Balsam - is one of the most popular plants grown in gardens and front gardens of the most diverse regions of Russia.
It pleases with its colors and becomes an integral part of the decoration of southern cities and megacities of the central regions. It can be found on window sills, in the open field, growing in hanging pots and flower beds of parks and squares.
In a word, it is a truly universal plant, which for a long time admires with its bright inflorescences and is grown in various ways, including seeds.
In this way, the plant propagates my neighbor in the cottage, and considers balsam garden a flower that deserves close attention. His experience in breeding seed method balsam he divided in this article.
Description and features of the garden balsam
If someone doesn’t have any idea what a balsam looks like, it’s enough to remember such a well-known plant as “Roly wet”.
Such an interesting name balsamine got for large fleshy leaves, on which from time to time small droplets appear. It seems that the plant is just "out of the soul." However, not all varieties of shrubs are able to release "liquid".
The usual growth of balsam is no more than 50 cm. The flowers are formed on the base of the leaves and have different shades. Wild relatives of a garden flower usually have inflorescences of pink or purple color.
Garden or hybrid balsams are very diverse, among the many varieties there are simple and terry, and the color palette is amazing, perhaps there is only a blue and yellow color.
Blossoming lasts from May to the very cold, so this culture is used both in amateur gardening and in professional design landscape art.
In the wild nature there are a great many balsams, but there are not so many special garden species. Among them are:
- "Tom Tamb" is a one-year balsam up to 30 cm high. It has a strongly branchy system, lanceolate leaves, characterized by tenderness, and flowers of a strongly terry structure. This variety can bloom lilac, red, pink, purple hue.
- "Camellia" - a flower with fleshy pyramidal shoots and large double flowers up to 5 cm in diameter. The height of the bush is 25 cm, and it is completely covered with camel-shaped corolla, the color of which is represented by a very wide spectrum.
- "Waller" - this variety is represented by a large variety, among which terry and common species, but more often it is the bushes in the form of a ball. They bloom profusely and for a long time and salmon, carmine, red, burgundy flowers with stripes on petals bloom on a low plant.
- "Exotic dwarf" - hybrids, created specifically for landscaping loggias. They feel great in hanging pots and small balcony tanks. Bushes are low and very compact. Bloom brightly, abundantly and have many colorful shades.
We present a list of popular varieties: Balsam Safari, Cutie, Strawberry with Cream, Kandy, Carmelita, Super Elfin, Eurasia, Bambina, Little Thumb, Impreza, Acrobat, Lollipop.
How to multiply balsam garden seed way yourself
It is possible to propagate "Vanka wet" with cuttings and seeds, but today we will focus only on the seed method.
Many growers are fans of this unpretentious plant and successfully grow it at home, getting quite early flowering. In order to surprise the neighbors in the cottage with this magnificent spectacle, you should plant seeds no later than the beginning of March. The soil is prepared as follows:
- equal parts of garden land are taken,
- peat substrate and river sand.
Thus, mixing all the ingredients produces airy and light soil, which is necessary for successful seed germination.
Seeds should not be sprinkled with earth, just lay them on the soil surface with a distance of 3-3.5 cm and sprinkle with water from a spray bottle. Then you need to gently push the seeds into the soil and cover the container with a plastic bag, creating a kind of small greenhouse.
Try to put the boxes of seeds in a warm place, so they quickly hatch and ascend, but do not forget to air the planting, so that mold does not appear.
After pecking sprouts capacity are exposed to the light. Seedlings should be watered in a timely manner and ensure that the land is constantly wet. After the appearance of a pair of true leaves, seedlings need to pick it out in separate containers.
The roots of the seedlings are very thin and tender, they can easily break, so the transplant is done very carefully. In order to pick up the plant and not cause him any harm, you can use a small fork.
The seedlings after transplanting in different pots, quickly grows, and after the appearance of 7-8 leaves, the bushes must be pinched, this contributes to the pomp and strength of the shoots.
Many gardeners, not wanting to work on seedlings, make a direct planting of seeds in the soil, in which case flowering will begin two months later. This method is performed only on a closed area. If there is no greenhouse, then a small greenhouse is made to protect the planting from return frosts.
How to care for balsamic
Experience has shown that the western and eastern part of the garden is most preferable for this flower culture. It is there that the flower receives everything necessary for growth: natural light, heat and protection from the wind.
You should not plant seedlings in the shade, as the bushes are strongly drawn out, shoots become thin, and dissolves 50 percent less flowers. In open spaces, the balsam feels “like home”, however, if the weather is hot and dry, the plants should be pritinized in order not to cause burns on the leaves.
Balsam looks great with any plant species, but the most spectacular flowers next to begonias, vervain, fuchsia. It is good both independently growing culture, and in group plantings. Balsam pots are often hung on the verandas, gazebos, patios, and recreation areas.
- Flowers that have been grown at home can be planted in open ground as soon as the night frosts have stopped, however, preparation for outdoor conditions should be carried out in advance. You can make seedlings on the balcony or loggia in the daytime and leave it for 2-3 hours.
- Plant holes should not be placed close to, but at a distance of 25 cm, as the plants will subsequently increase in volume and will interfere with each other, diseases may start due to the frequency of plantings, and a “struggle” may begin for nutrition and moisture.
