Cabbage is very popular in Russia. And so the question - how to grow it properly, to get a good harvest, interests many gardeners. Since the most popular variety is the white-colored one, this article basically speaks about it. For summer residents and gardeners it will be useful to learn what are the prolific species and hybrids. There are recommendations for growing and care. And also how to deal with diseases of cabbage.
To grow a good harvest you need to know the following:
- Conditions to the soil and their fertility.
- How to grow a good harvest.
- Care for white cabbage.
- Cleaning and storage.
- Types and hybrids.
The history of growing cabbage
All known cabbage has an ancient origin. As an edible plant, it was known to the ancient Greeks, Egyptians and Romans 4,000 years ago. And now you can meet her in the wild on the Mediterranean coast of Europe and Asia.
Head Cabbage has origin from broadleaf forms of kale. Its initial distribution in the middle and western Mediterranean.
From there, it has already penetrated into Asia, Iran, and the Balkans. Under the influence of the natural conditions of this region, an eastern group was formed by evolution, which differed from the Mediterranean in terms of its biological characteristics and morphology.
In the southern areas of the state of cabbage got neighboring with Russia countries. This confirms the commonality with local varieties, which has been preserved to the present.
The variety of cabbage forms in Central, Northern and Western Europe starts from the Atlantic wild variety. Even in Kievan Rus, merchants from Western Europe brought cabbage cabbage. And since then she has become in Russia widespread plant and found widespread use in the Russian people.
Processing cabbage in Russia for many centuries has created many varieties that have gained popularity abroad.
In the XIX century, the famous vegetable grower M.Rytov provided 22 names of varieties. Many of which are unique. For example, such as: Giant and Kaporka. But the seeds were mainly imported from Western Europe, since at that time there was no domestic seed production in Russia. AND long processing foreign species as a result of selection, led to the creation of new, already local, varieties.
Along with wheat, cabbage is the main vegetable crop in vegetable fields. Domestic breeders have done a lot of work, which led to high yields and the quality of this culture.
White cabbage requirements for heat
From the descriptions it is known that cabbage is cold-resistant. But the frost resistance of plants in direct proportion to the variety and age. Its seeds germinate at a temperature of 2⁰-3⁰. At a temperature of 18⁰ - 20⁰, shoots appear as early as 3-4 days. Early cabbage tolerates up to 5⁰ - 7 during night frosts. The normal ambient air temperature for seedlings is 12⁰ - 15⁰ and the soil temperature is 2⁰-3⁰ lower.
But you need to know that early ripe varieties at low temperatures of 5–10 degrees leads to a stump pullingthat harms the crop. This may be due to prolonged cooling and prolonged hardening of seedlings. Well tolerated cold, to ripen head, adult plants. Depending on the variety, some tolerate -5–8 degrees, while others die at - 5⁰ - 8⁰.
The optimum temperature for adult plants is 15⁰ - 18⁰. This feature of cold-resistant plants must be considered when growing in a hot climate. Heat-resistant varieties grow better in the south of the Russian regions. They are able to perfectly maintain the water balance throughout the day. If the plant is not heat-resistant, then at high temperature it will quickly wither.
Requirements for moisture when growing
This plant is very demanding on the moisture content in the soil. The lack of moisture lengthens the growing season, slow down the head formation and affect the size of the head. For the south of the country, soil moisture is maintained at around 80%. During the period when the harvest comes, the requirements for air humidity are 50–70%.
Most of all water is needed in the period of the heading. The daily water consumption of only one plant is 10 liters.
Agrotechnics and breeders calculated that this plant consumes 2 thousand m³ at a yield of 30t / ha and 5.5 thousand m³ at 100t / ha. The lack of moisture is well tolerated by seedless plants. If there is a prolonged drought (humidity less than 40%), then the yield is noticeably lower. In preferred conditions during this period there are areas where refreshing irrigations are carried out.
But with a steady overmoistening, in the period of prolonged rains, growth stops, wax build-up increases and what is important, part of the roots dies off.
Late-ripening varieties are more demanding on the soil than early ripening and mid-ripening.
Cultivation of late ripening varieties, possibly, on loamy soils, if organic fertilizer is applied. In this case, it is possible to take into account that F hybrids take well a higher dose of mineral fertilizers, as compared with traditional varieties. As a result, an increase in the doses of mineral fertilizers (by 40–50 percent) is quite understandable.
When applying mineral fertilizers, it is necessary to take into account that during the growth of a plant, the consumption of individual elements happens unevenly. At the first stage, there is an active consumption of nitrogen, and when the head is formed - potassium and phosphorus. Calcium is also a major nutrient.
Fertilizers increase yields and product quality. Increase the ease of heads. The resistance of plants to lower and higher temperatures also increases. Disease resistance is increasing.
Trace elements are well acting on plants:
How to grow a good harvest
In Russia, cabbage is valued for the variety of forms of consumption. It is eaten both fresh and pickled, pickled, dried.
The consumption of cabbage among vegetables in our diet takes up to 25%, if we take into account the average annual consumption.
Nutrition is determined high carbohydrate, minerals, proteins and a large number of vitamins. A lot of factors influence the chemical content. Geographical and meteorological conditions, soil composition and agrotechnical methods must be taken into account. For example, in the southern regions white cabbage contains more dry matter, and sugar is already less. And the content of ascorbic acid depends on the light and temperature.
The composition of dry matter varies from 4.9 to 14%. Sugar from 2.6 to 5.3% of which 2.3–2.4% is glucose and 0.7– 2.5% fructose. There are few protein substances in cabbage, but they are easily digested (60–77%). Cabbage is rich in amino acids. It contains lysine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan.
Vitamin "C" in the cabbage is more than lemons. And surpasses vegetables such as carrots, onions, garlic - from 12.8 to 70 mg / 100g. The content of vitamin PP is much higher than in such popular products as onions and beets. And vitamin U, which is contained in cabbage, is used in the treatment of the digestive system.
Mineral the composition is varied macro-and microelements. If to compare with potatoes, then calcium in cabbage is 4.8 times more and potassium, sulfur, phosphorus are found in it. All these mineral components contribute to the metabolism and increase the body's resistance.
Traditional medicine has long used cabbage for medicinal purposes. But also doctors recommend cabbage for stomach ulcers, as well as cardiovascular diseases. Juice of sauerkraut helps to remove stones from the liver and gall bladder and also has a good effect on digestion.
Illumination conditions and soil characteristics
Requirements for the duration of the day, too, are of great importance. 17–18 hours of daylight is normal for growing. In conditions of insufficient illumination, elongated and poorly developed seedlings appear. And excessive thickening causes a decrease in yield. Therefore recommended do not grow in shady places (near the planting of trees, dense shrubs, etc.).
Different soils may be suitable for cultivation, excluding very light sandy ones. Particularly preferred floodplains rivers. They have a high fertility because moisture enters the plant better. Than heavy chernozem. But well acclimatized on soils with closely spaced groundwater, the plant does not tolerate swampy and acidic soils. A soil solution with a pH content of about 6 is optimal. And with high acidity spend liming.
Preparation of white cabbage seedlings
For seedlings it is necessary to prepare film heated greenhouses. The age of the seedlings, its quality and how well it will take root in the field depends on the method of cultivation.
Picking seedlings laborious processand requires 45–50 days. Seeds are sown at the rate of 12–15g / 1m².
Before the emergence of seedlings, the air temperature should be maintained within 18–20 ° C. As soon as shoots appeared, the temperature should be reduced to 7⁰-10⁰ for 4–5 days. This is necessary to avoid stretching the plants. To prevent black leg disease, water moderately.
Picks begin when the first sheet appears. 5x5 picking scheme. The quality of the seedlings also depends on the proper picking of the plants, and good contact with the ground is important. Also important is the humidity and temperature of 14⁰ - 15. At this stage it is necessary to protect the ingress of direct sunlight.
Planting of seedlings takes 5–8 days. At this stage, the soil temperature is maintained at 14⁰ - 15⁰. The air temperature is 14⁰ - 18⁰ during the day, and 6⁰ - 8⁰ at night.
When a second leaf appears, they begin to be fed with a water-soluble fertilizer. Feeding is carried out at the rate of 50g / 10l. First feeding it is carried out at the rate of 100g / 10l, the second top dressing (in 10–12 days) - 10 liters is distributed over an area of 6–8 m².
It is necessary after feeding to wash the solution from the leaves. To do this, take clean water. The earliest seedlings are obtained when grown in pots. The composition of the soil for peas (in parts):
- sod land
- sawdust 3: 1: 1,
- soddy land 7: 2: 1.
It is quite acceptable to use as pure peat or humus, with the addition of 9 parts of humus of one part of the earth. Sizes of pots 6x6 or 5x5. Seedlings in pots grown with a pick and without it.
Cultivation of seedlings in cassettes can be an alternative to the pot method. For this, cassettes with a cell of 5x5 cm are used. The soil for cassettes is peat mixture. Apply professional blends with mineral fertilizers. Before using the cassette, rinse with water. Then make a recess 0.5–1.0 cm. 1-2 seeds are laid out in each well. Then sprinkle with soil and slightly moisturize. If this process is carried out in greenhouses, the seedlings are covered with acrylic to prevent drying and overheating.
Gardeners get the seedlings in the room and, not allowing the seedling to be pulled out, are transferred to a permanent place.
Cassette growing method involves frequent feeding of seedlings, with a reduced concentration of 0.1–0.2%. Watering is carried out 2-3 times a day with sprinkling.
As soon as they appear 4–5 leaves, they are already hardening seedlings with natural light. The age of seedlings is 35–40 days and it is not recommended to regrow it. Watering before planting, spend moderately - both potted seedlings and cassette.
And only in the 3rd decade of March, seedlings are planted in open ground and always with irrigation. Under the film shelters, the landing is done from March 10 to 15 two weeks earlier.
Middle-late varieties are grown in film greenhouses, under tunnel shelters in the beds. Sowing takes place in the second decade of March. After 40–45 days, the seedlings are ready to land on the site.
250–300 plants ready for transplantation are obtained from 1 m² of seedlings. Mid-season varieties are well grown in cassettes. They can be sown in the 3rd decade of March. And it can be noted that even in hot weather seedlings take root well.
Middle-late and late varieties are grown in open nurseries. Sowing is done manually or using a manual seeder. The aisle is kept within 10–12 cm. The age of seedlings for disembarkation is 30–35 days. Sprouts should be 5-6 leaves and 15 cm tall.
