring landing is carried out after the earth warms up:
- Before planting, deeply dig up the soil, not less than 30 cm.
- Pre-inspect bulbs for damage and illness. To sort the planting material, soak it in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dry it.
- Store the bulbs intended for planting in the spring in a cold, dry, ventilated area. You can store them in the refrigerator, but not in a plastic bag.
- When spring planting, the bulbs should be buried by 15 cm, leaving a gap of 15-20 cm between them.
- When buds appear on flowers, it is necessary to feed them with a mixture of superphosphate, urea and potassium sulfate.
- During mass flowering, feed with nitrophosphate.
3. Site selection and soil preparation
Favorable growth of daffodils is preceded by the selection of a suitable site:
- Daffodils are unpretentious in terms of lighting. For them, not only the area under the sun, but also the partial shade of trees. The main thing is to get there the sun.
- An excess of moisture daffodils will transfer normally, as long as there is good drainage. Therefore, they can be planted in lowlands.
- The place intended for planting daffodils should be protected from the wind.
- When planning a plot for daffodils, keep in mind that they can do without a 3-4 year transplant.
Daffodils are unpretentious to the composition of the soil, but its nutritional value is very important for them and it is necessary to fertilize it:
- Daffodils feel great in loamy areas, with acidity of the soil - 6.5-7.0.
- If the acidity of the soil is lower, conduct a liming. Chalk or dolomite flour is well suited for this purpose, it is enough to add 200 grams per 1 m2. Slaked lime to make for six months before planting, not before.
- On the sandy area to make clay and humus. It is necessary to retain moisture.
- A few weeks before planting a non-cultivated area prepare: dig up well, at least 30 cm deep and fertilize: add 1 kg of humus per 1 m2, 10 kg of superphosphate, 50 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium sulfate, and 80 g of bone meal.
- Clay areas need drainage. To make, for loosening the soil, sand or peat approximately a bucket per 1 m2.
- Fresh manure to make no earlier than a year before planting. Dead manure can be applied when preparing the soil for planting.
To fertilize the area before planting is much more important than further feeding. Therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly prepare for landing site.
3. The process of planting bulbs
The depth of seeding and the gap between the bulbs depend on the size of the planting material and the characteristics of the soil:
- Large bulbs deepen by 15-20 cm, it will save them from overheating and provide moisture.
- Medium bulbs close up by 10-15 cm.
- Kids deepen by 8 cm.
- Given the characteristics of the soil, the depth of embedding decreases or increases:
- The depth of planting on clay soils should be reduced by 2-3 cm and, on the contrary, increased by 2-3 cm on sandy soils.
The depth of embedding regulates both flowering and the cultivation of planting material:
- For early flowering and early growth is applied shallow (shallow) planting.
- For late flowering and containment growth - a deeper landing.
Spacing between bulbs when planting:
- Large - 15-20 cm.
- Medium - 10-15 cm.
- Small - 8-10 cm.
1. Daffodil Care
Planted in sandy soil daffodils, you need to cover for the winter, protecting from freezing. Cover 10 cm with a layer of sawdust or dry leaves. In the spring, when the air warms up - remove the cover and loosen the soil.
After flowering the leaves are not cut, and wait for them to dry. Bulbs in this period are stored nutrients. For transplanting - bulbs to dig and prepare. If daffodils remain in the old place, add a dressing with potassium and phosphorus content after flowering.
2. Soil and top dressing
Feed daffodils usually 2 times:
- The first dressing to hold during the formation of buds: on a bucket of water - 10 urea, fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium. Consumption - per 1 m2 5 liters of solution.
- The second top dressing - at the beginning of flowering: 30 g nitrophoska per bucket of water.
In the rainy season, replace the liquid dressings with dry ones.
During the period of growth and flowering systematically loosen the soil. Weed regularly.
Daffodils are very moisture-loving. Therefore, start watering after the snow melts and sprouts appear. Later, in hot weather, plenty of water.
During the formation of buds, daffodils need to be watered. At this time, daffodils experience a lack of moisture, the lack of which to wilt buds.
4. Diseases and pests
Daffodils are often exposed to diseases and suffer from pests. Often some diseases lead to others. The most common ones are:
- Onion Root Tick:
- Eating scales, it damages the bottom of the bulbs.
- Signs: the plants are stunted and dry up, the bulb is damaged from below.
- Control measures: pickle bulbs with karbofos, remove damaged plants.
- If stored improperly it damages the bulb, the bottom ends up rotting and the rot spreads.
- Signs: growth retardation and yellowing of leaves.
- Control measures: proper storage, removal of patients and transplanting healthy plants.
- Big Daffodil Fly:
- The plant is affected by fly larvae. The larva winters in the soil.
- Signs: the plants are stunted, the bulbs inside are empty.
- Control measures: treatment of bulbs and pollination of a plant with a solution of karbofos.
- Gray rot:
- High humidity of air and soil leads to plant disease.
- Signs: leaf rot at base.
- Control measures: pickle the bulbs with a solution of foundationol.
- Mosaic plants:
- Viral disease.
- Signs: the appearance of yellow-green specks on the leaves.
- Control measures: removal of infected plants.
Narcissus reproduction: vegetative and seed
Daffodils are propagated by seeds, it is a good way to get a healthy plant.
- Seed propagation can lead to unpredictable results, and the plant can be very different from the parent:
- Narcissus is a large tricuspid box with seeds arranged in two rows. Seeds are black and smooth, rounded or angular. Seeds quickly lose their germination, and sow better freshly picked seeds in the summer.