- The soil is prepared on the eve of planting, it is filled with humus, peat, sand, and some fertilizer in the form of superphosphate.
- Bushes should be gently turned over and get out of the rassadnyh tanks, then put in a moistened well and, sprinkling the roots with earth, rammed it. Then you need to mulch the bush with humus or peat. There is one trick that is used by gardeners in order to flower a better bush and be lush - it is pinched. In this case, side shoots quickly begin to appear, the structure of the bush is filled and becomes dense and voluminous.
- Balsamines love well-moistened soil, but do not tolerate stagnant water. In case of drought or overflow, the clotting and dropping of the leaves begins. It is best to water in the evening.
- The plant responds well to top dressing, preferring nitrogenous and potash fertilizers. But the most effective will be complex mineral supplements, with a balanced composition for flowering plants. They significantly increase the flowering period and make the inflorescences bright and large.
- In order for the plant to bloom for a long period, regularly remove the flowers that have already bloomed, as they take a significant portion of the nutrients that are necessary for the formation of new ovaries.
To get flower seeds for planting in the future season, you should not break off the faded flowers, because over time they will form seed boxes.
They must completely dry and burst, many growers do not wait until the flowers wither and the boxes mature, collecting flowers earlier, at the first signs of withering. Drying them continues on paper at a temperature of +10 - 15 degrees.
Diseases and pests
Like many flowers growing in the open field, balsams are exposed to various ailments and pest attacks. Especially loves balsam juice spider mite, which entangles fleshy leaves and feeds on their juicy contents.
As a prevention, you can use a soap solution, periodically watering them plants.
Among the diseases is especially common: viral mosaic, foliage bronze, ring mosaic. Here come to the aid of fungicides, which are represented in stores in a large assortment.
Depending on the extent of the disease, treatment is carried out from one to several times. At the same time, it is necessary to observe safety precautions and apply protective equipment.
Balsamine - is a universal plant that can decorate any, the most uninhabited garden, as well as become a bright accent on the balcony, loggia, gazebo and patio. He turns the plot into a real flower garden and gets on with all the plants. This is a real wand - a magic wand for a novice gardener and an outlet for an experienced summer resident.
Growing from seed
Such a flower, like Vanka wet, can be grown at home from seed either through seedlings or immediately in open ground. Consider each one of them.
For growing balsam seedling method, at home you can buy plastic containers with a lid. They will be convenient for creating a microclimate and observing the shoots.
Balsam care begins with the preparation of the soil. For Vanka wet the best garden land, mixed with peat and sand. The components of the mixture are taken in equal proportions and begin to plant seeds.
Important: After filling the containers with the prepared soil, compact it and moisten it with a spray bottle.
The seeds of Vanka wet are spread on the ground surface at a distance of about 5 cm from each other. They are laid out, since it is not necessary to sprinkle the seeds with earth. Even this shows the loving nature of this flower. It is also not necessary to save space when folding seeds: in the process of growth, the roots of still weak sprouts can be interlaced among themselves and then easily injured during transplantation. Balsamine seedlings grown at home, like adult plants, are very delicate and fragile.
The container with the seeds spread out is covered with a lid and placed on a well-lit window sill. So at home you can create a microclimate for seedlings.
Seeds germinate at home in conditions of fairly high temperatures - from 26 to 28 degrees. With the growth and appearance of new leaves in seedlings, the temperature is reduced to 20 degrees. Observance of temperature conditions is also an indispensable condition of care. Before planting grown seedlings in open ground, they are quenched, reducing the temperature to 16-18 degrees.
When the first sprouts appear, it is important to trace the microclimate around them. The lid of the container is opened for airing. Taking into account the subtleties of balsamic care, it should be ensured that there is no condensate on its inner side. Roly wet though “wet”, but does not tolerate stagnant water and excess moisture.
It is possible to plant seedlings from room conditions in open ground only when warm summer weather is established. In our climate, planting of Balsamine seedlings can be done around the end of May.
If you grow balsam at home seedling method - you can hope for early flowering bush. When sowing seeds directly into the open ground, Roly Vata will bloom a little later.
When growing balsam by sowing seeds in open ground, you need to consider that the plant is thermophilic. Therefore, they do this only after the weather has become steadily warm. But even then, it is better to cover the land with crops or each well separately before germination. Under all conditions of planting and recommendations for the care of the plant, the first shoots should be expected on the 7th - 10th day of the field of sowing.
To increase seed germination in the garden, the soil can be treated with a fungicide before sowing.
When choosing a place for planting balsam remember that these are fragile and delicate plants. They can be damaged even by the whiff of the wind, not to mention the jets of rain. According to the rules of care, we choose for these flowers a plot protected from wind with easily blown soil.
This plant forms a fairly branched shrub, so balsams are planted in the garden at a considerable distance from each other (about 30 centimeters). Planted in such a way the plants will be lush and branched. Flowers should not be constrained by other plants - this can cause cracking of a balsam stem. In addition, the presence of a number of other vegetation may cause waterlogging, which is also not suitable for this flower.
Balsamines love heat, but direct sunlight can harm them. Therefore, this flower will feel best on a semi-shaded area - this one should be remembered when choosing a site for planting.
