Sorrel (Rumex) is a perennial herb. It has been cultivated since the Middle Ages, in Russia it has long been considered a common weed, therefore, as a garden crop, it has been grown in recent centuries. The root system of the plant stem, fleshy root penetrates deep into the soil. Leaf plates are large, long, going into a thick rosette.
Sorrel is one of the earliest vegetable crops, a breath of freshness after a long winter cold, a storehouse of useful elements. Green leaves are drawn to the sun as soon as the snow melts. In May, the first harvest is already possible - the length of the leaves reaches about 10 cm. During the season (harvesting should be completed in July), 4-5 cuttings are carried out with an interval of 10-15 days. Then the leaves coarsen, the concentration of oxalic acid becomes high, which is not very useful for humans.
When sow sorrel in open ground
When to plant sorrel in spring and before winter sowing time
The plant is cold-resistant, its seeds begin to germinate at +3 ° C: the growing of seedlings is not required, you can immediately sow in open ground. When to plant sorrel?
There are three optimal sowing dates:
- Early spring - sow as soon as the possibility of tillage. Harvest get in the same season.
- Summer seeding - conduct it after harvesting vegetable crops of early ripening (June). Sorrel will have time to take root before the onset of winter cold.
- Sowing in the winter in late autumn (late October-early November) - wait for severe cold with night frosts and dry weather, since the seeds should not have time to germinate before the onset of winter. When sub-wintering, it is useful to fill the rows with high-quality humus mixed in half with garden soil.
In the last two cases, sorrel will delight you with the first green crop next spring.
It is best to sow sorrel in the spring when the soil is saturated with moisture. When summer planting will require regular abundant watering the beds.
Why sorrel does not rise
Often, people make a gross mistake: they sow sorrel deeply, which is why seeds do not make their way through a thick layer of earth. Sorrel seeds are very small, sow them no deeper than 1 cm. To achieve this, make the furrows "symbolic", only slightly indicating the direction of sowing as the corner of the chopper. After sowing, carefully cover the furrows with earth.
The plant successfully develops in conditions of moderate shading.
The soil is necessary fertile, rather wet, but without stagnation of water. Optimal groundwater occurrence at a depth of more than 1 m. Best of all grows on loamy and sandy soils, rich in humus. A weak acid reaction of the soil is preferred.
How to plant sorrel seeds
- Sow in rows, keeping a distance of 15-20 cm between them.
- In the spring, seal the seeds to a depth of 8 mm-1 cm. Friendly shoots will appear in 8-11 days, and if you cover the crops with film, in 3-5 days. After a week of growth, thin out, leaving a distance of 5-7 cm between plants.
- When sowing in the summer, the soil must be saturated with moisture - a couple of days before sowing the bed, water well so that the soil is well soaked.
- When sowing before winter, the bed is prepared in advance, so that the soil has settled, and the seeds are not washed away by sediments into the deep layers of the soil.
You need to sow as much as possible, seed germination is excellent, and after seed germination, seedlings must be thinned so that the plants do not overgrow each other. Ideally - leave at least 2-3 cm between individual plants, so that the sorrel is large and beautiful.
Care and cultivation of sorrel in the open ground
How to grow sorrel in the open field:
- During the period of active growth, water regularly and abundantly.
- In hot weather and dry soil, the ground part will actively develop, which will provoke earlier undesirable flowering (under normal conditions it should occur in the second year of growth).
To maintain the quality of green products, flower stalks should be removed.
Feeding and mulching
- In early spring, loosen the soil, knead the area to maintain the humidity level, apply top dressing (1 bucket of mullein solution in the ratio of 1 to 6 with the addition of 10-25 g of potassium phosphate fertilizers per 1 m²).
- To maintain the yield after each cut of the leaves should be fed with a complex of mineral fertilizers, with an emphasis on the nitrogen component.
- In the fall, add 4-5 kg of humus or compost into the aisle.
Sorrel should be cultivated in one place for no more than 4 years, then the planting should be updated.
The use of sorrel
Sorrel is rich in minerals (potassium, iron), proteins, sugars, organic acids (oxalic, malic, citric), contains vitamin C and carotene. Traditional medicine, sorrel is used as a choleretic, hemostatic agent, plant juice has an antiseptic effect, improves metabolism, normalizes the work of the stomach. You should not abuse it, because acids can have a negative effect on the kidneys.