- The seeding depth is three times their diameter. For 2-3 years, seedlings form a large onion and they need to be seated. At 6-7 year the plant blooms, small-color varieties - in 3-5 years.
- Narcissus multiplies by separating the daughter from the parent bulbs. The baby is tight to the mother bulb and has a flattened shape. Baby starts to bloom in a year. It is important not to be late with her landing so that she is well rooted.. Processing before planting is the same as in adult bulbs, it is possible to use growth stimulants for it.
- It is possible to divide a bulb mechanically. At the end of the bulb to make perpendicular cuts. Disinfect cut spots and store the bulbs at room temperature. After 40-50 days, small onions are formed in cuts. After 3 years they will begin to bloom. Under the same conditions, delenok different varieties and different survival rate. Under proper conditions, approximately 85% of delenok take root.
Narcissus flower background
Narcissus inflorescence is six identical parts. Outwardly, the daffodil resembles a bladed bell, which has six stamens and a trihedral lower ovary.
The presence of a sharp sweet aroma in narcissus, has long since allowed the use of narcissus oil in the manufacture of perfumes.
Narcissus is quite common in Europe, it is also grown in the Mediterranean. Some varieties of narcissus grow in China and Asia. The colors of the flowers are white or yellow, rarely pink or two-color. Inflorescences in diameter up to 10 cm, in height the plant, ranging from 10 to 50 cm. Grow daffodils both in garden plots and as a houseplant. They bloom in spring around the end of April, early May.
Varieties and types of daffodils
In the natural environment, there are up to 60 varieties of daffodil, also brought out many varieties of these flowers and the most popular ones we describe.
False narcissussecond name yellow perennial. It reproduces with the help of bulbs that are up to 4 cm in diameter, and with a brown scaly surface.
The leaves are linear in the number of up to six pieces per plant, in height up to 40 cm. The inflorescences slightly incline to the bottom, yellow. Seeds they are in boxes.
Flowering April, early May. The plant contains toxic substances that, when taken in large quantities, causes vomiting reactions. Inflorescences contain essential oils.
Double daffodil represents varieties in which there is one and several inflorescences per plant. Daffodil petals, and sometimes the whole flower terry. The colors, sizes of inflorescences of forms are various, the only similarity of varieties is their terry inflorescences.
Narcissus replit terry, perennial, propagated by bulbs. It will appeal to lovers of elegant delicate tones with a pleasant aroma. Plant height is about 35 cm. Inflorescence terry, two-color, up to 10 cm in diameter. Inflorescences openwork delicate white - pink shade.
Tubular daffodils such daffodils have one inflorescence, large size. The color is sometimes two-colored, as well as white or yellow. Bulb about 5 cm in diameter. Grade Gin and Lime has a lemon-colored color, eventually turning into white with a greenish eye.
Large Crown Daffodil represents single plants with smooth or corrugated petals. Bulb about 4 cm in diameter.
Grade Jeaninewhite with bright pink saturated core.
Large crown group of daffodils
And the real discovery was the emergence of pink daffodils, the most varieties represented in the large-crown group of daffodils.
Kul Flame Grade inflorescence in diameter up to 10 cm. Color of the pink-colored crown with corrugation at the edges of the petals. Flowering later, emits a rich pleasant aroma.
Variety "Centinel" inflorescences in diameter about 12 cm. The edges of the flower are whitish, rounded. The hue is pink, the heart is lavender. Corrugated crown, bloom later.
Grade "Grediyeshn" inflorescences up to 10 cm. The edges of the crown are corrugated white with pink, the core is cream. Flowering in average time.
President Pink variety inflorescences of 8 cm. The edges are white, rounded with a speck at the edges. The crown is completely corrugated, with a diameter of 2.5 cm. The color is two-tone from middle to half yellow with an orange tinge, and from the base to the edge is orange - pink saturated hue.
Shingled Daffodils similar to plants in their natural environment. Inflorescences are small in size.
The multi-flowered group of daffodils represents plants with more than eight flowering plants.
Daffodils planting and care in the open field
Daffodil planting and grooming does not take long. Narcissus is experiencing a good winter, preferring garden soil and moderate regular watering.
Planting daffodils occurs in the fall in the ground, about September. This will allow the bulbs to take root well before winter. Daffodil transplants are made, also immediately after flowering. After transplanting daffodils in one place you should not grow them more than five years.
Planting daffodils, spring needs attention, but will not cause great difficulties. Place for planting, you can choose any, but good abundant bloom will be in the sun. Fertilizer loves narcissus in the soil, it is desirable to make it a few months before planting.
Ate sour soil can be leveled using wood ash per square meter of about 200 grams. Before planting the site to dig. Daffodils create a good composition with tulips. And feed daffodils and tulips in spring compote. Dust, add sand, if the soil is weighted.
Why do not bloom daffodils? And the reasons may be different, if your plants do not bloom, it is possible that there was no transplant for a long period of time, and the roots were braided adjacent bulbs. To avoid this, a transplant should be done every 3 to 4 years and in the autumn.
The second reason why the daffodil does not bloom in the garden may be a lack of light, stagnation of water and lack of moisture, or acidic soils for this should be fed with limestone or chalk.