Features of care for garden balsamic
In summer, the care of the garden version of this plant necessarily includes periodic weeding, loosening and soil moistening. It is also necessary to remove dried flowers and inflorescences.
The plant loves top dressing, but does not tolerate the saturation of salts in the soil. For balsams, foliar feeding is done by spraying a bush from above. As fertilizers used plant mixtures for flowering ornamental plants. Feeding balms is done at least once every two months. The fact is that all of their forces ever color gives to the formation of buds and further flowering. It should be remembered that a surplus of nitrogenous compounds in the soil has a positive effect on the formation of the bush and leaves, but it slows down the formation of balsam buds.
Under the conditions of the summer heat with a lack of moisture, Roly Vanya begins to lose leaves and flowers. At this time, the plant needs frequent, but moderate watering - this is mandatory and indispensable care for balsamic. Do not fill the flower!
The stems of the plant are drawn out, and the leaves turn pale - it means that there is not enough light for him or there are not enough nutrients (fertilizers). Balsam actively and quickly resets the foliage, if around him is damp and cold. In such circumstances, it begins to rot stem. In the atmosphere of dry air, the leaves of the flower twist, dry and fall. If there is a lack of micronutrient nutrients in the soil where the balsam is planted, the garden balsam does not bloom.
Of insects for ever flowering spider mite is dangerous. If the balsam grows in the pot, at home, this pest can not be afraid. But when the pest settles in the garden, the leaves of the bush are deformed and twisted.
In this article, the main features of balsam planting and the details of caring for this plant were considered. Of course, gardening him would require considerable patience and punctuality, as in the case of growing a flower at home. But the balsam is just one of those flowers that are very eager to respond to all the efforts of gardeners and can decorate the site with their flowering until the cold.
Under natural conditions, balsamine is found in the subtropical areas of Asia and Africa, as well as on the island of Zanzibar. Growing it in other climatic conditions requires the provision of the same conditions, otherwise it will not grow and develop. Although it is believed that the plant loves moisture, it can also feel great in dry places - while its appearance changes greatly.
Grassy plants for open ground are small bushes, from 25 to 50 cm in height. It is an annual plant with straight, slightly elongated stems that branch a little.
Their shape resembles a lancet, the bottom is oval, and at the top there is a sharpening, edges in the notches. The color of the leaves is saturated and can be of different shades, for example, pale green and emerald.
Sugar nectar stands out on the leaves - it hardens on the leaves in grains and looks like the plant is crying. Therefore, Russians often call the flower “Vanya wet”.
Balsam flowers have a different shape. Sometimes simple and double flower buds of different colors bloom on the same bush. Garden balsam is famous for its bright and unusual colors: red, pink, purple, bicolor, white, purple.
At the back of the flower there is a spur 1.5 cm long. The flowers themselves are 10-12 cm in diameter, depending on the type of plant. They are located one by one in the axils of the leaves or in the inflorescences with a long pedicel. This nature took care of pollination plants.
The seeds of the plant are packed in an oblong, fleshy box of five leaves. If you take it with your hands, it will open with a bang and the seeds will fall apart in two directions at a distance of two meters.
Types of Balsamine
There are about 400 species and varieties of balsamine. Это и однолетние, и многолетние растения. У садоводов для выращивания в грунте пользуются популярностью всего несколько сортов.
And all the balsams are divided into two types, on the basis of which the breeders have brought a lot of different varieties: garden balsam and Waller balsam. Basically, the following types of plants:
These are just the main plant varieties. There are many of them, and almost all of them are designed for self-cultivation in garden plots.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
For the germination of seeds for seedlings need to prepare a good soil. It is necessary to take the mixture: humus, perlite, turf and compost, taken in equal volumes. You can modify the composition: 1 part of peat with sand and 2 parts of leafy ground.
You can choose any, as long as the soil was slightly acidic. Cooked soil must be heated in the oven or spilled with boiling water, then treated with a fungicide to destroy all pests and fungus.
Before sowing, the seeds need to be prepared, for which they do the following:
- Place them for 10 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then hold for half an hour in warm water.
- Prepared soil spread in containers and moisten.
- To sow the seeds on the ground, keeping the distance between the seeds of 3-4 mm, and sprinkle them with sterile sand 3 mm layer.
- Cover the container with a film to keep the humidity, and the temperature was kept not lower than 24-26 degrees.
Every day is required to ventilate the mini-hothouse, opening the film for a while.
As soon as shoots appear, reduce the temperature in the room to 20 degrees and additionally illuminate the seedlings. It is necessary to control the moisture in the soil. As soon as 2-3 true leaves appear, you can dive seedlings into separate cups.
It is important to know that the roots and stems of balsamines are rather fragile, therefore it is necessary to handle them with care. After the growth of 8 leaves, when the bush is strengthened, you can pinch its top. This is done so that the roots become stronger and the bushes are more magnificent.
Seeds can be planted directly into the ground. To do this, it is necessary to prepare a site for sowing, warm it and sow the seeds, then cover the bed with plastic or acrylic film. Sow the seeds you need after the frost runs out. Shoots will appear after 5-7 days.