Since the landing is 1–2 decade of June. We must carefully consider the landing. To do this, carefully remove the seedlings from the ridges, trying not to damage the roots and leaving a lump of earth. Such seedlings must be planted in well-spilled water soil. Then sprinkle dry soil on top. If the landing got on sunny weather, the seedlings are transplanted in the afternoon.
If sowing is done by seeds directly into the ground, then the plant forms a developed root system, is more drought-resistant and less affected by diseases. The vegetation period is reduced by 14–16 days.
Sowing passes from the first decade of April until June. The sowing time is chosen depending on the planned harvest time.
Thinning seedlings begin with the formation of 4–5 leaves. At the same time, it is especially important to carry out all measures to combat the cruciferous flea.
Requirements for the care of white cabbage
The growing area should be illuminated by the sun around the clock. After landing in the ground begins the first stage of care, which continues until the beginning of the growth of leaves. During this period, the seedlings are observed pollinated with ashes mixed with tobacco dust. Once every 10 days watering is carried out with the obligatory loosening.
As soon as steel grow leaves Start fertilizing from a solution of nitrate fertilizers (10 g of ammonium nitrate to 10 liters of water) this composition per 5–6 plants.
The next period from the beginning of the growth of leaves to the beginning of the growth of the head. Top-dressing with nitrogen fertilizers occurs in the same dose as in the first period. Plants during this period form one leaf per day. During this period, there is also a uniform strait and loosening. Also held pest control. It is desirable to carry out this work without the use of toxic chemicals in garden and household plots. In the suburban areas, it is possible to collect pests and their eggs by hand. Butterflies lay eggs in a handful from the top side of the leaves.
Broths and infusions from:
- tomato leaves,
Against aphids infusions of:
Fertilizers are carried out with nitrogen-potassium mixtures (10 g of potash nitrate per 10 liters of water) from calculations for 5–6 plants.
The entire area of the cabbage bed is covered with leaves for the third period. Before the harvest, irrigation and loosening of the land is necessary.
Cleaning and storage
Approximately in three weeks of cleaning, watering is stopped. This contributes to the accumulation of fiber, good effect on further preservation. Weather when cleaning plays an important role. At the first frost at - 2⁰ it is best to harvest. At -5⁰ -7⁰ head freezes, which affects their storage.
When cleaning the head of cabbage is cut off in such a way that the stub was 2 cm long. When loading and laying in the cellar or basement, cabbages are carefully transferred. Ways of installation: shoulder, on the shelves one by one, hang by a stall to the ceiling.
If the storage is chosen by a collar, it is recommended that the cabbages be powdered with chalk to prevent rotting.
White Cabbage Varieties and Hybrids
Early cabbage varieties. It takes 55–60 days to ripen before harvesting. Film covers are used for cultivation until the collection is received in late April - early May. When using shelters are grown thickened. Hybrids include:
- Start F1.
- F1 transfer.
- Cossack F1.
- Farao F1.
- F1 solo.
These varieties are very popular. The term of seeding seedlings more stretched from the first of March until the first of April and you can get a harvest during June. Kachan weighing up to 2 kg. These hybrids have good taste.
The need for growth conditions
Cabbage can not be grown in shady places. Cabbage requires a lot of light, this plant is a long day, i.e. with a long day, she has faster development processes. The lack of light leads, as has already been said, to the accumulation of nitrates, impairing the development of the plant. Lacking light, the lower leaves stop growing, begin to turn yellow and die early. Apical bud continues to grow and throws more and more new leaves, but does not tie a head of cabbage.
Cabbage is a cold-resistant plant. The plant can tolerate a short-term decrease in temperature to -5 ° C, and in the fall and lower. For cabbage growth, cool weather with a temperature of 15–18 ° C is most favorable. Temperatures above 25 ° C adversely affect the formation of heads. In hot, dry weather, an increased accumulation of nitrates begins.
Cabbage is very demanding on moisture, but excessive moisture is harmful to it. When excessive moisture begins to die off the roots, and the leaves become purple in color and then die off and develop a dangerous disease - bacteriosis. In plants affected by bacteriosis, in tissues on the longitudinal and transverse sections of the stumps, you can see a huge amount of black spores.
Cabbage is placed after well-fertilized crops. Early varieties well placed after onions, cucumbers, tomatoes. Late varieties can be placed after potatoes, roots, legumes. At the same place it can not be grown more than once every 3-4 years to avoid diseases. Рядом с растениями капусты хорошо выращивать сельдерей, чабрец, шалфей, кориандр и анис для отпугивания капустной мухи.
How to prepare the soil for growing cabbage
Cabbage consumes a lot of nitrogen, potassium and calcium. Under the cabbage used high doses of organic fertilizers (manure or compost). But the introduction of the maximum dose of nitrogen contributes to the deterioration of product quality - more nitrates, less sugars and dry matter.
The best effect is obtained when combining organic fertilizers (30-60 kg per 10 sq. M) with mineral. Early cabbage varieties in the middle lane ripen in July, when intensive decomposition and mineralization of manure begins. Therefore, in order to avoid the accumulation of nitrates under the early ripening varieties of cabbage, only greenhouse humus or compost should be introduced. The mid-ripening and late-ripening cabbage varieties have a good effect on peat-faecal composts, peat avalanches, and finally, peat with phosphates. Fresh manure can be applied only under late and middle late varieties and only in the fall, scattering it on the soil surface. It should not be allowed to mix manure with lime, which is also introduced in the fall.
The best ratio of fertilizers for cabbage: 30- 60 kg of organic fertilizers plus 90-120 g of mineral nitrogen, 90 g of phosphorus and 60 g of potassium.
With spring plowing, all phosphorus, 2/3 of potassium and half of nitrogen are added. The rest of fertilizers - when closing rows and curling heads.
When digging make 1-2 g of boron fertilizers per 1 square. m
Manganese, boron and copper are the most important microelements for cabbage. Putting them in dressings (preferably foliar) increases the yield of early cabbage by 20-30%, late - by 10%.
The optimum pH value of salt extract of the soil for cabbage is 6.6-7.4.
On sod-podzolic soils, liming of the soil is necessary, it prevents many diseases of cabbage and contributes to the proper assimilation of nitrogen fertilizers. The amount of lime applied to the soil depends on the quality of the soil, its physicochemical composition and degree of acidity. On average, on slightly acidic soils, from 1 kg (on sandy soils) to 4 kg (on clayey) lime is introduced, and on strongly acidic, respectively, from 2 to 10 kg per 10 square meters. m. Lime or chalk contribute in the fall, scattering them on the surface of the excavated soil. It is desirable that the lime does not come into contact with the manure. The introduction of lime not only changes the acidity of the soil, but also improves its structure. Excess calcium cabbage tolerates well.
With optimal soil acidity, the number of bacteria increases significantly, the number of fungi decreases, and the development of pathogenic microorganisms, as a rule, does not acquire a dangerous size.
At home it is worth growing seedlings only if there is an opportunity to create optimal conditions for its growth and development. Unfavorable growth conditions, especially the lack of light in the seedling period, can adversely affect the growth and development of plants in the future. Therefore, if there is no confidence in the successful cultivation of seedlings, it is better to purchase it from reliable suppliers.
Growing white cabbage seedlings
Cabbage is grown seedlings to accelerate ripening. Seedlings of the same age, grown in different calendar periods, differ sharply. Improving the temperature and light regimes accelerates the rate of growth, and with earlier sowing the development of seedlings can go slower if the growth conditions are worse. Therefore, calculating the time of sowing for cabbage seedlings, one must bear in mind the possibility of creating optimal conditions for its development.
For the earliest possible harvest, early varieties of white cabbage can be sown in a greenhouse or room (with more light) on February 25 — March 5, later they can be planted in mid-April for temporary shelter (under the film). If good conditions for growth are created for the seedlings, the harvest will be available in May. For cultivation in open ground without shelter, early varieties of white cabbage can be sown from March 10–15 with a landing on a permanent place in late April – early May.
Seedlings of mid and late ripening varieties can be grown in a greenhouse with solar heating or a hotbed under the film prepared for the earliest possible sowing. Sowing late varieties are from 1 to 10 April, mid-ripening - from 10 to 20 April.
Before sowing, the seeds are pickled in a solution of potassium permanganate or disinfected with hot water with a temperature of about 45–50 ° C for 20–30 minutes, followed by rapid cooling in cold water. In order to increase the yield and resistance to diseases and pests, seeds are treated with biological activator of growth and development before sowing - Agat-25, El-1, Albit, Zircon.
The best way to get healthy seedlings is to grow in cassettes (pots) of 65 cm3 (4.5 × 4.5 × 3 cm). The seedlings grown in cassettes tolerates transplant more easily, they are ill little.
Seeds are sown to a depth of 0.5-1 cm, the crops are immediately watered. For growing cabbage seedlings, they maintain a temperature of 15–18 ° C during the day and 8–10 ° C at night.
To increase growth, anti-stress activity, as well as resistance to diseases, 10 days after sowing and 5 days before planting at a permanent place, the soil is treated with a 0.015% solution of sodium humate.
Seedlings are fed two times: in the phase of two or three true leaves and 3-5 days before planting in the ground. For dressings, 15 g of urea, 30 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium chloride are diluted in 10 liters of water. On one plant, use 0.15 liters in the first dressing and 0.5 liters in the second. Spraying cabbage in the b-8 phase of leaves with Silk leads to an increase in yield, an increase in the content of sugars and vitamin C.
7-10 days before planting in open ground, it is hardened, i.e. maintain in more severe conditions: strengthen ventilation, reduce the temperature, reduce irrigation.
By the time of planting, the seedlings should be hardened, 18–20 cm tall, with 4–5 well-developed leaves (this is 35–45 days old).
In case of violation of the growing mode (poor ventilation, thickening of plants, severe temperature drops and over-wetting of the soil), peronosporosis (downy mildew) may appear. It appears on cotyledons and leaves of the seedlings in the form of gray-yellow oily spots, covered with a powdery underside of the plate. To combat peronospora, cabbage is pollinated with wood ash (50 g per 1 sq. M) with an interval of 5-7 days. But first of all it is necessary to provide optimal conditions for the maintenance of plants.
Cabbage seedlings are often affected by blackleg. The infection persists and accumulates in the soil, develops with excessive air humidity, sharp fluctuations in soil temperature and thickened planting, the absence of ventilation. When the black leg symptoms appear (the root neck and stem turn black, thin) the plants should be watered with a 0.05% potassium permanganate solution (5 g per 10 l of water - crimson). Calcined sand is poured to treated plants with a layer up to 2 cm. Resistant (relatively) to black leg varieties Belorusskaya 385, Moscow Late 15, Amager, Podarok 2500, Kubanochka, Nadezhda, Malachite Fi.