When is it better to replant daffodils
Daffodils can be transplanted in open ground in spring and in autumn. For planting it is necessary to dig a hole several centimeters larger than the bulb itself. A little ash or sand is thrown into the hole, inserted, the bulb itself is covered with earth, watered and well pressed with soil on the sides. The plant is planted at a distance of not less than 12 cm each other or 25 centimeters, if you do not plan to repot within five years.
If you planted daffodils in the fall, then for the first time you need to make fertilizer in the spring, after the shoots of the bulbs. Fertilize better mineral fertilizer.Care for daffodils after flowering consists in cutting off faded flowers and fertilizing with phosphorus and potassium (2: 1) per square meter. If the winters are cold, you can cover the leaves in winter.
Reproduction of daffodils seeds
How to grow daffodils from seed? And this can be done as follows. Narcissus seeds for this need only collected, wet. Sow them should be a few centimeters deep.
You can grow the seeds of daffodils immediately in the open field, but it is better to do this in a container, it will be easier to monitor the cultivation of daffodils and seedlings. The seedlings of the first few years are grown in containers with moderate air temperature. A plant is planted in the ground when the onion bulbs grow well.
Flowering in these seedlings begins about the fifth year after planting in the ground. Seeds can only reproduce simple daffodils, because with such breeding hybrids lose their varietal supplies.
The reproduction of daffodils bulbs
Also, reproduction in daffodils occurs with the help of bulbs. To do this, wait for the plant to fade, and the leaves will dry. Dig, dried in a room with a temperature of up to 22 degrees and with good ventilation, about 21 days.
After cleared from the roots and kids are lukichiki. Drying is best done in containers with a mesh bottom so that the bulbs are not rotten.
Daffodils Diseases and Pests
Daffodils are less exposed to diseases and parasites. Diseases of daffodils can be bacterial and viral and fungal damage. If the leaves turn yellow it is a bacterial rot. As a preventive measure, remove diseased plants and transplant healthy ones to a new location.
If growth slows down, the leaves turn yellow and the leaves dry up. This is root rot. Preventive work: remove diseased plants, dig for storage at a temperature not higher than 19 degrees.
When gray rot develops putrefactive spots, treatment and destruction of diseased bulbs and treatment with fungicides are necessary.
Pests in daffodils is a bulbous mite, sucking on the juice from the bulbs with the further death of the plant, as well as the beetle eater of the root system. As a preventative measure, before planting, treat with hot water 44 degrees for three hours, and also treat with actellic solution.
Observing all the recommendations, your flowers will delight you with their active growth and lush flowering.
When the daffodil blooms
Massive daffodils bloom in early to mid-May.
Flowering stem leafless, oblate, rounded in cross section. At its top is a curved pedicle (0.5-1.5 cm long) with a membranous wrap, ending in a beautiful flower. The corolla is bell-shaped, tubular or cup-shaped, the perianth is petaloid. Flowers can be straight or drooping, arranged singly (most often) or gather in a racemose inflorescence of 2-8 pieces, simple or double. Mostly colors are white or yellow, there are various shades of orange, two-tone.
Daffodils and tulips photo
The fruit is a fleshy tricuspid box filled with many seeds.
The genus includes more than fifty primary species and about 60 hybrids. Narcissus poetic (Narcissus poeticus) is a type species.
Daffodils comprise more than 3000 varieties, distributed mainly in southern Europe, the Mediterranean and Asia. Garden daffodils occurred as a result of hybridization of various species.
The name of the plant comes from the Greek word "narkao", which means "stun", "stupefy". This is due to the heady aroma of flowers. The name of the type species (poeticus - poetic) is due to the fact that it is sung by poets of all ages and countries, like no other plant (not counting the rose).
Growing daffodil seed
Narcissus seeds photo
- For sowing, use freshly harvested seeds.
- Seed collection is carried out in the summer or deep autumn.
- You can sow the seeds of narcissus in the open ground before winter or in the seedling boxes and grow in a greenhouse.
- The depth of seeding is 1-1.5 cm. Sow not thickly (distance about 10 cm) to provide sufficient space for the development of the bulbs.
- Indoors grown in a dark cool place.
- A small onion will be formed after 2-3 years.
- During growth, it will be necessary to provide moderate watering and sparse dressing, 1-2 times in the spring season.
Narcissus Propagation by Bulbs-Children
Narcissus bulbs with babies photo
Preferred vegetative reproduction - daughter bulbs.
Depending on the level of agricultural technology and variety, an adult bulb in 2 years of growth in the soil forms 3-6 subsidiaries. When the daffodils bloom and partially turn yellow leaf plates, proceed to the division. Dig a bush, carefully divide into individual onions. Large planted on the prepared site or send to storage.
Daughter bulbs will need rearing. Make rows at a distance of about 20 cm from each other, moisten well, place the bulbs thickly (6-8 cm) - they do not need much space. Sprinkle with a small layer of earth on top, pour it again.
Daffodils feel most comfortable in open sunny areas, light shading is permissible. Under the influence of direct sunlight, the flowers will be brighter, and in shading - the flowering is longer.
The soil requires a moisture permeable, neutral reaction. The usual garden earth perfectly will approach, the loam fertilized by humus or compost will approach also. If the reaction of the soil is alkaline, add dolomite flour (200 g per 1 m²), acidic soil should be diluted with wood ash (1 cup per 1 m²).
It is better not to plant in a place where bulb plants have recently grown, as well as perennial chrysanthemums, phloxes, and asters. Favorable planting after the growth of legumes, nightshade, cereals, cucumbers and peonies.
