Amaryllis, care for which is quite simple, if you follow simple rules, is a bulbous plant of the same family. A native of South Africa was introduced to Europe in the 18th century, where he quickly occupied one of the leading positions among flowering ornamental crops.
Types and varieties of plants
The genus is represented by the only species that is known by two names - Amaryllis Belladonna or Amaryllis the Beautiful. Perennial plant with bulbous root system has xiphoid basal leaves in two rows, framing fleshy peduncle up to 60 cm tall. When flowering at the end of the arrow, an umbellate inflorescence is formed, consisting of flowers with a diameter of 5-8 cm with a variety of colors, depending on the variety.
After the appearance of amaryllis in the gardens and window sills of Europeans, breeders do not stop working on the breeding of new varieties, among which are:
- Durban - large-flowered variety, distinguished by carmine-red flowers of bell-shaped form with white throat.
- Parker - a typical representative of the pink color with a yellow base of petals.
- Ice queen - a variety with large flowers consisting of glossy white petals with a cream coating on the edges.
- Vera - pink flowers of this variety have a distinctive feature in the form of pearl bloom.
- Red lion - a beautiful representative of the form with large flowers, painted in intense red.
- La paz - an original variety with flowers consisting of narrowed green petals with edging in the form of red spraying.
Amaryllis and its "twin" gippeastrum - the eternal confusion
Since they are really constantly confused and because of this they get not what we would like, you need to learn to distinguish between these two very similar flower cultures.
- Dense and void-free peduncle with light purple tides.
- Its length is 40-60cm.
- Strong flavor.
- The natural flowering period - the end of summer - the beginning of autumn.
- The diameter of the inflorescence - 10-12cm.
- The number of buds - up to 12 pieces (usually 4-6).
- Natural coloring - all shades of pink, ranging from almost white and ending almost red (not to be confused with hybrids!).
- Pear-shaped bulb with ash-gray scales, slightly "curly" along the upper edge.
- Leaves appear only after flowering.
- Peduncle is a hollow tube, which is easily determined by pressing. It has a grayish-brown tide.
- Its length is 60-70cm.
- Virtually no smell.
- The natural flowering period - the end of winter - the beginning of spring.
- The diameter of the inflorescence is 6-8 cm.
- The number of buds - no more than 6 (usually 2-4).
- Natural coloring - in addition to pink, red, orange, yellow, lime, purple, and their various combinations.
- The bulb is round or slightly elongated down, with a slight flattening at the sides. Externally similar to the common onion, but white or slightly greenish.
- During flowering, throws a large belt-like leaf.
Like many bright plants, amaryllis is poisonous. Its poison is concentrated in the bulb. In small doses, it is used in folk medicine as an anesthetic, and the arrowheads it smeared with have become lethal for African natives.
The ancestor of almost all today's selective hybrids is Amaryllis Belladonna. Thanks to the breeders managed to get varieties with completely uncharacteristic color of inflorescences, including variegated, as well as terry varieties and flowers with narrow petals. Among all this diversity can be distinguished varieties that have won the most popular.
Blooming simple inflorescences
- Rosalie - the snow-white buds on the outside are revealed in a delicate salmon color with a white coating on the edge and center of the petals.
- Black Pearl - dark cherry with a beet tint and black-purple venation.
- Lemon Lime - green at the base of the petals with the transition to a light lime, slightly lemon shade.
With variegated flowers
- Estella - purple-pink with a clear white stripe in the center of the petals. The base of the bud is greenish with a caramel-orange halo.
- Neon - non-curved, soft pink with white veins and green-white throat.
- Red-white - terry, with a distribution of color from greenish-white from the pharynx to blood-red at the edges.
- Chico is incredibly spectacular with amazing shapes that are undoubtedly the main thing that attracts attention and against which the colors of muted tones are pushed into the background.
- Santana - non-double, narrow, in combination with salmon and lime.
- Lima - with dimensional luxurious flowers in green-purple stripes.
Specific life cycle
Amaryllis is home to South Africa, where spring coincides with our autumn. It is at this time that the flowering period occurs. It is no coincidence that he received the name "Easter lily" from local residents. Having gained strength during the winter (here with us - over the summer), the bulb releases a flower stalk, and the plant begins to bloom. At home, flowering lasts about 1.5 months and only after its completion elastic leathery leaves are shown and start to grow from the ground. They will be like this throughout the winter, and as soon as they begin to fade and lose elasticity, this means that a period of peace is coming.
Especially strong specimens recover much faster and can bloom twice a year. However, often after this they can go "for peace" for two terms and not bloom at all.
How to grow amaryllis so that it blooms in the desired time?
You can change the life cycle time as you wish, and even make it bloom by the target date. Of course, it will not be a specific day, but by taking 2 weeks for a stock, you can achieve the desired. To do this, you need to "wake up" the bulb 6-7 weeks before the desired date, planting it and placing it in a warm and bright place. About watering at this stage will be discussed separately.
Important! The required minimum of rest before landing should be at least 1.5-2 months!
Florists refer this flower to easily grown. The basic rules of care are really standard for flowering houseplants. The main difficulty is changing cycles and care for amaryllis after flowering.
Selection and illumination
At the time of active growth and budding the pot should be put in a well-lit place, and this condition is mandatory. When the rest period comes, the plant should “move” to a dark and cool place. The cellar is the perfect place for it. If a transplant is scheduled for this year, the onion is dug out of the ground.
Watering is one of the most important components of care when growing amaryllis, and it is directly dependent on the life cycle of the specimen. During the active growing season it is necessary to water it immediately, as soon as the earthen room dries out. As soon as the withering of the leaves indicates the onset of the dormant period, watering is reduced, but not immediately, but setting it aside for 1-2 days after the substrate dries out. Then it is stopped completely. Nevertheless, even a flower placed in the basement needs to be checked from time to time for souring of the soil and to be wetted every 1-1.5 months to avoid complete drying.