The fresh leaves of sorrel are used in the preparation of salads, sauces, mashed potatoes, the beloved “green borscht”, it retains its beneficial properties both fresh and canned.
Choosing a place for planting sorrel
Sorrel - perennial plant, able to grow in one place for 5-6 years. The best site for planting sorrel in the garden will be a place in the penumbra, in the evening illuminated by the soft sun. The soil should be fertile, prefers to grow on loams, not afraid of acidic soil. It is unacceptable for water to stagnate in the growing area of the sorrel.
Dates of sowing sorrel
Sorrel seed in the ground can be carried out from early spring to late autumn. The soil before sowing should be removed from the weeds.
Spring sorrel sown in mid-April, at this time enough moisture for germination of seeds. Summer leaves will grow, which can be cut to prepare your favorite dishes. You can cut the crop once a year.
Summer sorrel sow in July, after harvesting lettuce, radish, onions for greens. A high yield of sorrel can be expected only in the spring of next year.
Late sorrel seed sowing in autumn spend in October-November, so that the seeds do not germinate before the onset of sustained frost. Sowing sorrel for the winter will yield next year. Such sowing is advisable on sandy soils with a temperate climate (Belarus, Latvia, Estonia).
Sowing sorrel seeds in the ground
Sorrel does not need a big bed; for a good harvest, up to 2 m 2 of land is enough. On the site form transverse rows with a distance of 20 cm between them, the seeds are often poured to a depth of 1.5 cm.
To speed up the emergence of seedlings, before sowing, the sorrel seeds are soaked in a damp cloth for 2 days. When sowing dry seeds, seedlings appear after 2 weeks, but having covered the flower bed with a film, the first shoots appear after 5 days. Planting sorrel, after the formation of 3-4 leaves, thin out, leaving a distance between plants of 10 cm.
Care for sorrel
Sorrel needs watering, especially in summer at high temperatures. Without sufficient watering small leaves are formed, and the plant soon blooms, forming flower stalks.
In the spring, loosen the inter-row spacing by adding ash and humus. To more quickly appeared leaves, it is good to pour sorrel and cover with foil.
Sorrel leaves collect in the morning, they are juicier, cut with a knife or pick out with your hands, at a distance of 5 cm from the soil surface. Leave small leaves, let them grow further. During the summer, the sorrel crop is cut 4-5 times.
After you cut the leaves, feed the plants with organic fertilizer - nettle extract, mullein grass or grass diluted with 1 x 10 water and water abundantly.
With the mass formation of floral arrows, they stop cutting the leaves, cut off the flower stalks so as not to weaken the plants.
A month before the onset of frost, they stop cutting the leaves so that the plants are stronger and have a good winter. It is better to cover the roots of sorrel for the winter with compost, rotten sawdust, humus.
Breed sorrel seed and vegetatively. To get their seeds of sorrel, flower stalks are left on 5-6 plants of the second year of life. The leaves on the plants left on the seeds are not cut. This amount is enough to update the landings with sorrel.
The flowering of sorrel begins in May, the seeds ripen in July. Panicles with seeds turn brown, they are cut, dried and rubbed with their hands to collect seeds. You can store your seeds for 4 years in a dry place.
3-4 summer plants are used for forcing.
To do this, dig up sorrel with a lump of earth in the fall and transfer it to storage in a storage facility with a temperature of 0-2 degrees. At the end of February, plant plants in a greenhouse, water well, and in 20-25 days you will get the first harvest of succulent leaves.
If the place in the greenhouse allows, you can fall prikopat sorrel into the ground in the fall, which will allow you to harvest the sorrel all winter.
Sorrel pests and diseases
Observing sufficient care, sorrel is rarely affected by diseases, do not start planting and promptly change the place of growth of sorrel.
Sorrel aphid - sucks the juice from the leaves of sorrel. Aphids do not like ash on leaves. Treatment can not be carried out, as the leaves are then eaten.
The main treatment against aphids spend in the fall, after cutting sorrel, infusions of bitter and burning herbs - dandelions, potato or tomato tops, garlic. Also in the fall, you can process sorrel with the biological product Fitoverm.