How to plant
- Dig the area, make shallow holes, well water.
- In one well, place 3-5 bulbs at a distance of 8-10 cm, of course, without mixing the variety. Between different varieties it is better to make a bigger distance, because daffodils grow pretty well - onions can mix.
- The depth of planting daffodil bulbs is about 10-15 cm (the lighter and looser the ground, the deeper it can be planted).
- Water well. Tumble with humus or rotted sawdust.
Planting daffodils in the open field
These flowers appear among the first in the front garden, like crocuses and tulips, being considered the most unpretentious bulbous plants. However, in order to grow a daffodil bright and attractive, you should competently approach even the initial stage - planting.
Place and soil
An important point is the choice of the area for planting the bulbs, taking into account the soil composition. The ideal option would be a well-lit area with a neutral loamy soil, which additionally introduced nitroammofoska at the rate of 60 g per 1 m2, compost or humus. The excess of alkali in the soil is neutralized by dolomite flour at the rate of 200 g per 1 m2, and the increased acidity level is reduced by adding one glass of wood flour to the same area.
Tip! Do not place daffodils after other bulbous crops - tulips, lilies. Optimal predecessors - cereal, legumes and nightshade.
When choosing bulbs, it is recommended to pay attention to:
- integrity and the absence of rotten areas,
- size - with a diameter of less than 5 cm, the bulb must be reared, which will slow germination,
Before planting, a thorough inspection is carried out and damaged, suppressed material is rejected. Healthy bulbs are disinfected with a fungicidal agent or solution of potassium permanganate with a concentration of 1%
Tip! It is better to make the purchase of planting material three months after the completion of flowering flowers.
When and how to plant daffodils?
Daffodils are planted depending on the climate of the region. The basic rule is the temperature of the soil from 8 to 10 ° C, which lasts for three weeks while the flower takes root.
Usually planting onion crops is carried out in the autumn. You can plant the bulbs in the spring, be sure to keep them in the fridge for two months in advance, so that the daffodils root and bloom in the same year.
- Landing in the spring. Holes are dug out at a distance of 10 cm, subject to future seating arrangements, and 20 cm if further expansion of the flowers is planned in the next five years. Before placing the bulbs in the landing pit sand is poured to improve the drainage qualities of the soil. After planting, garden soil is mulched with the help of sawdust, straw or mowed grass 3-4 cm thick. This will save the grower from excess weeding, loosening and protect the soil from weathering.
- Landing in the fall. In the autumn period, the bulbs are planted on the same principle as in the spring. After the arrival of frosts, the area with flower bulbs is sheltered leaf from fruit trees or walnut.
Important! When calculating the depth of the hole, the diameter of the bulb is taken as the basis, which is multiplied by three.
Watering and loosening
In dry weather conditions, from the end of spring, daffodils need regular moistening throughout the aerial part of the plant: after completion of flowering, watering allows the bulb to accumulate more nutrients. If the plot is not mulched, the beds need loosening and weeding after each irrigation.
When cultivated in the garden, the early spring flowers need double feeding:
- The introduction of a complex of mineral fertilizers into the budding phase is organized: when the working solution is consumed in an amount of 5 liters per 1 m2, superphosphate, potassium sulfate and urea (each substance one teaspoon) are diluted in 10 liters of water.
- Special fertilizer is introduced for flowering plants with the addition of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium: two teaspoons of Agricol and one nitroammophos are diluted in 10 liters of water.
In rainy weather, liquid supplements are replaced by a one-time application of dry fertilizers in early spring - by 1 m2 of one teaspoonful of potassium sulfate, superphosphate, urea, and one tablespoon of wood ash.
As protective measures, the plants are processed twice:
- Prior to the beginning of bud formation, spraying with insecticide-acaricidal preparations is organized according to the manufacturer's instructions.
- Upon completion of flowering, daffodils are treated with copper sulfate solution at the rate of 100 g of substance per 10 liters of water, at a flow rate of 2 liters of working fluid per 10 m2, or with HOM with the same consumption rate prepared by diluting 40 g of the product in 10 liters of water.
If the florist noticed that the flowers became smaller and worse in terms of quality indicators, it means that the need to transplant daffodils has come. When transplanting used vegetative method of propagation of the culture - the division of the bulb.
Depending on the gardener's plans, it is possible to use two algorithms:
- When leaving the bulbs in the ground for further growth, it is necessary to cut off the ground part after drying, loosen the soil and remove weeds. In the second half of August, on the condition of drought, it is necessary to water the area: the bulbs begin to form new roots.
- In case of replanting or breeding, digging of planting material is carried out. But you need to know when to dig out the bulbs. Their cleaning begins after the natural wilting of the leaves, usually in July.
Tip! If the florist has decided to dig out the bulbs, then you should not over-tighten the time after the yellowing of the leaf plates: the daffodils quickly begin to take root.
If you wish, or need to get new copies, you should follow the following steps:
- Dug maternal bulbs along with their children are cleared of faded residues.
- Planting material is inspected to reject and destroy diseased or damaged bulbs.
- Healthy specimens are peeled, washed, disinfected for half an hour in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, and then divided.
- First, instances are separated, falling off without effort, and those that are tightly pressed against the maternal ones are swayed for independent separation.
- If the bulb comes off, the place of the break is sprinkled with wood or activated carbon.