When the plant begins to produce flower stems, watering is not started immediately, but after waiting until it stretches about 10 cm. If you start to moisturize it earlier, you can provoke an early forcing of the leaves, which will take the forces necessary for budding.
Peduncle can be cut and put in a vase of water immediately after the first bud opens. It will bloom about the same time, but it will save the power of the plant and it can release the second flower spike.
The plant needs top dressing only during its active life cycle (growth, flowering, leaf forcing). At this time, it is advisable to feed it once every 10 days, best of all - with a mullein diluted 1:10 with water.
If amaryllis is planted in open ground during the warm season, the bulb must be dug out of the ground before the first frost and stored in a dry, dark and cool place.
How to transplant amaryllis?
Regarding the optimal timing of transplant the opinions of experts differ. Some of them insist on digging the bulbs every year and transplanting them into a new land, others recommend doing it every few years. And yet it is the annual transplant that will make it clear in what condition the bulb is. In any case, it should be understood that the transplant of this plant is an integral part of caring for him. How to plant amaryllis right? On this account there are certain rules.
- The size of the pot is selected in such a way that the distance between its walls and the bulb does not exceed 3 cm. If the pot is “large”, flowering may not happen, but there will be many “babies”.
- Bulb tuber deepens in the ground only half.
- The best time for planting is July or a month after the death of the peduncle.
- If the instance has leaves, it is important to keep them. This is a valuable power source.
- In the year when the plant does not transplant, it is desirable to update the top layer of the earth, leaving it at the same level.
If the plant has released more than two flower stalks, the rest must be removed, otherwise there will not be one next year.
Possible growing problems
- The leaves turn pale, and it is not associated with a dormant period. Most likely, they are exposed to too aggressive exposure to sunlight or insufficient watering. In the latter case, wilted buds.
- The leaves darken (blacken). Too damp and / or cold.
- The leaves turn yellow. Possible damage by pests, in particular - thrips.
- Slowdown in development. It is necessary to check for the defeat of fungal infections or insects.
What to do if amaryllis does not bloom, but only gives leaves?
This problem is most common and causes the most concern, therefore it requires a separate discussion. There may be several reasons.
- Too short rest state or lack thereof.
- Insufficient lighting.
- Too cold room.
- Infertile soil.
- Damage to the bulb, incl. pests.
- Too young plant. With vegetative propagation, beauty will have to wait for 3 years, and with seed sowing - 7-8 years.
Regularly change the position of the plant in relation to the sun, if you want to get an even vertical peduncle.
Reproduction by dividing the bulb
This method is the fastest and most effective. The planting material prepared for dividing should be at least 6 cm in diameter. Peeled bulbs need to be cut a little at the top and bottom, divided vertically, after which each part is soaked in a solution of the fungicide for 30 minutes and planted in the substrate as usual.
Modern varieties of amaryllis obtained by breeding. Amaryllis belladonna bulb is a real rarity and dream of all flower growers.
Breeders direct their efforts:
- for the removal of larger double and non-double flowers. Terry flower varieties include Selica, Pink nymph, Macarena, Merry Christmas. Non-terry varieties include Black Pearl, Exotic, Rosalie, Moonlight and other varieties of amaryllis,
- to get new shades and their combinations. Amazing are considered varieties Charisma, Prelude, Clown, Neon, Santa Cruz and other varieties,
- to create colors with new shapes. The most popular flowers are Amaryllis, which have narrow petals and slightly corrugated at the edges. Flower growers often plant Lima, La Paz, Santana, Night star.
In addition to the varieties listed, these varieties also include popular varieties: Durban with carmine flowers and a white center, Parker with yellow centers on purple-pink flowers, Pink magnificent with pink-white petals, Maxima with bright pink flowers, radiating an interesting scent.
Flower selection rules
When buying amaryllis bulbs you need to make sure that they are healthy, dry, without spots and rims. An onion resembles an ordinary onion, dense in structure, heavy and rather solid. When choosing an adult plant, make sure that you buy exactly amaryllis flower, as it is often confused with hippeastrum.
To take care of amaryllis at home is necessary in rubber gloves. After completing all the work, hands need to be washed with soap.
The difference between amaryllis and hippeastrum
Amaryllis differs from hippeastrum in the structure of the stem of the peduncle. At the first flower it is uniform and dense. Therefore, 6 to 12 flowers form on it. Hippeastrum lets no more than 6 flowers that do not smell.
The difference between amaryllis and hippeastrum is as follows:
- The first plant flowers reach a size of 12 - 15 centimeters, and the second - no more than 8 centimeters.
- Amaryllis blooms without leafs. Hippeastrum in time of flowering shoots an arrow for the growth of a belt-like leaf.
- The first plant is grown only on the windowsill, and the second can be planted in open ground on the south side of the plot.
Knowing the basic criteria for the difference between amaryllis and gippeastrum, the first flower will never be confused with the second.
Features planting plants
Amaryllis flowers are planted in the same container at a distance of more than 10 centimeters from each other. For planting it is important to prepare the right soil. You can buy it in a special store or make it yourself. Whatever the soil you choose, it is important to pour boiling water over it or place it in the freezer.
The soil should consist of the following components:
- garden land, turf soil, coarse river sand and humus. The last component is taken two times less than the previous ones.
- garden land, turf soil, peat, river sand and humus. All components need to be taken in the same quantity.
- sod land, humus and sand. The last component is taken twice as large as the first two.
It is also important at the bottom of the pot to make a drainage layer (2 centimeters thick) of expanded clay, pebbles, gravel, brick chips or ceramic shards. Pour a layer of sand over the drainage layer. Such drainage will allow excess moisture to come out without lingering at the roots, thereby preventing their rotting.
To plant a home flower, select strong, smooth bulbs with well-developed roots. If the bulb produces an unpleasant sweet smell, it can not be planted.