To combat the earthy flea, it is necessary to pollinate the seedlings with tobacco dust.
Planting cabbage seedlings
At low boggy ground, cabbages should be planted on ridges 100 cm wide and 18-25 cm high. In areas where there is no danger of waterlogging, cabbages are grown on a flat surface. Cultivation in narrow beds has a positive effect on the quantity and quality of the crop.
Cabbage need to take a very bright place. Even a slight shading will lead to slower development and lower quality - a drop in the content of vitamins, the accumulation of nitrates.
Cabbage is a cold-resistant plant, it can tolerate lowering the temperature to 5 ° С, but only very briefly. Therefore, planting cabbage seedlings to a permanent place can be started from mid-April under a film with frost cover with a nonwoven covering material. Shelter planting nonwoven material increases the temperature by 1.2-5.1 ° C, accelerates the production of environmentally valuable products by 7-10 days, increases the yield of 2.3-5.4 times. At the same time, the seedlings are not pulled out, since nonwoven material allows air to pass through more easily. Shelter non-woven material and especially the film must be removed in a timely manner, in May days should not be overheating, which leads to stretching of seedlings, curvature of the stems.
In the field without shelter, seedlings of early and late-ripening cabbage in the middle lane begin to be planted in the second half of April (depending on the position of the plot and on the weather) and end between May 5 and 20. Mid-season varieties can be planted in the same time frame, but if there is not enough time, then seedlings of medium varieties can be planted later.
When reducing the area of nutrition cabbage slows growth, decreases the amount of vitamins in the heads. Saving space can result in less quality products and lower yields.
Early cabbage works best if it is grown in narrow beds of 1-2 rows at a distance of 70 cm between rows and 30-35 cm in a row. For mid-ripening varieties, the distance between the rows is 70–80 cm and in the row 50–70 cm (depending on the size of the head), for late-ripening varieties, the distance between the rows is at least 70 cm, in the row 80–90 cm. will be poorly stored, the possibility of disease will increase.
Cabbage planting schemes
In order to use the area in the first month more rationally, it is possible to plant early green vegetables between the plants, which will be removed within one month.
The sequence of actions when planting cabbage
Afternoon is the best landing time. Plot the day before planting must be watered.
1. 2-3 hours before planting, watering of seedlings is watered in order to minimize damage to the roots. To stimulate rooting, you can pour it with water, and with a solution of heteroauxin (2 tablets per 10 liters of water).
2. The root system of the seedlings taken out of the pot (cassette) is immersed in a clay talker with the addition of a 0.3-0.4% solution of phytolavin-300 to protect against the black leg and bacteriosis.
3. In the wells for planting add chalk and a handful of humus, the wells are poured with a suspension of the biological product nemabakt to fight with a cabbage fly.
4. Each plant is planted in the hole to the cotyledon leaves, tightly pressing the roots of the soil. It is necessary to carefully take care of the heart (apical kidney), in no case do not sprinkle it with earth. Care must be taken that the roots do not buckle or clump together, but are distributed more or less evenly so that the seedlings are well compressed by the ground (after planting, with light twitching, the seedlings should not be removed).
5. Under each plant is poured 0.5-1 l of water. When watering, the watering can should be kept as low as possible to the ground, as water trickles falling from a height destroy soil lumps, after which a crust forms.
6. After an hour or two after watering, the surface of the soil is sprinkled with dry earth. The last operation is important, it can be equated to watering.
7. To discourage cabbage flies, the next day after the cabbage is planted, sprinkle the soil around the plants within a radius of 4–5 cm with tobacco dust or its mixture with freshly sour lime or ash (1: 1). On 1 square. m spend 20 g of this mixture.
Seedless growing method
Cabbage is frost-resistant, early and medium varieties can be sown directly into the soil 3-6 weeks before the last frost. Off-plant cultivation has the advantage that plants always grow in one place and their root system is never damaged. This method mainly grows early-ripening and mid-season varieties.
Sowing is carried out in a well-dug up soil, sown in a nest of 3-4 seeds at the same distance as when planting seedlings. Then the seeds are carefully covered with earth or a mixture of peat and humus. When growing cabbage, it is advisable to use a non-perforated film, removing it no later than the appearance of the 2nd true leaf. Microclimate contributes to a more rapid passage of developmental stages in which plants are susceptible to disease. Further cultivation under the film leads to stretching of the seedlings, the curvature of the stems.
When the second and third true leaves appear, they are thinned, leaving two in the nest first, and after repeated thinning, one plant each.
There are three periods of growth of cabbage: the first from the moment of planting to the beginning of the full growth of the topper, the second - before the closing of the topper, and the third - from the closing of the topper to harvesting.
White cabbage is sprayed 3 times with a solution of Gibbersib in the phase of 6-8 leaves, at the beginning of the formation of the head and 7 days after the second spraying.
Gibbersib increases the yield by 12-20%, increases the content of sugars and vitamin C.
The cabbage is sprayed with an immunocytophyte in the phase of whipping and setting a head of cabbage, 300-500 ml (0.01%) of the working solution per 10 sq. M. m. It enhances immunity to diseases during the growing season.
Good growth and the formation of high yield is possible only with good water supply. Cabbage is particularly sensitive to the lack of moisture in the first time after transplanting in open ground, as well as in the phase of active growth and heading.
During the rooting of the seedlings it is watered daily, the daily water consumption per plant is approximately 100 ml. In hot weather, plants are covered with a newspaper to reduce the evaporation of moisture.
It is necessary to water the cabbage every 6-7 days, pouring 1-2 liters of water into the hole under the plant, and during the growth of the head, this rate is increased to 3-4 liters of water. Overdrying can lead to cracking of heads! However, excessive watering is also harmful. It is better if the soil is saturated with water more or less evenly up to 70% of water capacity before the beginning of full growth of tops, and 80% in the heading phase, and later watering is reduced again (up to 70% of water capacity). 2-3 weeks before the harvesting of cabbage, watering is stopped to avoid the disease by point necrosis.
Loosening the soil and hilling cabbage
10-15 days after planting, the first loosening of the soil (hoeing) around the plants is carried out.
The first hilling is carried out when large leaves start to form, the second - 20-25 days after the first. Early and middle varieties spud one or two times, late varieties with high stumps - 2-3 times.
Spud better on the second day after the rain. It is important that a loose, moist layer of soil, rather than dry lumps, is attached to the plant. When hilling in dry weather, you must first pry the top layer of dry soil, and then spud cabbage with raw earth.
Hilling causes the formation of additional roots, enhances the supply of cabbage with nutrients and water, and also gives the plant the necessary stability. After the formation of 8-10 leaves, the cabbage has a large surface and is swayed by the wind so much that at the base of the stem in the ground a funnel-like expansion is formed. Strong swinging of plants prevents good rooting of cabbage, therefore hilling has a positive effect on the development of plants.
When the tops cover the inter-row spacing, hilling is not carried out, since the soil retains its friability well without that.
Early cabbage is fed 1——2 times during the growing season, mid-season and late-ripening cabbage 3-4 times.
Cabbage needs enhanced nitrogen, potassium and calcium nutrition. At the beginning of growth, cabbage consumes more nitrogen, during the formation of the head - phosphorus and potassium. In general, the higher the ratio of potassium to nitrogen, the better the cabbage is preserved, the lower the lesion of necrosis, and even better, if the amount of potassium is 1.5-2 times more than nitrogen.
In the first feeding (usually two weeks after planting) on 1 square. m bring urea 10 g, 20 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride 15–20 g. Mineral fertilizers are applied dissolved in water into the grooves in the middle of the rows, which are made 10–12 cm from the row or well, after fertilizing, the wells fall asleep.
The second dressing is applied at the beginning of the setting of heads, 2-3 weeks after the first, fertilizers are applied to the middle of the rows between the beds to a depth of 12-15 cm. The dressing contains 10-12 g of urea, 20-30 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium chloride.
For later varieties grown for storage, the dose of potassium should be increased. Therefore, subsequent feeding for late-ripening cabbage varieties is carried out in two weeks per 1 square meter. m 15 g of potassium chloride. Top dressing bring in the damp earth after a rain or plentiful watering. Nitrogen fertilizers in any form cease to apply to the cabbage a month before the harvest is removed in order to avoid damage by point necrosis and bacteriosis.
If plants of late varieties of cabbage are poorly developed, foliar feeding is needed. To do this, for 4 liters of water take 1 kg of potassium chloride, 70-80 g of double superphosphate and 10 g of molybdenum, the solution is kept for 24 hours before spraying. If the plants are yellow-green, grow slowly, then 1% urea is added to the foliar top dressing.
We recommend to see:
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How to feed cabbage to form a head of cabbage
How to grow red cabbage in the garden in the open field
The best varieties of cabbage for central Russia
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Many gardeners and gardeners know how to grow cabbage in the open field, each with its own secrets and tricks, but the harvest is different. Технология выращивания капусты в действительности не сложная, необходимо лишь верно рассчитать сроки, вовремя посадить и правильно ухаживать.
Сроки посадки капусты в грунт
Существует прямой посев капусты в грунт и выращивание через рассаду. В зависимости от способа посадки, сроков предполагаемого сбора овоща, климатической зоны культивирования, высчитывается время.
Planting early cabbage seedlings in the ground is:
- Moscow region, Moscow region, in the Urals from April 25,
- Perm region, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia - May 5-6,
- Voronezh, Saratov regions begins on April 1,
- Southern regions, in the Kuban - from March 20.
On the photo - planting cabbage seedlings in open ground
The age of seedlings from sowing seed to planting in open ground should be as follows:
- 45 (60) days to get red cabbage, early white cabbage, 35 (45) for mid-season varieties, 30 (35) for late,
- Savoy cabbage 35 (50) days,
- different varieties of cauliflower and Brussels sprouts for 44 (50) days,
- broccoli seedlings 34 (45) days,
- Kohlrabi cabbage seedlings are planted at the age of one month.
Sow cabbage in open ground begin with the arrival of warm days, when the soil warms up a bit, a positive positive temperature will be established outside (8-10 ºС) outside. These terms are advisory in nature, take into account the climatic conditions of the growing region, use the recommendations of the companies-producers of seeds to prevent mistakes when cultivating cabbage.