- Then the separated copies are dried in a shaded place and placed in storage in a room with a constant temperature not higher than 17 ºC.
Attention! Do not delay the time before planting: after a time there is a loss of moisture from the bulbs. The optimal storage interval from digging to planting is two months.
The method consists in sowing of freshly harvested, properly dried seeds at the height of the summer season or late autumn as follows:
- Seeds are sown not too thickly in a box or open ground to a depth of three diameters of the seed.
- During the first two years, seedlings are not worried, which allows the bulb to grow stronger.
- Upon completion of the two-year rest, young specimens are planted in a permanent place of growth.
For the first time such daffodils form buds at least three years later.
Attention! Seed method is permissible only for wild species: with this method, varietal qualities are not inherited by new specimens.
So, following a series of simple rules for the cultivation of daffodils, each gardener will enjoy the spring tenderness of his garden.
Narcissus flower refers to perennial plantsbelonging to the Amaryllis family. Science knows only 40 species of this flower, however, only 25 are considered cultural ones. All varieties have one common feature - they are large single-color or two-color flowers, consisting of six petals and a crown in the center. The color scheme is quite diverse, you can find daffodils in both pink and yellow. Narcissus is an onion plant of early flowering. It begins to bloom in April or May.
Narcissus is a rather unpretentious plant with respect to care and cultivation. For this reason, practically any beginner grower will be able to grow this plant in his summer cottage. This lesson will not require any heavy effort, extra costs.
Planting daffodils should be carried out in the spring or autumn. Each time has its own characteristics. Let's take a closer look at planting daffodils in spring and autumn.
- Planting daffodils in the fall. Autumn is considered the best time for this procedure. In order for the bulbs of the plant to be rooted in the ground before the first frost, it is recommended to plant in September. The adaptation period of the bulbous plant usually takes about 3 weeks. A month before planting the flower, it is necessary to prepare the soil, it is necessary to make fertilizer with humus, dry grass and superphosphate.
- Planting daffodils in the spring. Daffodils are allowed to plant in the spring. But in regions with severe winters, plants will grow weak. The flower bulb will not have time to ripen, and the flowering will be very late. Spring planting should be carried out in April. This procedure should be carried out when the snow melts from the ground, and the air temperature at the same time warms up to 7 degrees.
For planting daffodils in open ground, you must select areas that correspond to the following parameters:
- Good lighting,
- Lack of wind and drafts,
- Shading from shrubs and small trees,
- Breathable and moisture-absorbing primer,
- The presence of groundwater, not more than 65 cm,
- Soil of neutral acidity, up to 7.8 pH.
It is also undesirable to place a flower garden in places where other bulbous or solanaceous crops used to grow, as there is a risk of passing certain diseases to young plants.
Daffodils in one place can comfortably grow for 5 yearsafter which they thicken. This may adversely affect flowering. If the flower bed with flowers has become scarce, then it is necessary to transplant the bulbs to a new place.
The most optimal soil for fragrant flowers are sandy loam and loam. These types of soil are able to perfectly pass air and moisture. As for other types of soil, they can also be adapted for the cultivation of daffodils. For this, peat can be added to the clay soil. And in the soil with sand you need to add nutrients. Despite this, in order to maintain the required acidity of the soil, it is necessary to add tree ash to the place of a flower bed every year.
Soil preparation is carried out in several visits:
- For 1 year before planting the soil, the soil must be proizvedkovkov, 200 g of lime per 1 square meter of land.
- In the summer, it is necessary to prepare a nutrient layer with a thickness of 30 cm. For this, the area must be dug up to a depth of 35 cm and fertilizer applied to a depth of 12 cm.
- The prepared area should stand until planting the bulbs. The soil should sift and feed.
The optimal land mix for a flower bed is the following:
- Deep peat,
- Humus no younger than 4 years old
- River coarse sand, if the ground is heavy.
Selection of bulbs
For planting, it is necessary to carefully select the plant bulbs., the flowering of your flowerbed will depend on it. For planting, only intact and healthy bulbs of a large size, whose diameter reaches 5 cm, are suitable. Also it is worth choosing bulbs with two or three peaks.
После того как вы отобрали посадочный материал, его надо поместить в целлофановый пакет, наполнив пакет перлитом при помощи зажженной шашки. Закупоренные в пакете луковицы будут храниться две недели при комнатной температуре. Если у вас не имеется возможности использовать перлит, то перед самой высадкой каждую луковицу надо обработать беномилом, раствором марганцовки или фунгицидом.
Отбраковка является важным этапом при посадке нарциссовif planting material is purchased from third parties. The best bulbs of the plant can be purchased in August or September, but the cost for them at this time increases. In the same months, quite rare varieties of daffodils can be purchased in specialized markets. With the onset of spring or in October, the price of the bulbs drops significantly, but the risk of acquiring stale goods increases.
In specialized stores, bulbs are packaged in packages. Therefore, planting material can be assessed only externally and feel it through the packaging. The bulbs should not be soft to the touch.
Reproduction in the open field
As a rule, there are two ways of reproduction of ornamental plants in open ground: the vegetative method and seeds. In order to create new varieties, breeders use seed reproduction, and gardeners resort to the vegetative method.
In order to bring a new variety of daffodils, it will take several years. Crossing bulbs of different varieties must be carried out by an artificial method of pollination. For this, flowers are polished with each other with a brush. After this procedure, they must wear caps that protect the flower from further dust. Then it remains only to wait until the seeds are fully ripe.