Plant the flower bulb in the pot as follows:
- Remove black, brown, beige scales from selected bulbs. When the planting material becomes white or light green in color, immerse it in calcium permanganate for half an hour.
- Dry the disinfected bulbs for at least 12 hours. If on some sides the bulb has suffered from some disease, treat it with green paint or Fitosporin. Dry well.
- Prepare the pot and cover it with soil, not reaching the edges.
- With a blunt end, place the bulb in the soil and sprinkle with earth so that a third of the onion towers above the surface.
- Ram the ground and pour water.
Put in pots flower bulbs on the windowsill. As long as the amaryllis flower does not take root, it begins to sprout, it should not be watered abundantly. Also, you can not wet the upper part of the bulb. If properly care for the plant, a couple of months after planting, it will bloom.
If the flower develops in spring, it is important for him to ensure sufficient light and heat.
It is necessary to water a plant only after reaching a height of 10 centimeters. If you start watering earlier, the flower will begin to spend its strength for forcing the leaves, which will slow down the flowering process.
Well-developed bulbs produce arrows for flowering twice a year. Well, if the plant throws on 1 - 2 peduncle. The remaining flowers are recommended to be removed. If you ignore such a recommendation, next year Amaryllis may refuse to blossom.
Distillation plants occurs from December to April. The spring-summer period is considered a rest period, which allows the plant to recover.
If you change the date of planting bulbs, you can force the flower to bloom in any season. 10 weeks before the desired flowering period, bring the plant pot into a warm or well-lit room. Be sure to lightly pour. Then the frequency of watering is adjusted to the environmental conditions.
Rules for watering and feeding
- In the process of growth Amaryllis watered moderately. It is necessary to start watering the first time as soon as the flower sprout grows to 10 centimeters. It is recommended to water abundantly every three days. The soil surrounding the onion is treated with water.
- In winter, the soil around the plant is sprayed once a week.
- Once the buds are formed, amaryllis needs to be fed once every two weeks. When the flower begins to bloom, you need to feed more often, reducing the interval between dressings to five days.
- Fertilizing the flower is best means with a high content of phosphorus and potassium. The composition of the fertilizer should be at least nitrogen.
- You can also feed the plants with natural organic fertilizers - fresh manure or bird droppings diluted with water.
- After full fading of flowers, it is not necessary to feed them.
Соблюдение температурного режима
При выращивании амариллиса температура воздуха в помещении должна быть в пределах 18 – 25 градусов. After flowering, the flower pot can be put in a dark place in a room with a temperature not lower than 10 degrees Celsius.
Terms of care after flowering
After the flower blossoms, gradually reduce the intensity of its feeding and watering. Leaflets and peduncle cannot be removed. The flower will prepare for the rest period. In winter, the flower is placed in a cool place and does not water. Thanks to this, he will have a rest and will be able to grow and develop with new forces in the spring. If the flower blooms all year round, without rest, it will not be lush, the stems will become thinner and the plant will soon disappear.
The foliage of the plant is a dark green shade, elongated and narrow, belt-like. Leaflets are arranged in two rows. Before flowering, amaryllis throws out a long tube-cavity 40-60 cm high. Sometimes there is one tube, sometimes there may be two, three. Interestingly, the plant begins to overgrow with foliage only after the appearance of a tubular peduncle.
Butonov on one flowering shoots bloom from 2 to 12 pieces. Inflorescences are umbrella-shaped and extremely decorative appearance. In nature, amaryllis usually has a reddish color, pink, less often white. However, breeders have done their best and brought to this day a lot of different varieties of plants, distinguished by exquisite beauty and different shades.
Note that the plant bulb should be handled with care when working - it is poisonous. Be sure to wear gloves, since even one touch of the bulb can cause noticeable skin irritation.
All amaryllis sold in stores are artificially bred hybrids. Species species in decorative floriculture are not currently used. Let's get acquainted with the most beautiful and popular varieties.
Krupnotsvetkovy amaryllis, having white glossy petals with a light cream bloom on the rim.
Extremely original variety, distinguished among fellow greenish narrowed corrugated petals with red edging.
Amaryllis with large buds of a bright red saturated color. It is interesting that with the red edges of the mouth of the bud white.
Beautiful variety with pink buds that have a beautiful pearl bloom.
Breeders have already withdrawn terry amaryllis: these varieties are in special demand among gardeners. The most beautiful today terry hybrids are:
- Pink nymph,
- Selick and others
Impressive and corrugated varieties: Night star, Lima, Santana, Evergreen.
Location and lighting
You need to place the pot with this plant in a place well lit: it is important that the light is not direct, but soft, diffused. The optimal location is the window sill from the southwest or southeast of the apartment. If there are only south windows, protect the amaryllis from direct rays. Total daylight hours in the summer should last at least 16 hours.
Amaryllis needs different air temperatures depending on the stage of its development. So, during the period of active growth, the ambient air temperature is desirable from +18 to +25 degrees. In winter, during the rest period, the temperature should be lowered to + 10-16 degrees.
It is strictly not recommended to allow significant temperature drops when growing amaryllis. The plant reacts extremely negatively to such changes, it can even get sick. In addition, amaryllis categorically does not tolerate low temperatures, even close to zero, not to mention the freezing.
Substrate plant requires slightly acidic (pH 6.0-6.5), while it is sufficiently nutritious and loose. The most optimal and convenient option is to buy in the store ready soil for bulbous.
If you prepare the mixture yourself, mix the leaf and sod soil, humus and sand (2.2,1,2). Do not forget to ignite the soil mixture in the oven before use: the measure will help to destroy harmful larvae and microbes.
A drainage layer must be provided in the plant pot. Use as a drainage can be expanded clay, ceramic fragments, crushed brick, gravel. The layer should be 2-3 cm high: this height will reliably protect the roots from waterlogging and stagnant water.