Sorrel beetles and larvae - processing helps infusion of leaves of tomato, garlic.
Downy mildew - A common disease of sorrel, accompanied by the appearance of spots with a gray coating on the back of the leaves. Conduct the treatment Bordeaux liquid for 10 days before trimming the leaves.
You can also treat the drug Phytosporin, which does not contain poisons, the leaves can be consumed on the day of treatment. Also, as a preventive measure for this disease, heat treatment of seeds is carried out before sowing.
Rust - a disease on the leaves and roots, yellow-brown small spots appear with dark spores on them.
The best sorrel varieties
The main differences of varieties - the shape and color of the leaves, acidity and early maturity.
Common sorrel garden
A common variety with spear-shaped leaves, dark green in color on a long and thin petiole. Winter-hardy and very productive variety.
Early ripening variety with large, oval-shaped light green leaves. Leaves of good taste, high-yielding and winter-resistant variety.
Yield, drought-resistant variety. Thin large leaves with a pleasant sub-acid taste. It tolerates wintering.
Plants with smooth, pointed leaves. In spring, the leaves are green and eventually turn reddish with the stem. Leaves are sour taste. Variety tolerates frost.
Variety with early yield with tender leaves of pleasant taste. This common variety is well resistant to frost.
The variety is high-yielding with thick, large, egg-shaped leaves. Petioles thick and low. The grade possesses excellent flavoring qualities, but can freeze slightly.
Video - Sorrel canning - a very simple homemade recipe!
Sorrel is a very useful crop grown in summer cottages, and not only. It is possible to grow sorrel even on the window of an apartment, planting it in a sufficiently deep capacity for the normal development of the roots.
You learned about such a useful and fortified plant as sorrel, proper cultivation and care.
Growing sorrel from seeds
This plant is cold-resistant, and in the presence of snow cover, it tolerates frost well, develops well in a small shade and overwinter in the ground.
At a temperature of 3 ° C, the seeds germinate, and seedlings appear as early as 8-14 days after sowing. Low soil moisture and high temperatures contribute to the development of a leaflet that soon blooms, thereby deteriorating product quality (Figure 1).
Growing sorrel at home begins with the choice of beds. It will be better if the soil is fertile. The advantage should be given to loamy soils, but the culture successfully grows on a different soil.
Note: The beds are located in the penumbra, which is intensely illuminated only by the evening sun. Do not allow water to stagnate in the soil. Figure 1. Cultivation in open ground
If you choose a site on an elevation there is no possibility, you will build up high beds or make soil drainage. They begin to cook the earth in the fall: they dig up and fertilize with humus and ashes. Organic fertilizers will help get a rich harvest of leafy greens in spring.
How to grow sorrel from seeds so that the harvest is rich and stable? First of all it is necessary to choose the right area The soil should be fertile and measure wet, as the crop does not tolerate stagnant water.
Note: The bed must be cleaned of weeds, especially wheatgrass, branchy root system which delays the growth of greenery.
The best soil is loamy and sandy. They are necessarily fertilized with humus or drained with peat. Limbs for plants do not hold, because soils with low acidity are more suitable for it.
Soil preparation for sowing
Under the bed, semi-shaded areas with fertile and moderately moist soils are determined. Growing culture is not difficult, as it is resistant to frost and lack of moisture. If it is not possible to grow the plant separately, it can be planted next to other vegetables.
Careful selection of the site allows you to grow herbs without a transplant for four years or more.
What do we have to do
Planting and care in the open field begins with autumn soil treatment. They dig it up and fertilize with humus. If the culture has already grown on the site, the bushes can be transplanted by dividing the rhizomes.
Figure 2. Preparation of beds and sowing in open ground
Seeds are sown in spring, and shoots appear within a few weeks. During this period, you need to make nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers (Figure 2). Then they begin to fertilize the plant with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Sow the seeds in beds 12 cm high. In the autumn, in the area under the garden bed, manure or compost, superphosphate and potassium chloride are added under a shovel. In the spring, manure or compost, ammonium nitrate, potassium salt are applied for sowing. Before sowing, the soil is cleared of weeds by a mechanical method. The use of herbicides is undesirable, as they can accumulate in the leaves.