We recommend: Healthy and strong cabbage seedlings at home! Grow good seedlings at home on the windowsill is not always obtained, what are the reasons? If there are problems, then there are solutions for them! With proper agrotechnology, frequent mistakes can be avoided ... "
How to plant cabbage?
Before planting cabbage seedlings in open ground, prepare a garden bed: grow dry, remove the weeds that have germinated in spring. It is desirable to carry out the preparatory work on the ridges in the fall: dig the shovels to the depth of the bayonet, introduce fertilizers (organic or mineral), and lime the soil if necessary. The cabbage loves dense soil, in autumn the land will settle, in the spring it will only be to loosen the surface with a rake.
On the photo - growing cabbage in open ground
Make the beds at a distance of 0.4-0.5 meters, dig shallow holes, observing a gap of 35-40 centimeters. Spill well prepared grooves with water. At this stage, fertilizer is poured into the well, if the soil is poor, nothing was added in the fall (1 tablespoon wood ash, a teaspoon of superphosphate, a handful of humus). Cabbage seedlings are planted with a clod of earth, buried in the hole on the lower leaves, from the top they fall asleep with dry grasses, compacted, and watered.
Planting cabbage in the ground with seeds under plastic bottles is carried out on the ridges of any length, the intermediate distance between crops is 0.3-0.4 meters. For convenience, the holes are made with an ordinary glass bottle, a shallow hole is turned in the necessary place with a bottom, by light pressure. 3-4 seeds are placed on the bottom of the resulting groove, covered with a tablespoon of humus (fertile land), without condensing.
Do gardeners with experience of their secrets of planting, in a hole with seed material are advised to put a mixture of baking soda (1/2 pack) and black pepper (a teaspoon). Adding will save cabbage seed from pests, make the soil favorable for the growth of the vegetable (soda deoxidizes the soil). Pour the resulting soda composition in small portions (0.5 tsp) at the edges of the hole, surrounding the seeds. The bottle is cut the bottom, close the landing, slightly pressing into the ground. Lid unscrew as needed for irrigation, airing grown seedlings. The bottle should be removed when the first true leaves appear, at the same time weak sprouts are removed, leaving the strongest healthy plants.
For the cultivation of early cabbage seeds (seedlings) covered with film cover, spanbond, lutrasilom. The harvest will grow earlier, will be protected from return spring frosts. It is recommended to sow dill and lettuce in the beds with cabbage. Protective plants planted next to, save planting from cruciferous flea, other harmful insects.
Cultivating a tasty vegetable in the garden, remember timely watering, irrigation should be good until the soil is fully wetted. There is no exact schedule of irrigation, it is necessary to be guided by the weather conditions of the growing region. In the first weeks after planting, the soil should be hydrated, so a good root growth is ensured. Limit irrigation during the aging period of the head to prevent cracking. It is necessary to water with cold water in the morning, evening hours, cabbage likes icy water.
For the entire period of cultivation, cabbage is spud 2-3 times. Hilling combined with weeding, loosening. The first sticking is carried out after the seedlings are engrafted, the soil around the plant is loosened to a small depth, then the ground is well raked up to the first leaves. Hilling promotes the growth of additional roots, loosening increases the access of oxygen to the roots for better plant nutrition.
on the photo - feeding with ashes of cabbage grown in open ground
When growing cabbage, the need for dressings is determined by the fertility of the soil, the number of fertilizers applied in the fall. For better growth, it is recommended to feed the plants with useful microelements 2-3 times, using organic or mineral supplements is a personal matter for each gardener.
The first time fertilizer is applied 14-15 days after planting at a permanent place, then cabbage is fed at two-week intervals after the first feeding. Pay attention to the development and growth of the vegetable, if the plants are healthy and strong, there is no need to contribute nutrients. At the first stages of growth, plantings require fertilizers containing nitrogen in the composition to increase the green mass (take 2 teaspoons of urea and potash fertilizer, add 20 grams of superphosphate, dilute in a bucket of water). In the period of setting a head of cabbage, use phosphorus-potassium complexes.
Growing cabbage in the summer cottage is not difficult, the main thing is to plant in time, feed it and water it abundantly, then the crop will grow generous, rich and undoubtedly tasty!
White cabbage is particularly popular with Russian gardeners, who are always concerned about its cultivation in the open field and proper care for it, obtaining high yields.
On our table, cabbage has long become mandatory. She was loved by many for high yield and good storage, juicy delicate taste and a whole set of vitamins. In winter, you can make a salad from fresh cabbage or make a filling for pies. In fermented form, it becomes a valuable source of vitamins.
Planting dates for white cabbage
The choice of varieties and dates for sowing white cabbage depend on the intended purpose of the fruit: do you need tender early cabbage for salads or thick, strong cabbages for pickling and winter storage.
White cabbage, cultivated by many gardeners, is of early, middle and late varieties. Early varieties are eaten in the summer. Mid-season can be eaten fresh or pickled for the winter. Late varieties are intended for long-term winter storage.
Terms of planting white cabbage for seedlings depend on the variety:
- early: from March 1 to March 25,
- average: from April 25,
- later: - from April 1 to the third decade of the month.
From the moment of sowing seeds for seedlings to planting seedlings in open ground, it usually takes 45-50 days.
White cabbage can be sown in the open ground with seeds. In the middle lane in early April, seeds of early cabbage are sown in the ground, and in the first decade of May - late. In the southern regions, middle-ripening varieties sow from late April to the third decade of May, late ripening - in 1-2 decades of May.
Selection and preparation of seeds
The choice and purchase of cabbage seeds must be taken responsibly: the future crop depends on the seed.
To enhance immunity to fungal diseases, cabbage seeds are recommended to warm up to 50 ° C in water before sowing for 20 minutes and then immerse in cold water for 5 minutes.
Before sowing, the seeds are soaked in cold water and kept for a day. Such hardening increases the resistance of seeds and promotes early germination. In the future, in the open ground, such seedlings will withstand frosts down to -7 ° C, and unhardened will not stand up to -3 ° C.
Site selection and soil preparation
Land for planting cabbage in the open ground must be prepared in advance. The sun should light it from morning to evening. Early varieties of cabbage are more suitable sandy soil and loam, for late and medium clay soil and loam are optimal.
The acidity of sandy soils should not exceed 6, clayey or clayey-sandy - 7. Acidic soils are not suitable for the cultivation of cabbage.
It should be borne in mind that cabbage is undesirable to plant in open ground after tomatoes, beets, radishes, turnips. These cultures “suck” nutrients out of the soil, and also on the site after them there may remain dangerous diseases for cabbage. Under the cabbage, it is better to choose those areas where you used to grow grain, legumes, cucumbers, potatoes. On one bed it is impossible to plant cabbage more than 2-3 years in a row.
Preparation of the site for the cultivation of cabbage should begin in advance from the previous planting fall. In dry weather, the soil must be deeply dug. No need to strive to level the surface: the ground with steep irregularities will absorb more moisture during the winter.
In the spring, after the snow has melted, “moisture closing” is carried out - the surface of the soil is leveled with a rake to prevent water from evaporating too quickly. Weeds that start to climb out of the ground should be removed immediately.
2 weeks before planting, the seedlings begin to harden to prepare in new conditions at a permanent place. To do this, in the room with seedlings in the first 2 days for 3-4 hours open the window, pre-protecting seedlings from drafts.
Then, for a couple of hours, seedlings for a couple of hours are placed on a loggia or balcony, covering the seedlings with gauze from direct sunlight. After a week, watering is reduced, the seedlings are carried to the balcony and kept there before planting in the ground.
Seedlings of early cabbage are planted in the garden when it reaches a height of 12-20 cm and the seedlings will have 5-7 leaflets. Seedlings of middle and late cabbage can be planted on a bed with a height of seedlings of 15-20 cm and the formation of 4-6 leaflets. The seedlings of early varieties usually reach the required parameters by the beginning of May, mid-season and late - from late May to mid-June.
For planting seedlings of white cabbage on the open area, apply the following scheme:
- early and hybrid varieties - 30x40,
- mid-season - 50x60,
- later - 60x70.
Cabbage requires a lot of light and space, so you should try not to thicken the beds. The holes in the soil should be made slightly larger than the root system of seedlings with a peat cup or earthen clod.
It is recommended to add to each well:
- a handful of sand
- a handful of peat,
- 2 handfuls of humus,
- 50 g wood ash,
- half a teaspoon of nitrophoska.
Additives are thoroughly mixed and watered abundantly. An earthen clod with the root system of the seedling is lowered straight into the slurry and sprinkled with moist earth, and a dry one is added on top. If the seedlings are too long, they are planted so that the first pair of leaves is flush with the surface of the plot.
Without seedlings, seeds are sown immediately on the bed rather thickly according to the 10x70 cm scheme to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. It is recommended to water the soil and cover with spunbond. Only a month later, after the formation of 3-4 true leaves, cabbage sprouts will get stronger.
Until this time, they will require particularly careful care: regular weeding, treatment from pests. Cabbage is recommended to thin out in the phase of 4-6 true leaves, leaving a distance between seedlings in a row of 40-50 cm.
How to care for plants outdoors?
If, after planting seedlings, the weather is sunny, the seedlings should be applied for a while with nonwovens or newspapers. During the week, the plants are watered every evening from a watering can with a spreader.
After the termination of this term shelter can be removed, if at night frosts are not expected. In the future, to care for seedlings in the open ground, weeding and loosening the plot, watering, and regular feeding are carried out. The hilling procedure is carried out for the first time 3 weeks after planting the cabbage, and after another 10 days it is repeated.
Cabbage needs a lot of moisture, so strict compliance with the irrigation regime is required. For watering choose evening time. Between abundant watering on cloudy days, a gap of 5-6 days is enough.
In the hot period will have to water the plants every 2-3 days. After watering the soil at the site must be loosened, while spuding cabbage. To preserve moisture, experienced gardeners recommend a 5 cm thick mulching peat layer that simultaneously nourishes developing plants.
If in the seedling phase the cabbage received additional feeding, it should develop quickly and intensively. After landing in the soil the plants continue to feed. When the leaves grow, it is best to add a solution of 10 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of water to the soil.
This dose should be sufficient for 5-6 plants. When the heading starts, the cabbage is fed a second time from the same calculation, dissolving 8 g of potassium sulfate, 5 g of double superphosphate and 4 g of urea in 10 liters of water.
Description and characteristics
Most of the cabbage varieties are biennial plants, it gives the first seeds in the second year. Exceptions are certain types of annuals - Broccoli, Peking and Kale. Today there is a wide variety of varieties, but white cabbage is the most popular.