To amaryllis pleased lush flowering, it should be planted in a pot of small diameter. Choose a vessel that is steady and rather heavy. When amaryllis begins to actively develop and overgrow with leaves, peduncles, buds, it can easily overturn itself. The pot should be able to keep the plant from tipping.
The depth of the tank should be decent: the root system of adult Amaryllis is large and branched. The best choice would be the capacity, wide at the top and tapering downwards. As for the material, it is better to use ceramics, preferably unglazed: such material better passes the air needed by the roots of the plant.
When the next period of flowering comes to an end, amaryllis enters a period of rest. This period lasts about a couple of months, during which it is necessary to significantly reduce watering, and feeding can be suspended altogether.
When the bulb moves in growth, it will signal the fallen leaves. Place the pot in a darkened room with a temperature of + 10-16 degrees, not higher. Produce watering when the upper surface of the soil dries out thoroughly.
Diseases and pests
Amaryllis most often suffers from putrefactive and fungal pathologies caused by overmoistening or high nitrogen concentrations in the soil. Putrid diseases can lead to the death of a flower, so preventive measures are needed, implying full compliance with agricultural practices.
Among the pests, a spider mite, a scab, and a mealybug are a particular hazard. Fight insects with the help of appropriate chemical insecticide preparations.
If the plant has lost its decorative effect, has ceased to bloom, there may be several reasons:
- little light,
- there is no rest period, amaryllis did not have time to rest,
- traumatizing during transplantation,
- too deep burial of the onions,
- too big pot.
If such problems occur, you must first eliminate the disease and pest damage, and then go through the entire list and find out the cause. Eliminating the cause, you will achieve the return of decorative and flowering Amaryllis.
Amaryllis can be propagated both generatively - by seeds, and vegetatively - by dividing the maternal bulb, by children.
Wait for flowering in seed reproduction has a long time. In addition, the procedure itself is fraught with many difficulties. Rarely, with this method, amaryllis retains varietal characteristics, so the result of the work may come as a surprise. There is a plus - the bulbs obtained from seeds age slowly, and in suitable conditions amaryllis will be able to please the eye for 20 years.
Seeds are not easy to get. It is necessary for this to have at least two flowers: the stamens of one are pollinated by pollen from the other. Use for pollination should be a special brush, suitable and clean from an art store. In pollinated amaryllis, a seed capsule will appear in place of the flower. When a crack appears on it, the seeds are ripe.
Immediately after ripening, the seeds must be sown: so there is a greater chance of their successful germination. Sow them into the soil nutritious, loose and well hydrated. Capacity clean in heat, protect from direct sun. In a month, shoots appear, and in 2-3 months they are ready for picking in individual pots.
Due to the laboriousness, duration and unpredictability of the result, the seed method is used at home extremely rarely. It is more suitable for scientists, breeders involved in breeding new varieties. Consider vegetative breeding methods as much more applicable.
The method is the safest and most simple: it is the reproduction of children that is chosen by most florist when it comes to amaryllis. Note that children grow quickly, and if they are properly cared for, they reach the size and maturity of an adult bulb in two years.
Children are called daughter bulbs, formed from amaryllis, like any other member of the family. The separation of the children from the mother bulb is usually performed during the next transplant: that is, once every 3-4 years.
It is necessary to separate with a sharp knife in one step, so as not to injure the maternal bulb once again. Take care that the baby had its roots. Onion is deposited in a separate pot, placed in a warm room for rooting. In a year or three, adult bulbs capable of blooming will sprout.
The rest period during the germination of babies is not provided: you can water and fertilize them during the entire time of maturation. After the first flowering the young plant will go to its first dormant period.
This method is used more often, but for its implementation requires a developed, adult and completely healthy maternal bulb. The selected instance is cleared of flakes, divided into four parts. Before planting, the parts must be disinfected in a solution of the fungicide. After a half-hour disinfection, the delenki are immersed in the nutrient substrate, where they subsequently take root.
Important: the method is more suitable for experienced flower growers, since for high-quality division of the bulb it is necessary to have skill and experience.
We met with one of the most beautiful indoor plants - amaryllis. The flower has a tropical origin, but despite this, the care and maintenance is not too complicated. Observing simple requirements and rules, you can grow a healthy, strong plant, regularly abundantly flowering.
Protection against diseases and pests
- Most often the plant dies when the bulb decays. This condition can occur with excessive watering or with frequent fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers.
- Amaryllis is susceptible to the attack of spider mites, thrips. Thrips-midges circling around the plant and lay their larvae on the flowering petals.
- The appearance of the flower may suffer due to the scale.
To get rid of pests is recommended, spray the plant with a special tool. As the prevention of diseases and pests, the drugs are used in lower dosages.
Origin and Description
it perennial bulbous plant with very beautiful bell-shaped inflorescences. The diameter of the bulb can be 10 -12 cm. The shape of the bulb resembles a pear. During flowering, the flower produces one (or two) long dense peduncle, up to 50 cm long, on which there can be from 3 to 6 fragrant, beautiful flowers resembling a funnel. Diameter of a flower is 5 - 8 cm. Flowers have a various coloring: white, pink, red, purple and their various shades. The leaves of Amaryllis straight, 2 -3 cm wide, resembling long tongues, which are arranged in two rows.
Often amaryllis confused with hippeastrum. Many growers refer these two flowers to the same species. Even in flower shops they sell one instead of the other, without distinguishing between them. Plants are really similar and do not differ in planting or care. But there are still some differences.
- in hippeastrum, the bulb, flowers, and the peduncle itself are larger than those of amaryllis.
- There are about two thousand varieties of hippeastrum, and amaryllis has only one.
- Amaryllis blooms first, then leaves appear, the hypeastrum releases together both the peduncle and the leaves.
- peduncle hypeastrum hollow inside, amaryllis - dense.