When plant sorrel
When to plant seeds when growing sorrel from seeds? Sowing can be done at any warm season, from early spring until autumn (Figure 3):
- In the spring begin to sow after the earth warms up. At this time, the soil contains a lot of moisture, which contributes to the germination of seeds. It is desirable to pre-soak the seeds in warm water for two days. After sowing, the bed is mulched and covered with foil. This will accelerate germination, and shoots will appear in 3-5 days. Next, the film is removed, and the plants are thinned.
- Summer sown in June-July. When sowing in summer, the crop will produce a crop in the spring of next year, as it successfully hibernates in the ground.
- Sub-winter sowing spend late autumn, so that the seeds do not germinate before the onset of frost. Harvest get in the next year. Subwinter seeding is best done on sandy soils in temperate regions.
Experienced gardeners are advised to carry out sowing in several stages. This will provide a consistently high yield of greenery almost year-round.
From the video you will learn how to properly conduct podzymny seeding.
Growing sorrel in the greenhouse
Sowing seeds in the greenhouse soil is carried out throughout March. Adult rhizomes are planted from late February to mid-March.
The microclimate of indoor premises allows you to get a higher yield than when grown in the garden. In addition, if the greenhouse is heated, fresh greens can be harvested even in winter.
Planting and maintenance in the open field
Before sowing, the seeds are soaked for early germination and cover the garden bed with the seeds already planted. Some time after the appearance of the first shoots, it is necessary to remove the shelter and thin the plants.
Care for open sorrel includes several important steps.:
- Regular, but moderate watering, which will provide stable soil moisture without stagnant water. With increased dryness of the soil flower stalks will appear faster
- The beds are systematically loosened and cleaned of weeds,
- The roots for the winter cover humus or rotten sawdust,
- After cutting the greens, fertilize with liquid fertilizers.
In the spring, ashes and humus are introduced into the aisle, and the soil is loosened. In the process of growing it is better to cut the leaves in the morning so that they are more juicy. Harvesting is stopped about a month before the onset of autumn frosts, so that plants accumulate strength before hibernation.
Diseases and pests of sorrel
Culture is not too susceptible to the effects of disease, but if the growing conditions were violated, some diseases may still appear.
The main diseases and pests include (Figure 7):
- Downy mildew provokes the formation of spots with a gray bloom, which are located on the back of the sheet. For fighting sprayed Bordeaux liquid.
- Ржавчина – мелкие желто-бурые пятна с темными спорами, появляются на листьях и черешках при нарушении температурно-влажностного режима.
The oxalic aphid sucks the juice from the plant. It is not possible to treat a plant against a pest during the harvest process. Only in the fall you can pour a bed of infusion of bitter herbs (for example, wormwood or oak bark).
Sorrel: main varieties and varieties
Sorrel is a perennial herbaceous plant that can reach a meter tall. It has a strong root, deep in the soil, and rather large long leaves, basically gathered in one socket at the root itself. Sorrel is practically not afraid of cold and may well begin to grow even when the temperature is at around 2-3 degrees.
The plant begins to bloom only by the second year of its life. At one place gives a crop of not more than 4-5 years. After that, requires a transplant to another location.
Many people like to use young leaves (they are the most juicy and have a pronounced sour taste) for cooking soup, borscht, pies, used as an additive to salads, etc. Sorrel is rich in vitamins of group B (in particular B1 and B2), A, C, as well as proteins and sugars. In addition to all of the above, the sorrel contains a considerable amount of various acids: malic, citric, oxalic, of course, as well as salts and iron.
There is a considerable number of sorrel varieties. All of them are different from each other in their content of acids, the rate of maturation and the shape of the plant. Consider the most popular sorrel varieties among gardeners (detailed photos you can find on the Internet):
- Large Leaf Early-growing variety. The leaves grow oval-shaped and pale green. Pleasant taste, medium acid. The variety is very productive and resistant to frost.
- Ordinary garden. One of the most popular varieties. Leaves grow pointed and dark green in color. The variety is very resistant to cold, gives a great harvest.
- Altaic. The leaves are smooth, sharp, grow on a straight outlet. Variety resistant to frost.