In spring, the seeds must be sown in shallow dies. Capacities at the same time are located in the greenhouse, with air temperature about 18 degrees. After 2 weeks, the air temperature should drop to 12 degrees.
The first year, the seedlings obtained do not have to be transplanted. In the second year, the seedlings are fixed in a pot. The seeds of daffodils will give the bulbs, which can already be planted in the soil. And only three years later, they will give the expected result, which you can see.
Here it is worth considering two options:
- Reproduction by children from the parent bulb. At the age of 3 years, the bulb gives children, the size of which depends on the type of flower. It is easy to detach babies, so it is recommended to transplant or dig up daffodils only in the third year of life.
- Reproduction paired scales. Only large daffodil bulbs will be suitable for this method. They must be dried for a week at an air temperature of 20 degrees. After that, the bulbs are cleared of the roots and the upper layer of flakes. The upper part must be cut by dividing it into 8 parts. Slices should have paired scales and a common Donets, the mass of each lobule should not be less than one gram. After this, the scales are disinfected with a bandage and placed together with the peat in the bag. For 4 months, this biomaterial is stored at a temperature of about 20 degrees. During this period, should form new bulbs of narcissus. In the fall, before planting the bulbs, they must be separated from the scales and re-processed. It is necessary to plant daffodils in a plate with three parts of peat and one part of sand. Capacity for the winter is placed in a cool place, with temperatures up to 10 degrees. When the mass of the bulbs reaches 20 g, they can be planted in the fall in the open ground.
Daffodils most often get sick due to violation of elementary rules of care. These impairment concerns include:
- Lack of lighting,
- Excess nitrogen fertilizer
- Improper moisture
- Inappropriate temperature during storage,
- Not processing planting material.
In order to prevent the occurrence of fungus, the bulbs must be disinfected and processed before planting and shipping. If you find viruses on the flower, then the plant must be immediately pulled out, because viruses, unlike fungi, are not treated. Thus, you will not allow the spread of the disease to healthy flowers.
After digging bulbs untouched by the virus can be steamed with water at a temperature of 45 degrees for several hours, while the soil can be treated with a carbation.
Planting in the fall
The depth of planting daffodil bulbs is about 10-15 cm. It depends on how loose the earth is. In light ground, you can land deeper: so the onions will get more moisture and will be better protected from winter frosts. In heavy soils, planting depth is reduced. After planting, it is advisable to cover the flowerbed with fallen leaves or mulch with humus.
Watering and loosening the soil
- Daffodils are quite moisture-loving. During the flowering period, water abundantly - the soil should get wet to the depth of the bulbs, continue watering for 2-3 weeks after the end of flowering.
- After watering, loosen the soil, mulching the soil around the plant will save you from this procedure of care.
- Remove weeds from the area.
Pruning and dressing
The formation of seeds takes power from the plant - cut faded inflorescences.
It is necessary to regularly feed complex mineral fertilizers. The first dressing spend in early spring, but weak concentration. The second dressing is for the period of budding (focus on the dose of nitrogen and potassium), the third - for the flowering period (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus), the fourth - after the end of flowering (apply potash-phosphate fertilizer).
Diseases and pests
Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology increases plant resistance to diseases and pests.
Occasionally, fungal disease may result:
- Fusarium - at first the bottom of the bulb is affected, rising up through the plant. The bulb becomes soft, covered with a bloom of white and pink hue, the tips of the leaf plates turn yellow, then turn brown and dry.
- Botrytis (gray rot) - under the covering leaves of the bulbs appears a lush bloom of gray with black dots, the leaves are covered with light brown spots, flowering stems and buds begin to rot.
- Penicillosis (penicillous rot) - does not allow the bulbs to germinate in the spring. This happens due to high humidity.
Remove affected areas, treat with fungicide.
Perhaps the defeat of fungal diseases (mosaic, banding, ring spots, etc.). They are manifested by similar symptoms: spots, strokes, stains of different shades, flowering is depressed, the bulbs become smaller. Affected plants must be disposed of. To prevent trouble, carry out preventive measures, fight against insects that carry viruses (beetles, cicadas, whiteflies, nematodes).
For the purpose of prophylaxis, before planting the bulb for 30 minutes, it is necessary to hold it in the preparation solution Maxim. At the beginning of the growing season, spray plants Bordeaux liquid (concentration 1.5%).
As a preventive measure for damages with a narcissus fly and a nematode, they are kept in hot water (43.5 ° C) for several hours before planting. In the period of budding, spray the daffodils with a solution of Fitoverm (2 ml for 1 l of water, 10 m²).
In the fight against other pests, use the appropriate insecticidal drug.
Sometimes on the leaves of the plant you can find slugs - they are collected manually.
How to spread daffodils photo
In one place without transplanting daffodils can grow up to 6 years.
Signal to transplant becomes degradation of flowering.
However, experienced gardeners recommend replanting daffodils every 2, 3, or 4 years. In group plantings on the lawn can be kept for 5 years, while the bulbs are deeply buried in order to suppress the rapid formation of daughter bulbs. The most commonly used is a 2-3 year old culture. To grow daffodils for cutting, it is advisable to transplant annually.
What is a transplant? After flowering, it is necessary to dig up the bulbs and send for storage until planting (it is carried out at the end of next summer-early autumn). Some flower growers do not want to fool around and plant the bulbs right away, but remember: do it better then in the spring, so that by the autumn the bulbs will take root well and make a supply of nutrients.