Growing from cuttings
Balsam reproduction by cutting is also practiced. You can produce grafting at any time of the year. Cuttings quickly root and grow into new plants. It happens as follows:
- Make cuttings cuttings of 5-6 cm in size, but there should be 3-5 leaves on them.
- Remove the lower leaves of the cuttings and place them in a bowl of water, place it away from direct sunlight.
- About 7–10 days later, the roots appear, after which the cuttings can be placed in pots to grow on a windowsill or be planted immediately in open ground.
Further, care of plants consists in systematic watering, sufficient illumination and keeping the temperature at 20-22 degrees.
Where better to plant seedlings?
It is best to grow balsams on the east or west side of the plot. With sufficient light, sprouts will quickly gain strength and will bloom for a long time.
If you plant the seedlings in a shady place, the plants will stretch in length, but they will bloom by half less than usual. If you grow flowers on the sunny side, then in the midday heat they will need pritenyat.
It is possible to plant "Vanka wet" in a flower bed with any varieties of flowers, but the best neighbors with which it looks great are verbena, fuchsia, begonia and ageratum.
How to land in the ground?
Seedlings that have grown beautifully and matured in the house can be planted after the end of the frost.
For seedlings it is necessary to make small pits at a distance of 25-30 cm. If the soil is poor, then it is necessary to pour a little peat, humus and sand into the wells. Carefully pull the bushes of the plant out of the container, place it in the hole and sprinkle with a mixture of soil and other fillers.
After planting seedlings need to be watered and mulch with sawdust or other material. You can give pomp to the future bush by pinching the tops.
Watering and fertilizing
How to care for balsam growing in the garden? It must be watered regularly, but the water in the soil does not stand. If the plant is not sufficiently watered, the leaves will curl up into a tube, grow dull, then fade and crumble.
Supplement for balsamine need to be made every two weeks. They are suitable complex fertilizers for flowering plants. They must be nitrogen and potassium - as a result of the presence of these components of the plant will be a long and luxuriantly bloom. It is important to regularly remove wilted and dried flowers so that they do not interfere with fresh buds.
Problems with growing balsam
Balsam is considered an unpretentious plant, but some problems are inherent in it, if it is wrong to take care of it or the weather conditions have changed dramatically.
Why balsam drops buds - often the bush throws a lot of buds, and then drops them sharply.
Why does not balsam bloom or bloom, but there are very few buds. This is due to the lack of light and nutrients in the soil. Even a surplus of nitrogenous fertilizers prevents lush flowering, because all the power goes to the growth of foliage and stems.
It is necessary to responsibly treat the care of a plant so that it blooms long and beautifully and delights with its magnificence.
Simple and unpretentious balsam also requires proper care for themselves. Like all flowering garden plants, he does not like drafts, direct rays of the sun and stagnant water in the soil. If everything is done with the soul, then this plant can be decorated not only with a garden plot, but also with loggias with balconies.
What does a balsam look like
Depending on the variety, the height of the shrub varies from 25 to 50 cm. The plant has elongated, large and fleshy leaves, on which, in the process of growth, dew drops are formed. Because of this unusual phenomenon, the plant is popularly called “Roly wet”.
The bush grows straight, its stems brittle, but branched, juicy and smooth. Leaf color is found from purple-bronze to green.
Garden Balsam has large flowerswhich may be different shades, they appear at the base of the leaves. The natural color of the flowers is pink and purple. In hybrid plants, flowers can be of any color, only not yellow, and not blue. The surface of the flower petals is terry and simple. Under the open sky, with normal care, the plant begins to bloom from early summer. All summer and warm autumn, it pleases its admirers with beautiful, rich colors and flowers.
After the plant ottsvetet, it begins to form a green fruit. The shape of the fruit is oblong, divided into 5 chambers. When the fruit ripens, the oblong box gradually dries out, only small seeds remain in it. For reference: in one gram there are up to 100 seeds of brown-brown color. Seeds remain viable for 8 years.
When a ripe seed box is touched, all 5 doors open, and the dry seeds, like spray of a fountain, fly around about 2 meters. This fact gave the name of this plant among the people Impatiens.
Plant growing from seed
Seed the plant is grown in two ways:
- planting seeds in open ground.
Opinion flower growers about the flower is divided. Some argue that the plant is capricious and afraid of frost, so it should be planted in the ground only after the onset of heat, and only seedlings. Others say that the plant is unpretentious, and there are no problems with it.
Consider this plant from all sides.
When do you need to plant seeds?
After planting the seeds in the ground should take some time to appear sprout. After a time, the sprout, becoming an adult flower, will bloom. So, from germination to flowering balsam takes 3 months.
To get beautiful flowers in the summer, you need to plant seedlings in the open ground in May - June, which will depend on the weather in each particular region. To get seedlings in May, you need to sow the seeds in March, proper care should be provided.
It is necessary to care for seedlings carefully, the earlier seeds are sown, the longer it will be necessary to care for it. Since the street will be still quite cool, and the daylight will be short, you need to provide the seedlings with additional lighting and the optimum temperature for growth. As a backlight, well, additional heat, you need to install a lamp or just a lamp. With its help you can avoid pulling up the seedlings.