- Broadleaf. The leaves grow quite large in size, the taste is slightly sour, delicate. The variety is not afraid of drought and heat, gives a good harvest.
- Lyon. In this variety, the leaves grow very large, wide, dense. Resistant to big minuses.
- Belleville. Gives the leaves a slightly sour delicate flavor. The harvest turns out early and rich. Slightly afraid of frost.
Planting in open ground
By choosing a place for the cultivation of sorrel should be approached very seriously. This plant loves moisture, a little shade and no wind, so the plot for planting should be just that. The soil must be fertile, otherwise there will be problems with getting a good harvest. Better soil for growing sorrel is peat, sandy loam and loam with a low content of humus.
Although the sorrel is traditionally planted in early spring, the soil must be prepared in autumn. Be sure to dig the area selected for planting plants.
Then add to the soil a nutrient mixture of humus (5-7 kg), superphosphate (25 g) and potassium chloride (25 g). All figures are based on one square meter.
In the spring, almost just before sowing, the soil is fertilized again, but with a slightly different composition: potassium salt (2 g), urea (40 g), superphosphate (3 g) and a slightly different amount of humus - 4-5 kg. All figures are also based on one square meter.
For planting seeds, we prepare wide beds (about 1 meter) in an ordinary way, leaving free space between them within 30 cm. Seeds can be poured quite often.
Council In order to get rich sorrel harvest, a large amount of space is not required - a couple square meters is enough.
Description of leaf vegetable
Sorrel belongs to the buckwheat family and is a perennial plant. The root of it is pivotal and branched, therefore, up to 25 cm can be sunk into the soil. At the root, there are buds on the head, from which the deciduous mass develops. Their base may have a different shape:
The edge of the leaves is always smooth. On fertile soils, leaves can measure up to 10-15 cm. On sheets one can notice a pronounced vein in the center. If you cut the leaves at the outlet, then a faster awakening of the kidneys occurs. After that, the green begins to grow again.
In the second year of life, sorrel may have erect ribbed stems. If they are not broken in time, they can grow to 50-100 cm. Over time, reddish inflorescences form on the stems. The leaves then become coarse and fibrous.
Sorrel - a very popular type of leafy greens, because it contains many healthy substances:
- carotene and ascorbic acid,
- vitamins of group B, A and C,
- iron and salt,
- oxalic, malic and citric acid.
The amount of vitamins and minerals depends largely on the type of plant. They also differ in ripening speed, leaf shape. The most popular are the following varieties:
- ordinary garden,
Sorrel leaves are cut several times over the summer. The most tasty leaves of a popular vegetable are always in spring and autumn. The plant belongs to cold-resistant species and can germinate at a temperature of + 3-4 ° C.
Choosing a place for landing
Sorrel does not like open sunny areas. For his growing fit partial shade from growing trees. The level of soil acidity also will not affect its growth and development. However, a green vegetable loves to grow on loamy soils. It is recommended to sow the seeds of sorrel, where previously grew onions or pumpkin plants. There he will grow even better.
It is advisable to find a place for planting seeds in the autumn and prepare a plot in advance. On the planned plot, organic fertilizer should be applied in the form of compost and ash. Nitrogen fertilizers are suitable as top dressing. They are introduced into the soil for 1-2 weeks before sowing seeds in open ground. The bed must be dug up, weeds are removed, loosened and leveled.
This culture grows well, so a small plot of land is enough for it to be enough for a family.
When to sow sorrel in open ground?
Since sorrel is a perennial plant, it grows in one place for 4 years. The most productive will be the first 2 years, after which the yield will begin to decline. Despite the unpretentiousness of the crop, you need to pay attention to the soil, and then you can get an excellent harvest.. It can be sown three times a year:
- spring - at this time the seeds take root best, because in spring the soil is wet and the seeds sprout in 2 weeks, the crop is harvested in the same year,
- summer is a very hot period, so after sowing it is necessary to moisturize the soil more often, so that the seeds are up, before winter they can take root and will be pleased with fresh greens in the spring,
- autumn - during this period it is very important to sow the seeds before the start of frost, around November. This will harden them, but do not germinate. If they start to germinate, then the frost will ruin them.