- flowers of hypeastrum are odorless; flowers of amaryllis have a delicate, fragrant aroma.
Another condition for proper care is watering.
Watering amaryllis differs depending on the stage of its development. So, at the growth stage, until the flower is rooted, and it does not begin to germinate, it does not need abundant watering, as this can lead to decay of both the roots and the bulbs themselves. Watering begins when the flower sprout grows to a height of about 10 cm, but at this stage it is also important to ensure that no overwetting occurs. It is better to forget to water than overmoisten the soil.
When amaryllis is at the stage of flowering it needs to be watered well - the soil should be constantly moist. Water should be defended with water at room temperature. This should be done at intervals of 2 - 3 days.
At home, Amaryllis bloom lasts up to 20 days. After the flower has blossomed, watering is reduced and, within two months, is stopped completely, so that the flower goes into a state of rest.
Lighting and humidification
Amaryllis is not very whimsical in care, but still, with regard to lighting, then, during the period of growth and flowering, he needs a bright, diffused light. For the normal development of the flower during these periods, the light day should take about 16 hours. Therefore, in the apartments it should be put on the south-western and south-eastern windows. On the windows on the south side, this flower will also feel great, but in the daytime you need it to shade from the scorching sun. In addition, in order for the flower amaryllis to be even and not deviate to the side, the flowerpot with flower should be constantly turned.
In the rest period for amaryllis lighting does not play a big role.
As for the humidity of the air, for normal growth and flowering of amaryllis, it does not play a big role. As a preventive pest, you can arrange a wet shower for a plant or simply wipe the leaves. But during the flowering period, all these techniques are prohibited.
Care for amaryllis at home will not be complete without feeding and fertilizing. This will allow for better growth and active flowering.
Amaryllis feeding begins from the moment appearance of buds and until the leaves are completely wilted. During the rest period, the plant does not need fertilizer.
To feed a flower, it is better to use purchased liquid fertilizers for flowering bulbous plants, which contribute 2 times a month.
It is also important not to overfeed the plant after flowering. This type of flower grows leaves after flowering, so it is important not to grow a large number. To do this, you must use fertilizers for flowering plants, rich in phosphorus and potassium. And, in any case, do not use fertilizer for leafy plantsrich in nitrogen. This rule will increase flowering and reduce the growth of leaves.
Reproduction of amaryllis
Amaryllises, like bulbous plants, breed in two ways:
- With the help of seeds.
- With the help of babies, which are formed on adult bulbs.
When amaryllis is propagated by seeds, it is first necessary to form them. For seed flower must be artificially pollinated. For this purpose, the brush transfers the pollen from the stamens to the pistil. After a few months, a seed box forms, which look like little bulbs. After maturation, the seed bulbs are placed in a nutrient soil for rooting.
At home, with the help of seeds, reproduction is extremely rare. It is a laborious process and unreliable, since a new plant may differ from the maternal one. In addition, a plant grown from seed blooms only for 7 years.
A simpler and more commonly used method of reproduction is reproduction by children. These are small bulbs that have separated from the adult maternal bulb. When transplanting amaryllis, which is carried out no more than 1 time in 3-4 years, separate the resulting children. Separated onions are immediately planted in the ground as an adult plant. The rest period is not satisfied with them, but is constantly watered and fed. Young plants grow very quickly, but bloom only after 3 years.
Amaryllis: care in a period of rest
To achieve abundant and lush flowering Amaryllis must observe all stages of flower development. And one of the main stages is the rest period. It begins after all the leaves turn yellow and dry on the plant and lasts about 3 months. This stage is very important, because at this time the bulb accumulates strength for future flowering.
In a state of rest amaryllis begin to enter gradually.
- After flowering, the plant gradually reduced watering and feeding. After the peduncle dries completely, watering is stopped altogether.
- The leaves are not cut until they are dry, because the bulb receives all the nutrients from them.
- The flower is transferred to a cool, dark room, where it is left to rest for several months.
When the flower rests, it is again put on a bright place and slowly begin to water.
Problems of growing and flowering
Despite the simplicity of caring for an amaryllis flower, sometimes there are problems when it is grown.
- Flowers and leaves become pale from overabundance of light. In this case, it is necessary to remove the flower from direct sunlight.
- If the flowers darken, then the plant is cold or damp.
- If the flowers and leaves are drooping, it means that the plant lacks moisture.
- The leaves turn yellow when the plant is infected with pests or diseases.
The beauty of amaryllis is in its beautiful flowers, but with insufficient care of this beautiful flowering, you can not wait. The reasons why amaryllis does not bloom may be as follows:
- not enough sunlight.
- there was no rest period.
- low room temperature.
- poor soil.
- small pot.
- too many small bulbs (kids).
- the bulb is too deeply planted.
- the bulb is infected with pests or diseases.
- The bulb of the plant is still young for flowering.
Все эти факторы ослабляют растение и ему не хватает сил для цветения. Поэтому, чтобы амариллис всегда радовал шикарным цветением необходимо соблюдать несложные правила ухода за этим цветком.
Lighting and location
Amaryllis needs a stream of soft light, which is possible to provide a flower when placing the pot on the window sills of the south-east and south-west directions with additional protection from direct sunlight during the period of greatest solar activity. Curtains can be used as protection.
Important! In the summer season, the duration of daylight hours must be at least 16 hours.
The temperature regime for the full development of amaryllis depends on the phase of development:
- In the active growth phase, the optimum temperature varies from 18 to 25 ° C, depending on the time of day.
- During the rest period, the temperature regime is in the range of 10 to 16 ° C.
Caution! When growing a culture one should not allow strong temperature differences that negatively affect the plant.
Soil and pot requirements
To obtain a flowering plant, it is necessary to select a small-sized tank. Soil for filling the pot is required with a weak acid reaction in the range of 6.0-6.5 points and loose structure. Nutrient substrate prepared from turf and leaf lands, sand and humus in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1, before use, is calcined in an oven to destroy pathogens.