For planting seeds you need to choose a suitable container and pour earth into it. The land must first be prepared. Seeds that do not need to be sprinkled on top of the earth - they germinate in the light, are evenly laid out on the moistened earth. It will be enough to gently palm the seeds against the wet ground, as is done with the seeds of petunia.
Decomposed seeds are moistened with water from a broomball, the container with the seeds is placed in a transparent bag and placed in a warm, bright place. If everything is done correctly, then it will be possible to see the first shoots in 10–15 days.
Using seedlings to grow a flower
When you decide to grow your own garden balsam flower from seeds - this is commendable. The hardest thing for newcomers to this process is for the seedlings to live up to the picks. If this moment has arrived, then no further problems should arise.
Seeds sown in the ground are easy prey for all fungal infections. In this case, we are talking about gray rot, which is the cause of the death of the seedlings of this plant.
To prevent infection, need to:
- carefully prepare the ground
- pick good, unexpired seeds.
Quality soil can be purchased at a specialty store. You need to choose the one that is based on peat and add perlite or vermiculite to it. Soil for landing can be prepared and most. To do this, simply collect the land from the garden, add sand to it and sterilize everything together. Neither compost nor humus is recommended.
For planting seeds, you can use peat tablets - this is a very convenient option.
When the first shoots begin to appear under the film, the film does not need to be removed. Seeds should germinate everything, and get stronger under the film. Regularly, several times a day, shoots need to be aired. When they grow a little and get stronger, they need to sprinkle their open roots with earth. The film can already be removed.
Seedlings need to harden. For this, on a warm sunny day, you need to put it in fresh air.
Daily sunbathing time should be increased so that the plant is fully accustomed. Do not forget about watering seedlings. The soil should always be wet, but the seedlings should not float.
Temperature is also important for seedlings. To create favorable conditions, she must be:
- for seed germination 22–24 °,
- after picking 18–20 °.
If the temperature is lower, the seedlings will simply cease to grow and develop. It is detrimental to seedlings.
After 3-4 weeks after the emergence of seedlings, it is necessary to pick it up in a larger container. To make each seedling comfortable, they are seated in small plastic cups.
Creating ideal conditions for the growth and development of balsam at home is not always possible. Seedlings are long, which is not very good, but not deadly.
When diving seedlings it needs to be buried in the ground to the cotyledon leaves. In this case, the plant even has to be slightly twisted.
A transplanted balsam garden, like all plants after picking, preferably not to put a few days in the sun. Favorable for them in this period will be shadow or penumbra.
After transplantation and adaptation, the seedlings also begin to grow rapidly and reach upwards. During this period, she needs to pinch the top of her head. This procedure allows you to develop side shoots, resulting in a beautiful bush.
When the balsam is in the house, it must be periodically inspected in order to notice in time its main enemy, the spider mite. This pest appears out of nowhere because it loves balsam.
As soon as you find the evil enemy of the plant, you need to immediately handle all the seedlings with "Fitoverm".
Planting and care
As soon as the weather sets outside, and the sun warms the earth well, you can plant seedlings in open ground. The distance between the seedlings should be at least 25 cm, then the adults, flowering bushes form a solid carpet.
Impatiens love sun and warmth, but planted seedlings preferably in partial shade. So the plant will dry less and it is better to bloom. Direct sunlight can destroy it, and then all the preliminary work done with the seedlings will be in vain.
The terrain on which the balsam will grow should be protected from the wind, without drafts. Perfectly look balsam bushes in the landscape design of a large courtyard of a country house. The plant grows well and develops, while pleasing to the eye, in flowerbeds, in the shade of trees, near the wall of a house or fence. It is desirable that the sunlight was scattered, and not scorching. A few hours a day of such a sun for the growth and flowering of balsam will be quite enough.
Garden balsam will be a great decoration for the veranda, if you put it in hanging pot or pottery. The root system easily gets used to a small space and a minimum of ground. The main requirements of the plant:
- fertile soil
- regular but not excessive watering
- timely care.
The land under the balsamic need to fertilize, enter the feeding. If this potassium phosphate fertilizersthen feeding is done three times a month. Experienced growers recommend potassium monophosphate, 5 grams of which must be diluted into a bucket of water. The resulting solution should be poured in 0.5 liters directly under the plant bush.
In specialized stores you can buy other fertilizers for flowering plants. The sales assistant will help you choose what you need.
If the balsam does not receive proper care, then with its appearance it will point you to your mistakes:
- leaves are lowered - very hot and not enough moisture,
- the leaves turn yellow and fall off - the plant may be cold or you have it heavily flooded,
- the base of the stem rots - a lot of moisture, little light and heat, low temperature,
- few buds or none at all - long drought,
- the plant is drawn up, while the color of the leaves is pale - there is very little light, and there is not enough nutrients in the soil,
- a sharp drop of flowers - cooling, overdrying of the soil, or transplanting a plant to a too large pot.
Plant seed collection
When the plant ottsvetet, then on the place of the flower is formed seed box with seeds. The green color of the box indicates that the seeds are not ripe yet. The ripened seed box is white.
Collect balsam seeds is not so easy. As soon as you touch a ripe box, it suddenly can “shoot”, and the seeds, at the same time, will scatter in different directions. To avoid this, you need to put a small package on the box beforehand, and only after that touch it.