When growing cabbage white cabbage is able to withstand lower temperatures, but this species places high demands on the level of moisture content in the air and soil. For successful cultivation of a plant and obtaining a good harvest, sufficient watering should be provided. Temperatures above 25 C 0 have a very bad effect on the condition of the plant, and an increase in it over 30 C 0 leads to the fact that forks are not formed.
The success of growing white cabbage and future yield is largely due to seed quality. In the southern regions, the plant can be grown from seed. by direct landing in open ground. For other regions, this method is unsuitable and growing occurs with the use of seedlings.
Planting seeds in the ground is the first stage in the long process of growing cabbage. The average time from the moment of emergence and planting of seedlings is 50-60 days. It is with this in mind that the need to start work is determined. In southern areas, you can start planting in late January or early February. In the northern regions disembarkation begins at the end of Marchand for some types of cabbage this period is shifted to April.
It is recommended to check the cabbage seeds for germination in advance, which will avoid problems when growing seedlings. To do this, a small amount of seeds is placed in a wet gauze for 4-5 days, after which a visual assessment of the seeds that have sunk is carried out. With poor germination, other seeds should be purchased.
Without fail, before planting, the seeds are treated with hot water at a temperature of about 50 ° C. Seeds are kept in such water for at least 15–20 minutes, after which they are removed and placed for 2 minutes in a container with cold water. Such manipulations will allow in the future to reduce the risk of disease of seedlings.
It is recommended to hold seed soaking within 12 hours in a solution of nitrophoska. In the morning, rinse with clean water, after which the seeds are dried. To enhance resistance to cold temperatures, the seeds are aged for 24 hours in a refrigerator at a temperature of 0-2 C 0.
How to prepare the ground
Soil for seedlings can be purchased at the store or do it yourself. The following substrate manufacturing options are most popular:
- mix the land for vegetables and manure in equal proportions,
- mix pine pine needles, sand and earth for vegetables in the proportion of 60:20:20,
- use turf soil.
Nutritious soil can be prepared by any means, but at the same time it should not have increased acidity. Any soil passes the following processing steps:
- prone to chalking,
Disinfection is carried out by calciningthat allows you to get rid of weeds and harmful microorganisms. The recommended substrate heating temperature is 100–200 C 0. Screening is carried out to achieve uniformity of soil particles and remove excess components. It is recommended for sifting to take a sieve with a mesh size of 1 centimeter. Adding lime or dolomite flour to the soil reduces the soil acidity.
Fertilizer is carried out by adding the following components per 1 bucket of soil:
- superphosphate 1 tbsp. l.,
- ash 2 tbsp. l
Thoroughly mixed soil is poured into the tank for seedlings and spilled with a weak solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 1 gram per bucket of water. Small grooves with a depth of no more than 1 cm are made in the tank, the distance between each groove is 3 cm. Seeds are sown in such a way that the distance between them is 1 cm. Each of the grooves is filled with soil and the tanks are exposed to rooms with a temperature of 7-10 C 0. Such a low temperature will allow the seedlings to be strongly do not pull when growing.
По прошествии 8—12 образуется первый настоящий лист, после чего можно приступать к пикированию рассады.
Как ухаживать за саженцами
Для пикирования подготавливаются небольшие емкости с диаметром 6—8 см, в которые засыпается тот же грунт, используемый ранее для посадки семян. When transplanting each seedling, it is necessary to ensure that the deepening occurs to the cotyledon leaves. For several days, the seedlings are aged in a bright place at a temperature of 18 C 0, after which the seedlings fit again in a cooler place.
In the first 2 weeks after the dive procedure, the growth of seedlings will be very weak. After 3 weeks, 2-3 leaves will appear, the seedlings will take root, growth will be activated. Watering seedlings produced with warm water with a temperature of 18-20 C 0. It is necessary to do periodic airing of the room.
The need and type of feeding depends largely on the condition of the seedlings. There are the following types of dressings:
Foliar top dressing performed after the appearance of the first 2 leaves by spraying the plant with a solution of fertilizer with the calculation of 1 tsp. on 1 liter of water. Root top dressing is carried out in the period of hardening cabbage. For this, 1 tbsp. l Potassium sulfate and urea are diluted in 10 liters of water. Weak seedlings are recommended to be fed twice with a solution of nitrophoska prepared from 1 tsp. means and 3 liters of water. The first feeding is carried out with the appearance of the third true leaf, the second with the formation of the fourth.
Cabbage seedlings are very susceptible to black leg disease. At the first signs of illness it is necessary stop watering completely, treat the plant with a solution of potassium permanganate, sprinkle it with ash or chalk.
It is necessary to carry out measures to harden the plant by gradually lowering the temperature and adding light. Such hardening is recommended to begin 15 days before disembarkation. Good hardening is achieved by bringing cabbage to the open air. In this case it is necessary to adhere to the sequence in dosing the sun's rays. If the seedlings grew in conditions of insufficient light, then carrying it out to the open sun for a long time can lead to the burning of the plant.
10 days before transplanting into the open ground, the abundance of watering is reduced, and 4 days before it is completely stopped to stop the growth of seedlings. 2 hours before planting produce abundant watering of each plant. Healthy seedlings are planted with 4-6 leaves, a strong top, a thick stalk and a good root system.
How to choose a place to grow
Choosing the right place for planting cabbage largely determines the quality of the future crop. It is recommended to choose flat open area with sufficient and prolonged exposure to sunlight. Soil preparation begins in autumn:
- vegetable garbage is removed,
- the plot is dug up to a depth of at least 25-30 cm,
- fertilizers are applied in the form of manure or compost.
In the spring, the soil is re-digged and loosened. An additional complex of mineral fertilizers per square meter is added to the cabbage planting area:
- superphosphate 20-30 grams,
- potassium chloride 20–35 grams,
- ammonium nitrate 15-30 grams.
White-white can not be grown in one place for more than three years in a row. Re-planting to the previous place landing is valid after five years. It is recommended to plant cabbage in the place where cucumbers, onions, potatoes, legumes and grain crops were previously grown.
How to land in open ground
The time of planting seedlings depends on the variety of cabbage. It is recommended to observe the following terms:
- early varieties - from April 25 to May 5,
- late varieties - from 10 to 20 May,
- mid-season species - from May 20 to 30.
The width between rows for early ripening varieties should be from 40 to 50 cm. For later varieties, the distance should be greater, the recommended value is 60 cm. The distance between each seedling should be at least 25 cm.
For disembarking in open ground it is worth choosing a not hot day, work should be planned for the evening hours. Two hours before disembarking place thoroughly and plentifully shed water. Directly when planting in each well pours 0.5-1 liter of water. Seedlings are deepened to the level of the first leaves and sprinkled with soil. The first 3 days it is necessary to provide seedlings protection from the sun. In case of poor survival or death of a plant, a new one is planted in its place.
How to grow white cabbage
Care for white cabbage is simple, but involves frequency and continuity. Care is to perform the following work:
- timely watering,
- soil loosening
- pest prevention and control.
Watering is carried out every 2-3 days and the calculation of 10 liters per 1 square meter. As the plant grows, the abundance of watering increases to 15 liters. It is advisable to spend it in the morning or evening. Care must be taken that the water temperature is between 18 and 20 C 0. Wilting leaves indicates a watering failure.
After 10 days have passed since the landing, the first loosening of the soil between the rows is carried out. This procedure is recommended to perform weekly, especially after watering and rain. Hilling of cabbage is carried out 20 days after the landing, after 10 days after the first hilling procedure, repeat the procedure. Work carried out on wet ground, which contributes to better rooting.
During the growing season spend from 3 to 4 dressings. The first dressing aims to enhance the growth of leaf mass. To do this, 0.5 liters of the barn is diluted in 10 liters of water. Everyone feeds organic fertilizer at the rate of 0.5 liters. After 10 days, re-feeding is carried out, with the volume of watering for each bush increased to 1 liter. The third dressing is needed only for late cabbage varieties and is carried out in June. The purpose of the fertilizer is to increase the growth of the head. To do this, prepare a solution of the following components:
- 10 liters of water
- 0.5 liters of barn
- 1 tbsp. spoon superphosphate,
- 1 tablet with microelements.
Such a solution is prepared at the rate of 6-8 liters per 1 square meter. To increase the yield, the fourth dressing is carried out with the same solution in August.
The most common pests of heads are:
To combat major pests toAsh is used ash, which is sprinkled with each bush at the rate of 1 cup of ash per 1 square meter. Well proven popular recipes solutions for spraying:
- 2 kg of tomato tops are poured with 5 liters of water and infused for 4 hours, boiled for 3 hours and after cooling, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 2,
- infusion of onion peel with soapy water.
Beneficial to the growth of cabbage has a neighborhood with marigolds, mint, rosemary. Such plants scare away pests and attract ladybirds and gold-eyed - natural enemies of aphids, slugs, flea.
Harvest time depends on the cabbage variety. Early ripe species begin to cut in late July or early August. Mid-season varieties are harvested at the end of September, late ripening - in mid-October.
If the cabbage is grown for further fermentation, then it can not be removed until the end of October. Heads of cabbage are able to withstand cold to –10 C 0. It is recommended to use a sharp knife when pruning. If the harvest is planned to be stored for a long time, then each fork is left long stalk with three loosely fitting leaves.
Cabbage is recommended to be stored in a dark, dry room at a temperature of 0-5 C 0 and humidity of 80-85%.
When planning planting, you should focus on the fact that seedlings will be ready for planting in open ground in about 8 weeks. In central Russia, sowing of seeds occurs from February to the first days of March. Seed material is prepared as follows: for 12 hours soaked in ash solution, then wrapped in a calico cloth flap and placed in a plastic bag. In such conditions, the seeds should be from 8 to 12 hours until germinate.
For planting prepare a box with a nutrient substrate. Land can be purchased at a store, a mixture designed for growing seedlings will do, or you can cook it yourself:
- turf ground - part 1,
- humus - 2 parts
- medium grained sand - 1 part.
How to plant cabbage in cooked substrate? The soil in the box is leveled, seeds are planted and sprinkled with a layer of earth of 1.5 cm, finally moisten the soil with an airbrush. To create greenhouse conditions, the container is covered with a polyethylene “cap” or plain glass, after which it is placed in a dark but warm place. Already on the tenth day, the first shoots will appear, after which the box with the seedlings is transferred to a bright window sill or loggia, where the air temperature will not rise above + 10–12 ° C.