Digging and storage of bulbs
How to store the bulbs of daffodils photo
- The bulbs are dug up after flowering, when the leaves turn yellow and begin to separate.
- Dig out the bulbs, shake off the soil and dry them (for 2-3 weeks, store in a well-ventilated room without sunlight, the air temperature should be between 22-24 ° C).
- Then carry out cleaning (remove dry, loosely fitting scales) and the division of nests (be careful not to touch the bottom).
- Reject diseased bulbs.
- Process the rest with a solution of potassium permanganate (hold for 30 minutes, then dry), then place in a box or box.
- During the first 15-20 days, keep at an air temperature of about 17 ° C, then lower to 12-14 ° C and maintain at this level until the time of landing.
In temperate climates, daffodils successfully hibernate in the open field without shelter. If a harsh, snowless winter is foreseen, in the late autumn you should hum the soil with peat, cover it with spruce branches. Shelter is removed after the snow melts in the spring.
Narcissus terry grade Narcissus Tahiti photo
Includes all varieties with double flowers.
Grades: Rosy Cloud, Petit Four, Gay Chellenger, Pink Paradise, Yellow Cheerfullness, Rosy Cloud, Gay Kybo, Yellow Cheerfulness, Irene Copeland, Texas, Rip Van Winkle, White Lion.
Daffodils in landscape design
Daffodils in landscape design photo
These spring flowers are used for gardening flower beds, rabatok, planted between shrubs, separate spots to decorate the lawn.
They are beautiful in group plantings: small lawns look very natural.
Daffodils on a bed with tulips photo
As for the neighbors, do not plant near crops that will compete with daffodils for moisture and nutrients (cultures with powerful deeply penetrating roots).
Daffodils on a bed with hyacinths photo
Plants with a shallow root system will do - tiarella, stonecrops, styloid phlox, etc. They will not interfere with the development of daffodils, and will also profitably cover the leaves that turn yellow after flowering.
The Legend of Daffodil
The ancient Greek myth tells about a beautiful young man named Narcissus. He heartlessly rejected the love of the nymph Echo. For the coldness was punished by Aphrodite: she made him fall in love with his own reflection in the water surface. From the love of himself, he melted in front of his eyes, and on the place of a lifeless body this amazingly beautiful flower grew.
Since then, the word "narcissus" has become a household name, meaning narcissism and selfishness.
What are the features of daffodils
Narcissus is a bulbous flower, which is one of the first spring that pleases the eye with its flowers. In early spring, thin, flat, tape leaves collected by the rosette, usually from two to six of one bulb, make their way. Next, the peduncle makes its way, depending on the species, it is tubular or flat from 10 to 60 cm, on one peduncle from one to 4 flowers, depending on the species.
Flowers are of several types, differing in the number of petals and the appearance of the middle:
- The first have six petals in a circle and a short middle crown,
- The latter are also with six circular petals and a bell in the middle,
- Still others do not have a clear middle, flowers are terry with two types of petals, large and small.
Initially, the flowers had white circular petals and an orange middle. Now a variety of colors and shades, as well as their combinations simply intrigues lovers. And breeders every year create more and more new varieties. The flowering of these beauties when it falls in April – May and depends on the climate and the time of arrival of spring. The smell of daffodils is very thin and delicate, it almost on a par with the appearance of flowers attracts gardeners and perfumers to them.
Planting in open ground
On the street, the daffodil is so unpretentious that it is often planted as it were, and they forget about it, it does not disappear and will even bloom. But if you want to see the beauty of flowering, it is better to make a little effort. Choosing a landing site, you need to pay attention to the light, it should be a lot, and it is very important that there is no stagnation of water in this place.
Very good daffodils look in separate groups or on long beds.
The ideal land is neutral acid loam. If in the conceived place earlier onions grew, it is better to find another, since the diseases in such flowers are very similar and there is a chance of infection. Fresh manure for fertilizer in this case should not be used again because of the risk of contracting diseases. Before planting, it is possible to slightly improve aeration with the drainage method, this will improve flowering and prevent some bulb diseases.
Selection of bulbs for planting
When planting or transplanting, it is important to clearly know which planting material is better to choose and which bulbs should be weeded out immediately. Choosing a bulb you need to pay attention to this:
- The bulb must be free from damage,
- Donets bulbs long to be whole, without cuts or rot,
- The bulb cannot be soft or dried,
- No pests or traces of their stay should be on the bulb.
When transplanting all the bulbs that do not fit the description, it is better to throw it away, and in stores, immediately choose the material that is most suitable. The best bulbs go on sale in August, although they are more expensive than, for example, in October, they are also a bit better in quality.
Features of landing and terms
Daffodils are usually planted in the fall, but can also be in the spring. In the autumn it is 2-3 decade of September, in the spring it all depends on the weather and the landing should be done as soon as the snow melts. Landing time may vary by 3-4 weeks depending on the climatic and weather characteristics of the region and the particular year.
Often buying and planting flowering bulbs is practiced when buying, this is not correct, but the bulbs experience such stress in 90% of cases. But this way of transplanting and purchasing has the right to life.
Land should be prepared before planting. The bed must be deeply digged and fertilizers must be applied per square meter, namely:
- Compost bucket floor,
- Sand bucket floor
- Humus bucket floor,
- Two spoons of superphosphate.