Watering a flower and humidity
When watering a flower, which should be carried out after the earthen coma dries, the lower method of moistening is used: the pot is placed in a pan with water for 20-30 minutes, which helps prevent undesirable water from entering the bulb, which occurs in the upper irrigation method. Amaryllis easily adapts to the dry air in the apartment, so it does not require additional spraying.
Tip! To facilitate the breathing of the flower through the leaf plates, you should systematically wipe them from dust.
Amaryllis needs regular feedings during the period of active growth:
- bird droppings diluted in water in the proportion of 10 g per bucket of liquid,
- with a mullein per 250 grams per bucket of water,
- mineral fertilizer solution with a low content of nitrogen prepared from a bucket of water and 3 g of agrochemical.
Attention! An excess of nitrogen in the soil can cause a red flower burn.
Flowering and pruning
With the arrival of autumn, a culture bloom is observed, which occurs in contrast to gippeastrum after the development of green mass. In the natural environment, this period, during which flowers of white and pink flowers bloom, falls in autumn. In the culture derived many varieties with a variety of colors. After flowering, shoots die off naturally, and pruning is not required.
Amaryllis flower transplanted every 3-4 years after flowering.
The procedure is as follows:
- A new container is selected so that the distance between the wall of the pot and the edge of the bulb is 2-3 cm.
- At the bottom of the pot is placed drainage of expanded clay.
- The bulb is examined for the presence of diseases and placed in a pot, after which it is sprinkled with a new substrate so that part remains above the ground level.
- The substrate is compacted and slightly moistened.
After the flowering phase is over, the plant begins to prepare for a dormant period, which lasts 2 months on average: watering and feeding are reduced. Reset foliage signals the beginning of active growth of the bulb. At this time, the pot is moved to a dark room where the temperature should not exceed 16 ° C. Moisturizing is carried out as needed when the earth dries.
Fight against diseases and pests
The flower is affected by diseases in the form of rot in violation of the rules of content - excessive watering, high concentration of nitrogen-containing fertilizers in the substrate. With the intensive development of the disease, the plant may die. To prevent this, it is necessary to strictly comply with agrotechnical requirements. Among the pests found on amaryllis, there are spider mites, mealybugs and scale insects, which should be dealt with by spraying the plant with insecticidal preparations according to the instructions on the package.
Features of Amaryllis Transplantation
When transplanting amaryllis it is important to choose a pot of the correct size. It should correspond to the size of the bulb - from it to the walls should remain 2 centimeters.
Transplanted plant in July. When transplanting, care must be taken not to damage the roots and young leaves. When forming a daughter bulb, carefully separate it and plant in a separate container. When transplanting, make sure that part of the bulb was above the ground. After some time, the flower will take root.
If you plant amaryllis seeds, it can not maintain its grade and bloom only seven years after planting. But, if properly care for a flower, it will grow over 20 years.
To obtain seeds, pollinate the pistil with pollen from the stamens of another flower variety. The procedure is carried out with a soft nap brush. On the peduncle formed "box". A month later, it cracks, and ripe seeds fall out.
Seeds are sown in a well-moistened soil. Place the container in a warm place, protecting it from the influence of direct sunlight. In a month, the first shoots will appear. After three months, seedlings can be transplanted into different containers.
Reproduction with the help of babies
With the help of babies, amaryllis breeds easily and safely. Description of breeding using babies:
- Separate the bulbs with a sharp knife from the main plant.
- Place the onion in the pot with the ground bottom down, gently press it into the ground, top it up with more soil so that the onion half protrudes above its level.
- Ram the ground and pour heavily. Keep the plant warm and well lit.
- New plants do not need rest. Watering and feeding them constantly. The first time the flowers can rest after the first flowering.
Child bulbs grow rapidly and become similar to the mother plants within two years.
Amaryllis: history, description and types
This perennial bulbous plant has one species - Amaryllis belladonna. It was first mentioned by Karl Linnaeus in 1753 after visiting the garden of the burgomaster of Amsterdam. Named flower in honor of the beautiful nymph, which wrote Virgil.
The leaves of the plant have a linear shape, and their length is 40–60 cm. Usually it produces one peduncle with 3–6 flowers. In hybrids, up to 12 flowers may be present, and sometimes 2 floral arrows are formed at once. The plant blooms from December to April. Exists many varieties and hybrids of amarylliswhose flowers differ in shape and color. The diameter of the flowers is 10−12 cm, and the color can be any: white, pink, red, crimson or even green.
Due to its simplicity and variety of varieties, this flower very popular among lovers of indoor plants. It will decorate any house or apartment, and even its flowering can be timed to a particular holiday or a memorable event.
The best place, comfortable temperature and humidity
Amaryllis - a lover of bright ambient light. The south-western or south-eastern windows will be the most suitable for it, on the south side it will be necessary to prune the flower during the day. The pot with the plant must be constantly rotated so that the flower does not twist.
The optimum temperature for a flower during the growing season is considered day 22−24ºС, and at night - 18 ºС.
As for humidity, it should not be high. It is enough to wipe the leaves of the flower with a wet cloth during the growing season or rinse the plant under the shower. But during flowering such events are contraindicated!
Watering and feeding
In watering the plant most acutely needs during flowering. During this period, the soil should not be allowed to dry out, the soil should be moderately wet. But too much moisture can lead to illness and destroy the plant, so the soil should dry 2/3 of the volume before the next watering.
Amaryllis feeding is carried out once in 2 weeks. In order not to introduce pathogenic microbes, it is better to completely abandon organic matter. Ready fertilizer for bulbous fertilizers containing a high percentage of phosphorus and potassium will be ideal as top dressing.
Too much nitrogen will only push back flowering, increase leaf development and may contribute to the development of a red burn. After the transition plants in the rest period fertilization stops.