Planting seedlings in open ground
As soon as the seedlings have the fifth leaf, you can plant them on the garden bed. How to plant cabbage so that plants do not die and quickly settled down? For planting choose an overcast day or spend the procedure in the evening.
For the cultivation of any type of cabbage suitable loamy soil rich in nutrients. In early spring, the plot is dug up and humus, manure, ammonium nitrate, or crushed egg shells are brought into the ground. It is better to plant cabbage after vegetables such as carrots, beets, potatoes, cucumbers. Can not be planted after turnips, radishes, swede, radishes and all sorts of cabbage. These plants are subject to the same diseases and pests, therefore, the larvae remaining in the ground, be sure to attack the planted cabbage. After these plants, the earth will “recover” no earlier than in 3-4 years.
Cabbage should be planted in rows, keeping a distance of 40 cm between them, and between holes - 30 cm. Seedling is planted to the level of leaflets, then compacted the ground and watered.
Watering and loosening the soil
For maturing heads will need a lot of moisture. Special attention should be paid to watering if the summer is hot and arid. On such days it is allowed to water the plantings in the morning and in the evening. With an excess of moisture and its stagnation in the roots, rotting may occur to prevent this from happening, the soil after watering is loosened with a special hoe to a depth of 10–14 cm. Some gardeners conduct this procedure twice. Ridges regularly weed, a large number of weeds deprive vegetables of essential nutrients.
How to grow large and juicy cabbage? An integral part of care is regular fertilization. Two weeks after landing, it is recommended to prepare a solution, diluting 30 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of pure water or using slurry (in the ratio of 1:10). It is better to carry out such top dressing after a rain or previously watering of a plant. During the season, you can spend about 10 of these dressings, in addition to these compounds, often use infusion of bird droppings or biohumus.
Disease and pest prevention
It is very often possible to observe the situation when the cabbages are cracking, in this case it is recommended to slightly trim the root. It is known that such heads of cabbage after cutting can be stored for a short time, so they should be immediately put aside for human consumption.
Even with good care, cabbage often falls prey to pests: caterpillars, aphids, slugs and other insects. To combat them use chemicals, so it is best to prevent their occurrence. As a preventative planting sprayed with infusion of garlic, wormwood, tobacco or bitter pepper.
Harvesting is carried out at different times, depending on the variety that is planted on the site. So, early-ripening varieties are cut off in the 20th of June, middle-ripening varieties - in the beginning of autumn, and later in the morning before frosts. For harvesting cabbage choose a sunny day, otherwise before placing it in the store will require a long drying, otherwise the cabbages rot. The top sheets are torn off, the head is wrapped in polyethylene, and then in a newspaper and placed in a basement or cellar, where the air temperature is kept at 0 ° C. Vegetables are best preserved if they are hung from a beam by a stalk.
A few words about cabbage
The popularity of white cabbage has been found for quite some time. Previously, the cultivation of this vegetable culture was engaged in the inhabitants of Egypt. After a while, cabbage became known in Europe and Russia.
As a vegetable crop, it was, of course, appreciated for being stored for a long time in the winter season. Sauerkraut is considered a valuable source of vitamins.
Cabbage pickle was used for recuperation and for speedy recovery in case of serious illnesses.
White cabbage in large quantities contains ascorbic acid and vitamin U. Due to this, it helps to cope with various diseases of the stomach.
In addition, it is used as a dietary product to combat obesity, and is often used for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes.
All about growing and care
For the rapid growth of white cabbage you need a sufficient amount of solar energy.
Compared to other crops, it tolerates cold quite well, but it is very demanding for regular watering and good fertile soil.
During periods of strong summer heat, when the thermometer does not exceed 30 degrees, its growth and development stop.
Therefore, to obtain good fruits, it is necessary to create an optimum temperature for it - about 18 degrees. Ripe cabbage can withstand temperatures down to -10 degrees.
Today, selectors have brought a variety of cabbage varieties and hybrids, suitable for cultivation in different climatic zones.
This moment is quite important for the gardeners, for the reason that only a correctly selected plant variety gives good results.
You can pick up suitable varieties based not only on the harvest time, but also on the taste and size. By the size of cabbage can be both very small and huge.
How to sow on seedlings
How to grow a good harvest of cabbage? In order for white cabbage to give large, and juicy fruits are recommended to first plant the seedlings.
If you purchased the seeds of early cabbage, then sow them best in March. For this you will need:
- several drawers or large pots,
- garden soil,
- a mixture of sand and peat.
Pre-mix the earth with sand and peat at the rate of 1: 1: 1. Sprinkle the mixture in pots or boxes. Make in the ground recesses and fill up the seeds.
Pour with a small amount of water and put into a suitable room. Seedlings do not dive, otherwise there is a risk of poor development of the root system and, as a consequence, a small and loose crop.
Mid-season variety of white cabbage is desirable to sow in April. To do this, you can use the box or greenhouse. Performing the same actions as in the previous case.
Seeds of later varieties are best planted near the end of April. For sowing suitable as a greenhouse, and open soil.
In this case, until shoots appear, it is recommended to cover the beds with polyethylene.
After ten days it is necessary to feed the soil using a mullein infusion. A few days before you plant the seedlings need to do top dressing with mineral fertilizers.
If you put the cabbage with cabbage seedlings on the windowsill, you should carefully monitor that it receives enough solar energy.
Strongly elongated seedlings, in which the long and flimsy stems are not desirable to take for growing. Due to the fact that from it will grow a bad harvest.
How to prepare the soil?
Growing cabbage in the country in the open ground is more successful in those parts of the site where tomatoes, cucumbers or potatoes were planted earlier.
For this vegetable culture it is very important that the soil is loose and fertile. Therefore, the majority of summer residents start preparing beds for cabbage a few weeks before planting.
It is very important that the acidity of the land on the plot is not too high. Ideal - slightly acidic or neutral soil. To reduce the level of acidity, you can using dolomite flour or lime. Such procedures should be carried out in the autumn.
If the soil in your garden is scanty and heavy, it is advisable to fertilize it with sand and compost. Calculate from the relationship: the number of buckets = square meters.
Compost the land and in the spring before digging, adding to it superphosphate and wood ash. In order to save, you can apply fertilizer to the wells.
Remember that the territory on which the cabbage will grow should be flat. In addition, this vegetable needs good and regular watering.
In no case should the beds be allowed to dry out, otherwise the crop may die. It is desirable to plant seedlings with the distance between the beds = half a meter. Holes, too, should not be done too close:
- for planting early varieties of seedlings are best suited the first days of May,
- cabbage of average grades is planted on beds closer to the end of May,
- late species - from the end of May to the first of June.
Planted plants preferably in rainy and cloudy weather in the late afternoon. This results from the fact that for the weak not ingrained seedling the bright and scorching sun is very dangerous.
Cabbage can quickly die. If the weather is sunny, then the seedlings need to make a shadow. For this purpose, you can take branches or segments of dense tissue.
White cabbage seedlings are planted on pre-watered wells with copious amounts of water. This prevents the formation of layers of emptiness near the root system. At the end, pour dry soil into the holes to the leaves.
В процессе посадки и во время дальнейшего полива внимательно следите за тем, чтобы почки, находящиеся по центру, из которых потом образуются кочаны, не были затянуты в грунт. When planting plants, do not bury them deeply in the ground, otherwise you will not see the fruit.
Which variety is best to choose for self-cultivation
When choosing a variety for sowing, you first need to decide what you are planting cabbage for. There are varieties that are ideal for certain dishes, there are varieties that are easy and convenient to grow, and varieties that are grown at certain times of the year.
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The whole culture is divided into three types: head, leaf and color.
These species, in turn, are divided into a huge number of varieties, which are usually classified according to the time that passes from the time of cabbage sowing in open ground, and before it is fully matured:
- Early ripe cabbage, which grows and matures very quickly, within two months from the date of planting. These varieties are unpretentious in the care, grow in almost any soil, have small cabbages and thin leaves.
- Mid-early cabbage is one that has a planting period of up to 75 days.
- Mid-season cabbage is one that ripens within 85-100 days from the moment of planting.
- Medium late. The ripening period varies from 100 to 120 days.
- Late maturity This cabbage ripens longer than 160 days from the time it is planted.
If you like fresh cabbage salads, fresh summer borscht, and also, if you want the cabbage to please you at the beginning of summer, you should choose early varieties for planting. Popular among summer residents are varieties such as Duma, June, Cossack.
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And if you want to plant cabbage for fermentation, then you are best to choose the middle-ripening and mid-late varieties, they are ideal for this purpose.
It is important to know that mid-season varieties are also stored longer. But they ripen for a long time. The most popular for fermentation - cabbage varieties Slava.
You can plant all varieties in one area, in this case, each variety will gradually ripen, providing you on the table a stream of fresh cabbage almost all year round.
And for the winter storage of the best fit the latest varieties that can be used in food until the next harvest. It is also the most resistant to frost and temperature drops of culture.
Cabbage can be grown in two ways:
Growing cabbage seeds
From the first time it may seem incomprehensible how to plant cabbage with seeds in open ground directly, but in reality it is even less troublesome than cooking, and then transplanting seedlings. Consider the measures that need to be taken before you can sow and grow cabbage in the country.
- in the open ground there should be enough nutrients to grow our vegetable,
It is useful to know that it is best to sow in those areas where cucumbers, carrots, garlic and potatoes grew last year. And there, where last year radish, turnip, rucola and radish grew cabbage, on the contrary, it is not recommended to grow.
- to improve the quality of the product, it is possible to enrich the soil with peat or humus, especially if you sow mid-season or late varieties,
- To prevent infection of the heads, it is necessary to treat the seeds with something antiseptic before sowing. For example, a solution of potassium permanganate. Before sowing, dip the seeds in a dark solution for 20-30 minutes, then rinse thoroughly to get rid of excess manganese, which is also undesirable. Washed seeds should be placed in a humid environment, for example, wrap in a wet cloth and leave the room for 18-20 hours at a temperature of 22 degrees. It is not worth keeping the seeds in such a state for more than a day - they may later not settle down in the ground.
So, the stage of preparation of the seed is completed, you can start sowing.
- before sowing, it is necessary to trim the beds with a rake and make holes at a distance of 25-40 cm from each other, depending on the cabbage variety, and water them in several stages with water,
- drop 3-4 seeds into each well and press your fingers into the ground to a depth of about 4-5 centimeters and cover with a glass jar,
- In a few days, shoots should appear. When they appear, you need to thin them out, leaving one of the strongest and largest in each well. At the same time you need to pull the rest very carefully so as not to damage the roots. Banks do not need to be removed after thinning,
- further sprouts need to be looked after just like other vegetables, not forgetting to water and feed in time.