Balsam seeds are small brown balls, which, under normal saving conditions, remain viable for up to 8 years.
Catching seedlings for sale, plant balsam seeds at the end of August.
In garden balsam always need to pinch shoots. Thus, you can form a beautiful, flowering shrub.
If there is no opportunity to grow seedlings of balsam garden in the house, on the windowsill, then you can sow the seeds directly in open ground. The emergence of the first shoots will have to wait longer, like the first flowers, but in this case, taking care of the plant will require much less.
Sowing balsam seeds in open ground can be no earlier than May, when the earth warms to a sufficient depth.
If you want to keep your favorite type of balsam, then you should not replace it in a pot and transfer it to the house for the winter period. All the same, such a plant in the house will quickly die. You can save your favorite balsam by cutting.
What kind of plant?
Balsamine refers to annual or perennial herbaceous plants of the Balsam family., or from the Latin "Balsaminaceae". The subtropics and tropics of Asia and Africa can be considered the birthplace of this flower, some species are found in Central Asia. In 1596 balsam was introduced to Europe, still continuing to be the most popular indoor plants.
The flower itself has upright stems, reaching a height of 50 centimeters, oval or lanceolate leaves, reaching a size of 12 centimeters. The flowers have pink and red colors and are located in the leaf axils. At the moment, hybrids have all the colors of the petals, except for yellow and blue.
After flowering in balsam green boxes are formedwhich in the process of development become dry, and as mentioned above, at the slightest touch they shoot seeds at a distance of up to 2 meters. One gram of a box can contain up to 100 seeds, which is quite a lot.
The name of the genus clearly identifies the name “sensitive”, which the balsam was just due to its way of spreading seeds. Род бальзаминов включает в себя порядка 400-550 видов и сортов, в зависимости от источников.
Бальзамин имеет два основных способа размножения, расскажем о них подробнее.
Является самым распространённым способом размножения бальзамина. The whole complexity of this method lies in strict observance of all the conditions due to which the plant will not only take root in the future, but also ensure good growth. This is actually the principle of this method. The cuttings are separated from the parent stem only after the roots have been planted by the cutting.
To stimulate the growth of cuttings pruned maternal stem. Growth of cuttings, as well as their quality, depends on the frequency of cutting the parent stem. The formation of the root system in cuttings is a direct sign of the readiness of this cutting. The very ability of the cuttings to take root may vary throughout the year, that is, it is variable.
The grafting process is best started in mid-summer. During the time until the autumn you need to stock cuttings. Half-stiff cuttings should be left at the end of summer. For the best quality grafting process, it is necessary to monitor the temperature and humidity.
Temperature conditions strongly influence root growth.. When rooting cuttings, an ideal temperature is considered to be a temperature of 21 degrees Celsius, so the air temperature should be lower.
Watch the video about balsam grafting:
- For the most qualitative and rapid growth, it is worth planting seeds in peat tablets, placing one in each well. The seed itself should be placed on the surface, as the balsam is very fond of sunlight.
- After germination, everything should be transplanted into a plastic container with holes. The box in this case plays the role of a greenhouse.
- Further transplantation is carried out after the appearance of 2-3 leaves. Transplanting should be carried out in loose, well-moistened soil.
- After the final appearance of all shoots it is necessary to maintain high humidity.
- With too dense shoots of plants, they should be divided.
Water the plant in the future should be very careful not to damage it.
Again, the cultivation features have been described above. I'll tell you only about the time of sowing. Because balsam has a high growth rate.
Seeds are sown in a warm greenhouse or under a film in early April, after 2-3 days, and after 2-3 weeks, the crops are diving. You can do without a dive, but in this case, the seedlings thinned. Balsam seedlings are planted in the ground after the frosts disappear.. Balsam transfers easily. Further, to increase the period of flowering screening spend again. Than to feed balsam and how to properly water it for abundant flowering, we wrote here.
Preparing for landing
- Seeds before planting will be enough to disinfect. For this:
- Potassium permanganate is diluted in warm water and seeds are placed in this solution.
- After 10 minutes, the seeds can be pulled out.
- Then they are immersed in simple warm water for a day.
- The soil will have to be prepared more carefully, since young plants are extremely sensitive to the composition of the soil. The ratio of elements in the soil should be as follows:
- one piece of garden land,
- two parts of peat,
- one piece of vermiculite,
- one piece of coarse sand.
If it is not possible to find garden soil, then you can mix peat and vermiculite in a one-to-one ratio.
Landing is also indicated above, so I will not repeat. All the details of planting and caring for balsamine can be found in a separate article.
Care and watering rules: how to grow at home?
For the excellent development of his balsam florist must provide it with moisture and penumbral lighting. By itself, the flower loves the sun, but just the same, the record growth readings appear under dim lighting. But you should not carry balsam in the shade completely, it can lead to the death of the plant.
The temperature at different times of the year is different. In summer and spring, the optimum temperature will be 25 degrees Celsius, this temperature should be simultaneously with good moisture of the substrate and the obligatory presence of fresh air. Room balsam prefers a temperature of 22 ° C with moderate humidity.