It is advisable to treat the onion with a fungicide before planting. When landing in the wells on the bottom of the sand wakes up with ash, in a ratio of one to one. Bulb should be under the ground at its three heights. The distance between the bulbs depends on the plan for future transplantation, if they live in this place for two years, then a distance of 15 cm, if up to five years, then 20 cm. Filled holes can be additionally mulched with peat.
In the late autumn planting and in the spring you need to be prepared for the fact that they will bloom next year. For spring planting, you can increase the chance of flowering this year, keeping them in the refrigerator for about two months.
Care and feeding
As well as the majority of flowers for high-quality and the most vivid flowering it is necessary to conduct dressing. The schedule of this procedure for daffodils is:
- At the first shoots make a full range of mineral fertilizers, in the amount of 30 g-12 m,
- When the buds are tied, the procedure is repeated, changing only the amount of fertilizer by 20 instead of 30 g,
- The following repeats the previous one and is held during the flowering period.
- And the last dressing is carried out with superphosphate and potassium sulfate, in a ratio of 2/1.
With a dry spring, flowers need regular watering. Water a lot and regularly. To preserve the friability and moisture of the earth, it is possible to mulch it, otherwise after each watering it is necessary to loosen the earth.
After flowering, it is necessary to pick flower stalks so that they do not take power from the bulbs. But it is better not to touch the leaves until they wither, then next season you will get strong and large bulbs, which in turn will give abundant and large flowers.
Every year, planting daffodils like tulips is not worth it; they don’t like being disturbed often. Transplantation is needed when the bush is already large and the flowers begin to grow shallow, on average this period is 5-6 years.
As soon as the leaves wither it is time to dig up daffodils, it is advisable to dig in warm and dry weather. If the bulbs remain in the old place, the soil must be fertilized until they dry out. Planting material after selection is stored for up to two months in boxes, at a temperature of 17 degrees.
What are ill narcissus?
Everyone, without exception, is ill, and people, and animals, and plants, only everyone has different diseases. Diseases of daffodils arise mainly from improper care.
Narcissus suffers from three types of diseases:
- Fungal diseases (prophylaxis treatment with a fungicide):
- Penicillous rot,
- Gray rot
- Viruses (Bysteropathic, and incurable):
- White striated
- Ring spot,
- Yellow striation
- Pests (istecticides treat the presence of pests):
- Narcissus fly,
- Mite root.
Daffodils: planting and care in the open field
Many people love to grow daffodils, as they are associated with the onset of spring and fill the air with a pleasant scent. To grow daffodils in his country house or flower bed near the house under the force, as experienced gardeners and amateurs. These are perennial plants that can winter in open ground. However, if it is not transplanted, then the life of this plant lasts only up to 5 years. More than 12 thousand varieties of daffodils are known. Depending on this, each group of daffodils has its own requirements. Some prefer moisture, others - clay soil.
Where better to plant daffodils
These plants are quite unpretentious, so they can grow well in a shaded place. However, in good light, flowers have better quality. Могут хорошо приспособиться к разным типам ландшафта: на клумбе, лужайке или под кроной дерева.
Как подготовить грунт для посадки
Нарциссы не требуют особого типа почвы, могут расти в любой. Для того чтобы насытить почвы питательными веществами, следует удобрять землю с помощью компоста или перегноя. However, it should be remembered that these plants do not tolerate manure. Therefore, it is not worth using it.
To prepare the soil for planting daffodils need in the summer, so she had time to settle down a bit.
Daffodils are transplanted with bulbs. They are usually planted from August to September. Before that, you need to carefully select the bulbs, separating the small and damaged. After that, they must be treated with a solution of manganese.
Daffodils are usually planted at a depth of 12–20 cm. It’s better to plant small bulbs at a depth of 10 cm.
After the bulbs are planted, it is necessary to cover the soil with a protective layer to protect it from the cold weather in winter. For this purpose peat or humus is used, which is laid out 5 cm thick. To avoid soil freezing, cover it with a thick layer of leaves, about 20 cm. With the onset of spring the leaves are removed.
When caring for daffodils, special attention should be paid to watering and feeding.
With the onset of hot weather, daffodils need to be watered when they begin to grow and until the moment when the leaves begin to fade.
Feed these plants need twice. The first time with the formation of buds, the second - during flowering. To do this, use superphosphate, urea, potassium sulfate.
In order to propagate the sort of daffodils you like, you need:
- Make small cuts at the bottom of the bulb, put them on the shelves. In these cuts should appear small onions. After a certain time, they will produce material for planting.
- At the end of the summer, the bulb must be divided so that the parts of the two scales are fixed on one bottom. All this needs to be stored in a bag filled with perlite. After that we land in the ground.
How to save bulbs
Digging bulbs should be done after the leaves and roots start to dry. This is best done in July. If the bulbs are not planned to be dug out, the dried leaves should be cut off and the soil should be raked up. In August, the plants must be watered well to avoid drying out of the root system.
Having dug up the bulbs, they should be dried well and stored first at a temperature of 25 degrees, and later - 18 degrees.
The main diseases of daffodils include bacterial rot. Onion horse mite, lumpy hover and narcissus fly are the main pests of flowers. After the plant has faded, it must be sprayed with copper sulphate (100 g of powder per 10 liters of water).
In some cases, you can use a special drug called "Fitoverm." It is used in the spring before the formation of buds.
Narcissus can be grown not only in the garden, but also in your apartment, at home, for this you only need to try a little and this beautiful flower will delight you on the windowsill too.