Watch the video! How to grow a huge cabbage.
Planting cabbage seedlings in open ground
Not in all regions it is possible to sow cabbage directly in the ground, sometimes it is required to grow seedlings first. Transplanting sprouts in the country ground is quite a laborious process, but you can cope with it.
The main difficulty is that small shoots can die from a sharp change in conditions, so they need to be hardened before planting.
It is necessary to begin tempering about 10 days before disembarkation. You can blow cold air from an open window. If you have a greenhouse, seedlings can be moved to the ground from the north side. It is necessary to arrange transplantation so that the temperature decreases gradually, then the sprouts will take root well in the new place.
In order not to dive cabbage shoots, each sprout should be transferred to a separate hole.
There is also a way to grow seedlings and plant them in cups.
It is important to know: in all containers for growing cabbage sprouts, large drainage holes must be made in order to avoid contamination of the cabbage with the black leg.
When planting different varieties of cabbage
Planting time depends on the region, the general climate and weather specifically for this season. In the southern regions of Russia, in the Kuban, they begin to plant cabbage from the end of February, and in the Urals from the middle of March. But on average, they sow cabbage like this:
- early varieties in early March, as soon as the air temperature at night is more than +3,
- seeds of medium varieties sown from late March to late February,
- late varieties are better to plant after April 20th.
Soil for cabbage
Before planting cabbage it is necessary to prepare the soil.
Recommendation: start cooking the soil in the fall.
- in the fall, it is advisable to dig up the soil in which you are going to plant cabbage, so that there is less trouble in the spring,
- after digging the soil should be fertilized.
Soil preparation just before planting.
- Remove weeds.
- Loosen it with a rake or, if you did not dig in the fall, dig it up.
- Water well.
- To form beds, the gap between which should be about 50 centimeters, wells, at a distance of 30-40 centimeters from each other.
Useful advice: in the wells, you can add a tablespoon of wood ash. Cabbage will grow faster, shoots will be stronger.
Watering and feeding
Interestingly, the cabbage should not be watered with cold water. Cabbage to this is very sensitive. No need to water directly from a hose or a well, it is better to let the water warm up. Too cold water for irrigation can lead to insufficient development of the root system. You can give the water to warm up in the sunlight, and only then do watering.
Immediately after planting, sprouts need to be watered several times a day, but at the same time ensure that the hole between the waterings has time to dry out.
When the cabbage grows a little, one watering per day is enough. But this is a general recommendation, and this issue can be approached flexibly depending on the weather and climate. If it is very hot, you can water the cabbage several times. The main thing is that the hole was not too hydrated, but not dried out.
After watering the young cabbage requires hilling.
It is important to know that in addition to watering it is necessary to use plant nutrition. At the initial stage, you can do top dressing with yeast, later with peat or humus.
How to feed shoots:
- The first dressing is carried out 10-15 days after planting cabbage in the ground. Organic fertilizers are applied to the soil at the rate of 1 l per well. You can also use a 0.5% solution of ammonium nitrate. This will saturate the soil with essential minerals. When applying the feed carefully avoid getting fertilizer on the leaves,
- the second feeding is done two to three weeks after the first. It can be a ready mix, as well as independently made from organic waste. Good options would be bird droppings bred in water,
- the third and the remaining supplements are required as needed, which is determined by the state of the head. If the cabbage grows slowly or languishes, but there are no signs of diseases and pests.
Diseases of cabbage, their signs and methods of treatment
To prevent or cure diseases of cabbage you need to know their symptoms. Consider some of them.
Fungal lesions are usually treated very early in the early stages. Just need to provide cabbage care when planting. Photos of fungal diseases will help you deal with its appearance and take the necessary measures.
- Cabbage keel - a common fungal disease affects young plants that have recently been planted in open ground with insufficient quality seed treatment. The roots are covered with growths and the plant withers. In order to prevent the spread of the keel, you just need to remove the sick sprouts from the soil and sprinkle the hole with lime.
- Mealy dew is also a fungal disease that is manifested by the appearance of yellow, white and gray patches on the leaves. If you do not take action, the affected leaves begin to die off. To prevent the development of dew, you need to disinfect the soil before planting, do not water the sprouts with too cold water, and you should not plant the same vegetable in the same place for two seasons in a row. When dealing with dew that has already appeared, or as it is called, peronosporosis, vegetable processing with phytofluorine or 1% solution of the Bordeaux mixture shows good results.
- Fusarium - fungal infection of cabbage, characterized by the following features:
- yellow spots between the leaf veins,
- gradual drying sheet,
- on the cut of leaves visible brown spots,
- the head does not grow and languishes, acquiring an irregular shape.
- White rot is a fungal infection of crucifers, which often leads to large-scale crop losses. It is characterized by leaf deification, as well as the appearance of black spots on the head or inflorescence. White rot often infects cabbage at the end of the growing season or during storage of the already harvested crop. Prevention of white rot is compliance with the conditions of storage and vegetation, the absence of excess moisture in the soil and the room. It is also necessary to remove from the soil the remnants of cabbage after harvesting.
- In addition to fungal diseases, cabbage can also be affected by viral infections, such as Turnip mosaic, which is characterized by the appearance of dark shingles headings on a vegetable.
It is important to know that viral infection does not respond to treatment, therefore attention must be paid to prevention.
Pests and preventive treatment methods
They bring a lot of trouble gardeners, as they bring significant damage to the crop.
- Cabbage Aphid. A small pest that has a discreet silver-white color. Aphid lives at the base of the leaf and feeds on cabbage juice, gradually depleting the plant. If the leaves of your fruit gradually curl and die, carefully examine the leaves at the base. There are different ways of dealing with aphids, the treatment of malathion is effective. You can also scare away aphids with harsh smells of tobacco, garlic infusion or onion peel.
- Cabbage fly is similar in appearance to the classic housefly, but slightly lighter. An insect lays eggs at the base of cabbage leaves, and its larvae, developing, feed on the root system. The main sign that a fly has worked on a vegetable is the pale-lead color of the lower leaves of the head, as well as wilting. The solution of Chlorophos or Thiophos is effective for controlling the larvae of the cabbage fly.
- Cruciferous fleas are small black bugs that feed on young shoots. Most young plants may die, and the yield of more adults falls. Helps in the fight with bugs processing shoots with soapy water or dusting with a mixture of wood ash and road dust.
So, we looked at how to choose the cabbage, planting and care in the open field, as well as planting seedlings, hardening. If at all stages you have done everything correctly, then cabbage will be able to please you with your homemade taste from the end of June until December.
Watch the video! Care for CAPTURE in the open field
Description of the best varieties
On the shelves of stores you can find a large number of different seeds of varieties and hybrids of white cabbage. But when choosing seeds you need to pay attention for ripening and for what purpose is the vegetable grown:
- Early ripening - consumed fresh, but not suitable for preservation. These varieties include: "Transfer", "Pharaoh", "Express"
- Mid-season - grown for pickling, pickling and preservation. This is - "Gift", "Glory", "Aggressor"
- Late-ripening - for winter storage (“Sugar Loaf”, “Valentine”)
When planting different varieties in open ground will allow you to harvest at different times and use a storehouse of vitamins, both in pure form and stock up on them for the winter.
For a good harvest you can buy ready-made seedlings or grow yourself.
The appearance of the purchased seedlings is the main factor for a good harvest:
- Properly grown seedlings have a purple tint on the leaves and stem. The light green color of the foliage indicates a poorly developed root system.
- In healthy seedlings should not be on the leaves of spots, yellowness and signs of wilting
- Honesty of the seller about the cabbage variety can be calculated by the length of the seedling leg: short - early ripe variety, long - late ripe variety
- The shape of the sheet indicates the further formation of the head. Round leaves form a spherical or flat headed head, and elongated - oval and pointed
When buying seeds you need select proven manufacturers, look at the expiration date and carefully read the instructions for growing crops.
After selecting the seeds, prepare the soil for planting. Land from the garden, where cabbage or other cruciferous plants used to grow, is not suitable for growing seedlings. Universal nutrient primer can be purchased at the store. Wood ash is added to the prepared primer for the prevention of black leg disease.
Sowing and caring for seedlings
In order to increase disease resistance, planting material is necessary pre-prepare. To do this, the seeds are kept in warm water (+50 degrees) for 15 minutes, and then immersed in cold water for 4 minutes.
After the hardening procedure, the seeds need to be processed in a growth stimulator.
We read the instructions before soaking, as some varieties before planting soaking is strictly prohibited.
The prepared seeds are buried in the prepared soil to a depth of 1.5-2 cm and produce a single watering. Subsequent watering is carried out only after germination of seedlings. For good germination it is necessary to create a micro-pot where the temperature will be +18 - +22 degrees.
At observance of temperature condition and adhering to necessary humidity of air, shoots appear on day 5. Then lower the temperature to +10 and remove the covering material. When 2 true sheets appear, the temperature is raised to +18 - in the daytime and +10 - at night.
Young shoots need additional lighting and constant watering. After each irrigation, the ground must be loosened to avoid drying out.
For the prevention of diseasesAfter a week, seedlings are spilled with a specialized solution: 3 grams of potassium permanganate diluted in 10 liters of water.
Sowing white cabbage in open ground
Before planting prepared seedlings, it is necessary to prepare a seat:
- The best predecessors for planting cabbage are: cucumbers, legumes, onions and carrots
- You can not plant a vegetable, where previously grew: radishes, beets and cabbage
- Good neighbors are: cucumbers, potatoes and dill, but cabbage will not get along with: strawberries, tomatoes and grapes
- When preparing a landing site, it must be remembered that cabbage ideally grows on moisture-intensive, clayey soils with low acidity.
Garden beds are prepared in the fall. To do this, it is necessary to dig up the landing site to a depth of 25 cm, to make organic and mineral fertilizer.
Seedlings are planted only after the spring frosts end:
- Early ripening varieties - at a distance of 40 cm between plants
- Mid-season and late-ripening varieties - 60-70 cm
- The spacing between rows must be at least 70 cm
When planting seedlings of different varieties need to adhere to a specific scheme:
- After the end of the frost plant early ripe variety
- After 2 weeks - mid-season variety
- After 1 month - late grade
Care for white cabbage in open ground
The main care is constant watering, fertilizing and loosening the soil.