In summer, balsam watering is pretty plentiful. The very same watering is done on the edge of the pot to avoid moisture in the root neck. After watering, excess water flows out of the pan. Water should be soft, because when using hard water on the soil surface there is white scurf, which serves as an indicator of excess alkali in the soil. In case of its occurrence, the top layer of the earth is replaced.
From time to time it is required to loosen the soil, but no more than two centimeters deep, and also not to forget to feed it with fertilizers in summer and springtime. Fertilization frequency - once in two weeks. Also balsam has no pronounced "quiet time", so the buds can appear even in winter, therefore it is necessary to produce a weak additional feeding.
All the details of growing and breeding balsam at home you will find in this article, and how to take care of this plant at home, to preserve its beauty, read here.
- what are the breeding methods of this flower,
- what diseases can affect balsam.
Balsam refers to the long-flowering plants of spherical or pyramidal shape. The height of the plants go from 20 to 70 centimeters (wild varieties reach 2 meters). The bush is upright. Stems brittle in nodes, branched, smooth and juicy.
The plant is leafy. Leaf length from 8 to 12 centimeters. Oval or lanceolate form. Alternate location. The leaves are fleshy, the edges are pointed, jagged. Color from purple-bronze to green.
Flowers of irregular shape, large, sessile, placed in the axils of the leaves. Color red, white, pink, purple. Hybrid plants have multi-colored leaves and double flowers of various colors (13 shades), except for yellow, blue.
Balsam blooms from the beginning of summer (late spring) to mid-autumn.
After flowering green fruits are formed. The fruit is an oblong multi-seedling with 5 chambers. When the fruit ripens, a dry elongated box with small seeds is formed. In one gram, there are about 100 brown-brown seeds. Germination of planting material lasts for 8 years.
When touched, the fruits open up sharply, 5 leaves open and twist. Seeds scatter two meters around. Because of this peculiarity, the plant is known in the people as Touchy, besides other names are also known, for example, Vanya is wet, Spark.
Types and varieties with photos
In nature, there are more than 500 species of balsam. About 15 species are used in floriculture.
There are 3 main groups:
- Traditional species with pink, white, red flowers, green foliage, succulent sprawling stems.
- Compact medium hybrids (F1) with a mass of white, red, purple, pink, orange colors.
- New Guinea variegated hybrids.
Among the types of balsam are variegated, terry, monochromatic plants. Terry flowers are divided into clove-colored, pinkish, camellid.
The growth form of balsam is divided into bush, ampelous, upright species.
There are low branching plants up to 40 centimeters (bunch-bush). Flowers rise above the leaves and form a peculiar bouquet.
Dwarf (low branching) form grows up to 25 centimeters.
For cultivation in the garden the best types of balsam are: Waller's Balsam, Ampelny, Tom tamba, Camelia, Novogvinei, Terry, Room.
This is a medium-sized, perennial plant. It includes a large number of hybrids. In the garden, the flower is grown as an annual.
The bush is compact, grows up to 30 centimeters (in room conditions up to 60 centimeters). Bush with a spherical, lush crown. Stems strongly branched, naked, juicy.
The leaves are thin, bright, shiny, reddish-bronze or dark green. The scape is long, seizes the plate. The plate is wide oval or ovate-rhombic in shape with a wide-wedge base (about 5 centimeters long) and a pointed tip. Edge dull-walled.
Flowers are distributed at the ends of the stems, rather large, terry or simple, single. Coloring from white to purple flowers, there are two-tone. The plant is adapted for growing in the shade.
It is a ground cover plant. Height reaches 80 centimeters. A bush with a large number of shoots, compact. Flowers are large, diameter is 6 centimeters, numerous, the color is varied. Grown on rabatkah, under the trees in the penumbra, in flowerbeds, borders. In room conditions it blooms all year round.
Balsam Tom Tamb
It has a highly expanding bush. Plant height 25 centimeters. The leaves are tender, a lot of them on the bush. Flowers are large, with a diameter of up to 5 centimeters, terry. Suitable for decoration of flowerbeds, lawns, flower beds, street vases.
Differs terry, large flowers. In favorable conditions, the plant grows up to 1 meter. Often planted in mixborders or back of the beds. It is grown in rassadny way. Fears of frost.
New Guinea Balsam
One-year hybrid, at home growing as a perennial. The species includes simple or semi-double tall varieties (up to 1 meter) with large flowers of white, red, purple, and pink flowers.
Bushes are compact. Stems are fleshy, strong, up to 30 centimeters long. Leaves from bright green green to bronze flowers. The middle of the plate is yellow. Sometimes the leaves are variegated. Flowers of various colors, large, with a diameter of up to 8 centimeters.
These hybrids are heat and light-requiring, drought-resistant. Flowers have the property of continuous flowering.
Terry view reaches 25 centimeters in height. Flowers with a diameter of 4 centimeters, two-tone (red and white). Flowers are decorative. Propagated by seeds and cuttings.
Indoor balsam is grown on the windowsill, in the greenhouse, in a flower bed. Bloom year-round. Height up to 60 centimeters. Flowers are bright. Shrub when planted in the ground grows into a lush bush.