Pests and diseases. Measures to combat them
Amaryllis suffers from diseases and pests, like all other plants. Here are the most dangerous diseases for him:
- Fusarium, which is accompanied by root rot.
- Anthracnose. Determined by the presence of dark spots on the leaves and brown stains.
- Stragonosporosis, or red burn. Characterized by the appearance of red spots on the bulb and leaves.
- Gray rot. This is the formation of gray plaque on the sheet plates.
To avoid these problems bulbs processed before planting using fungicides such as basezol or Bordeaux mixture. During the disease, the plant is isolated, the affected leaves are removed, the soil is reprocessed and the planting material is treated with modern preparations. In advanced cases, it is necessary to get rid of diseased bulbs.
Pests can affect both the aboveground part of the flower and the bulb itself. The greatest harm to the plant can bring:
- Amaryllis chervets that settle under onion scales. It is a white insect with a waxy bloom, emitting sooty fungi and harming this bulb. The affected plant begins to lose leaves and lag behind in development. Special insecticides are used against the bite,
- Onion tick. Its habitat is the ground where the flower grows. After it damages the bulb, it rots and becomes ill with fusarium. As a result, the foliage turns yellow, and the flowers become smaller. To get rid of the tick, enough to lower the temperature and adjust the humidity in the room,
- Mealybug. Damages the stem and leaves. Destroyed by wiping
- Dummy. It leaves brown spots on the leaves and damages flowers. You can defeat it by applying a soap solution or spraying an insecticide.
Periods of flowering and rest
Like any bulbous, amaryllis from the growing season goes into a rest period. It is necessary for the accumulation of nutrients and preparation for flowering.
Vegetation and flowering in Amaryllis lasts from the beginning of winter to the end of April. At the beginning of the growing season throws out a flower arrow, and only after it leaves grow. In order for flowering to start earlier, it is better not to water the plant until the arrow reaches 10 cm.
To extend the flowering period you can reduce the room temperature to 18 ºС and protect the flower from direct sunlight. If you immediately cut off the flower arrow, it is likely that the plant will release the second. Usually flowering lasts up to 3 weeks, after which it should be reduced, and then completely stop watering.
After completion of flowering, immediately trim the leaves and the flower arrow should not be. All the beneficial substances from them should go into the bulb. Pruning is done when the leaves turn yellow and start to die.
When there are no leaves on the plant, its can be translated into the rest period. To do this, the flower is removed in a dark cool place with a temperature of 10−12 ºС. In this state, he must spend at least 3 months.
Reproduction by children is the easiest and most convenient method. For him:
- the kids are neatly separated from the adult bulb,
- set aside separately with the usual landing rules,
- before the first flowering is not cleaned to rest.
- the baby will bloom in 2−3 years, retaining all the signs of its variety.
Amaryllis is recommended to replant when the bulb becomes too crowded in the old pot. This usually happens every 3-4 years. The best time for this - the end of flowering. After the peduncle is completely dry, you can begin the process of transplanting. For everything to go as it should, you should:
- 4–5 days before the start of the process, the plant is watered abundantly every day,
- The flower is carefully removed from the pot along with the soil, dusted off and a thorough inspection of the root system is carried out. If necessary, the dried and rotten parts of the roots are cut off, and the cut points are treated with ash or activated carbon,
- The bulb is cleaned, all rotten scales are removed. The children are also removed, who are then seated separately,
- It is transplanted to a new pot in compliance with all the rules required during planting.
Why does not bloom amaryllis
There are cases when, despite all the efforts, amaryllis does not bloom. What to do in such cases and why is this happening? The reasons may be different:
- too big pot. In this case, the bulb tends to form more babies,
- the bulb is planted too deep. This landing does not develop flower stalk,
- lack of nutrition. Because of her, the plant has no power to bloom,
- lack of light and heat. The birthplace of this flower is in the south, so it will not develop properly in a cool place,
- The onion was not cleaned. In this case, it has not gained strength to bloom,
- defeat diseases and pests.
If you correct all the errors, amaryllis will begin to bloom regularly.
Amaryllis care at home requires some time and effort. But if you follow all these rules, he is able to please the owner with his appearance and fragrance for a long time.
Features of the growth of indoor plants
From a small bulb of amaryllis grows adult decorative flower. The diameter of a well-developed healthy bulb increases to 8 - 10 cm. Most often the flower produces 1 - 2 peduncles annually. Peduncle dense, thickened.
The buds are located at the very top of the stem. The flowers are very fragrant, grow up to 10-15 cm in diameter. Hybrid varieties can have high stalks and large flowers with a diameter of up to 20 cm.
The leaves are straight, up to 2 -3 cm wide. Flowers themselves funnel-shaped or bell-shaped. The colors have different shades of white, red, purple. There are variegated, multi-colored hybrid varieties (more details about the Amaryllis varieties can be found here).
Further you can familiarize with a photo of a flower:
How to water?
During the period of active growth should be watered plentifully. When forming the buds, the substrate must be wet. The flowers are deformed due to lack of moisture, they lose their bright color and shape. During the rest period watering is minimal. From October - November, it is necessary to transfer the flower to dry content.
Avoid excessive wetting of the substrate. When watering should not allow water to penetrate the bulb itself., watered the substrate around the flower.
Amaryllis does not require additional moisture, spray the bushes should not be. In extreme heat, to reduce the temperature of the air, you should regularly wipe the leaves with a wet swab.
Where to put?
Pots and containers are usually put on the south, southeast or southeast windows. It is recommended to turn the pots clockwise so that the flower does not reach for the light and does not grow one-sidedly. Amaryllis is planted in open ground on the south side of the house - the place should be sunny, the plants do not bloom in the shade.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
When and how to feed the plant? After 10 - 14 days after transplantation, during the growth and development of the flower requires additional feeding. It is better to use liquid complex mineral fertilizers for bulb flowers.