Planting time is determined by the gardeners themselves, depending on when they want to get fresh green leaves. However, the sorrel planting is considered the most fruitful in spring.
Planting sorrel seeds
In addition to the beds for sowing seeds, you should also prepare planting material. In order for the seeds to sprout together and then please them with juicy and tasty leaves, they should be soaked in water. Planting material is wrapped in gauze and left in this form for a couple of days. They swell, absorbing moisture, and then ascend faster.
To make the seeds more stable and strong, you can add nutrient fertilizers. This will give the best germination and guaranteed yield. You can sow and dry seeds. In moist and prepared soil, they will also grow, but a little later.
Seeds are sown in the grooves, to a depth of 2 cm. The distance between rows should be about 15 cm. After sowing, the soil on the garden should be mulched with peat. It is recommended to cover the bed with a film to create a greenhouse effect. This will help the seeds to grow faster, and the first green shoots will appear in 5-6 days. Without the use of film shoots appear after 2 weeks.
Sorrel reaches full maturity 2 months after sowing. If the crop was sown in spring, the crop can be harvested in the first half of summer. If sowing is done in the fall, then juicy greens will be ready for harvesting after the snow melts. The leaves of the plant can be plucked and cut. Shoots that are in the middle is better to leave, because of them you can grow a new crop. Harvesting sorrel is recommended early in the morning, because it is at this time that the leaves are the most juicy.
Watering and tillage
Remember that sorrel is most in need of enough water, so watering a young plant should be abundant and regular, regardless of whether it is spring outside or hot summer.
If you miss the moment and let the sorrel "to experience thirst" - it will almost immediately begin to bloom and you can say goodbye to a rich juicy harvest. In addition to constant watering, the young plant also needs weeding (especially in the spring). The soil on which the cultivation of sorrel is carried out must always be well fluffed and loose.
Note that sorrel yields only once a year, so it is important to take care of its wintering for growing young leaves next year: the remnants of the roots should be covered either with humus or rotten sawdust.
Fertilizer and plant nutrition
Sorrel does not require a large amount of fertilizing, it is enough a couple of times a month to make a nutritional mixture of mullein with the addition of potassium and phosphorus (15 g each). Do not forget that the ratio of mullein and water should be no less than 1: 5.
After each mass collection of young leaves, be sure to feed the plant with infusion of grass, nettle, or, again, mullein (in relation to water 1:10). In the fall, as an additional nutrient among and support the plant before wintering, use compost (at the rate of 4 kg per square meter).
Plant propagation by seeds
Seeds - the only way to grow sorrel. The advantage of this process is that before sowing the seeds do not require special treatment. So, in order to get a good harvest and a strong plant, you just need to soak the seeds in warm water for several days, and then wrap in gauze so that they dry well.
If desired, you can hold the seeds for a short time in nutrient solutions, but this procedure is not necessary, because with proper and timely care you can get an excellent harvest of oxalic leaves.
Caution: diseases and pests
Sorrel is not particularly afraid of various pests and is not very susceptible to diseases. With proper care, especially for cleaning weeds, constant weeding and thinning the plants, no pest will touch the sorrel. If it still happened, then you should know what you are dealing with. So, sorrel most often affects such diseases:
- Downy mildew. Manifested in the form of dark spots with a gray bloom, located on the underside of the leaves. The method of struggle: Bordeaux liquid. But it is possible to carry out processing with this compound no later than 10 days before harvesting.
- Sorrel sorghum. It deprives the plant of all nutrient juices. Leaves do not cost anything to handle. Only after harvesting the plant can be watered with some bitter infusion: garlic, dandelion or potato tops.
- Sorrel leafs. The plant affects the beetles and larvae of this pest. Method of struggle: garlic / tomato infusion.
The combination of sorrel with other plants
Sorrel is a neutral plant, therefore it cannot be said that there is a good / bad combination with other cultures. Sorrel harvesting can be started when at least 5-6 leaves of sufficient size appear on the stem. They should be cut very carefully, closer to the soil, so as not to damage the upper buds of the plant. During the summer period, sorrel usually yields a crop several times.
We introduced you to the peculiarities of growing sorrel in the open field. Follow the advice provided in the material and you can grow a luxurious plant that will delight you with a rich harvest. Good luck!