Kin Kong - a low abundantly flowering variety, reaching 30 centimeters in height, with large bright and colorful flowers with a diameter of 6 centimeters,
Super Elfin grows up to 25 centimeters in height. The color scheme includes 13 shades,
Sort Rosette has terry, semi-double flowers,
Sort Symphony uniform, compact, no more than 20 centimeters high. Flowers are large, bright, various shades,
Fiesta - these are perennial plants with decorative double flowers in different colors, there are variegated varieties,
Group Kandy includes 17 varieties with simple and semi-double flowers.
You can also note: variety Baby Bush, Java, Harmony, Mini Gini, Tango.
When to plant balsam on seedlings
Balsam blooms from early summer to mid-autumn, but with a sharp decrease in temperature dies.
Seeds are sown in late March - early April (depending on the region).
When sowing from mid-February - in early March, seedlings are additionally highlighted and planted in the garden in greenhouses, greenhouses. After warming the air cover is removed.
Ampel varieties are planted in late March - early April.
In the greenhouse and greenhouse, seeds are sown in mid-April.
Growing balsam from seed at home
In the spring, to speed up flower growth and early flowering, balsam is cultivated at home.
For growing seedlings taken a wide tank with drainage holes at the bottom. You can use planting cassettes or pots with a diameter of 7 centimeters. The bottom in any container is filled with a layer of fine vermiculite or expanded clay.
Seeds after distribution on the surface are covered with earth or buried a few millimeters. Deeper planting can lead to a complete lack of germination.
Land and Seed Preparation
The soil for growing balsam seedlings should be slightly acidic, nutritious and moderately loose. The substrate can be purchased in finished form or made from turf soil, peat, sand, perlite. All components are taken in equal parts. The mixture is mixed and treated with a fungicide against any fungal diseases.
Seeds before sowing are further processed. They need to be placed for 20 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Then the seeds are soaked for several hours in warm water with the addition of a growth stimulator. After that they are washed and dried on a napkin.
Sowing and caring for seedlings
Seeds are sown on the surface of a moistened soil with an interval of 3 centimeters from each other. For ease of sowing, a moistened toothpick is used.
When sowing in cassettes, one seed goes into each container.
Seeds are sprinkled with a thin layer of earth, everything is sprayed from a spray bottle. Capacity covered with film or glass. The temperature under the glass should be at around 22-24 degrees.
Capacity with seeds is exposed on a window sill.
Direct sunlight when grown should be excluded!
Shoots appear in 1.5-2.5 weeks. Some varieties can climb faster. After seed seeding, the temperature of the content is reduced by 2 degrees.
For better growth for seeds, additional lighting is provided with a fluorescent lamp. Light day should be at least 12 hours a day.
For seedlings provides good ventilation. Twice a day the film (glass) is removed for 10 minutes. As the seedlings grow, the interval between the removal of the shelter is reduced to a complete removal of the film (glass).
Watering is done in the pan, it allows you to avoid overwetting the earth. Excess water drains from the pan. When watering in the tank, water should be poured along the edges of the tank.
After the appearance of 5-7 main leaves, the plants are seated in separate pots. For the pomp of the bush, you can pinch the top.
Before transplanting into the soil, potted plants are brought to the fresh air for acclimatization. When warming the soil and the absence of frost plants can be transplanted.
Landing in open ground
Planted balsam in open ground after the passage of spring frosts.
Balsam loves well-lit areas. In the afternoon light penumbra should be created for the flower. The leaves of the plant are tender and may suffer from the heat. In the shade the flowers become smaller, the bush is drawn out.
Pits are prepared for planting. The gap between the bushes should be from 20 to 60 centimeters (depending on the size of an adult plant). Complex fertilizers are added to the hole along with the soil.
For better extraction from the pot, the plants are watered. Open roots finish. In the presence of earthen coma, the soil is not shake off.
Seedlings are deepened to the seedbed leaves. The remaining space in the hole is filled with substrate and crushed. After planting, the plants are watered. The land around the seedlings is mulched.
Flower care in summer
Summer care is loosening after each watering, removal of weeds and fertilizing.
To get rid of weeds and preserve moisture, the areas around the plants are mulched with sawdust and peat.
Loosening is done at a depth of 1.5 centimeters. With such loosening the air easily passes to the roots of the plant. The roots do not bare.
Balsam is a moisture-loving flower and the soil for good growth should not dry out, but in turn, waterlogging is also unacceptable. Water must be defended, soft.
Top dressing is made twice a month, starting from the moment of planting until autumn. For feeding, any complex weakly concentrated fertilizer is suitable.
During flowering, nitrogen-containing fertilizers can not be applied! It is best to take potash-phosphorus supplements during this period.
In winter, the garden balsam can be dug up and planted in a pot, and in the spring it can be planted again in a flower garden. At the same time the bush will grow and with the help of petioles it can be multiplied.
How to collect your seeds
To collect the seeds, you must first prepare and bring the bag to the box and only after that touch the seed.
Instead of this method, you can collect seeds together with ripe boxes early in the morning. This procedure requires accuracy and skill. The boxes are gently clamped with your fingers and detached from the pedicle. Plucked seeds pound between the fingers, and the contents are poured to dry.
Seeds are dried on a saucer and scattered on paper bags. With proper storage germination is maintained up to 8 years.