Since autumn, fertilizer doses are reduced, while flowers do not need to be fertilized during the dormant period. Fertilizers are applied 2 - 3 times a month through watering.
It is not recommended to make organic fertilizers, the substrate may be infected with pathogenic bacteria.
It is believed that amaryllis does not require shaping cropping. Many flower growers after flowering cut off the withered gramophones, the stems themselves with leaves.
Cut only need completely dried flowers before winter dormancy plants. Also, only yellowed leaves and soft faded peduncle are cut. More details about the care of amaryllis in the winter can be found in this material.
How to care for cut plants?
Amaryllis is better to cut during the blooming buds. Features of care in the cut form:
- Stem pruned smoothly.
- The ends of the stem should be dipped in hot water, at least 45 - 50 ° C, for 10 - 15 minutes.
- According to the structure, the stem is hollow, for air to escape, the stem is punctured at the top.
- Before putting flowers in a vase, it is recommended to close the bottom of the stem with a cotton plug.
- In the cut-off state, the flowers stand for a week.
- The content of the bouquet is not allowed at temperatures below 5 - 7 ° C.
It is not enough to know how to cut the plant, it is useful to know and in what cases these flowers are given. Learn more about what reason you need to give a spectacular bouquet with Amaryllis, and what is good about the choice of compositions of these flowers can be found here.
Annual amaryllis transplant is not recommended. With frequent plantings at the flower the root is injured, the flower is ill, it adapts for a long time, development and flowering are delayed.It is recommended to repot the flower no more than 1 time in 4 - 6 years. The procedure is performed after the complete drying of the peduncle and leaves.
For planting, a large pot is selected immediately, with the expectation that the bulb itself will grow for a long time. When transplanting, daughter bulbs are separated into other containers.
During the growth period of 5 years, it is imperative that the upper layer of the substrate be renewed.
When to transfer to another pot?
An urgent transplant – division is required if the bulb is overgrown with numerous “children”. Amaryllis closely in the pot, not enough nutrients for proper growth and development.
They are engaged in transplantation if the root system is infected with putrefactive diseases (for more information about amaryllis diseases, see here). In this case, sanitary treatment of the bulb and root is required. It should be cut off the sick, damaged, too regrown roots. The bulb should be treated with a fungicide or a solution of manganese.
Also, transplants of amaryllis bulbs just purchased from the store are required. Bulbs are planted in a special substrate according to all the rules of planting this plant.
How to do it?
How to transplant a plant? Before planting, it is necessary to process the pot and tools with foundationol or alcohol. Substrate preparation should be prepared. The composition of the soil for amaryllis:
- Sod land - 2 hours
- Lowland peat - 1 hour
- Humus - 1 hour
- Sand -1 h.
- Drainage layer of expanded clay, gravel, pebbles.
For prevention, the soil is disinfected or ignited in the oven. You can process the finished soil with a solution of manganese or a fungicide.
Wood ash is added to the finished soil, in a ratio of 5 kg of the substrate - 50 g of ash. The soil should be neutral in acidity, nutritious, loose, well pass water and air. The pot should be 3-4 cm in diameter larger than the planting bulb.
- Bulb for 15 - 20 min. drops into the solution of potassium permanganate or foundationol.
- In the landing capacity is placed claydite for drainage, a layer of up to 2 - 2.5 cm.
- The pot is filled with ready-made substrate.
- An onion is placed in the middle.
- The bulb should be buried in such a way that a third of its length is on the surface.
- The soil is moistened with warm distilled water.
- Content temperature - 20 - 22 ° C.
- Watering moderate, regular.
- Need to feed any growth hormone.
Amrillis bulbs are planted in the open ground in the same way as in pots. It should be planted at the end of May, when constant heat is established.
Learn more about the nuances of planting amaryllis and flower care can be found here.
When transplanting amaryllis multiplies by dividing the daughter bulbs - the easiest and easiest way. Flowering occurs within 3 years.
You can also propagate the flower seeds. This method is complex, time-consuming, requiring artificial pollination. Flowering occurs after 4 - 5 years. Usually this method of propagation in the home gardening is not used.
What if something went wrong?
- Amaryllis will begin to languish, if the soil is wetted, putrid infections develop. From infection with gray rot on the leaves appear brown spots. Requires urgent transplant and replacement of the substrate.
- It is contraindicated to overfeed the flower with nitrogen and organic fertilizers, the flower bulbs begin to rot.
- If the leaves and flowers began to turn pale, it is necessary to rearrange the pots in a cooler place with diffused light.
- From dampness and the constant lack of light, the flower freezes, the leaves darken, become black.
- When the bush looks sluggish and lifeless, especially in the heat, you need to increase the dose and frequency of watering. It is desirable to wipe the leaves with a damp sponge.
- From too dry air on the leaves may appear spider mites, thrips, scale insects. The appearance of red spots on the leaves indicates the presence of these pests. Dummy shield leaves brown marks on leaves.
- It should wash the leaves with soapy water, change the place of keeping the pots at home. In case of strong lesions, it is recommended to treat the leaves and substrate with any insecticides.
- The amaryllis and mealybug is destroyed by fungicides.
- From fungal viruses, fusarium, anthracnose, cancer of the flower bulb is difficult to cure. Signs of infection: solid dark spots appear on the leaves - drips. The flower stops growing, there may be an unpleasant smell. Treatment is problematic, infected plants are most often rejected.
- Amaryllis bloom is delayed or does not occur at all with a lack of light, the flower bud itself does not wake up in such conditions.
- You should not miss the rest period, if the flower does not recuperate every year, it usually does not bloom.
- We can not allow the entire space of the pot overgrown with children. They should be dug out in time, removed from the parent bulb.
To grow a healthy blooming Amaryllis, it does not take much effort. The flower is not capricious, you need only the right care and care.