Cabbage is a moisture-loving culture and requires constant watering. This is especially important in the first phase of plant development. Watering is done with warm water 2-3 times a week. After the appearance of the head of cabbage, watering is gradually reduced and the plant does not water the plant a month before harvesting. This applies to mid-season and late-ripening varieties. Early ripening varieties are watered constantly.
After watering, it is necessary to loosen and earth the earth. To save moisture experienced gardeners make mulch.To do this, straw, sawdust or peat, which will not only retain moisture, but also provide the soil with nutrients. A layer of mulch 5-6 cm.
Loosening and hilling the plant
For oxygen to the roots produce regular loosening. It is made after each watering.
Hilling cabbage in open ground should be carried out 1 time in 2 weeks - this gives the full development of the plant and the emergence of a young root system.
Fertilize cabbage in three stages:
- The first feeding is carried out 14 days after transplanting to open ground. To do this, you must prepare organic fertilizer (1 liter of mullein infusion diluted in 10 liters of water)
- The second - the same solution, after 2 weeks
- The third - after the formation of a head of cabbage, potash fertilizers with the addition of urea.
To prevent burns, fertilizing is introduced only after a thorough spillage of the plant with warm water.
How to protect white cabbage from diseases and pests
Like any vegetable, when growing cabbage, it can become infected with various infections and be attacked by pests (aphid, cruciferous bug, cabbage soup, cruciferous fleas, slugs).
For the harvest to be rich, it is necessary not to treat the plant, but to prevent possible diseases.
Prevention is as follows:
- To protect against root rot - the plant is treated with the Trechodermin solution, carefully read the instructions before use.
- From the cruciferous flea and slugs, it is necessary to sprinkle the soil around the plant with wood ash, tobacco or crushed shell mixed with river sand.
- From the cruciferous bug, you can get rid of only by destroying weeds (shepherd's bag, garbage can, field field, etc.).
The use of chemicals is possible only before the heading out.
Difficulties in growing white cabbage
Very often, when growing cabbage, no head is formed.. It depends on many factors:
- Late sowing seeds
- Planting seedlings are very close, not following the landing pattern.
- Non-compliance with watering rules
- Excess nitrogenous fertilizer
Growing white cabbage in the open field is not a difficult task, but only if you follow all the rules of care, it will please you with a good and rich harvest with strong and large heads of cabbages.
How to grow cabbages in an open area of soil? In order for grown cabbage seedlings to grow well and develop the root system, it is necessary from time to time to enrich with oxygen.
Therefore, it is very important to loosen the soil and properly care for it. It is advisable to plow the ground as soon as you have planted the seedlings.
The first time at a shallow distance - no more than ten centimeters. A little later, when the heads grow older, you can work out at a greater depth — about twenty-five centimeters.
It is recommended to weed the beds during loosening. It is undesirable to allow the formation of weeds near the fragile seedlings.
This type of vegetables is very demanding of moisture, so it should be watered properly:
- Early cabbage during germination must be watered regularly and in moderation. Most gardeners believe that it is enough to water once a day to keep the land near the plants moist. However, when the cabbages are only tied, you can water more often. Fourteen days before the cut of the fruit (the last days of June) watering should stop, in order to avoid cracking heads.
- Plants of middle-ripening varieties require the same watering, but for a longer time. It is desirable to increase the intensity by the time the fruit is drawn up to two times per day. For two weeks before cutting, do not water.
- Seedlings of late varieties need to be watered plentifully and often. As a rule, such cabbages are designed for long-term storage in the winter. Therefore, they do not water them for a month before harvesting.
Important! Growing cabbage is not desirable to conduct watering occasionally and in large quantities. Due to the fact that moisture will begin to accumulate in the root system, it will quickly develop and interfere with the growth of fruits.
Top dressing vegetables
The first time to feed the seedlings is necessary after fourteen days from the date of landing on the beds, at the time of its strong growth. To do this, fit fresh chicken droppings, diluted with plenty of water in the ratio of 1:15.
The following feeding is also carried out after two weeks, but already using mullein infusion. It is diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10 and insist about ten days.
The third time is fed when the fruit is set with the help of the same infusion of mullein or infusions with weeds, nettles, wormwood, and thistle.
Attention! Pouring fertilizer is necessary in the wells, near the roots. It is advisable not to fall on the leaves. You can carry out this procedure together with watering.
Disease and pest treatment
For the treatment of cabbage is extremely undesirable to use pesticides. Protecting young plants from slugs and fleas will help dusting with ashes with the addition of tobacco dust.
To destroy aphids and caterpillars, cabbage is sprayed with this infusion: pour 5 liters of water with 2 kg of tomato tops, leave for 3-4 hours, boil for 3 hours, cool, filter and dilute with water in a ratio of 1: 2. To ensure better “sticking” of the infusion, 20-30 g of grated tar soap is added to the leaves.
Against the caterpillars and aphids, an onion peel extract is effective. Bay liter jar husk 2 liters of boiling water, leave the solution to settle for 2 days. Then the resulting infusion filter, add to it another 2 liters of water and 1 tablespoon of dishwashing liquid or liquid soap.
The fight with the scoop, cabbage fly, and the larvae of the cockchafer is performed with the help of ants. A jar of diluted water with jam or honey is added dropwise at the site. Black ants, attracted by the sweet, at the same time eat the larvae.
For preventive purposes, plantings of sage, rosemary, mint, marigolds, basil, cilantro and other spicy plants are placed on and around the plot with cabbage. Butterflies, slugs, fleas, aphids will scare away the tart flavor that will simultaneously attract their enemies - the golden-eyed, ladybugs, the beetle-rider.
You can get a generous harvest of vegetables, even without a lot of experience in garden work. It is only necessary to observe the sowing time and know all the features of growing cabbage in open ground.
The necessary conditions
Cabbage is a very useful and versatile vegetable in cooking: it is fried, stewed, boiled and baked. It is used fresh to prepare salads and cold appetizers, it comes with the composition of many first and second courses, it turns out to be delicious stews and excellent fillings for pies. In addition, it should be noted that cabbage is one of the unpretentious garden crops and to provide it with favorable conditions is not a big deal. But still the successful cultivation of white cabbage depends on compliance with basic requirements.
The soil under the garden bed is fertilized in the autumn by applying manure, humus or compost for deep digging.
The soil under the garden bed is fertilized in the autumn with the introduction of manure, humus or compost for a deep digging at the rate of half a bucket per square meter. m square. Mineral fertilizers should be used as carefully as possible, since cabbage tends to accumulate nitrates. Therefore, it is better to abandon them altogether or use them in low dosage.
Humidity for cabbage is extremely important and directly affects the formation of the crop. Such demands are simply explained - water coming to the roots is intensely evaporated by large leaves, as a result of which plants quickly lose moisture. Therefore, in case of insufficient precipitation, it is necessary to ensure regular watering, and preferably by sprinkling, in order to saturate not only the soil, but also the air with moisture.
If you have a sandy soil at the dacha, then for cabbage beds it is better to choose lowlands, places near the reservoir, or plant them where it is easier to organize watering.
Cabbage growing video
Terms and methods of sowing
Sowing seeds directly into the ground saves you the trouble
You can grow cabbage in two ways: by sowing seeds in open ground or through seedlings. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. So planting seedlings allows you to get earlier harvests and provide care for growing plants, which is important when growing in the country, when there is no opportunity to visit the site daily. On the other hand, sowing seeds directly into the ground saves you from the extra hassle of placing tanks with seedlings and subsequent transplanting.
When sowing cabbage immediately to a permanent place, it is better to cover the lune with glass jars or transparent plastic bottles with a cropped bottom. This will create "greenhouse" conditions for the early germination of seeds and the formation of a rosette. And only when the leaves become closely under cover - it is removed.
Also planning to grow your own cabbage, it is necessary to determine the seed, on the varietal characteristics of which will depend on the time of sowing and, accordingly, the expected harvest time.
- Early cabbage has delicate leaves collected in medium-sized loose heads. Harvest can be obtained after 90-100 days from germination. The most popular varieties - June, Express, Golden hectare, Transnfer F1. Sowing seeds carried out from 10 to 25 March.
- Medium cabbage is grown for summer consumption and homemade canned food. Heads are ready for harvest 4-5 months after sowing seeds. Varieties - Glory 1305, Symphony F1, Table F1 and others. Sown from late March to 10 April.
- Late cabbage long ripening. Its dense, solid heads of cabbage tolerate transportation and can be stored for a long time, therefore, it is most often grown for use in winter. Proven varieties: Stone Head, Kharkov Winter, Frost, Arctic F1, Garant F1. Sowing on seedlings or in open ground is recommended from 5 to 20 April.
It is also worth saying that if the seedlings are grown on a window sill at room temperature that is high enough for cabbage, it is very painful for transplanting and adapting, therefore it must be hardened two weeks before disembarking. You can rid yourself of these troubles by sowing seeds at a dacha in a greenhouse or film greenhouses, where during the day the air is heated by the intense spring sun, and at night the temperature drops to minus indicators.
Seed selection video
Caring for beds
Further care for cabbage is to protect it from numerous pests, prevent diseases, as well as to control the level of humidity and regular weeding.
Video about caring for cabbage
A great way to solve problems with protection is the use of modern drugs such as Prestige, for example, which has both insecticidal and fungicidal properties. And in this case, you should not be afraid of the use of "chemistry", because the action of the drug is limited to two months, after which it completely disintegrates. Therefore, if you strictly follow the instructions and treat the cabbage with such a disinfectant during the seedling stages, you can protect it from the cruciferous flea, cabbage fly, shovels and aphids, as well as prevent the development of fungal diseases.
But you can grow kaput without any “chemistry”. Organic insect control measures can be dusting wet cabbage leaves with wood ash and tobacco dust with the addition of ground red pepper powder. A good defense of planting in the country will be the joint planting of cabbage with garlic, nasturtium, marigold or chernobrivtsami, which by their smell deterred pests.
Diseases and pests
Most often, white cabbage suffers from scoops and cabbage. Less often, crucifers can harm a crop. Heads absorb all the chemicals you use when spraying from parasites. For this reason, it is advisable to use proven folk remedies:
- Prepare a mixture of mustard powder and red pepper. Pollinate the fruit, so as to prevent contact with the leaves.
- A solution of ash will help in the fight against cruciferous flea. Mix with water in the ratio of 1 liter = 1 bucket of water.
- You can also treat the cabbage using vinegar essence. On two buckets of water put 4 tablespoons.
Try to follow all the recommendations and you will succeed!